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Scientific Data Documentation

Health United States, 1989

HEALTH STATUS AND DETERMINANTS
 Resident pop.-age,sex,race:U.S.,selected years 1950-87
 
 Table 1.  Resident population, according to age, sex, and race:
           United States, selected years 1950-87
 (Data are based on decennial census updated by data from multiple sources)
                         Total
 Sex, race,             resident   Under     1-4     5-14     15-24    25-34
 and year              population  1 year   years    years    years    years
 All races                                Number in thousands
 1950.............      150697      3147    13017    24319    22098    23759
 1960.............      179323      4112    16209    35465    24020    22818
 1970.............      203212      3485    13669    40746    35441    24907
 1980.............      226546      3534    12815    34942    42487    37082
 1986.............      241096      3768    14384    33860    39021    42779
 1987.............      243400      3771    14481    34146    38252    43315
                         35-44     45-54    55-64    65-74    75-84  85 years
                         years     years    years    years    years  and over
                                         Number in thousands
 1950.............       21450     17343    13370     8340     3278      577
 1960.............       24081     20485    15572    10997     4633      929
 1970.............       23088     23220    18590    12435     6119     1511
 1980.............       25635     22800    21703    15581     7729     2240
 1986.............       33070     22815    22232    17332     9060     2776
 1987.............       34305     23276    22019    17668     9301     2867
                         Total
 Sex, race,             resident   Under     1-4      5-14    15-24    25-34
 and year              population  1 year   years    years    years    years
 White male                              Number in thousands
 1950.............       67129      1400     5845    10860     9689    10430
 1960.............       78367      1784     7065    15659    10483     9940
 1970.............       86721      1501     5873    17667    15232    10775
 1980.............       94976      1487     5402    14773    18123    15940
 1986.............       99810      1565     5973    14020    16289    18193
 1987.............      100589      1567     6000    14108    15902    18384
                          35-44    45-54    55-64    65-74    75-84  85 years
                          years    years    years    years    years  and over
                                          Number in thousands
 1950.............        9529      7836     6180     3736     1406      218
 1960.............       10564      9114     6850     4702     1875      331
 1970.............        9979     10090     7958     4916     2243      487
 1980.............       11010      9774     9151     6096     2600      621
 1986.............       14172      9663     9290     6876     3062      706
 1987.............       14690      9851     9180     7028     3154      723
                        Total
 Sex, race,            resident   Under      1-4     5-14    15-24    25-34
 and year             population   1 year    years    years   years    years
 Black male                              Number in thousands
 1950.............        7300       ---      ---     1442     1162     1105
 1960.............        9114       281     1082     2185     1305     1120
 1970.............       10748       245      975     2784     2041     1226
 1980.............       12585       269      967     2614     2807     1967
 1986.............       13892       289     1091     2667     2759     2488
 1987.............       14103       289     1104     2697     2740     2549
                         35-44     45-54    55-64    65-74    75-84  85 years
                         years     years    years    years    years  and over
                                          Number in thousands
 1950.............        1003       772      460      299      ---      ---
 1960.............        1086       891      617      382      137       29
 1970.............        1084       979      739      461      169       46
 1980.............        1235      1024      854      567      228       53
 1986.............        1593      1092      951      633      262       67
 1987.............        1663      1117      961      647      268       69
                          Total
 Sex, race,             resident   Under    1-4     5-14     15-24    25-34
 and year              population  1 year  years    years    years    years
 White female                            Number in thousands
 1950.............        67813    1341     5599    10431     9821    10851
 1960.............        80465    1714     6795    15068    10596    10204
 1970.............        91028    1434     5615    16912    15420    11004
 1980.............        99835    1412     5127    14057    17653    15896
 1986.............       104501    1486     5674    13295    15861    17852
 1987.............       105231    1487     5700    13377    15479    18024
                         35-44     45-54    55-64    65-74    75-84  85 years
                         years     years    years    years    years  and over
                                          Number in thousands
 1950.............        9719      7868     6168     4031     1669      314
 1960.............       11000      9364     7327     5428     2441      527
 1970.............       10349     10756     8853     6366     3429      890
 1980.............       11232     10285    10325     7951     4457     1440
 1986.............       14297     10039    10351     8657     5166     1825
 1987.............       14783     10217    10202     8788     5284     1887
                        Total
 Sex, race,            resident   Under      1-4     5-14    15-24     25-34
 and year             population   1 year    years    years   years     years
 Black female                             Number in thousands
 1950.............        7745       ---      ---     1446     1300     1260
 1960.............        9758       283     1085     2191     1404     1300
 1970.............       11832       243      970     2773     2196     1456
 1980.............       14046       266      951     2578     2937     2267
 1986.............       15413       283     1058     2596     2837     2797
 1987.............       15633       283     1069     2620     2812     2855
                          35-44   45-54    55-64    65-74    75-84   85 years
                          years   years    years    years    years   and over
                                          Number in thousands
 1950.............        1112       796      443      322      ---      ---
 1960.............        1229       974      663      430      160       38
 1970.............        1309      1134      868      582      230       71
 1980.............        1488      1258     1059      776      360      106
 1986.............        1906      1347     1155      858      430      145
 1987.............        1990      1375     1164      871      442      152
 Note:  Population figures are census counts as of April 1 for 1950,
 1960, 1970, and 1980 and estimates as of July 1 for 1986 and 1987
 SOURCES: U.S. Bureau of the Census: 1950 Nonwhite Population by Race.
 Special Report P-E, No.3B. Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office
 Series P-25, Nos. 499 and 1022. Washington. U.S. Government Printing
 Office, May 1973 and Mar. 1988; U.S. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Census
 of Population: 1960, Number of Inhabitants, PC(1)-A1, United States
 Summary 1964. U.S. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Census of Population:
 1970, Number of Inhabitants, Final Report PC(1)-A1, United States
 Summary, 1971; Unpublished data from the U.S. Bureau of the Census.
2Fertility and Natality
3Live/crude birth,incl. by age mother/race child,U.S.,1950-87
 Table 2. Live births, crude birth rates, and birth rates by age of mother,
          according to race of child: United States, selected years 1950-87
 (Data are based on the National Vital Statistics System)
                                                       Age
                                 Crude
       Race of child    Live     birth   10-14   15-17    18-19    20-24
            and year   births    rate1/  years   years    years    years
      All races                        Live births per 1,000 women
 1950..............  3632000      24.1     1.0    40.7    132.7    196.6
 1955..............  4097000      25.0     0.9    44.5    157.9    241.6
 1960..............  4257850      23.7     0.8    43.9    166.7    258.1
 1965..............  3760358      19.4     0.8    36.6    124.5    195.3
 1970..............  3731386      18.4     1.2    38.8    114.7    167.8
 1975..............  3144198      14.6     1.3    36.1     85.0    113.0
 1980..............  3612258      15.9     1.1    32.5     82.1    115.1
 1981..............  3629238      15.8     1.1    32.1     81.7    111.8
 1982..............  3680537      15.9     1.1    32.4     80.7    111.3
 1983..............  3638933      15.5     1.1    32.0     78.1    108.3
 1984..............  3669141      15.5     1.2    31.1     78.3    107.3
 1985..............  3760561      15.8     1.2    31.1     80.8    108.9
 1986..............  3756547      15.6     1.3    30.6     81.0    108.2
 1987..............  3809394      15.7     1.3    31.8     80.2    108.9
        White
 1950..............  3108000      23.0     0.4    31.3    120.5    190.4
 1955..............  3485000      23.8     0.3    35.4    145.7    235.8
 1960..............  3600744      22.7     0.4    35.5    154.6    252.8
 1965..............  3123860      18.3     0.3    27.8    111.9    189.0
 1970..............  3091264      17.4     0.5    29.2    101.5    163.4
 1975..............  2551996      13.6     0.6    28.0     74.0    108.2
 1980..............  2898732      14.9     0.6    25.2     72.1    109.5
 1981..............  2908669      14.8     0.5    25.1     71.9    106.3
 1982..............  2942054      14.9     0.6    25.2     70.8    105.9
 1983..............  2904250      14.6     0.6    24.8     68.3    102.6
 1984..............  2923502      14.5     0.6    23.9     68.1    101.4
 1985..............  2991373      14.8     0.6    24.0     70.1    102.8
 1986..............  2970439      14.5     0.6    23.4     69.8    101.5
 1987..............  2992488      14.5     0.6    24.1     68.6    101.1
        Black
 1960..............   602264      31.9     4.3     ---      ---    295.4
 1965..............   581126      27.7     4.3    99.3    227.6    243.1
 1970..............   572362      25.3     5.2   101.4    204.9    202.7
 1975..............   511581      20.7     5.1    85.6    152.4    142.8
 1980..............   589616      22.1     4.3    73.6    138.8    146.3
 1981..............   587797      21.6     4.1    70.6    135.9    141.2
 1982..............   592641      21.4     4.1    71.2    133.3    139.1
 1983..............   586027      20.9     4.1    70.1    130.4    137.7
 1984..............   592745      20.8     4.3    69.7    132.0    137.9
 1985..............   608193      21.1     4.5    69.8    137.1    140.8
 1986..............   621221      21.2     4.6    70.0    141.0    143.7
 1987..............   641567      21.6     4.7    72.9    142.2    149.5
                                                   Age
       Race of child             25-29    30-34   35-39    40-44    45-49
            and year             years    years   years    years    years
      All races                        Live births per 1,000 women
 1950..............              166.1   103.7    52.9     15.1      1.2
 1955..............              190.2   116.0    58.6     16.1      1.0
 1960..............              197.4   112.7    56.2     15.5      0.9
 1965..............              161.6    94.4    46.2     12.8      0.8
 1970..............              145.1    73.3    31.7      8.1      0.5
 1975..............              108.2    52.3    19.5      4.6      0.3
 1980..............              112.9    61.9    19.8      3.9      0.2
 1981..............              112.0    61.4    20.0      3.8      0.2
 1982..............              111.0    64.2    21.1      3.9      0.2
 1983..............              108.7    64.6    22.1      3.8      0.2
 1984..............              108.3    66.5    22.8      3.9      0.2
 1985..............              110.5    68.5    23.9      4.0      0.2
 1986..............              109.2    69.3    24.3      4.1      0.2
 1987..............              110.8    71.3    26.2      4.4      0.2
        White
 1950..............              165.1   102.6    51.4     14.5      1.0
 1955..............              186.6   114.0    56.7     15.4      0.9
 1960..............              194.9   109.6    54.0     14.7      0.8
 1965..............              158.4    91.6    44.0     12.0      0.7
 1970..............              145.9    71.9    30.0      7.5      0.4
 1975..............              108.1    51.3    18.2      4.2      0.2
 1980..............              112.4    60.4    18.5      3.4      0.2
 1981..............              111.3    60.2    18.7      3.4      0.2
 1982..............              110.3    63.3    20.0      3.5      0.2
 1983..............              108.0    64.0    21.0      3.5      0.2
 1984..............              107.7    66.1    21.7      3.5      0.2
 1985..............              110.0    68.1    22.7      3.6      0.2
 1986..............              108.3    68.9    23.3      3.7      0.2
 1987..............              109.5    70.8    25.2      4.0      0.2
        Black
 1960..............              218.6   137.1    73.9     21.9      1.1
 1965..............              180.4   111.3    61.9     18.7      1.4
 1970..............              136.3    79.6    41.9     12.5      1.0
 1975..............              102.2    53.1    25.6      7.5      0.5
 1980..............              109.1    62.9    24.5      5.8      0.3
 1981..............              108.3    60.4    24.2      5.6      0.3
 1982..............              106.9    60.4    24.4      5.4      0.4
 1983..............              103.4    59.2    24.7      5.2      0.3
 1984..............              103.2    59.5    24.8      5.1      0.2
 1985..............              105.1    60.7    25.5      4.9      0.3
 1986..............              105.9    62.2    25.5      5.1      0.3
 1987..............              109.0    63.5    26.3      5.3      0.2
 1/Live births per 1,000 population.
 NOTE: Data are based on births adjusted for underregistration for 1950 and
       1955 and on registered births for all other years. Beginning in 1970,
       births to nonresidents of the United States are excluded.
 SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics: Vital Statistics of the
         United States, 1987, Vol. I, Natality. Public Health Service.
         Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1989.
 3Fertility rate, by live-birth & race of child, U.S., 1950-87
 Table 3. Fertility rates, according to live-birth order and race of
          child: United States, selected years 1950-87
 (Data are based on the National Vital Statistics System)
                                    Live-birth order
 Race of child                                                   5 or
 and year               Total    1       2       3       4      higher
 All races              Live births per 1,000 women 15-44 years of age
 1950............       106.2   33.3    32.1    18.4     9.2    13.2
 1955............       118.3   32.8    31.8    23.1    13.3    17.3
 1960............       118.0   31.1    29.2    22.8    14.6    20.3
 1965............        96.6   29.8    23.4    16.6    10.7    16.1
 1970............        87.9   34.2    24.2    13.6     7.2     8.7
 1975............        66.0   28.1    20.9     9.4     3.9     3.7
 1980............       68.4    29.5    21.8    10.3     3.9     2.9
 1981............       67.4    29.0    21.6    10.2     3.8     2.8
 1982............       67.3    28.6    22.0    10.2     3.8     2.6
 1983............       65.8    27.8    21.5    10.1     3.7     2.6
 1984............       65.4    27.4    21.7    10.1     3.7     2.6
 1985............       66.2    27.6    22.0    10.4     3.8     2.5
 1986............       65.4    27.2    21.6    10.3     3.8     2.5
 1987............       65.7    27.2    21.6    10.5     3.9     2.5
 White
 1950............       102.3   33.3    32.3    17.9     8.4    10.4
 1955............       113.7   32.6    32.0    22.9    12.6    13.6
 1960............       113.2   30.8    29.2    22.7    14.1    16.4
 1965............        91.4   28.9    23.0    16.2    10.2    13.1
 1970............        84.1   32.9    23.7    13.3     6.8     7.4
 1975............        62.5   26.7    20.3     8.8     3.5     3.1
 1980............       64.7    28.4    21.0     9.5     3.4     2.4
 1981............       63.9    28.1    20.9     9.4     3.3     2.3
 1982............       63.9    27.7    21.3     9.5     3.3     2.2
 1983............       62.4    26.8    20.9     9.4     3.3     2.1
 1984............       62.2    26.4    21.1     9.4     3.2     2.0
 1985............       63.0    26.5    21.4     9.7     3.3     2.0
 1986............       61.9    26.0    20.9     9.6     3.3     1.9
 1987............       62.0    25.9    20.9     9.8     3.4     1.9
 Black
 1960............       153.5   33.6    29.3    24.0    18.6    48.0
 1965............       133.9   35.7    26.2    19.4    14.6    38.0
 1970............       115.4   43.3    27.1    16.1    10.0    18.9
 1975............        87.9   36.9    24.2    12.6     6.3     8.0
 1980............       88.1    35.2    25.7    14.5     6.7     6.0
 1981............       85.4    33.8    25.2    14.3     6.6     5.7
 1982............       84.1    33.0    24.9    14.2     6.5     5.4
 1983............       81.7    32.3    24.1    13.7     6.3     5.2
 1984............       81.4    32.2    24.1    13.7     6.3     5.1
 1985............       82.2    32.4    24.5    13.9     6.3     5.1
 1986............       82.4    32.5    24.5    14.1     6.3     4.9
 1987............       83.8    32.8    24.9    14.5     6.5     5.0

 NOTE: Data are based on births adjusted for underregistration for 1950
       and 1955 and on registered births for all other years.
       Beginning in 1970, births to nonresidents of the United
       States are excluded.  Figures for live-birth order not stated
       are distributed.
 SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics: Vital Statistics of
         the United States, 1987, Vol. I, Natality. Public Health
         Service. Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1989.
3Fertility rate/parity dist.women age 50-54 in 1930-88 by race
 Table 4. Completed fertility rates and parity distribution for women
          50-54 years of age at the beginning of selected years 1930-88,
          according to race of child and birth cohort: United States,
          selected birth cohorts 1876-1938
 (Data are based on the National Vital Statistics System)


 Race of child                Age 50-54        Completed
 and birth                      as of          fertility
 cohort of mother            January 1,--      rate1/             Total
 All races
 1876-80.................        1930            3,531.9         1,000.0
 1886-90.................        1940            3,136.8         1,000.0
 1896-1900...............        1950            2,675.9         1,000.0
 1906-10.................        1960            2,285.8         1,000.0
 1916-20.................        1970            2,574.0         1,000.0
 1921-25.................        1975            2,856.9         1,000.0
 1926-30.................        1980            3,079.2         1,000.0
 1927-31.................        1981            3,118.0         1,000.0
 1928-32.................        1982            3,152.7         1,000.0
 1929-33.................        1983            3,182.8         1,000.0
 1930-34.................        1984            3,199.7         1,000.0
 1931-35.................        1985            3,201.4         1,000.0
 1932-36.................        1986            3,182.4         1,000.0
 1933-37.................        1987            3,146.4         1,000.0
 1934-38.................        1988            3,092.5         1,000.0
                        Parity (number of children born alive)
                                  0       1       2       3
                                    Distribution of women2/
 1876-80.................       216.8   123.2   132.0   114.0
 1886-90.................       210.4   148.5   153.2   129.7
 1896-1900...............       194.6   200.7   195.2   136.6
 1906-10.................       215.6   225.1   218.7   131.4
 1916-20.................       149.0   179.0   251.7   174.6
 1921-25.................       108.5   152.1   248.7   197.0
 1926-30.................       105.5   113.7   226.5   209.6
 1927-31.................       104.1   107.4   222.4   212.0
 1928-32.................       101.1   102.2   219.7   214.7
 1929-33.................        96.3    98.9   218.0   217.7
 1930-34.................        91.5    96.8   217.8   220.9
 1931-35.................        87.2    96.3   218.8   224.0
 1932-36.................        84.8    97.0   221.0   226.9
 1933-37.................        84.0    98.7   224.4   229.5
 1934-38.................        85.0   100.8   229.7   232.0
                        Parity (number of children born alive)
                                                        7 or
                                   4      5       6     more
                                 Distribution of women2/
 1876-80.................       93.0    72.0    64.5    184.5
 1886-90.................       99.5    68.0    55.4    135.3
 1896-1900...............       87.8    53.5    41.5     90.1
 1906-10.................       77.5    44.6    29.2     57.9
 1916-20.................      102.8    55.8    32.0     55.1
 1921-25.................      123.5    68.0    39.5     62.7
 1926-30.................      143.5    81.9    47.6     71.7
 1927-31.................      147.5    84.6    49.2     72.8
 1928-32.................      151.3    87.0    50.8     73.2
 1929-33.................      154.9    89.2    52.0     73.0
 1930-34.................      157.9    90.7    52.6     71.8
 1931-35.................      160.0    91.4    52.5     69.8
 1932-36.................      160.8    91.3    51.7     66.5
 1933-37.................      160.6    90.2    50.2     62.4
 1934-38.................      159.2    87.7    48.1     57.5
 Race of child                Age 50-54         Completed
 and birth                      as of           fertility
 cohort of mother             January 1,--      rate1/            Total
 White
 1876-80.................       1930            3,444.4          1,000.0
 1886-90.................       1940            3,092.9          1,000.0
 1896-1900...............       1950            2,631.5          1,000.0
 1906-10.................       1960            2,248.9          1,000.0
 1916-20.................       1970            2,526.7          1,000.0
 1921-25.................       1975            2,793.7          1,000.0
 1926-30.................       1980            2,986.0          1,000.0
 1927-31.................       1981            3,023.6          1,000.0
 1928-32.................       1982            3,058.1          1,000.0
 1929-33.................       1983            3,087.2          1,000.0
 1930-34.................       1984            3,102.5          1,000.0
 1931-35.................       1985            3,101.3          1,000.0
 1932-36.................       1986            3,079.9          1,000.0
 1933-37.................       1987            3,042.4          1,000.0
 1934-38.................       1988            2,989.8          1,000.0
                       Parity (number of children born alive)
                                  0       1       2       3
                                   Distribution of women2/
 1876-80.................       218.2   121.9   136.1   116.9
 1886-90.................       209.1   144.3   160.3   132.4
 1896-1900...............       193.1   192.1   205.9   141.4
 1906-10.................       207.9   218.0   233.2   138.8
 1916-20.................       134.6   175.9   268.7   185.1
 1921-25.................        94.2   150.6   264.6   208.8
 1926-30.................        94.1   114.1   240.2   222.3
 1927-31.................        92.5   108.2   235.8   224.9
 1928-32.................        89.5   103.2   232.9   227.6
 1929-33.................        85.0    99.8   231.2   230.5
 1930-34.................        81.2    97.6   230.5   233.6
 1931-35.................        78.5    96.8   231.1   236.4
 1932-36.................        77.9    97.0   232.9   239.2
 1933-37.................        78.6    98.5   236.2   241.6
 1934-38.................        80.7   100.6   241.2   243.9
                           Parity (number of children born alive)
                                                        7 or
                                  4       5       6     more
                                   Distribution of women2/
 1876-80.................        94.8    74.0    64.2   173.9
 1886-90.................       100.2    70.3    54.8   128.6
 1896-1900...............        89.0    52.2    41.1    82.2
 1906-10.................        79.6    44.7    28.0    49.8
 1916-20.................       106.5    55.3    30.3    43.6
 1921-25.................       127.9    67.9    36.9    49.1
 1926-30.................       148.8    81.2    44.5    54.8
 1927-31.................       153.0    83.9    46.0    55.6
 1928-32.................       157.2    86.5    47.2    55.9
 1929-33.................       161.1    88.6    48.2    55.6
 1930-34.................       164.1    90.0    48.5    54.5
 1931-35.................       166.0    90.5    48.2    52.5
 1932-36.................       166.3    89.9    47.3    49.5
 1933-37.................       165.5    88.1    45.5    46.0
 1934-38.................       163.3    85.2    43.1    42.0
 Race of child                Age 50-54         Completed
 and birth                      as of           fertility
 cohort of mother             January 1,--      rate1/            Total
 All other
 1876-80.................       1930            4,254.7          1,000.0
 1886-90.................       1940            3,451.4          1,000.0
 1896-1900...............       1950            2,967.7          1,000.0
 1906-10.................       1960            2,529.1          1,000.0
 1916-20.................       1970            2,924.2          1,000.0
 1921-25.................       1975            3,315.9          1,000.0
 1926-30.................       1980            3,718.9          1,000.0
 1927-31.................       1981            3,756.0          1,000.0
 1928-32.................       1982            3,779.4          1,000.0
 1929-33.................       1983            3,805.0          1,000.0
 1930-34.................       1984            3,822.3          1,000.0
 1931-35.................       1985            3,836.2          1,000.0
 1932-36.................       1986            3,830.3          1,000.0
 1933-37.................       1987            3,805.7          1,000.0
 1934-38.................       1988            3,745.8          1,000.0
                           Parity (number of children born alive)
                                  0       1       2       3
                                   Distribution of women2/
 1876-80.................       207.7   134.0    99.5    87.4
 1886-90.................       231.9   175.9   105.9    96.6
 1896-1900...............       227.4   255.0   114.1    97.5
 1906-10.................       287.5   266.6   114.5    73.2
 1916-20.................       266.2   202.0   120.9    91.2
 1921-25.................       217.7   163.5   131.7   108.2
 1926-30.................       187.4   110.8   130.2   121.0
 1927-31.................       185.7   102.5   129.1   123.0
 1928-32.................       181.6    96.7   129.4   126.5
 1929-33.................       172.4    93.2   132.3   130.1
 1930-34.................       160.3    92.2   136.0   135.3
 1931-35.................       145.1    93.4   140.8   140.4
 1932-36.................       131.0    96.4   145.5   145.5
 1933-37.................       119.4    99.8   150.3   150.2
 1934-38.................       113.8   102.8   154.9   155.3
                           Parity (number of children born alive)
                                                        7 or
                                  4       5       6     more
                                    Distribution of women2/
 1876-80.................       79.9    54.7    64.8    272.0
 1886-90.................       93.3    52.4    58.0    186.0
 1896-1900...............       74.3    38.8    42.6    150.3
 1906-10.................       60.1    43.5    35.6    119.0
 1916-20.................       72.5    57.8    44.9    144.5
 1921-25.................       89.0    68.7    56.4    164.8
 1926-30.................       106.4   85.7    69.3    189.2
 1927-31.................       109.1   88.1    71.4    191.0
 1928-32.................       111.4   90.2    73.5    190.7
 1929-33.................       114.4   93.1    75.1    189.4
 1930-34.................       117.5   95.5    76.9    186.3
3Lifetime births expected by married women,% born: age/race'67-88
 Table 5. Lifetime births expected by currently married women and percent of
           expected  births  already born, according to age and race:
           United States, selected years 1967-88
          (Data are based on reporting of birth expectations by currently
          married women of the civilian noninstitutionalized population)

      All ages                         18-19   20-21   22-24   25-29   30-34
 Race and year           18-34 years   years   years   years   years   years
 All races                      Expected births per currently married woman
 1967...................        3.1     2.7     2.9     2.9     3.0     3.3
 1971...................        2.6     2.3     2.4     2.4     2.6     3.0
 1975...................        2.3     2.2     2.2     2.2     2.3     2.6
 1980...................        2.2     2.1     2.2     2.1     2.2     2.2
 1985...................        2.2     2.1     2.2     2.2     2.2     2.2
 1986...................        2.3     2.2     2.2     2.3     2.3     2.2
 1987...................        2.2     2.1     2.2     2.2     2.2     2.2
 1988...................        2.2     2.1     2.2     2.2     2.3     2.2
 White
 1967...................        3.0     2.7     3.0     2.8     3.0     3.2
 1971...................        2.6     2.3     2.4     2.4     2.6     2.9
 1975...................        2.3     2.2     2.1     2.1     2.2     2.6
 1980...................        2.2     2.1     2.2     2.1     2.1     2.2
 1985...................        2.2     2.0     2.2     2.2     2.2     2.1
 1986...................        2.2     2.1     2.2     2.3     2.2     2.2
 1987...................        2.2     2.0     2.2     2.2     2.2     2.2
 1988...................        2.2     2.1     2.2     2.2     2.3     2.2
 Black
 1967...................        3.5     *       2.5     3.0     3.4     4.3
 1971...................        3.1     *       2.4     2.8     3.1     3.7
 1975...................        2.8     *       2.6     2.5     2.6     3.2
 1980...................        2.4     *       2.2     2.1     2.4     2.5
 1985...................        2.4     *       *       2.3     2.3     2.5
 1986...................        2.4     *       *       2.4     2.3     2.6
 1987...................        2.3     *       *       2.2     2.3     2.3
 1988...................        2.3     *       *       2.2     2.3     2.3
 All races                        Percent of expected births already born
 1967...................        70.2    26.9    33.2    47.8    76.1    92.7
 1971...................        69.4    25.3    32.5    46.7    74.4    93.7
 1975...................        68.8    27.5    30.7    43.9    70.9    93.0
 1980...................        67.0    29.5    32.9    44.9    64.7    89.7
 1985...................        64.2    27.0    30.9    41.8    60.2    84.4
 1986...................        64.7    29.0    30.4    41.8    59.5    84.8
 1987...................        66.5    27.8    36.4    43.0    62.0    83.8
 1988...................        65.3    25.0    33.4    40.9    58.9    83.6
 White
 1967...................        68.9    24.2    30.1    46.2    75.1    92.9
 1971...................        68.9    23.7    31.4    45.3    74.1    93.8
 1975...................        68.2    24.9    29.4    42.3    70.5    93.2
 1980...................        66.3    28.6    31.8    43.5    64.0    90.0
 1985...................        63.3    25.7    30.6    40.4    59.4    84.1
 1986...................        63.8    28.6    28.7    40.5    58.6    84.8
 1987...................        65.6    27.0    36.0    42.0    60.9    83.6
 1988...................        64.4    24.0    32.6    38.9    58.2    83.2
 Black
 1967...................        82.8    *       65.7    67.9    87.9    92.3
 1971...................        74.8    *       43.0    57.5    81.0    93.4
 1975...................        76.4    *       43.3    61.0    78.2    91.8
 1980...................        74.7    *       46.1    58.9    73.8    90.9
 1985...................        77.1    *       *       62.3    72.8    91.4
 1986...................        75.7    *       *       59.7    70.2    90.0
 1987...................        77.8    *       *       55.4    76.6    89.7
 1988...................        75.5    *       *       61.4    70.1    89.9
 SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of the Census: Population characteristics. Current
         Population Reports. Series P-20, Nos.  301, 375, 406, 421, 427,
         and 436. Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office, Nov. 1976,
         Oct. 1982, June 1986, Dec. 1987, May 1988, and May 1989.
3Characteristics live births by Hispanic org mom,child race'70-87
 Table 6. Characteristics of live births, according to Hispanic origin
          of mother and race of child: Selected States, 1970-87
 (Data are based on the National Vital Statistics System)
  Ethnicity of mother, race
  of child, and characteristic          1980    1981    1982    1983
  Birth weight less than                   Percent of live births
  2,500 grams
 All origins1/.....................     6.88    6.85    6.83    6.91
 Hispanic..........................     6.12    6.12    6.23    6.29
   Mexican.........................     5.62    5.61    5.72    5.77
   Puerto Rican....................     8.95    9.01    9.11    8.90
   Cuban...........................     5.62    5.83    5.76    5.65
 Non-Hispanic white................     5.68    5.62    5.61    5.63
 Non-Hispanic black................     12.54   12.64   12.43   12.64
                                        1984    1985    1986    1987
                                           Percent of live births
 All origins1/.....................     6.79    6.83    6.88    6.99
 Hispanic..........................     6.15    6.16    6.13    6.24
   Mexican.........................     5.68    5.77    5.62    5.74
   Puerto Rican....................     8.88    8.69    9.22    9.30
   Cuban...........................     5.86    6.02    5.46    5.89
 Non-Hispanic white................     5.52    5.59    5.58    5.63
 Non-Hispanic black................    12.36   12.42   12.65   12.88
                                        1980    1981    1982    1983
  Birth weight less than
  1,500 grams                               Percent of live births
 All origins1/.....................     1.15    1.16    1.17    1.19
 Hispanic..........................     0.98    0.98    0.99    1.03
   Mexican.........................     0.92    0.92    0.93    0.96
   Puerto Rican....................     1.29    1.43    1.54    1.46
   Cuban...........................     1.02    1.17    0.90    0.97
 Non-Hispanic white................     0.86    0.87    0.89    0.90
 Non-Hispanic black................     2.43    2.46    2.50    2.54
                                        1884    1985    1986    1987
                                           Percent of live births
 All origins1/.....................     1.18    1.21    1.21    1.24
 Hispanic..........................     1.01    1.01    1.02    1.06
   Mexican.........................     0.93    0.97    0.94    0.96
   Puerto Rican....................     1.49    1.30    1.47    1.63
   Cuban...........................     1.04    1.18    1.09    0.97
 Non-Hispanic white................     0.88    0.91    0.89    0.91
 Non-Hispanic black................     2.52    2.62    2.64    2.69
                                        1980    1981    1982    1983
  Age of mother less than
  20 years                                 Percent of live births
 All origins1/.....................     15.6    14.8    14.4    13.8
 Hispanic..........................     19.0    18.5    18.3    17.7
   Mexican.........................     19.8    19.4    19.1    18.4
   Puerto Rican....................     23.3    23.1    23.0    22.4
   Cuban...........................     13.0    12.8    11.4     9.4
 Non-Hispanic white................     12.5    11.8    11.3    10.7
 Non-Hispanic black................     26.9    25.5    24.9    24.3
                                        1984    1985    1986    1987
                                            Percent of live births
 All origins1/.....................     13.2    12.8    12.7    12.5
 Hispanic..........................     17.0    16.5    16.4    16.3
   Mexican.........................     18.0    17.5    17.4    17.3
   Puerto Rican....................     21.3    20.9    20.9    20.5
   Cuban...........................      8.2     7.1     6.8     6.2
 Non-Hispanic white................     10.0     9.7     9.5     9.3
 Non-Hispanic black................     23.8    23.1    22.8    22.5
                                        1980    1981    1982    1983
  Unmarried mothers                         Percent of live births
 All origins1/.....................     19.3    19.7    20.3    21.3
 Hispanic..........................     23.8    24.5    25.6    27.5
   Mexican.........................     20.5    20.7    21.9    23.7
   Puerto Rican....................     46.3    48.0    49.0    49.5
   Cuban...........................     10.0    14.3    15.9    16.2
 Non-Hispanic white................     9.3     9.8     10.2    10.7
 Non-Hispanic black................     56.5    57.1    58.0    59.5
 All origins1/.....................     21.9    22.9    24.3    25.3
 Hispanic..........................     28.3    29.5    31.6    32.6
   Mexican.........................     24.2    25.7    27.9    28.9
   Puerto Rican....................     50.8    51.1    52.6    53.0
   Cuban...........................     16.2    16.1    15.8    16.1
 Non-Hispanic white................     11.3    12.1    13.2    13.9
 Non-Hispanic black................     60.5    61.0    62.2    63.1
                                        1980    1981    1982    1983
  Prenatal care began during               Percent of live births
  1st trimester
 All origins1/.....................     74.7    74.8    74.5    74.6
 Hispanic..........................     60.2    60.6    61.0    61.0
   Mexican.........................     59.6    60.1    60.7    60.2
   Puerto Rican....................     55.1    54.2    54.5    55.1
   Cuban...........................     82.7    80.1    79.3    81.2
 Non-Hispanic white................     81.3    81.4    81.2    81.5
 Non-Hispanic black................     61.1    61.1    60.1    60.3
                                         1984   1985    1986    1987
                                            Percent of live births
 All origins1/.....................     74.9    74.5    74.3    74.4
 Hispanic..........................     61.5    61.2    60.3    61.0
   Mexican.........................     60.4    60.0    58.9    60.0
   Puerto Rican....................     57.4    58.3    57.2    57.4
   Cuban...........................     82.2    82.5    81.8    83.1
 Non-Hispanic white................     81.7    81.5    81.6    81.9
 Non-Hispanic black................     61.0    60.5    60.6    60.4
 1/Includes origin not stated.
 NOTES: Data available only for States with an Hispanic-origin item on
        their birth certificates. In 1980, there were 22 States;
        in 1982, 23 States; and since 1983, 23 States and the District of
        Columbia.  About  90  percent of the total U.S. Hispanic
        population resided in these States in 1986.
 SOURCES: National Center for Health Statistics: Births of Hispanic
          parentage, 1980. Monthly Vital Statistics Report. Vol. 32,
          No. 6 Supp. DHHS Pub. No. (PHS) 83-1120. Sept. 1983; Births of
          Hispanic  parentage,  1981.  Monthly Vital Statistics Report.
          Vol. 33, No. 8 Supp. DHHS Pub. No. (PHS) 85-1120. Dec. 1984; Births
          of Hispanic parentage, 1982.  Monthly Vital Statistics Report. Vol.
          34, No. 4 Supp. DHHS Pub. No. Parentage, 1983 and 1984. Monthly
          Vital Statistics Report. Vol. 36, No. 4 Supp. (2). DHHS Pub. No.
          (PHS) 87-1120 July 24, 1987; Births of Hispanic Parentage, 1985.
          Monthly Vital Statistics Report. Vol. 36, No. 11 Supp. DHHS Pub.
          No. (PHS) 88-1120. Feb. 26, 1988; Advance report of final natality
          statistics, 1986. Monthly Vital Statistics Report. Vol. 37. No. 3
          Supp. DHHS Pub. No. (PHS) 88-1120. July 12, 1988; and Advance report
          of final natality statistics, 1987. Monthly Vital Statistics Report.
          Vol. 38. No. 3 Supp. DHHS Pub. No. (PHS) 89-1120. June 29, 1989.
3Live births by race of child & select characteristics:U.S.'70-87
 Table 7. Live births, according to race of child and selected characteristics:
          United States, selected years 1970-87
 (Data are based on the National Vital Statistics System)
 Race of child and
 characteristic                        1970    1975    1980    1981    1982
 All races                                     Percent of live births
 Birth weight:1/
   Less than 2,500 grams............... 7.94    7.39    6.84    6.81    6.75
   Less than 1,500 grams............... 1.17    1.16    1.15    1.16    1.18
 Age of mother:
   Less than 18 years.................. 6.3     7.6     5.8     5.4     5.2
   18-19 years.........................11.3    11.3     9.8     9.4     9.0
 Unmarried mothers.....................10.7    14.3    18.4    18.9    19.4
 Education of mother:
   Less than 12 years..................30.8    28.6    23.7    22.9    22.3
   16 years or more.................... 8.6    11.4    14.0    14.8    15.3
 Prenatal care began:
   1st trimester.......................68.0    72.4    76.3    76.3    76.1
   3d trimester or no prenatal care.... 7.9     6.0     5.1     5.2     5.5
                                        1983    1984    1985    1986    1987
                                               Percent of live births
 Birth weight:1/
   Less than 2,500 grams............... 6.82    6.72    6.75    6.81    6.90
   Less than 1,500 grams............... 1.19    1.19    1.21    1.21    1.24
 Age of mother:
   Less than 18 years.................. 5.0     4.8     4.7     4.8     4.8
   18-19 years......................... 8.7     8.3     8.0     7.8     7.6
 Unmarried mothers.....................20.3    21.0    22.0    23.4    24.5
 Education of mother:
   Less than 12 years..................21.7    20.9    20.6    20.4    20.2
   16 years or more....................15.9    16.4    16.7    17.1    17.6
 Prenatal care began:
   1st trimester.......................76.2    76.5    76.2    75.9    76.0
   3d trimester or no prenatal care.... 5.6     5.6     5.7     6.0     6.1
 Race of child and
 characteristic                        1970    1975    1980    1981    1982
 White                                         Percent of live births
 Birth weight:1/
   Less than 2,500 grams............... 6.84    6.26    5.70    5.67    5.63
   Less than 1,500 grams............... 0.95    0.92    0.90    0.90    0.92
 Age of mother:
   Less than 18 years.................. 4.8     6.0     4.5     4.3     4.1
   18-19 years.........................10.4    10.3     9.0     8.6     8.2
 Unmarried mothers..................... 5.7     7.3    11.0    11.6    12.1
 Education of mother:
   Less than 12 years..................27.0    25.0    20.7    19.9    19.3
   16 years or more.................... 9.5    12.7    15.6    16.4    17.0
 Prenatal care began:
   1st trimester.......................72.4    75.9    79.3    79.4    79.3
   3d trimester or no prenatal care.... 6.2     5.0     4.3     4.3     4.5
                                        1983    1984    1985    1986    1987
                                               Percent of live births
 Birth weight:1/
   Less than 2,500 grams............... 5.67    5.59    5.64    5.64    5.68
   Less than 1,500 grams............... 0.93    0.92    0.94    0.93    0.94
 Age of mother:
   Less than 18 years.................. 3.9     3.7     3.7     3.7     3.7
   18-19 years......................... 7.9     7.4     7.1     6.9     6.8
 Unmarried mothers.....................12.8    13.4    14.5    15.7    16.7
 Education of mother:
   Less than 12 years..................18.7    18.0    17.8    17.6    17.3
   16 years or more....................17.7    18.4    18.7    19.2    19.9
 Prenatal care began:
   1st trimester.......................79.4    79.6    79.4    79.2    79.4
   3d trimester or no prenatal care.... 4.6     4.7     4.7     5.0     5.0
 Race of child and
 characteristic                        1970    1975    1980    1981    1982
 Black                                         Percent of live births
 Birth weight:1/
   Less than 2,500 grams...............13.86   13.09   12.49   12.53   12.40
   Less than 1,500 grams............... 2.40    2.37    2.44    2.47    2.51
 Age of mother:
   Less than 18 years..................14.7    16.1    12.2    11.4    11.1
   18-19 years.........................16.6    16.8    14.3    13.9    13.5
 Unmarried mothers.....................37.4    49.0    55.2    56.0    56.7
 Education of mother:
   Less than 12 years..................51.0    45.1    36.2    35.4    34.8
   16 years or more.................... 2.8     4.4     6.3     6.6     6.8
 Prenatal care began:
   1st trimester.......................44.4    55.8    62.7    62.4    61.5
   3d trimester or no prenatal care....16.6    10.5     8.8     9.1     9.6
                                        1983    1984    1985    1986    1987
                                               Percent of live births
 Birth weight:1/
   Less than 2,500 grams...............12.59   12.36   12.42   12.53   12.71
   Less than 1,500 grams............... 2.55    2.56    2.65    2.66    2.73
 Age of mother:
   Less than 18 years..................10.9    10.6    10.3    10.4    10.5
   18-19 years.........................13.4    13.1    12.7    12.4    12.1
 Unmarried mothers.....................58.2    59.2    60.1    61.2    62.2
 Education of mother:
   Less than 12 years..................34.2    33.1    32.3    31.7    31.3
   16 years or more.................... 6.8     7.0     7.1     7.3     7.3
 Prenatal care began:
   1st trimester.......................61.5    62.2    61.8    61.6    61.1
   3d trimester or no prenatal care.... 9.7     9.6    10.0    10.6    11.1
 Race of child and
 characteristic                        1970    1975    1980    1981    1982
 Asian and Pacific Islander2/                   Percent of live births
 Birth weight:1/
   Less than 2,500 grams............... 8.43    7.04    6.55    6.61    6.63
   Less than 1,500 grams............... 1.12    0.80    0.91    0.91    0.87
 Age of mother:
   Less than 18 years.................. 3.3     2.7     1.7     1.8     1.8
   18-19 years......................... 7.1     5.8     4.3     4.4     4.4
 Unmarried mothers..................... 7.8     8.5     7.8     7.5     8.4
 Education of mother:
   Less than 12 years..................21.7    18.5    20.0    21.9    22.2
   16 years or more....................20.0    27.5    30.2    29.0    28.9
 Prenatal care began:
   1st trimester.......................67.8    73.9    74.7    74.4    74.4
   3d trimester or no prenatal care.... 6.8     4.5     6.1     6.2     6.2
                                        1983    1984    1985    1986    1987
                                               Percent of live births
 Birth weight:1/
   Less than 2,500 grams............... 6.51    6.53    6.11    6.38    6.37
   Less than 1,500 grams............... 0.87    0.91    0.84    0.87    0.85
 Age of mother:
   Less than 18 years.................. 1.7     1.8     1.8     1.9     1.9
   18-19 years......................... 3.9     3.8     3.7     3.7     3.6
 Unmarried mothers..................... 9.0     9.6    10.1    10.6    11.5
 Education of mother:
   Less than 12 years..................20.7    19.3    18.5    17.3    17.3
   16 years or more....................29.7    30.2    30.1    31.1    31.6
 Prenatal care began:
   1st trimester.......................74.9    75.6    75.0    75.6    75.7
   3d trimester or no prenatal care.... 6.1     6.0     6.1     5.9     6.0
 Race of child and
 characteristic                        1970    1975    1980    1981    1982
 American Indian3/                             Percent of live births
 Birth weight:1/
   Less than 2,500 grams............... 7.99    6.61    6.47    6.27    6.17
   Less than 1,500 grams............... 0.98    1.04    0.96    0.90    1.04
 Age of mother:
   Less than 18 years.................. 7.5    11.0     8.8     8.5     8.0
   18-19 years.........................13.3    15.8    14.3    14.0    13.5
 Unmarried mothers.....................19.8    27.9    33.5    35.2    36.3
 Education of mother:
   Less than 12 years..................57.6    50.6    41.8    40.7    39.5
   16 years or more.................... 3.0     2.8     4.2     4.4     4.5
 Prenatal care began:
   1st trimester.......................41.7    49.3    58.7    59.3    60.5
   3d trimester or no prenatal care....25.6    19.5    13.3    12.9    12.4
                                        1983    1984    1985    1986    1987
                                               Percent of live births
 Birth weight:1/
   Less than 2,500 grams............... 6.43    6.16    5.88    6.16    6.24
   Less than 1,500 grams............... 1.06    1.03    0.98    1.01    1.08
 Age of mother:
   Less than 18 years.................. 7.9     7.4     7.1     7.4     7.4
   18-19 years.........................12.9    12.6    12.0    11.8    11.5
 Unmarried mothers.....................38.7    39.8    40.7    42.3    44.9
 Education of mother:
   Less than 12 years..................38.8    38.0    36.9    36.8    36.6
   16 years or more.................... 4.3     4.5     4.6     4.6     4.5
 Prenatal care began:
   1st trimester.......................59.7    60.0    60.3    60.7    60.2
   3d trimester or no prenatal care....12.7    12.4    11.5    11.6    11.7
 1/Before 1979, data are for infants weighing 2,500 grams or less at birth.
 2/Includes Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Hawaiian (includes part Hawaiian),
 Guamian (1970 and 1975), and other Asian or Pacific Islander
 (starting in 1980).
 3/Includes Aleut and Eskimo.
 NOTE: Data on education of mother are not available from California, Texas,
       and Washington. Other States do not have data on marital status,
       education, and/or month prenatal care began for certain years before
       1980.
 SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics: Vital Statistics of the
         United States, Vol. I, Natality, for data years 1970-87.
         Public Health Service. Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office.
         Data computed by the Division of Analysis from data compiled by the
         Division of Vital Statistics.
3Infants weight <2500 grams at birth by race,geo div,state '75-87
 Table 8. Infants weighing less than 2,500 grams at birth, according to race of
          child, geographic division, and State: United States, average
          annual 1975-77, 1980-82, and 1985-87
 (Data are based on the National Vital Statistics System)
                                    All races                 White
 Geographic division
 and State                   1975-77 1980-82 1985-87  1975-77 1980-82 1985-87
                              Infants weighing less than 2,500 grams at birth
                                         per 100 total live births
 United States..................7.2     6.8     6.8     6.1     5.7     5.7
 New England....................6.6     6.1     5.9     6.2     5.6     5.4
    Maine.......................5.7     5.6     5.2     5.7     5.6     5.2
    New Hampshire...............6.2     5.2     5.0     6.2     5.2     5.0
    Vermont.....................6.5     6.0     5.5     6.5     6.0     5.4
    Massachusetts...............6.5     6.0     5.8     6.2     5.6     5.3
    Rhode Island................6.8     6.1     6.3     6.4     5.6     5.8
    Connecticut.................7.0     6.8     6.6     6.1     5.9     5.7
 Middle Atlantic................7.6     7.0     7.1     6.4     5.8     5.7
    New York....................7.9     7.3     7.3     6.6     6.0     5.8
    New Jersey..................7.6     7.1     6.9     6.2     5.6     5.4
    Pennsylvania................7.2     6.5     6.8     6.2     5.5     5.6
 East North Central.............7.0     6.7     6.7     5.9     5.5     5.5
    Ohio........................7.0     6.7     6.6     6.1     5.7     5.7
    Indiana.....................6.5     6.3     6.4     5.8     5.6     5.8
    Illinois....................7.6     7.3     7.3     5.9     5.5     5.5
    Michigan....................7.4     6.9     6.9     6.1     5.6     5.5
    Wisconsin...................5.8     5.2     5.4     5.3     4.7     4.7
 West North Central.............6.1     5.7     5.8     5.6     5.1     5.2
    Minnesota...................5.4     5.1     5.0     5.2     4.9     4.7
    Iowa........................5.6     4.9     5.2     5.5     4.8     5.0
    Missouri....................7.1     6.7     6.8     5.9     5.6     5.7
    North Dakota................5.2     4.7     4.9     5.0     4.6     4.8
    South Dakota................5.5     5.2     5.3     5.3     4.8     5.0
    Nebraska....................5.8     5.5     5.4     5.5     5.1     5.0
    Kansas......................6.5     6.1     6.2     5.9     5.5     5.6
 South Atlantic.................8.2     7.9     7.8     6.3     6.0     5.9
    Delaware....................7.9     7.6     7.1     6.2     5.5     5.5
    Maryland....................7.9     7.8     7.7     5.9     5.7     5.5
    District of Columbia.......12.6    13.1    13.0    *6.6    *5.9     5.1
    Virginia....................7.5     7.3     7.0     6.1     5.7     5.5
    West Virginia...............7.1     6.8     7.0     7.0     6.6     6.8
    North Carolina..............8.3     7.9     7.9     6.3     6.0     6.0
    South Carolina..............9.0     8.8     8.6     6.3     6.1     6.0
    Georgia.....................8.7     8.5     8.1     6.4     6.2     6.1
    Florida.....................7.9     7.5     7.6     6.3     5.9     6.0
 East South Central.............8.0     7.8     7.9     6.4     6.2     6.3
    Kentucky....................7.1     6.9     7.0     6.6     6.4     6.5
    Tennessee...................7.9     8.0     8.0     6.5     6.4     6.5
    Alabama.....................8.2     7.9     8.0     6.2     5.7     6.0
    Mississippi.................9.1     8.7     8.8     6.3     5.8     6.1
 West South Central.............7.8     7.2     7.2     6.5     6.0     6.0
    Arkansas....................8.0     7.5     7.8     6.4     5.9     6.4
    Louisiana...................8.9     8.5     8.7     6.3     5.9     5.9
    Oklahoma....................7.4     6.7     6.5     6.8     6.2     6.0
    Texas.......................7.5     6.9     6.9     6.5     6.0     6.0
 Mountain.......................7.1     6.5     6.6     6.9     6.3     6.4
    Montana.....................6.7     5.6     5.7     6.5     5.5     5.7
    Idaho.......................5.7     5.3     5.4     5.7     5.2     5.4
    Wyoming.....................8.7     7.0     7.2     8.5     7.0     7.1
    Colorado....................8.7     8.0     7.8     8.4     7.7     7.4
    New Mexico..................8.4     7.6     7.1     8.5     7.6     7.2
    Arizona.....................6.4     6.1     6.3     6.2     5.8     6.1
    Utah........................5.4     5.4     5.6     5.3     5.3     5.5
    Nevada......................7.5     6.7     7.1     6.7     6.1     6.2
 Pacific........................6.0     5.8     5.9     5.4     5.1     5.2
    Washington..................5.6     5.1     5.3     5.3     4.8     4.9
    Oregon......................5.4     4.9     5.2     5.2     4.7     5.0
    California..................6.1     5.9     6.0     5.5     5.2     5.2
    Alaska......................5.4     5.1     4.8     5.0     4.6     4.3
    Hawaii......................7.5     7.1     6.8     5.9     6.0     5.3
                Black
 Geographic division
 and State                            1975-77  1980-82  1985-87
                          Infants weighing less than 2,500 grams at birth
                                     per 100 total live births
 United States..................        12.9    12.5    12.6
 New England....................        12.3    11.8    11.8
    Maine.......................        *       *       *
    New Hampshire...............        *       *       *
    Vermont.....................        *       *       *
    Massachusetts...............        11.1    10.9    10.9
    Rhode Island................       *13.2   *11.7   *11.5
    Connecticut.................        13.5    13.1    13.1
 Middle Atlantic................        13.3    12.6    12.8
    New York....................        13.1    12.3    12.5
    New Jersey..................        13.6    13.0    12.6
    Pennsylvania................        13.8    13.2    13.8
 East North Central.............        13.4    13.2    13.2
    Ohio........................        13.2    12.8    12.0
    Indiana.....................        11.9    12.0    11.8
    Illinois....................        13.8    13.8    13.9
    Michigan....................        13.7    13.3    13.9
    Wisconsin...................        12.6    12.5    12.4
 West North Central.............        13.2    12.3    12.4
    Minnesota...................       *12.0   *11.4    12.1
    Iowa........................       *10.8   *11.1   *11.0
    Missouri....................        13.6    12.7    12.8
    North Dakota................        *       *       *
    South Dakota................        *       *       *
    Nebraska....................       *11.9   *12.7   *11.9
    Kansas......................        13.4    12.0    12.2
 South Atlantic.................        12.9    12.5    12.5
    Delaware....................        13.8    14.4    12.4
    Maryland....................        13.1    12.4    12.7
    District of Columbia........        13.8    14.7    15.2
    Virginia....................        12.4    12.2    11.4
    West Virginia...............       *10.8   *11.4   *11.5
    North Carolina..............        12.9    12.3    12.4
    South Carolina..............        13.0    12.8    12.6
    Georgia.....................        12.8    12.7    12.0
    Florida.....................        12.7    12.0    12.7
 East South Central.............        12.3    12.2    12.3
    Kentucky....................        12.6    11.6    12.0
    Tennessee...................        12.9    13.5    13.0
    Alabama.....................        11.9    11.9    12.0
    Mississippi.................        12.3    11.9    12.0
 West South Central.............        13.2    12.6    12.4
    Arkansas....................        12.7    12.4    12.2
    Louisiana...................        12.8    12.8    12.9
    Oklahoma....................        13.3    12.1    11.5
    Texas.......................        13.5    12.5    12.3
 Mountain.......................        13.3    11.6    12.5
    Montana.....................        *       *       *
    Idaho.......................        *       *       *
    Wyoming.....................        *       *       *
    Colorado....................        14.6    13.0    13.9
    New Mexico..................       *12.5   *10.5   *10.6
    Arizona.....................       *11.7    10.5    11.8
    Utah........................        *       *       *
    Nevada......................       *13.8   *11.9   *13.0
 Pacific........................        11.4    11.1    11.9
    Washington..................         9.8    10.2    10.5
    Oregon......................       *11.5   *10.4   *11.4
    California..................        11.6    11.2    12.1
    Alaska......................        *       *7.5    *9.3
    Hawaii......................        *8.9    *9.5    *8.6
 *Data for States with fewer than 5,000 live births for the 3-year period are
 considered unreliable. Data for States with fewer than 1,000 live births are
 considered highly unreliable and are not shown.
 SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics: Data computed by the Division
         of Analysis from data  compiled by the Division of Vital Statistics.
3Legal abortion ratios by select patient characteristic:U.S'73-87
 Table 9. Legal abortion ratios, according to selected patient
          characteristics: United States, selected years 1973-87
 (Data are based on reporting by State health departments and by
 facilities)
 Characteristic                 1973    1975    1980    1981    1982
                                   Abortions per 100 live births
 Total........................  19.6    27.2    35.9    35.8    35.4
 Age
 Under 15 years...............  74.3   101.5   122.7   126.4   120.0
 15-19 years..................  31.7    46.4    66.4    66.8    66.5
 20-24 years..................  17.9    25.0    37.5    37.9    38.0
 25-29 years..................  12.3    16.6    23.0    23.2    23.5
 30-34 years..................  16.5    22.1    23.3    23.7    23.0
 35-39 years..................  26.7    37.5    40.3    40.3    37.1
 40 years and over............  40.2    59.9    78.3    77.6    75.0
 Race
 White........................  17.5    22.7    31.3    31.2    30.4
 All other....................  28.9    46.5    54.7    54.4    55.6
 Marital status
 Married......................   6.2     8.3    10.2     9.8     9.7
 Unmarried.................... 109.8   141.1   149.9   147.5   142.2
 Number of previous
 live births2/
 0............................  23.0    30.2    48.6    48.6    48.2
 1............................  12.1    17.3    21.9    21.9    22.0
 2............................  19.6    29.7    32.8    32.6    32.4
 3............................  25.8    39.8    33.5    33.5    32.2
 4 or more....................  26.4    40.8    27.3    26.6    25.4

 Characteristic                1983    1984    1985    19861/  19871/
                                   Abortions per 100 live births
 Total........................  34.9    36.4    35.4    35.4    35.6
 Age
 Under 15 years............... 133.6   145.8   141.2   130.5   131.3
 15-19 years..................  67.3    71.4    71.7    70.2    72.6
 20-24 years..................  38.1    41.2    40.4    41.0    42.0
 25-29 years..................  23.0    23.9    23.2    24.0    23.9
 30-34 years..................  22.0    22.3    21.4    21.5    21.4
 35-39 years..................  35.4    35.2    33.4    33.4    31.7
 40 years and over............  69.1    66.7    63.8    59.8    56.2
 Race
 White........................  29.5    30.8    29.6    30.0    30.0
 All other....................  56.0    58.2    57.6    55.8    55.7
 Marital status
 Married......................   9.3     9.6     8.7    10.8    12.8
 Unmarried.................... 135.2   137.1   129.5   115.7   105.6
 Number of previous
 live births2/
 0............................  46.9    49.3    47.7    47.1    46.3
 1............................  22.1    23.0    22.8    23.8    24.7
 2............................  32.5    34.0    33.0    33.5    34.5
 3............................  31.9    32.8    32.1    32.4    33.2
 4 or more....................  24.8    24.9    23.7    24.2    24.2
 1/Preliminary data.
 2/For 1973-75, data indicate number of living children.
 SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control: Abortion Surveillance, 1973-75.
          Public Health Service, DHHS,  Atlanta, Ga., May 1977-Nov. 1980;
          Abortion Surveillance, 1980. Public Health Service, DHHS,
          Atlanta, Ga., May 1983;  CDC  Surveillance Summaries.
          Abortion Surveillance, United States, 1984-85. Vol. 38,
          No. SS-2. Public Health Service, DHHS, Atlanta, Ga., Sept. 1989;
          and Abortion Surveillance: Preliminary Analysis, United States,
          1986 and 1987. Vol. 38, No. 38. Public Health Service, DHHS,
          Atlanta, Ga., Sept. 1989.
3Legal abortions by select characteristics: U.S. select yrs'73-87
 Table 10. Legal abortions, according to selected characteristics: United
           States, selected years 1973-87
 (Data are based on reporting by State health departments and by facilities)
 Characteristic               1973    1975    1980    1981    1982
                          Number of legal abortions reported in thousands
 Centers for Disease Control...616     855   1,298   1,301   1,304
 Alan Guttmacher Institute.....745   1,034   1,554   1,577   1,574
                                          Percent distribution
 Total.........................100.0   100.0   100.0   100.0   100.0
 Period of gestation
 Under 9 weeks................. 36.1    44.6    51.7    51.2    50.6
 9-10 weeks.................... 29.4    28.4    26.2    26.8    26.7
 11-12 weeks................... 17.9    14.9    12.2    12.1    12.4
 13-15 weeks...................  6.9     5.0     5.2     5.2     5.3
 16-20 weeks...................  8.0     6.1     3.9     3.7     3.9
 21 weeks and over.............  1.7     1.0     0.9     1.0     1.1
 Type of procedure
 Curettage..................... 88.4    90.9    95.5    96.1    96.4
 Intrauterine instillation..... 10.4     6.2     3.1     2.8     2.5
 Hysterotomy or hysterectomy...  0.7     0.4     0.1     0.1     0.0
 Other.........................  0.6     2.4     1.3     1.0     1.0
 Location of facility
 In State of residence......... 74.8    89.2    92.6    92.5    92.9
 Out of State of residence..... 25.2    10.8     7.4     7.5     7.1
 Previous induced abortions
 0.............................  ---    81.9    67.6    65.3    63.7
 1.............................  ---    14.9    23.5    24.3    24.9
 2.............................  ---     2.5     6.6     7.5     8.2
 3 or more.....................  ---     0.7     2.3     2.9     3.2

 Characteristic                 1983   1984    1985    19861/  19871/
                            Number of legal abortions reported in thousands
 Centers for Disease Control...1,269   1,334   1,329   1,328   1,354
 Alan Guttmacher Institute.....1,575   1,577   1,589     ---     ---
                                         Percent distribution
 Total.........................  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0
 Period of gestation
 Under 9 weeks.................   49.7   50.5   50.3   51.0   50.4
 9-10 weeks....................   26.8   26.4   26.6   25.8   26.0
 11-12 weeks...................   12.8   12.6   12.5   12.2   12.4
 13-15 weeks...................    5.8    5.8    5.9    6.1    6.2
 16-20 weeks...................    3.9    3.9    3.9    4.1    4.2
 21 weeks and over.............    1.0    0.8    0.8    0.8    0.8
 Type of procedure
 Curettage.....................   96.8   96.8   97.5   97.0   97.2
 Intrauterine instillation.....    2.1    1.9    1.7    1.4    1.3
 Hysterotomy or hysterectomy...    0.0    0.0    0.0    0.0    0.0
 Other.........................    1.1    1.3    0.8    1.6    1.5
 Location of facility
 In State of residence.........   93.3   92.0   92.4   92.3   91.5
 Out of State of residence.....    6.7    8.0    7.6    7.7    8.5
 Previous induced abortions
 0.............................   62.4   60.5   60.1   59.3   58.5
 1.............................   25.0   25.7   25.7   26.3   26.5
 2.............................    9.0    9.4    9.8    9.6   10.3
 3 or more.....................    3.7    4.3    4.4    4.8    4.7
 1/Preliminary data.
 NOTE: For a discussion of the differences in reported legal abortions between
       the Centers for Disease Control and the Alan Guttmacher Institute,
       see Appendix I. Percent distributions exclude cases for which selected
       characteristic was unknown and are based on abortions reported to the
       Centers for Disease Control.
 SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control: Abortion Surveillance, 1980. Public
          Health Service, DHHS, Atlanta, Ga., May 1983; CDC Surveillance
          Summaries. Abortion Surveillance, United States, 1984-1985. Vol. 38,
          No. SS-2. Public Health Service, DHHS, Atlanta, Ga., Sept. 1989;
          and Abortion Surveillance: Preliminary Analysis, United States, 1986
          and 1987; Vol. 38, No. 38. Public Health Service, DHHS, Atlanta, Ga.,
          Sept. 1989; Sullivan, E., Tietze, C., and Dryfoos,
          J.: Legal abortions in the United States, 1975-1976. Fam. Plann.
          Perspect. 9(3):116-129, May-June 1977; Henshaw,
          and Blaine, E.: Abortion services in the United States, 1981 and
          1982. Fam. Plann. Perspect. 16(3), May-June 1984; Henshaw, S.,
          Forrest, J. D., and Van Vost, J.: Abortion services in the United
          States, 1984 and 1985. Fam. Plann. Perspect. 19(2), Mar.-Apr. 1987.
3Legal abortions/related deaths & rate:by gestation period '74-85
 Table 11. Legal abortions, abortion-related deaths, and abortion-
           related death rates, according to period of gestation
           United States, 1974-76, 1977-79, 1980-82, and 1983-85
 (Data are based primarily on reporting by State health departments and
 by facilities)
                                             Abortion-related
                                                 deaths1/
                                        Number of
                                          legal                   Rate per
 Period of gestation                    abortions                   100,000
 and year                                reported       Number    abortions

 Total
 1974-76.............................   2,606,596         66          2.5
 1977-79.............................   3,489,127         44          1.3
 1980-82.............................   3,902,346       2/27          0.7
 1983-85.............................   3,931,078       3/27          0.7
 Under 9 weeks
 1974-76.............................   1,171,478          8         *0.7
 1977-79.............................   1,808,655         10         *0.6
 1980-82.............................   1,996,573          6         *0.3
 1983-85.............................   1,968,827          2         *
 9-10 weeks
 1974-76.............................     738,615         10         *1.4
 1977-79.............................     942,467          9         *1.0
 1980-82.............................   1,036,542          5         *0.5
 1983-85.............................   1,046,140          5         *0.5
 11-12 weeks
 1974-76.............................     387,208         10         *2.6
 1977-79.............................     439,754          7         *1.6
 1980-82.............................     477,875          3         *
 1983-85.............................     497,902          3         *
 13 weeks and over
 1974-76.............................     309,295         38         12.3
 1977-79.............................     298,251         18          6.0
 1980-82.............................     391,356         11          2.8
 1983-85.............................     418,209         15          3.6
 1/1983 data are provisional.
 2/1982 data include 2 deaths with weeks of gestation unknown.
 3/1984 data include 2 deaths with weeks of gestation unknown.
 *Estimates with relative standard errors greater than 30 percent are
 considered unreliable.
 Estimates with relative standard errors greater than 50 percent are
 considered highly unreliable and are not shown.
 SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control: Abortion Surveillance, 1978.
         Public Health Service, DHHS, Atlanta, Ga., Nov. 1980;
         Unpublished data.
3Methods contraception ever-married women 15-44:race/age'73,82,88
 Table 12. Methods of contraception for ever-married women 15-44 years of age,
           according  to  race  and age:  United States, 1973, 1982, and 1988
 (Data are based on household interviews of samples of women in the
 childbearing ages)
                                  All races                    White
 Method of
 contraception
 and age                      1973   19821/   19882/    1973   19821/   19882/
                                  Number of ever-married women in thousands
 15-44 years..............   30,247  34,935   36,842   26,795  30,419   31,465 "
 15-24 years..............    6,593   5,550    3,971    5,855   4,975    3,495
 25-34 years..............   12,731  15,996   16,889   11,356  31,819   14,371
 35-44 years..............   10,922  13,439   15,982    9,584  11,626   13,599
 All methods                 Percent of ever-married women using contraception
 15-44 years..............      66.4    66.9     70.8     67.8    68.0    71.8
 15-24 years..............      66.9    65.4     69.6     67.1    66.8    68.8
 25-34 years..............      70.4    70.0     70.6     71.6    70.7    71.3
 35-44 years..............      61.5    63.9     71.4     63.6    65.3    73.1
 Female sterilization             Percent of ever-married contracepting women
 15-44 years................    13.6    28.9     34.7     12.5    27.2    32.9
 15-24 years..............       4.3    *6.1      8.4      4.1    *5.7     8.2
 25-34 years..............      12.1    24.5     27.6     11.4    22.7    26.2
 35-44 years..............      21.7    44.0     48.5     19.2    42.4    45.9
 Male sterilization3/
 15-44 years................    10.4    13.6     15.0     11.2    14.7    16.8
 15-24 years..............       2.1    *4.1     *2.8      2.3    *4.4    *3.2
 25-34 years..............      10.3    11.5     11.8     11.0    12.6    13.1
 35-44 years..............      15.8    20.2     21.3     17.2    21.8    23.9
 Birth control pill
 15-44 years................    36.6    20.7     21.2     36.1    20.6    21.1
 15-24 years..............      65.3    56.2     61.4     64.4    56.0    59.8
 25-34 years..............      36.2    22.8     28.6     35.8    22.1    28.7
 35-44 years..............      18.3    *3.2      3.8     18.2    *3.2     4.0
 Intrauterine device
 15-44 years................    10.2     7.6      2.2      9.8     7.5     2.1
 15-24 years..............      10.8    *3.5     *0.4     10.7    *3.3    *0.5
 25-34 years..............      13.2     9.6      2.1     12.7     9.4     1.8
 35-44 years..............       5.6     6.8      2.8      5.4     7.0     2.7
 Diaphragm
 15-44 years................     3.4     6.5      6.0      3.6     6.8     6.2
 15-24 years..............      *1.5    *7.0      3.1     *1.6    *7.2    *3.5
 25-34 years..............       3.1     8.5      6.7      3.2     9.1     7.1
 35-44 years..............       5.0    *3.8      5.9      5.3    *3.7     6.0
 Condom
 15-44 years................    12.6    12.1     12.9     13.4    12.6    13.1
 15-24 years..............       7.7    12.7     16.3      8.3    12.9    17.7
 25-34 years..............      12.4    12.4     13.9     13.1    13.0    14.0
 35-44 years..............      16.1    11.4     11.0     17.2    12.0    11.0

                     Black
 Method of
 contraception
 and age                        1973             19821/         19882/
                                Number of ever-married women in thousands
 15-44 years..............      3,109            3,440           3,614
 15-24 years..............        692              427             343
 25-34 years..............      1,226            1,628           1,666
 35-44 years..............      1,191            1,358           1,606
 All methods               Percent of ever-married women using contraception
 15-44 years..............         55.8            60.4            63.9
 15-24 years..............         65.2            53.3            69.0
 25-34 years..............         59.2            67.7            66.1
 35-44 years..............         46.8            54.0            60.5
 Female sterilization           Percent of ever-married contracepting women
 15-44 years................       25.4            42.8            54.5
 15-24 years..............          6.8           *13.0           *11.0
 25-34 years..............         20.3            37.7            46.9
 35-44 years..............         47.2            59.5            73.6
 Male sterilization3/
 15-44 years................       *1.2            *2.2             1.3
 15-24 years..............         *0.1            *0.5            *-
 25-34 years..............         *2.0            *1.7            *1.6
 35-44 years..............         *1.1            *3.6            *1.4
 Birth control pill
 15-44 years................       41.8            23.1            22.7
 15-24 years..............         72.4            56.8            74.9
 25-34 years..............         41.6            28.8            29.3
 35-44 years..............         17.2            *4.3            *2.4
 Intrauterine device
 15-44 years................       13.8            10.0             3.4
 15-24 years..............         12.6            *8.2            *-
 25-34 years..............         18.8            14.1             3.8
 35-44 years..............          8.4            *4.5             3.9
 Diaphragm
 15-44 years................        1.8             4.2             2.3
 15-24 years..............         *0.3            *4.5            *1.3
 25-34 years..............         *2.2             3.1            *1.6
 35-44 years..............         *2.5            *5.7             3.4
 Condom
 15-44 years................        4.1             5.0             7.7
 15-24 years..............         *1.8            *6.3            *7.6
 25-34 years..............          3.8             5.0             9.6
 35-44 years..............          6.4            *4.5             5.7
 1/Estimates have been revised and differ from those previously published.
 2/Preliminary estimates.
 3/Refers only to currently married couples in 1973.
 *Relative standard error greater than 30 percent.
 SOURCE: Division of Vital Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics:
         Data from the National Survey of Family Growth.
3Methods contraception women 15-44 by race/marital status '82,'88
 Table 13. Methods of contraception for women 15-44 years of age, according to
           race and marital status: United States, 1982 and 1988
 (Data are based on household interviews of samples of women in the child-
 bearing ages)
                                   All races         White          Black
 Marital status and
 method of contraception        19821/  19882/  19821/  19882/  19821/  19882/
 Marital status                         Number of women in thousands
 All marital statuses...........54,099  57,900  45,367  47,077   6,985   7,679
 Currently married..............28,231  29,147  25,195  25,426   2,130   2,197
 Widowed, separated, or divorced 6,704   7,695   5,224   6,038   1,310   1,417
 Never married..................19,164  21,058  14,948  15,612   3,545   4,065
 All methods                           Percent of women using contraception
 All marital statuses..............55.7    60.3    56.7    61.8   52.0    56.7
 Currently married.................69.7    74.3    70.4    75.3   63.3    67.0
 Widowed, separated, or divorced...55.5    57.6    56.3    57.4   55.7    59.0
 Never married.....................35.3    41.9    33.6    41.5   43.8    50.4
 Female sterilization                     Percent of contracepting women
 All marital statuses..............23.2    27.5    22.1    26.1   30.0    38.1
 Currently married.................26.9    31.4    25.8    30.2   37.0    48.3
 Widowed, separated, or divorced...39.2    50.7    35.2    47.9   53.5    65.4
 Never married..................... 3.7     6.4    *1.0     2.4   12.8    19.6
 Male sterilization
 All marital statuses..............10.9    11.7    12.2    13.6    1.4     0.9
 Currently married.................15.5    17.3    16.4    19.1    3.4     2.0
 "Widowed, separated, or divorced...3.4     3.6     4.3     4.3   *-      *0.1
 Never married......................1.8     1.8     2.3     2.3   *0.4    *0.3
 Birth control pill
 All marital statuses..............28.0    30.7    26.7    29.8   38.0   38.0
 Currently married.................19.3    20.4    19.0    20.0   24.5   26.0
 Widowed, separated, or divorced...28.4    25.3    30.4    27.4   20.4   16.8
 Never married.....................53.0    59.0    51.6    60.2   58.1   55.3
 Intrauterine device
 All marital statuses...............7.1     2.0     6.9     1.8    9.1    3.1
 Currently married..................6.9     2.0     6.8     1.8    9.3    2.3
 Widowed, separated, or divorced...11.5     3.6    11.8     3.3   11.4    5.4
 Never married..................... 5.4     1.3     4.3    *0.9    7.9    2.7
 Diaphragm
 All marital statuses.............. 8.1     5.7     8.8     6.2    3.5   1.9
 Currently married..................6.5     6.2     6.7     6.4    5.1   2.4
 Widowed, separated, or divorced....6.7     5.3     7.8     5.6   *2.5  *2.1
 Never married.....................13.4     4.9    16.8     6.1    2.6   1.5
 Condom
 All marital statuses..............12.0    14.6    12.7    14.9    6.2  10.3
 Currently married.................14.1    14.3    14.5    14.3    6.8   9.8
 Widowed, separated, or divorced...*1.5     5.9    *1.5     6.3   *1.6   4.1
 Never married.....................11.6    19.6    12.8    21.4    7.9  13.2
 1/Estimates have been revised and differ from those previously published.
 2/Preliminary estimates.
 *Relative standard error greater than 30 percent.
 SOURCE: Division of Vital Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics:
         Data from the National Survey of Family Growth.
2Mortality
3Life expectancy birth/age 65 according to race/sex:U.S. 1900-88
 Table 14. Life expectancy at birth and at 65 years of age, according to race
           and sex: United States, selected years 1900-1988
 (Data are based on the National Vital Statistics System)
                              All races               White
 Specified age          Both                     Both
 and year              sexes    Male   Female   sexes   Male   Female
 At birth                      Remaining life expectancy in years
 19001,2/.........      47.3    46.3    48.3    47.6    46.6    48.7
 19502/...........      68.2    65.6    71.1    69.1    66.5    72.2
 19602/...........      69.7    66.6    73.1    70.6    67.4    74.1
 1970.............      70.9    67.1    74.8    71.7    68.0    75.6
 1975.............      72.6    68.8    76.6    73.4    69.5    77.3
 1980.............      73.7    70.0    77.4    74.4    70.7    78.1
 1981.............      74.2    70.4    77.8    74.8    71.1    78.4
 1982.............      74.5    70.9    78.1    75.1    71.5    78.7
 1983.............      74.6    71.0    78.1    75.2    71.7    78.7
 1984.............      74.7    71.2    78.2    75.3    71.8    78.7
 1985.............      74.7    71.2    78.2    75.3    71.9    78.7
 1986.............      74.8    71.3    78.3    75.4    72.0    78.8
 1987.............      75.0    71.5    78.4    75.6    72.2    78.9
 Provisional data:
   19852/.........      74.7    71.2    78.2    75.3    71.8    78.7
   19862/.........      74.9    71.3    78.3    75.4    72.0    78.9
   19872/.........      74.9    71.5    78.3    75.5    72.1    78.8
   19882/.........      74.9    71.4    78.3    75.5    72.1    78.9
 At 65 years
 1900-19021,2/....      11.9    11.5    12.2     ---    11.5    12.2
 19502/...........      13.9    12.8    15.0     ---    12.8    15.1
 19602/...........      14.3    12.8    15.8    14.4    12.9    15.9
 1970.............      15.2    13.1    17.0    15.2    13.1    17.1
 1975.............      16.1    13.8    18.1    16.1    13.8    18.2
 1980.............      16.4    14.1    18.3    16.5    14.2    18.4
 1981.............      16.7    14.3    18.6    16.7    14.4    18.7
 1982.............      16.8    14.5    18.7    16.9    14.5    18.8
 1983.............      16.7    14.5    18.6    16.8    14.5    18.7
 1984.............      16.8    14.6    18.6    16.9    14.6    18.7
 1985.............      16.7    14.6    18.6    16.8    14.6    18.7
 1986.............      16.8    14.7    18.6    16.9    14.8    18.7
 1987.............      16.9    14.8    18.7    17.0    14.9    18.8
 Provisional data:
   19852/.........      16.8    14.6    18.6    16.8    14.6    18.7
   19862/.........      16.9    14.8    18.6    17.0    14.8    18.8
   19872/.........      16.9    14.8    18.6    17.0    14.9    18.7
   19882/.........      16.9    14.8    18.6    17.0    14.9    18.7
                      Black
 Specified age           Both
 and year                sexes   Male   Female
 At birth       Remaining life expectancy in years
 19001,2/.........    3/33.0  3/32.5  3/33.5
 19502/...........      60.7    58.9    62.7
 19602/...........      63.2    60.7    65.9
 1970.............      64.1    60.0    68.3
 1975.............      66.8    62.4    71.3
 1980.............      68.1    63.8    72.5
 1981.............      68.9    64.5    73.2
 1982.............      69.4    65.1    73.7
 1983.............      69.6    65.4    73.6
 1984.............      69.7    65.6    73.7
 1985.............      69.5    65.3    73.5
 1986.............      69.4    65.2    73.5
 1987.............      69.4    65.2    73.6
 Provisional data:
   19852/.........      69.5    65.3    73.7
   19862/.........      69.6    65.5    73.6
   19872/.........      69.7    65.4    73.8
   19882/.........      69.5    65.1    73.8
 At 65 years
 1900-19021,2/....       ---    10.4    11.4
 19502/...........      13.9    12.9    14.9
 19602/...........      13.9    12.7    15.1
 1970.............      14.2    12.5    15.7
 1975.............      15.0    13.1    16.7
 1980.............      15.1    13.0    16.8
 1981.............      15.5    13.4    17.3
 1982.............      15.7    13.5    17.5
 1983.............      15.5    13.4    17.3
 1984.............      15.5    13.5    17.2
 1985.............      15.3    13.3    17.0
 1986.............      15.4    13.4    17.0
 1987.............      15.4    13.5    17.1
 Provisional data:
   19852/.........      15.5    13.3    17.2
   19862/.........      15.5    13.6    16.9
   19872/.........      15.6    13.6    17.2
   19882/.........      15.5    13.6    17.1

 1/Death registration area only. The death registration area increased from
 10 States and the District of Columbia in 1900 to the coterminous United
 States in 1933.
 2/Includes deaths of nonresidents of the United States.
 3/Figure is for the all other population.
 SOURCES: National Center for Health Statistics: Vital Statistics Rates in the
          United States,  1940-1960, by R. D. Grove and A. M. Hetzel. DHEW
          Pub. No. (PHS) 1677. Public Health Service. Washington. U.S.
          Government Printing Office, 1968; Vital Statistics of the United
          States, 1970, Vol. II, Mortality, Part A. DHEW Pub. No. (HRA)
          75-1101. Health Resources Administration. Washington. U.S.
          Government Printing Office, 1974; Annual summary of births,
          marriages, divorces, and deaths, United States, 1985. Monthly Vital
          Statistics Report. Vol. 34, No. 13. DHHS Pub. No. (PHS) 86-1120.
          Sept. 19, 1986; Annual summary of births, marriages, divorces,
          and deaths, United States, 1986. Monthly Vital Statistics Report.
          Vol. 35, No. 13. DHHS Pub. No. (PHS) 87-1120. Aug. 24, 1987; Annual
          summary of births, marriages, divorces, and deaths, United States,
          1987. Monthly Vital Statistics Report. Vol. 36, No. 13. DHHS
          Pub. No. (PHS) 88-1120. July 29, 1988; Annual summary of births,
          marriages, divorces, and deaths, United States, 1988. Monthly Vital
          Statistics Report. Vol. 37, No. 13. DHHS Pub. No. (PHS) 89-1120.
          July 26, 1989. Public Health Service. Hyattsville, Md.; Unpublished
          data from the Division of Vital Statistics; Data computed by the
          Office of Research and Methodology from data compiled by the
          Division of Vital Statistics.
3Infant/perinatal mortality rate/Fetal death rate:race:U.S.'50-88
 Table 15. Infant mortality rates, fetal death rates, and perinatal
           mortality rates, according to race: United States,
           selected years 1950-88
 (Data are based on the National Vital Statistics System)
                         Infant mortality rate1/
                                Neonatal
                                                               Late
                                                              fetal  Perinatal
                            Under   Under     Post-   death   death  mortality
 Race and year     Total  28 days  7 days  neonatal  rate2/  rate3/     rate4/
 All races                           Deaths per 1,000 live births
 19505/.............29.2   20.5    17.8      8.7     18.4     14.9     32.5
 19605/.............26.0   18.7    16.7      7.3     15.8     12.1     28.6
 1970...............20.0   15.1    13.6      4.9     14.0      9.5     23.0
 1975...............16.1   11.6    10.0      4.5     10.6      7.8     17.7
 1980...............12.6    8.5     7.1      4.1      9.1      6.2     13.2
 1981...............11.9    8.0     6.7      3.9      8.9      5.9     12.6
 1982...............11.5    7.7     6.4      3.8      8.8      5.9     12.3
 1983...............11.2    7.3     6.1      3.9      8.4      5.4     11.5
 1984...............10.8    7.0     5.9      3.8      8.1      5.2     11.0
 1985...............10.6    7.0     5.8      3.7      7.8      4.9     10.7
 1986...............10.4    6.7     5.6      3.6      7.7      4.7     10.3
 1987...............10.1    6.5     5.4      3.6      7.6      4.6     10.0
 Provisional data:
   19855/...........10.6    6.9     ---      3.6      ---      ---     ---
   19865/...........10.4    6.7     ---      3.7      ---      ---     ---
   19875/...........10.0    6.5     ---      3.4      ---      ---     ---
   19885/........... 9.9    6.4     ---      3.5      ---      ---     ---
 White
 19505/.............26.8   19.4    17.1      7.4     16.6     13.3     30.1
 19605/.............22.9   17.2    15.6      5.7     13.9     10.8     26.2
 1970...............17.8   13.8    12.5      4.0     12.3      8.6     21.1
 1975...............14.2   10.4     9.0      3.8      9.4      7.1     16.0
 1980...............11.0    7.5     6.2      3.5      8.1      5.7     11.9
 1981...............10.5    7.1     5.9      3.4      8.0      5.5     11.3
 1982...............10.1    6.8     5.6      3.3      7.9      5.4     11.0
 1983................9.7    6.4     5.4      3.3      7.4      5.0     10.3
 1984................9.4    6.2     5.1      3.3      7.3      4.8      9.9
 1985................9.3    6.1     5.0      3.2      7.0      4.5      9.6
 1986................8.9    5.8     4.8      3.1      6.7      4.3      9.1
 1987................8.6    5.5     4.5      3.1      6.6      4.2      8.7
 Black
 19505/.............43.9   27.8    23.0     16.1     32.1      ---      ---
 19605/.............44.3   27.8    23.7     16.5      ---      ---      ---
 1970...............32.6   22.8    20.3      9.9     23.2      ---      ---
 1975...............26.2   18.3    15.7      7.9     16.8     11.4     26.9
 1980...............21.4   14.1    11.9      7.3     14.4      8.9     20.7
 1981...............20.0   13.4    11.4      6.6     13.8      8.2     19.4
 1982...............19.6   13.1    11.1      6.6     13.8      8.1     19.1
 1983...............19.2   12.4    10.6      6.8     13.5      7.7     18.2
 1984...............18.4   11.8    10.2      6.5     12.7      7.3     17.4
 1985...............18.2   12.1    10.3      6.1     12.6      7.1     17.4
 1986...............18.0   11.7    10.1      6.3     12.5      7.0     17.0
 1987...............17.9   11.7    10.0      6.1     12.8      7.0     16.9
 1/Infant mortality rate is number of deaths of infants under 1 year per
 1,000 live births. Neonatal deaths occur within 28 days of birth;
 postneonatal deaths occur 28-365 days after birth. Deaths within 7 days are
 early neonatal deaths.
 2/Number of deaths of fetuses of 20 weeks or more gestation per 1,000 live
 births plus fetal deaths.
 3/Number of fetal deaths of 28 weeks or more gestation per 1,000 live
 births plus late fetal deaths.
 4/Number of late fetal deaths plus infant deaths within 7 days of birth per
 1,000 live births plus late fetal deaths.
 5/Includes births and deaths of nonresidents of the United States.
 SOURCES: National Center for Health Statistics: Vital Statistics
          of the United States, Vol. II, Mortality, Part A, for
          1950-87. Public Health Service. Washington. U.S. Government
          Printing Office. Annual summary of births, marriages, divorces,
          and deaths, United States, 1985. Monthly Vital Statistics Report.
          Vol. 34, No. 13. DHHS Pub. No. (PHS) 86-1120. Sept. 19, 1986;
          Annual summary of births, marriages, divorces, and deaths, United
          States, 1988. Monthly Vital Statistics Report. Vol. 37, No. 13.
          DHHS Pub. No. (PHS) 89-1120. July 26, 1989. Public Health Service.
          Hyattsville, Md.; Data computed by the Division of Analysis
          from data compiled by the Division of Vital Statistics.
3Infant mortality rates:race,geographic division,state:U.S.'75-87
 Table 16. Infant mortality rates, according to race, geographic division, and
           State: United States, average annual 1975-77, 1980-82, and 1985-87
 (Data are based on the National Vital Statistics System)
                                     All races                 White
 Geographic division
 and State                    1975-77 1980-82 1985-87 1975-77 1980-82 1985-87
                                    Infant deaths per 1,000 live births
 United States...............   15.1    12.0    10.4    13.3    10.5     9.0
 New England.................   12.8    10.4     8.6    12.2     9.9     8.0
    Maine....................   11.2     9.7     8.7    11.3     9.8     8.8
    New Hampshire............   11.6    10.2     8.7    11.7    10.2     8.7
    Vermont..................   11.9     9.2     9.0    12.0     9.3     8.9
    Massachusetts............   12.5    10.1     8.3    12.1     9.7     7.5
    Rhode Island.............   13.7    10.9     8.7    13.0    10.6     8.4
    Connecticut..............   14.4    11.5     9.2    12.7    10.2     7.9
 Middle Atlantic.............   15.3    12.2    10.5    13.2    10.6     8.8
    New York.................   15.5    12.4    10.7    13.2    10.7     9.2
    New Jersey...............   14.7    11.7     9.9    12.4     9.7     8.0
    Pennsylvania.............   15.3    12.2    10.5    13.7    10.9     8.8
 East North Central..........   15.2    12.5    10.8    13.3    10.6     9.0
    Ohio.....................   14.9    12.2    10.1    13.6    10.8     9.0
    Indiana..................   14.5    11.7    10.8    13.5    10.6     9.7
    Illinois.................   17.0    14.1    11.8    13.7    11.2     9.3
    Michigan.................   15.2    12.7    11.2    13.2    10.4     8.9
    Wisconsin................   12.5    10.0     9.0    12.0     9.4     8.3
 West North Central..........   14.0    11.0     9.5    13.1    10.2     8.8
    Minnesota................   12.8     9.9     8.9    12.5     9.6     8.6
    Iowa.....................   13.4    10.7     9.0    13.1    10.4     8.9
    Missouri.................   15.3    12.3    10.4    13.4    11.0     9.1
    North Dakota.............   14.1    11.3     8.6    13.4    10.8     8.3
    South Dakota.............   16.5    10.9    11.0    14.5     9.2     9.1
    Nebraska.................   13.6    10.5     9.4    13.2     9.9     8.8
    Kansas...................   13.8    10.7     9.2    13.1    10.0     8.7
 South Atlantic..............   16.9    13.8    11.8    13.6    10.9     9.2
    Delaware.................   13.6    13.8    12.7    11.7    10.4    10.2
    Maryland.................   16.2    12.8    11.7    13.5    10.3     9.1
    District of Columbia.....   27.2    23.8    20.4   *15.4   *13.9    11.6
    Virginia.................   16.5    13.0    10.9    13.8    11.1     8.8
    West Virginia............   16.6    12.1    10.3    16.2    11.8     9.8
    North Carolina...........   17.3    13.8    11.7    13.9    11.2     9.4
    South Carolina...........   18.8    16.0    13.4    14.2    11.7     9.8
    Georgia..................   16.5    13.6    12.6    13.1    10.2     9.7
    Florida..................   16.1    13.6    10.9    12.8    10.8     8.7
 East South Central..........   17.3    13.6    11.8    14.1    11.0     9.4
    Kentucky.................   14.9    12.3    10.3    14.3    11.7     9.8
    Tennessee................   15.9    12.7    11.4    13.7    10.7     8.9
    Alabama..................   18.7    14.0    12.7    14.3    10.7     9.6
    Mississippi..............   20.6    16.0    13.3    14.1    10.7     9.4
 West South Central..........   16.2    12.0    10.1    14.1    10.6     8.8
    Arkansas.................   16.3    11.6    10.8    13.8     9.4     9.5
    Louisiana................   18.0    13.7    11.9    13.2    10.0     8.4
    Oklahoma.................   15.5    12.3    10.3    14.7    12.0    10.2
    Texas....................   15.7    11.5     9.5    14.2    10.6     8.6
 Mountain....................   13.7    10.5     9.5    13.2    10.2     9.3
    Montana..................   15.2    11.1    10.0    15.2    10.7     9.3
    Idaho....................   12.5    10.0    10.7    12.5    10.1    10.7
    Wyoming..................   15.8    10.1    10.8    15.8    10.0    10.8
    Colorado.................   13.1     9.7     9.3    12.8     9.6     9.0
    New Mexico...............   15.4    10.9     9.4    14.7    10.7     9.2
    Arizona..................   14.5    11.1     9.5    13.4    10.6     9.1
    Utah.....................   11.6    10.4     9.0    11.3    10.4     9.1
    Nevada...................   15.1    10.7     9.1    14.6    10.0     8.8
 Pacific.....................   12.8    10.5     9.3    12.4    10.2     9.0
    Washington...............   14.1    11.0    10.1    13.9    10.7    10.0
    Oregon...................   13.2    11.2     9.9    13.1    11.1     9.9
    California...............   12.6    10.4     9.2    12.0    10.1     8.8
    Alaska...................   15.3    12.0    10.7    13.1    10.0     9.4
    Hawaii...................   11.7     9.6     9.0    11.9    10.0     8.1
                Black
 Geographic division
 and State                            1975-77  1980-82  1985-87
                                Infant deaths per 1,000 live births
 United States..................        25.1    20.3    18.0
 New England....................        23.6    18.7    18.1
    Maine.......................        *       *       *
    New Hampshire...............        *       *       *
    Vermont.....................        *       *       *
    Massachusetts...............        19.9    17.1    17.6
    Rhode Island................       *27.0   *17.7   *13.0
    Connecticut.................        27.4    20.9    19.6
 Middle Atlantic................        25.1    20.0    18.0
    New York....................        24.8    19.3    16.7
    New Jersey..................        24.9    20.2    18.4
    Pennsylvania................        26.1    21.6    20.8
 East North Central.............        26.5    23.5    20.1
    Ohio........................        24.0    21.5    16.5
    Indiana.....................        23.7    21.1    20.1
    Illinois....................        29.8    25.1    21.4
    Michigan....................        25.3    24.5    22.2
    Wisconsin...................        21.1    18.7    17.1
 West North Central.............        25.5    20.2    17.0
    Minnesota...................       *23.9   *21.3    16.5
    Iowa........................       *28.1   *22.5   *14.9
    Missouri....................        25.9    20.0    17.7
    North Dakota................        *       *       *
    South Dakota................        *       *       *
    Nebraska....................       *25.2   *20.2   *18.0
    Kansas......................        24.1    19.7    16.3
 South Atlantic.................        25.2    20.9    18.5
    Delaware....................        20.7    25.4    21.0
    Maryland....................        23.7    19.3    18.1
    District of Columbia........        29.6    25.8    23.5
    Virginia....................        25.9    19.6    18.0
    West Virginia...............       *25.9   *20.0   *21.3
    North Carolina..............        25.4    19.9    17.8
    South Carolina..............        26.2    22.4    19.2
    Georgia.....................        23.0    19.7    18.3
    Florida.....................        25.7    21.9    18.3
 East South Central.............        26.1    20.5    18.3
    Kentucky....................        21.4    19.2    15.3
    Tennessee...................        24.1    19.9    19.5
    Alabama.....................        26.9    20.1    18.7
    Mississippi.................        27.9    21.7    17.8
 West South Central.............        25.1    18.7    16.2
    Arkansas....................        24.1    18.4    15.0
    Louisiana...................        25.6    19.9    17.3
    Oklahoma....................        24.7    19.0    16.6
    Texas.......................        25.1    17.7    15.5
 Mountain.......................        21.1    16.7    15.1
    Montana.....................        *       *       *
    Idaho.......................        *       *       *
    Wyoming.....................        *       *       *
    Colorado....................        20.6    14.2    16.5
    New Mexico..................       *27.9   *16.9   *17.3
    Arizona.....................       *19.7    16.2    14.3
    Utah........................        *       *       *
    Nevada......................       *21.3   *20.6   *15.3
 Pacific........................        20.6    16.4    16.0
    Washington..................        19.2    16.3    13.8
    Oregon......................       *21.0   *16.2   *18.0
    California..................        20.7    16.4    16.2
    Alaska......................        *      *20.5   *13.3
    Hawaii......................       *13.7   *12.4   *15.5
 *Data for States with fewer than 5,000 live births for the 3-year period are
 considered  unreliable.  Data for States with fewer than 1,000 live births
 are considered highly unreliable and are not shown.
 SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics: Data computed by the Division
         of Analysis from data compiled by the Division of Vital Statistics.
3Neonatal mortality rate:race,geographic division,state:U.S'75-87
 Table 17. Neonatal mortality rates, according to race, geographic division,
           and State: United States, average annual 1975-77, 1980-82, and
           1985-87
 (Data are based on the National Vital Statistics System)
                                     All races                White
 Geographic division
 and State                    1975-77 1980-82 1985-87 1975-77 1980-82 1985-87
                                    Neonatal deaths per 1,000 live births
 United States..................10.8     8.1     6.7     9.6     7.1     5.8
 New England.................... 9.6     7.6     6.1     9.2     7.2     5.6
    Maine....................... 7.6     6.3     5.7     7.6     6.4     5.8
    New Hampshire............... 9.0     7.5     5.9     9.0     7.5     5.9
    Vermont..................... 8.7     5.4     6.0     8.7     5.5     6.0
    Massachusetts............... 9.4     7.4     5.8     9.1     7.1     5.3
    Rhode Island................ 9.8     8.6     6.2     9.3     8.5     5.9
    Connecticut.................11.3     8.7     6.9    10.1     7.7     5.8
 Middle Atlantic................11.4     8.6     7.2    10.0     7.6     6.2
    New York....................11.4     8.6     7.3     9.8     7.6     6.5
    New Jersey..................11.0     8.0     6.7     9.5     7.0     5.6
    Pennsylvania................11.7     8.8     7.2    10.5     8.0     6.1
 East North Central.............10.9     8.6     7.1     9.7     7.4     5.9
    Ohio........................10.9     8.4     6.4    10.1     7.5     5.8
    Indiana.....................10.2     7.9     7.1     9.5     7.2     6.3
    Illinois....................12.2     9.7     8.0    10.1     8.0     6.4
    Michigan....................10.8     8.9     7.6     9.5     7.2     5.9
    Wisconsin................... 8.7     6.6     5.5     8.5     6.3     5.0
 West North Central.............10.3     7.1     5.8     9.8     6.7     5.5
    Minnesota................... 9.3     6.2     5.4     9.2     6.1     5.3
    Iowa........................10.3     6.9     5.7    10.2     6.8     5.6
    Missouri....................11.0     8.1     6.5     9.8     7.4     5.8
    North Dakota................10.5     7.2     4.8    10.2     7.1     4.7
    South Dakota................11.6     6.8     5.8    11.0     6.2     5.4
    Nebraska.................... 9.8     6.8     5.9     9.6     6.5     5.5
    Kansas......................10.4     7.3     5.6     9.9     6.8     5.3
 South Atlantic.................12.0     9.5     7.9    10.0     7.5     6.1
    Delaware.................... 9.8    10.1     9.2     8.6     7.5     7.6
    Maryland....................12.3     9.2     8.1    10.3     7.4     6.1
    District of Columbia........21.4    17.8    15.5   *12.3   *10.7     8.4
    Virginia....................12.1     9.4     7.4    10.1     7.9     5.9
    West Virginia...............11.8     8.0     6.9    11.6     7.8     6.6
    North Carolina..............12.4     9.4     7.8    10.5     7.6     6.2
    South Carolina..............13.1    10.8     9.1    10.3     7.9     6.6
    Georgia.....................11.0     8.9     8.5     9.2     6.8     6.7
    Florida.....................11.3     9.2     7.1     9.3     7.5     5.7
 East South Central.............12.2     9.0     7.7    10.2     7.4     6.1
    Kentucky....................10.6     8.0     6.6    10.2     7.6     6.3
    Tennessee...................11.4     8.7     7.4     9.8     7.2     5.7
    Alabama.....................12.9     9.2     8.5    10.4     7.3     6.6
    Mississippi.................14.3    10.6     8.3    10.5     7.2     5.9
 West South Central.............11.5     7.8     6.3    10.1     6.9     5.6
    Arkansas....................11.2     6.8     6.2     9.9     5.8     5.7
    Louisiana...................13.3     9.2     7.7     9.9     6.9     5.7
    Oklahoma....................10.5     7.6     6.2    10.0     7.4     6.1
    Texas.......................11.2     7.6     6.0    10.1     7.0     5.4
 Mountain....................... 9.1     6.6     5.5     9.0     6.6     5.4
    Montana.....................10.4     6.8     5.1    10.7     6.9     4.8
    Idaho....................... 8.1     5.9     6.4     8.1     6.0     6.4
    Wyoming.....................10.5     6.7     6.1    10.6     6.8     6.3
    Colorado.................... 8.5     6.3     5.6     8.3     6.2     5.4
    New Mexico..................10.0     6.6     5.6    10.1     6.8     5.5
    Arizona..................... 9.6     7.1     5.8     9.4     7.2     5.6
    Utah........................ 7.9     6.4     4.9     7.9     6.4     5.0
    Nevada......................10.3     6.5     4.9    10.0     6.1     4.7
 Pacific........................ 8.6     6.6     5.7     8.3     6.5     5.5
    Washington.................. 9.1     6.5     5.6     9.1     6.5     5.6
    Oregon...................... 8.5     6.7     5.2     8.5     6.7     5.2
    California.................. 8.5     6.6     5.7     8.1     6.4     5.5
    Alaska...................... 8.9     7.0     5.6     7.8     6.2     5.2
    Hawaii...................... 8.3     6.7     5.9     7.9     7.2     5.1
                Black
 Geographic division
 and State                           1975-77  1980-82  1985-87
                               Neonatal deaths per 1,000 live births
 United States..................        17.4    13.5    11.8
 New England....................        17.5    13.8    13.3
    Maine.......................        *       *       *
    New Hampshire...............        *       *       *
    Vermont.....................        *       *       *
    Massachusetts...............        14.1    12.2    12.5
    Rhode Island................       *19.5   *10.5   *10.3
    Connecticut.................        21.3    16.3    15.1
 Middle Atlantic................        18.1    13.2    11.8
    New York....................        17.9    12.9    10.9
    New Jersey..................        17.1    12.5    11.8
    Pennsylvania................        19.3    14.8    14.0
 East North Central.............        18.3    15.7    13.4
    Ohio........................        17.2    14.4    10.4
    Indiana.....................        16.9    13.6    13.9
    Illinois....................        20.3    16.3    13.9
    Michigan....................        17.4    17.7    16.1
    Wisconsin...................        13.1    11.2    11.1
 West North Central.............        17.9    12.8    10.3
    Minnesota...................       *15.6   *13.9     9.8
    Iowa........................       *21.4   *13.7    *8.5
    Missouri....................        17.9    12.5    10.7
    North Dakota................        *       *       *
    South Dakota................        *       *       *
    Nebraska....................       *15.9   *12.9   *10.4
    Kansas......................        18.1    13.3    10.0
 South Atlantic.................        17.3    14.3    12.6
    Delaware....................        14.2    18.9    14.7
    Maryland....................        17.7    13.9    13.0
    District of Columbia........        23.3    19.2    17.9
    Virginia....................        19.1    14.6    12.6
    West Virginia...............       *19.6   *13.7   *14.6
    North Carolina..............        17.2    14.0    12.2
    South Carolina..............        17.4    15.2    13.1
    Georgia.....................        14.5    12.5    12.1
    Florida.....................        17.1    14.4    11.7
 East South Central.............        17.6    13.5    12.0
    Kentucky....................        14.7    12.8    10.3
    Tennessee...................        17.2    13.8    13.1
    Alabama.....................        17.7    12.7    12.2
    Mississippi.................        18.5    14.2    11.3
 West South Central.............        17.6    12.0    10.1
    Arkansas....................        15.0    10.0     8.2
    Louisiana...................        18.7    13.2    11.1
    Oklahoma....................        17.2    11.8    10.5
    Texas.......................        17.5    11.6     9.6
 Mountain.......................        15.0    11.0     9.6
    Montana.....................        *       *       *
    Idaho.......................        *       *       *
    Wyoming.....................        *       *       *
    Colorado....................        14.7     9.7    10.1
    New Mexico..................       *19.2   *10.1   *10.6
    Arizona.....................       *14.9    11.4    10.0
    Utah........................        *       *       *
    Nevada......................       *14.2   *12.6    *9.3
 Pacific........................        13.6    10.4     9.8
    Washington..................        11.8     8.8     8.5
    Oregon......................       *13.0   *10.7    *9.1
    California..................        13.7    10.5     9.9
    Alaska......................        *      *13.4    *6.6
    Hawaii......................        *9.1    *6.7    *9.8
 *Data for States with fewer than 5,000 live births for the 3-year period
 are considered unreliable. Data for States with fewer than 1,000 live births
 are considered highly unreliable and are not shown.
 SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics: Data computed by the Division
         of Analysis from data compiled by the Division of Vital Statistics.
3Postneonatal mortality rate:race,geographic div,state:U.S.'75-87
 Table 18. Postneonatal mortality rates, according to race, geographic
           division, and State: United States, average annual 1975-77,
           1980-82, and 1985-87
 (Data are based on the National Vital Statistics System)
                                     All races                 White
 Geographic division
 and State                    1975-77 1980-82 1985-87 1975-77 1980-82 1985-87
                                 Postneonatal deaths per 1,000 live births
 United States..................4.3     4.0     3.6     3.7     3.4     3.2
 New England....................3.2     2.8     2.5     3.0     2.7     2.3
    Maine.......................3.6     3.4     3.0     3.6     3.4     3.0
    New Hampshire...............2.6     2.7     2.8     2.7     2.7     2.8
    Vermont.....................3.3     3.8     3.0     3.2     3.8     2.9
    Massachusetts...............3.1     2.7     2.4     2.9     2.6     2.2
    Rhode Island................3.9     2.3     2.5     3.7     2.1     2.5
    Connecticut.................3.0     2.7     2.3     2.6     2.5     2.0
 Middle Atlantic................3.9     3.6     3.3     3.2     3.0     2.6
    New York....................4.1     3.8     3.4     3.4     3.1     2.7
    New Jersey..................3.8     3.6     3.2     2.8     2.6     2.4
    Pennsylvania................3.6     3.4     3.3     3.1     3.0     2.7
 East North Central.............4.3     3.9     3.7     3.6     3.2     3.1
    Ohio........................3.9     3.8     3.6     3.5     3.3     3.2
    Indiana.....................4.3     3.8     3.6     4.0     3.4     3.3
    Illinois....................4.8     4.4     3.9     3.6     3.2     2.9
    Michigan....................4.4     3.8     3.5     3.7     3.2     3.0
    Wisconsin...................3.8     3.4     3.5     3.5     3.1     3.3
 West North Central.............3.7     3.8     3.7     3.3     3.5     3.3
    Minnesota...................3.5     3.7     3.5     3.4     3.5     3.3
    Iowa........................3.0     3.8     3.4     3.0     3.7     3.3
    Missouri....................4.3     4.1     3.8     3.6     3.6     3.3
    North Dakota................3.5     4.1     3.8     3.2     3.6     3.6
    South Dakota................4.9     4.1     5.2     3.5     3.0     3.7
    Nebraska....................3.8     3.7     3.6     3.5     3.4     3.2
    Kansas......................3.4     3.5     3.7     3.2     3.2     3.4
 South Atlantic.................4.9     4.3     3.8     3.7     3.4     3.0
    Delaware....................3.8     3.7     3.4     3.1     2.9     2.6
    Maryland....................4.0     3.6     3.6     3.2     2.9     3.0
    District of Columbia........5.8     6.0     4.9    *3.2    *3.2    *3.1
    Virginia....................4.4     3.6     3.5     3.7     3.2     2.9
    West Virginia...............4.7     4.1     3.4     4.7     4.0     3.2
    North Carolina..............4.9     4.4     3.9     3.4     3.7     3.2
    South Carolina..............5.8     5.2     4.2     3.8     3.8     3.2
    Georgia.....................5.5     4.8     4.1     3.9     3.4     3.0
    Florida.....................4.8     4.3     3.8     3.5     3.3     3.0
 East South Central.............5.2     4.6     4.1     3.9     3.7     3.3
    Kentucky....................4.3     4.3     3.6     4.1     4.2     3.5
    Tennessee...................4.5     4.1     4.0     3.9     3.5     3.3
    Alabama.....................5.8     4.8     4.2     3.9     3.4     3.0
    Mississippi.................6.3     5.4     4.9     3.6     3.4     3.5
 West South Central.............4.7     4.2     3.8     4.0     3.7     3.3
    Arkansas....................5.2     4.8     4.5     3.8     3.6     3.8
    Louisiana...................4.7     4.5     4.1     3.3     3.2     2.8
    Oklahoma....................5.0     4.7     4.1     4.6     4.6     4.0
    Texas.......................4.6     3.9     3.5     4.1     3.6     3.2
 ::
 Mountain.......................4.6     3.9     4.0     4.2     3.7     3.8
    Montana.....................4.8     4.2     4.9     4.5     3.8     4.4
    Idaho.......................4.4     4.0     4.3     4.4     4.1     4.3
    Wyoming.....................5.3     3.3     4.7     5.2     3.2     4.5
    Colorado....................4.5     3.4     3.7     4.5     3.5     3.6
    New Mexico..................5.4     4.3     3.8     4.6     3.9     3.7
    Arizona.....................5.0     4.0     3.7     4.0     3.4     3.5
    Utah........................3.6     4.0     4.1     3.4     4.0     4.1
    Nevada......................4.8     4.2     4.1     4.6     3.9     4.1
 Pacific........................4.3     3.9     3.7     4.1     3.8     3.5
    Washington..................4.9     4.5     4.5     4.7     4.3     4.5
    Oregon......................4.7     4.5     4.7     4.6     4.5     4.7
    California..................4.1     3.7     3.5     3.9     3.6     3.3
    Alaska......................6.4     5.0     5.1     5.3     3.8     4.2
    Hawaii......................3.4     2.9     3.2     4.0     2.8     3.1
                  Black
 Geographic division
 and State                           1975-77  1980-82  1985-87
                           Postneonatal deaths per 1,000 live births
 United States..................        7.7     6.8     6.2
 New England....................        6.0     4.9     4.7
    Maine.......................        *       *       *
    New Hampshire...............        *       *       *
    Vermont.....................        *       *       *
    Massachusetts...............        5.8     5.0     5.1
    Rhode Island................        *      *7.1    *2.7
    Connecticut.................        6.1     4.6     4.5
 Middle Atlantic................        7.0     6.8     6.2
    New York....................        6.9     6.4     5.8
    New Jersey..................        7.8     7.7     6.6
    Pennsylvania................        6.8     6.9     6.9
 East North Central.............        8.2     7.8     6.7
    Ohio........................        6.8     7.0     6.2
    Indiana.....................        6.8     7.5     6.2
    Illinois....................        9.5     8.8     7.6
    Michigan....................        7.8     6.8     6.1
    Wisconsin...................        8.0     7.5     5.9
 West North Central.............        7.7     7.3     6.8
    Minnesota...................       *8.2    *7.5    *6.7
    Iowa........................       *6.7    *8.8    *6.4
    Missouri....................        8.0     7.5     6.9
    North Dakota................        *       *       *
    South Dakota................        *       *       *
    Nebraska....................       *9.2    *7.3    *7.7
    Kansas......................       *6.0     6.4     6.3
 South Atlantic.................        7.9     6.6     5.9
    Delaware....................       *6.5    *6.5    *6.3
    Maryland....................        6.1     5.4     5.1
    District of Columbia........        6.3     6.6     5.6
    Virginia....................        6.8     5.0     5.4
    West Virginia...............       *6.3    *6.3    *6.7
    North Carolina..............        8.2     5.9     5.7
    South Carolina..............        8.8     7.2     6.1
    Georgia.....................        8.5     7.2     6.2
    Florida.....................        8.6     7.5     6.5
 East South Central.............        8.5     7.1     6.4
    Kentucky....................        6.7     6.4     5.0
    Tennessee...................        6.9     6.1     6.4
    Alabama.....................        9.2     7.4     6.5
    Mississippi.................        9.3     7.6     6.5
 West South Central.............        7.5     6.6     6.1
    Arkansas....................        9.1     8.4     6.9
    Louisiana...................        6.9     6.7     6.2
    Oklahoma....................        7.5     7.2     6.2
    Texas.......................        7.5     6.2     5.8
 Mountain.......................        6.1     5.7     5.5
    Montana.....................        *       *       *
    Idaho.......................        *       *       *
    Wyoming.....................        *       *       *
    Colorado....................       *5.9    *4.4    *6.4
    New Mexico..................        *      *6.7    *6.7
    Arizona.....................       *4.8    *4.8    *4.3
    Utah........................        *       *       *
    Nevada......................       *7.1    *8.0    *6.0
 Pacific........................        6.9     6.0     6.3
    Washington..................       *7.4    *7.4     5.4
    Oregon......................       *8.0    *5.5    *8.8
    California..................        6.9     5.9     6.3
    Alaska......................        *       *       *
    Hawaii......................        *       *      *5.7
 *Data for States with fewer than 10,000 live births for the 3-year period are
 considered unreliable. Data for States with fewer than 2,000 live births are
 considered highly unreliable and are not shown.
 SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics: Data computed by the Division
         of Analysis from data compiled by the Division of Vital Statistics.
3Fetal death rate by race,geographic division,state:U.S. 1975-87
 Table 19. Fetal death rates, according to race, geographic division, and
           State: United States, average annual 1975-77, 1980-82, and 1985-87
 (Data are based on the National Vital Statistics System)
                                     All races                White
 Geographic division
 and State                    1975-77 1980-82 1985-87 1975-77 1980-82 1985-87
                        Fetal deaths1/ per 1,000 live births plus fetal deaths
 United States..................10.3    9.0     7.7     9.1     8.0     6.8
 New England.................... 8.7    7.3     6.4     8.4     7.1     6.0
    Maine....................... 6.1    7.0     5.9     6.2     7.0     5.9
    New Hampshire............... 7.3    6.4     5.8     7.2     6.4     5.8
    Vermont..................... 7.7    7.1     6.2     7.8     7.0     6.2
    Massachusetts............... 9.0    7.0     6.3     8.7     6.7     5.9
    Rhode Island................12.7    9.9     7.3    12.4     9.6     6.8
    Connecticut................. 8.6    7.8     6.7     8.2     7.4     6.0
 Middle Atlantic................11.0    10.3    9.0    10.0     9.4     8.0
    New York....................11.0    11.3    9.6    10.2    10.3     8.5
    New Jersey.................. 9.9     8.3    8.0     8.9     7.3     6.9
    Pennsylvania................11.6    10.1    8.8    10.4     9.2     8.0
 East North Central............. 9.7    8.2     7.0     8.7     7.4     6.2
    Ohio........................ 9.4    8.3     7.4     8.7     7.7     6.7
    Indiana..................... 9.8    8.3     7.6     9.2     7.8     6.8
    Illinois....................10.7    9.1     7.7     9.3     7.7     6.4
    Michigan.................... 9.4    7.2     5.7     8.5     6.7     5.2
    Wisconsin................... 7.8    7.3     6.3     7.5     7.0     5.7
 West North Central............. 9.0    7.7     6.4     8.5     7.3     6.1
    Minnesota................... 8.3    6.6     6.2     8.2     6.5     6.1
    Iowa........................ 8.2    7.2     6.1     8.0     7.1     6.0
    Missouri.................... 9.6    8.8     6.6     8.7     7.8     5.9
    North Dakota................ 9.3    7.7     6.1     9.2     7.4     5.9
    South Dakota................ 9.8    7.7     6.3     9.2     6.8     6.0
    Nebraska.................... 8.5     8.3    7.3     8.1     7.9     7.0
    Kansas...................... 9.5     8.0    6.5     9.1     7.5     6.0
 South Atlantic.................12.1    11.1    9.4     9.9     9.2     7.5
    Delaware....................10.7     8.8    7.4     9.7     7.7     5.8
    Maryland....................10.1     8.8    8.2     8.4     7.0     6.6
    District of Columbia........15.7    13.2   12.2    *8.6    *9.7     6.8
    Virginia....................13.5    12.5   10.1    11.1    10.8     8.6
    West Virginia...............11.0     9.3    7.9    10.6     9.2     7.8
    North Carolina..............12.1    10.1    8.5     9.9     8.3     7.2
    South Carolina..............13.7    12.4   10.3    10.3     9.0     7.6
    Georgia.....................13.6    14.2   11.7    11.1    11.6     9.3
    Florida.....................10.6     9.9    8.4     8.8     8.5     6.7
 East South Central.............12.5    10.5    9.1    10.1     8.6     7.3
    Kentucky....................10.4     9.4    8.1     9.7     9.0     7.6
    Tennessee...................11.5     8.8    7.0    10.2     7.7     6.1
    Alabama.....................12.6    11.3    10.6    9.7     8.9     8.2
    Mississippi.................16.7    13.5    11.3   11.4     9.4     7.5
 West South Central.............10.2    8.4     7.4     9.1     7.6     6.6
    Arkansas....................11.3    8.7     7.9     9.3     7.3     6.8
    Louisiana...................11.1    9.8     8.4     8.3     7.7     6.4
    Oklahoma.................... 9.5    8.6     7.7     8.7     8.0     7.3
    Texas....................... 9.9    7.9     7.0     9.3     7.5     6.6
 Mountain....................... 9.4    8.0     6.9     9.1     7.8     6.7
    Montana..................... 9.0    6.5     7.3     8.7     6.3     7.0
    Idaho....................... 8.1    7.4     6.7     7.9     7.5     6.6
    Wyoming.....................10.0    8.3     6.9    10.0     8.5     6.8
    Colorado....................12.2    9.8     8.3    12.1     9.6     8.1
    New Mexico.................. 9.1    7.7     4.9     8.6     7.3     4.9
    Arizona..................... 8.6    7.8     6.5     8.2     7.3     6.2
    Utah........................ 8.0    7.1     6.7     8.0     7.0     6.7
    Nevada...................... 8.1    8.0     7.2     7.5     7.6     6.8
 Pacific........................ 8.8    7.7     6.7     8.3     7.3     6.3
    Washington.................. 8.0    7.4     5.9     7.9     7.3     5.8
    Oregon...................... 8.4    6.8     6.2     8.3     6.8     6.3
    California.................. 8.8    7.7     6.7     8.2     7.4     6.3
    Alaska...................... 8.2    7.4     6.7     7.8     6.8     6.1
    Hawaii......................12.7    11.4    8.5    14.6    14.0     8.9
                Black
 Geographic division
 and State                            1975-77 1980-82 1985-87
                  Fetal deaths1/ per 1,000 live births plus fetal deaths
 United States..................        16.1    14.0    12.6
 New England....................        13.5    11.5    11.1
    Maine.......................        *       *       *
    New Hampshire...............        *       *       *
    Vermont.....................        *       *       *
    Massachusetts...............        13.8    11.7    10.9
    Rhode Island................       *19.1   *14.1   *13.1
    Connecticut.................        12.4    11.0    11.3
 Middle Atlantic................        15.7    14.6    13.8
    New York....................        14.6    14.9    14.1
    New Jersey..................        14.3    12.5    12.7
    Pennsylvania................        19.8    15.9    13.9
 East North Central.............        14.9    12.6    11.0
    Ohio........................        14.0    12.0    11.1
    Indiana.....................        15.6    12.3    13.1
    Illinois....................        16.0    14.1    12.0
    Michigan....................        13.9    10.4     8.2
    Wisconsin...................        13.2    13.2    12.6
 West North Central.............        14.8    13.8    10.8
    Minnesota...................       *14.0   *10.4     9.9
    Iowa........................       *15.9   *10.8    *9.4
    Missouri....................        14.6    14.6    10.6
    North Dakota................        *       *       *
    South Dakota................        *       *       *
    Nebraska....................       *17.2   *14.2   *12.9
    Kansas......................        15.0    13.2    12.2
 South Atlantic.................        17.5    15.8    14.1
    Delaware....................        13.8    12.5    12.7
    Maryland....................        14.9    13.1    12.2
    District of Columbia........        17.0    13.9    14.0
    Virginia....................        21.7    18.0    15.6
    West Virginia...............       *20.6   *13.5   *11.2
    North Carolina..............        17.0    14.2    11.9
    South Carolina..............        18.9    17.5    14.6
    Georgia.....................        18.0    18.8    16.2
    Florida.....................        15.7    14.1    13.7
 East South Central.............        19.1    15.6    13.8
    Kentucky....................        17.4    13.3    13.6
    Tennessee...................        16.3    12.8     9.7
    Alabama.....................        18.1    15.7    15.2
    Mississippi.................        22.3    18.0    15.7
 West South Central.............        14.8    12.2    10.9
    Arkansas....................        17.6    12.9    11.2
    Louisiana...................        15.4    13.6    11.7
    Oklahoma....................        15.4    14.3    11.8
    Texas.......................        13.5    10.6    10.2
 Mountain.......................        15.7    13.2    10.7
    Montana.....................        *       *       *
    Idaho.......................        *       *       *
    Wyoming.....................        *       *       *
    Colorado....................        17.9    15.0    11.5
    New Mexico..................       *15.4   *15.6    *6.2
    Arizona.....................       *14.4    12.7    11.0
    Utah........................        *       *       *
    Nevada......................       *12.4   *12.0    10.4
 Pacific........................        13.8    11.6    11.5
    Washington..................        13.5    12.4     9.4
    Oregon......................       *11.6    *9.2    *7.1
    California..................        13.9    11.5    11.8
    Alaska......................        *      *11.2    *7.1
    Hawaii......................       *15.2   *15.3   *11.6
 1/Deaths of fetuses of 20 weeks or more gestation.
 *Data for States with fewer than 5,000 live births for the 3-year period are
 considered unreliable. Data for States with fewer than 1,000 live births are
 considered highly unreliable and are not shown.
 SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics: Data computed by the Division
         of Analysis from data compiled by the Division of Vital Statistics.
3Infant mortality,perinatal mort. ratios,ann.% change:cntry'81,87
 Table 20. Infant mortality rates, perinatal mortality ratios, and average
           annual percent change: Selected countries, 1981 and 1986
 (Data are based on reporting by countries)
                           Infant mortality rate   Perinatal mortality ratio
                                             Average                   Average
                                             annual                    annual
 Country                      19811/ 19863/  percent    19811/  19863/ pecent
                                             change                    change
                               Infant deaths per          Perinatal deaths per
                               1,000 live births          1,000 live births
 Japan........................7.1     5.2     -6.0      10.8     7.3    -7.5
 Finland......................6.5     5.9     -1.9       7.9     6.4    -4.1
 Sweden.......................6.9     5.9     -3.1       7.7     7.5    -0.5
 Switzerland................. 7.6     6.8     -2.2       9.2     7.7    -3.5
 Hong Kong....................9.4     7.7     -3.9      10.9     8.3    -5.3
 Netherlands..................8.3     7.8     -1.2      10.8     9.8    -1.9
 Canada.......................9.6     7.9     -3.8      10.8     8.5    -4.7
 Norway.......................7.5     8.0      1.3       9.6     8.4    -2.6
 France.......................9.7     8.0     -3.8      12.4    10.5    -3.3
 Denmark......................7.9     8.2      0.7       9.1     8.4    -1.6
 Federal Republic of Germany.11.6     8.5     -6.0      10.6     7.6    -6.4
 Spain.......................12.1     8.5     -6.8      14.6    11.9    -9.7
 Ireland.....................10.3     8.7     -3.3      13.6    12.4    -2.3
 Australia...................10.0     8.9     -2.3      12.6    10.9    -2.9
 Scotland....................11.3     8.9     -4.7      11.7    10.2    -2.7
 German Democratic Republic..12.3     9.2     -5.6      13.7     9.9    -7.8
 Singapore...................10.7     9.3     -2.8      12.7    10.3    -4.1
 England and Wales...........11.0     9.6     -2.7      11.9     9.6    -4.2
 Italy.......................14.1     9.8     -7.0      16.8    13.5    -5.3
 Northern Ireland............13.2    10.2     -5.0      15.5     9.5    -9.3
 Austria.....................12.7    10.3     -4.1      12.0     9.2    -5.2
 United States...............11.9    10.4     -2.7      12.6    10.4    -3.8
 New Zealand.................11.8    11.4     -0.7      10.9     8.7    -4.4
 Israel......................15.6    11.4     -6.1      14.4    12.1    -5.6
 Greece......................16.3    12.3     -5.5      18.6    14.9    -5.4
 Czechoslovakia..............16.9    13.4     -4.5      16.4    12.4    -5.4
 Cuba........................18.5    13.6     -6.0      22.7    19.1    -3.4
 Trinidad and Tobago.........15.9    13.7     -3.7      13.0     ---     ---
 Puerto Rico.................18.5    13.7     -5.8      23.6    18.4    -4.9
 Bulgaria....................18.9    14.7     -4.9      13.4    11.9    -2.3
 Kuwait......................24.1    15.7     -8.2      19.9    18.7    -1.2
 Portugal....................21.8    15.9     -6.1      23.0    18.4    -4.4
 Belgium.....................11.5    16.1      7.0      13.3    11.3    -5.3
 Poland......................20.6    17.5     -3.2      17.7    15.8    -2.2
 Costa Rica..................19.1    17.8     -1.4       ---     ---     ---
 Hungary.....................20.8    19.1     -1.7      21.2    18.3    -2.9
 Chile.......................27.0    19.1     -6.7      17.8    14.1    -4.6
 U.S.S.R.....................25.1    25.1      0.0       ---     ---     ---
 Romania.....................28.6    25.6     -2.7      14.7    12.5    -4.0
 1/Data for the U.S.S.R. are for 1983.
 2/Data for Trinidad and Tobago are provisional for 1985; data for Romania are
 for 1985. Data for Spain are provisional.
 3/Data for the German Democratic Republic, Greece, Ireland, Italy, and
 Romania are for 1985; data for Belgium and Israel are for 1984; and data for
 Spain are for 1983.
 NOTE: Rankings are from lowest to highest infant mortality rates based on the
       latest data available for countries or geographic areas with at least
       1 million population and with complete counts of live births and
       infant deaths as indicated in the United Nations Demographic
 SOURCES: World Health Organization: World Health Statistics
          Annuals. Vols. 1983-1988. Geneva. United Nations: Demographic
          Yearbook 1982 and 1986; Population and Vital Statistics Report.
          April 1, 1989. New York
3Life  expectancy at birth/age 65 according to sex:countries'81,8
 Table 21. Life expectancy at birth and at 65 years of age, according to
           sex: Selected countries, 1981 and 1986
 (Data are based on reporting by countries)
     At birthAt 65 years
 19811/19862/19811/19862/
 Male                                     Life expectancy in years
 Japan...............................   73.8    75.5    14.9    16.1
 Greece..............................   73.5    74.1    15.4    15.4
 Sweden..............................   73.1    74.0    14.4    14.9
 Hong Kong...........................   73.4    73.8    15.8    14.9
 Switzerland.........................   72.5    73.8    14.4    15.1
 Israel..............................   72.8    73.4    14.7    14.9
 Spain...............................   72.6    73.2    14.8    15.2
 Netherlands.........................   72.8    73.1    14.1    14.1
 Canada..............................   71.9    73.1    14.7    15.0
 Australia...........................   71.4    73.0    14.0    14.9
 Norway..............................   72.7    72.9    14.3    14.5
 Cuba................................   72.2    72.7    15.8    15.8
 England and Wales...................   71.2    72.6    13.1    13.9
 Costa Rica..........................   71.0    72.0    14.8    14.2
 Denmark.............................   71.4    71.9    13.7    14.1
 Federal Republic of Germany.........   70.2    71.9    13.1    13.8
 Kuwait..............................   69.0    71.9    12.5    13.9
 France..............................   70.9    71.8    14.3    14.7
 Italy...............................   71.1    71.3    14.0    13.7
 United States.......................   70.4    71.3    14.3    14.7
 New Zealand.........................   70.5    71.1    13.5    13.9
 Northern Ireland....................   68.4    71.1    11.9    13.0
 Austria.............................   69.3    71.0    13.0    14.0
 Singapore...........................   69.1    71.0    12.6    13.4
 Belgium.............................   70.0    70.9    13.0    13.6
 Ireland.............................   70.1    70.8    12.5    12.4
 Finland.............................   69.6    70.6    13.0    13.5
 Puerto Rico.......................     70.8    70.2    16.1    15.0
 Portugal...........................    68.2    70.2    13.2    14.1
 Trinidad and Tobago...............      ---    70.2     ---    15.0
 Scotland............................   69.1    70.1    12.2    12.6
 German Democratic Republic........     69.0    69.5    12.3    12.4
 Chile.............................     67.8    68.9    13.3    13.3
 Bulgaria............................   68.9    68.6    13.0    12.7
 Czechoslovakia......................   67.0    67.3    11.7    11.7
 Romania.............................   66.8    67.1    12.9    12.8
 Poland..............................   67.1    66.7    12.7    12.3
 Hungary.............................   65.5    65.3    11.6    11.9
 U.S.S.R...........................      ---    64.2     ---    12.3
 Female
 Japan................................  79.1    81.6    17.9    20.0
 Switzerland.........................   79.4    80.6    18.5    19.4
 Sweden...............................  79.3    80.2    18.2    19.0
 France..............................   79.1    80.0    18.7    19.2
 Norway..............................   79.5    79.9    18.4    19.0
 Canada..............................   79.3    79.9    19.3    19.3
 Netherlands.........................   79.6    79.8    18.8    18.9
 Spain...............................   78.8    79.8    18.1    18.7
 Australia...........................   78.7    79.6    18.4    18.9
 Hong Kong...........................   79.4    79.2    19.4    18.2
 Finland.............................   78.2    78.9    17.1    17.7
 Greece..............................   78.0    78.9    17.5    17.7
 Italy...............................   77.8    78.9    17.3    17.7
 Federal Republic of Germany.........   76.9    78.5    16.9    17.7
 United States.......................   77.8    78.3    18.6    18.6
 England and Wales...................   77.2    78.3    17.2    17.9
 Denmark.............................   77.6    77.8    17.9    18.1
 Austria.............................   76.4    77.8    16.4    17.3
 Belgium.............................   76.8    77.7    16.9    17.8
 New Zealand.........................   77.0    77.5    17.5    17.8
 Puerto Rico.........................   77.7    77.2    19.7    17.3
 Northern Ireland....................   75.0    77.2    15.7    16.9
 Trinidad and Tobago.................    ---    77.2     ---    17.3
 Portugal............................   75.2    77.1    16.2    17.3
 Israel..............................   76.0    77.0    16.1    16.4
 Costa Rica..........................   76.0    76.6    16.6    17.1
 Ireland.............................   75.8    76.4    15.8    16.0
 Singapore...........................   74.5    76.4    15.5    16.5
 Scotland............................   75.3    76.3    16.0    16.4
 Cuba................................   75.9    76.1    17.9    17.4
 German Democratic Republic..........   74.8    75.4    15.1    15.3
 Chile...............................   74.7    75.4    16.8    16.5
 Poland..............................   75.4    75.1    16.4    15.9
 Kuwait..............................   73.8    74.9    15.2    15.4
 Czechoslovakia......................   74.5    74.8    15.0    15.0
 Bulgaria............................   74.4    74.7    15.1    14.9
 Hungary.............................   73.0    73.3    14.8    15.1
 U.S.S.R.............................    ---    73.3     ---    15.8
 Romania.............................   72.4    72.7    14.7    14.7
 1/Data for Belgium are for 1979-1982; data for Costa Rica and Northern
 Ireland are for 1980; data for Chile and Kuwait are for 1982; and data for
 Switzerland are for 1981-1982.
 2/Data for Chile, the German Democratic Republic, Hong Kong, Italy, and
 Puerto Rico are for 1985; data for England and Wales and Northern Ireland
 are for 1987; data for Romania and Spain are for 1984; data for the
 U.S.S.R. are for 1985-1986; and data for Trinidad and Tobago are for 1983.
 NOTES: Rankings are from highest to lowest life expectancy based on the
        latest available data for countries or geographic areas with at
        least 1 million population. This table is based on official
        mortality data from the country concerned, as submitted to the
        United Nations Demographic Yearbook or the World Health
        Statistics Annual.
 SOURCES: World Health Organization: World Health Statistics Annuals. Vols.
          1982-1985, 1987, and 1988. Geneva. United Nations: Demographic
          Yearbook 1985-1987. New York. National Center for Health
          Statistics: Vital Statistics of the United States, 1981, Vol. II,
          Mortality, Part A. DHHS Pub. No. (PHS) 86-11-1. Public Health
          Service. Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1986;
          Vital Statistics of the United States, 1986, Vol. II, Mortality,
          Part A. DHHS Pub. No. (PHS) 88-1122. Public Health Service.
          Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1988.
3Death rates all causes death by sex/race:U.S.select years '50-87
 Table 22. Death rates for all causes, according to sex, race, and age:
           United States, selected years 1950-87
 (Data are based on the National Vital Statistics System)
       Sex, race, and age            19501/     19601/     1970      1980
            All races              Deaths per 100,000 resident population
       All ages, age adjusted....     840.5     760.9      714.3     585.8
       All ages, crude...........     963.8     954.7      945.3     878.3
 Under 1 year....................   3,299.2   2,696.4    2,142.4   1,288.3
 1-4 years.......................     139.4     109.1       84.5      63.9
 5-14 years......................      60.1      46.6       41.3      30.6
 15-24 years.....................     128.1     106.3      127.7     115.4
 25-34 years.....................     178.7     146.4      157.4     135.5
 35-44 years.....................     358.7     299.4      314.5     227.9
 45-54 years.....................     853.9     756.0      730.0     584.0
 55-64 years.....................   1,911.7   1,735.1    1,658.8   1,346.3
 65-74 years.....................   4,067.7   3,822.1    3,582.7   2,994.9
 75-84 years.....................   9,331.1   8,745.2    8,004.4   6,692.6
 85 years and over...............  20,196.9  19,857.5   16,344.9  15,980.3
 White male
     All ages, age adjusted......     963.1     917.7      893.4     745.3
     All ages, crude.............   1,089.5   1,098.5    1,086.7     983.3
 Under 1 year....................   3,400.5   2,694.1    2,113.2   1,230.3
 1-4 years.......................     135.5     104.9       83.6      66.1
 5-14 years......................      67.2      52.7       48.0      35.0
 15-24 years.....................     152.4     143.7      170.8     167.0
 25-34 years.....................     185.3     163.2      176.6     171.3
 35-44 years.....................     380.9     332.6      343.5     257.4
 45-54 years.....................     984.5     932.2      882.9     698.9
 55-64 years.....................   2,304.4   2,225.2    2,202.6   1,728.5
 65-74 years.....................   4,864.9   4,848.4    4,810.1   4,035.7
 75-84 years.....................  10,526.3  10,299.6   10,098.8   8,829.8
 85 years and over...............  22,116.3  21,750.0   18,551.7  19,097.3
 Black male
     All ages, age adjusted......   1,373.1   1,246.1    1,318.6   1,112.8
     All ages, crude.............   1,260.3   1,181.7    1,186.6   1,034.1
 Under 1 year....................     ---     5,306.8    4,298.9   2,586.7
 1-4 years.......................     ---       208.5      150.5     110.5
 5-14 years......................     95.1       75.1       67.1      47.4
 15-24 years.....................    289.7      212.0      320.6     209.1
 25-34 years.....................    503.5      402.5      559.5     407.3
 35-44 years.....................    878.1      762.0      956.6     689.8
 45-54 years.....................  1,905.0    1,624.8    1,777.5   1,479.9
 55-64 years.....................  3,773.2    3,316.4    3,256.9   2,873.0
 65-74 years.....................  5,310.3    5,798.7    5,803.2   5,131.1
 75-84 years.....................    ---      8,605.1    9,454.9   9,231.6
 85 years and over...............    ---     14,844.8   12,222.3  16,098.8
 ::
 White female
     All ages, age adjusted......    645.0     555.0      501.7     411.1
     All ages, crude.............    803.3     800.9      812.6     806.1
 Under 1 year....................  2,566.8   2,007.7    1,614.6     962.5
 1-4 years.......................    112.2      85.2       66.1      49.3
 5-14 years......................     45.1      34.7       29.9      22.9
 15-24 years.....................     71.5      54.9       61.6      55.5
 25-34 years.....................    112.8      85.0       84.1      65.4
 35-44 years.....................    235.8     191.1      193.3     138.2
 45-54 years.....................    546.4     458.8      462.9     372.7
 55-64 years.....................  1,293.8   1,078.9    1,014.9     876.2
 65-74 years.....................  3,242.8   2,779.3    2,470.7   2,066.6
 75-84 years.....................  8,481.5   7,696.6    6,698.7   5,401.7
 85 years and over............... 19,679.5  19,477.7   15,980.2  14,979.6
 Black female
     All ages, age adjusted......  1,106.7     916.9      814.4     631.1
     All ages, crude.............  1,002.0     905.0      829.2     733.3
 Under 1 year....................    ---     4,162.2    3,368.8   2,123.7
 1-4 years.......................    ---       173.3      129.4      84.4
 5-14 years......................    72.8       53.8       43.8      30.5
 15-24 years.....................   213.1      107.5      111.9      70.5
 25-34 years.....................   393.3      273.2      231.0     150.0
 35-44 years.....................   758.1      568.5      533.0     323.9
 45-54 years..................... 1,576.4    1,177.0    1,043.9     768.2
 55-64 years..................... 3,089.4    2,510.9    1,986.2   1,561.0
 65-74 years..................... 4,000.2    4,064.2    3,860.9   3,057.4
 75-84 years.....................    ---     6,730.0    6,691.5   6,212.1
 85 years and over...............    ---    13,052.6   10,706.6  12,367.2
        Sex, race, and age           1981       1982       1983     1984
             All races             Deaths per 100,000 resident population
       All ages, age adjusted....   568.2      553.8      550.5     545.9
       All ages, crude...........   862.4      852.0      862.8     862.3
 Under 1 year.................... 1,207.3   1,164.2    1,107.3   1,085.6
 1-4 years.......................    60.2      57.6       55.9      51.9
 5-14 years......................    29.4      28.3       26.9      26.7
 15-24 years.....................   107.1     101.0       96.0      96.8
 25-34 years.....................   132.1     125.2      121.4     121.1
 35-44 years.....................   221.3     207.4      201.9     204.8
 45-54 years.....................   573.5     549.7      535.7     521.1
 55-64 years..................... 1,322.1   1,297.9    1,299.5   1,287.8
 65-74 years..................... 2,922.3   2,885.2    2,874.3   2,848.1
 75-84 years..................... 6,429.9   6,329.8    6,441.5   6,399.3
 85 years and over...............15,379.7  15,048.3   15,168.0  15,223.6
 White male
     All ages, age adjusted......   724.4     706.0      698.4     689.9
     All ages, crude.............   965.1     951.8      957.4     951.1
 Under 1 year.................... 1,182.0   1,135.5    1,052.9   1,038.4
 1-4 years.......................    60.5      58.2       57.3      51.8
 5-14 years......................    34.2      32.5       31.1      30.5
 15-24 years.....................   154.5     145.6      137.0     138.8
 25-34 years.....................   167.3     158.7      154.8     154.3
 35-44 years.....................   252.4     238.6      232.9     235.1
 45-54 years.....................   686.5     659.9      636.5     617.9
 55-64 years..................... 1,692.0   1,654.6    1,642.9   1,625.5
 65-74 years..................... 3,926.9   3,859.8    3,816.1   3,745.3
 75-84 years..................... 8,565.2   8,444.7    8,556.9   8,459.1
 85 years and over...............18,454.0  18,123.1   18,443.3  18,552.7
 Black male
     All ages, age adjusted...... 1,067.7   1,035.0    1,019.6   1,011.7
     All ages, crude.............   991.6     960.4      963.3     958.1
 Under 1 year.................... 2,164.8   2,168.9    2,243.4   2,136.6
 1-4 years.......................   105.3      93.4       96.8      85.2
 5-14 years......................    45.2      44.4       40.9      42.4
 15-24 years.....................   186.7     175.4      165.0     163.9
 25-34 years.....................   387.1     360.3      335.8     335.6
 35-44 years.....................   667.9     606.7      586.5     616.0
 45-54 years..................... 1,432.5   1,352.1    1,287.3   1,273.5
 55-64 years..................... 2,804.1   2,758.1    2,713.1   2,658.3
 65-74 years..................... 5,046.3   5,040.1    4,949.3   4,874.5
 75-84 years..................... 8,635.1   8,477.2    9,100.0   9,023.1
 85 years and over...............15,396.4  15,117.9   14,155.6  14,642.9
 ::
 White female
     All ages, age adjusted......   401.4     393.3      392.7     391.3
     All ages, crude.............   799.6     797.9      815.3     822.3
 Under 1 year....................   935.4     895.2      837.6     818.5
 1-4 years.......................    47.7      47.0       43.9      41.6
 5-14 years......................    21.6      21.2       19.7      20.0
 15-24 years.....................    53.2      49.5       48.3      49.6
 25-34 years.....................    64.7      61.3       60.1      59.5
 35-44 years.....................   133.6     127.7      123.4     123.9
 45-54 years.....................   370.9     355.1      351.0     341.9
 55-64 years.....................   869.4     859.8      867.8     864.9
 65-74 years..................... 2,032.8   2,022.9    2,024.7   2,032.5
 75-84 years..................... 5,176.3   5,100.7    5,162.2   5,140.0
 85 years and over...............14,438.2  14,123.9   14,278.3  14,319.6
 Black female
     All ages, age adjusted......   599.1     581.4      590.4     585.3
     All ages, crude.............   707.3     692.4      711.2     712.0
 Under 1 year.................... 1,823.4   1,760.1    1,818.6   1,789.1
 1-4 years.......................    81.6      76.4       73.6      72.2
 5-14 years......................    30.0      29.4       28.0      27.8
 15-24 years.....................    64.0      63.5       65.6      61.6
 25-34 years.....................   141.1     134.8      130.0     130.6
 35-44 years.....................   306.1     282.7      276.1     285.7
 45-54 years.....................   723.9     693.1      685.8     655.0
 55-64 years..................... 1,527.9   1,498.3    1,526.3   1,489.7
 65-74 years..................... 2,929.7   2,863.0    2,930.6   2,907.4
 75-84 years..................... 5,822.3   5,708.5    6,064.6   6,184.1
 85 years and over...............11,933.0  11,660.0   11,329.5  11,439.1
        Sex, race, and age          1985        1986       1987
             All races       Deaths per 100,000 resident population
       All ages, age adjusted....   546.1       541.7      535.5
       All ages, crude...........   873.9       873.2      872.4
 Under 1 year.................... 1,067.8     1,032.1    1,018.5
 1-4 years.......................    51.4        52.0       51.6
 5-14 years......................    26.3        26.0       25.6
 15-24 years.....................    95.9       102.3       99.4
 25-34 years.....................   123.4       132.1      133.2
 35-44 years.....................   207.2       212.9      214.1
 45-54 years.....................   516.3       504.8      498.0
 55-64 years..................... 1,282.7     1,255.1    1,241.3
 65-74 years..................... 2,838.6     2,801.4    2,751.3
 75-84 years..................... 6,445.1     6,348.2    6,282.5
 85 years and over...............15,480.3    15,398.9   15,320.8
 White male
     All ages, age adjusted......   688.7       679.8      668.2
     All ages, crude.............   960.0       954.4      947.8
 Under 1 year.................... 1,033.9       976.6      942.1
 1-4 years.......................    52.4        52.2       52.0
 5-14 years......................    29.9        29.9       30.0
 15-24 years.....................   136.3       145.9      137.3
 25-34 years.....................   157.1       168.8      167.8
 35-44 years.....................   241.4       248.4      249.6
 45-54 years.....................   608.8       592.2      582.8
 55-64 years..................... 1,614.3     1,573.1    1,552.8
 65-74 years..................... 3,716.8     3,634.8    3,548.4
 75-84 years..................... 8,500.4     8,341.7    8,212.2
 85 years and over...............18,788.9    18,576.1   18,434.9
 Black male
     All ages, age adjusted...... 1,024.0     1,026.9    1,023.2
     All ages, crude.............   976.8       987.7      989.5
 Under 1 year.................... 2,134.8     2,181.7    2,211.4
 1-4 years.......................    89.0        90.9       90.5
 5-14 years......................    41.3        42.0       42.5
 15-24 years.....................   174.1       190.5      203.9
 25-34 years.....................   374.4       385.6      389.8
 35-44 years.....................   641.8       675.9      701.5
 45-54 years..................... 1,283.3     1,266.5    1,263.6
 55-64 years..................... 2,623.1     2,545.5    2,464.7
 65-74 years..................... 4,888.7     4,789.9    4,737.6
 75-84 years..................... 9,298.4     9,290.8    9,240.7
 85 years and over...............15,046.2    15,488.1   15,226.1
 ::
 White female
     All ages, age adjusted......   390.6       387.7      384.1
     All ages, crude.............   837.1       840.7      845.5
 Under 1 year....................   786.9       759.1      742.9
 1-4 years.......................    39.7        40.7       40.5
 5-14 years......................    19.4        18.6       17.9
 15-24 years.....................    48.4        50.4       49.1
 25-34 years.....................    58.9        60.4       62.6
 35-44 years.....................   121.2       121.3      119.3
 45-54 years.....................   339.5       330.3      325.7
 55-64 years.....................   864.1       853.3      848.5
 65-74 years..................... 2,028.3     2,031.8    2,001.8
 75-84 years..................... 5,171.4     5,108.7    5,075.2
 85 years and over...............14,579.4    14,502.9   14,486.9
 Black female
     All ages, age adjusted......   589.1       588.2      586.2
     All ages, crude.............   727.7       733.9      737.3
 Under 1 year.................... 1,756.6     1,731.1    1,791.5
 1-4 years.......................    70.3        76.5       73.5
 5-14 years......................    28.1        26.9       25.0
 15-24 years.....................    59.5        64.3       67.9
 25-34 years.....................   136.3       146.5      150.0
 35-44 years.....................   278.4       290.2      295.9
 45-54 years.....................   654.0       654.6      646.3
 55-64 years..................... 1,501.7     1,469.8    1,445.0
 65-74 years..................... 2,925.7     2,892.3    2,874.5
 75-84 years..................... 6,252.0     6,148.8    6,145.7
 85 years and over...............12,154.7    12,510.3   12,313.2
 1/Includes deaths of nonresidents of the United States.
 SOURCES: National Center for Health Statistics: Vital Statistics of the
          United States, Vol. II, Mortality, Part A, 1950-86. Public Health
          Service. Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office; Data
          computed by the Division of Analysis from data compiled by the
          Division of Vital Statistics and from table 1.
3Age adjusted death rate for select causes by sex/race:U.S.'50-87
 Table 23. Age-adjusted death rates for selected causes of death, according to
           sex and race: United States, selected years 1950-87
 (Data are based on the National Vital Statistics System)
        Sex, race, and cause of death           19501/  19601/  1970    1980
                All races               Deaths per 100,000 resident population
       All causes...........................    840.5   760.9   714.3   585.8
 Diseases of heart..........................    307.2   286.2   253.6   202.0
   Ischemic heart disease...................    ---     ---     ---     149.8
 Cerebrovascular diseases...................     88.6    79.7    66.3    40.8
 Malignant neoplasms........................    125.3   125.8   129.8   132.8
   Respiratory system.......................     12.8    19.2    28.4    36.4
   Colorectal...............................     19.0    17.7    16.8    15.5
   Prostate2/...............................     13.4    13.1    13.3    14.4
   Breast3/.................................     22.2    22.3    23.1    22.7
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.....      4.4     8.2    13.2    15.9
 Pneumonia and influenza....................     26.2    28.0    22.1    12.9
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis........      8.5    10.5    14.7    12.2
 Diabetes mellitus..........................     14.3    13.6    14.1    10.1
 Accidents and adverse effects..............     57.5    49.9    53.7    42.3
   Motor vehicle accidents..................     23.3    22.5    27.4    22.9
 Suicide....................................     11.0    10.6    11.8    11.4
 Homicide and legal intervention............      5.4     5.2    9.1     10.8
 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)..      ---     ---     ---     ---
 White male
     All causes.............................    963.1   917.7   893.4   745.3
 Diseases of heart..........................    381.1   375.4   347.6   277.5
   Ischemic heart disease...................     ---     ---     ---    218.0
 Cerebrovascular diseases...................     87.0    80.3    68.8    41.9
 Malignant neoplasms........................    130.9   141.6   154.3   160.5
   Respiratory system.......................     21.6    34.6    49.9    58.0
   Colorectal...............................     19.8    18.9    18.9    18.3
   Prostate.................................     13.1    12.4    12.3    13.2
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.....      6.0    13.8    24.0    26.7
 Pneumonia and influenza....................     27.1    31.0    26.0    16.2
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis........     11.6    14.4    18.8    15.7
 Diabetes mellitus..........................     11.3    11.6    12.7     9.5
 Accidents and adverse effects..............     80.9    70.5    76.2    62.3
   Motor vehicle accidents..................     35.9    34.0    40.1    34.8
 Suicide....................................     18.1    17.5    18.2    18.9
 Homicide and legal intervention............      3.9     3.9     7.3    10.9
 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)..      ---     ---     ---     ---
 Black male
     All causes.............................  1,373.1 1,246.1 1,318.6 1,112.8
 Diseases of heart..........................    415.5   381.2   375.9   327.3
   Ischemic heart disease...................    ---     ---     ---     196.0
 Cerebrovascular diseases...................    146.2   141.2   122.5    77.5
 Malignant neoplasms........................    126.1   158.5   198.0   229.9
   Respiratory system.......................     16.9    36.6    60.8    82.0
   Colorectal...............................     13.8    15.0    17.3    19.2
   Prostate.................................     16.9    22.2    25.4    29.1
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.....     ---     ---     ---     20.9
 Pneumonia and influenza....................     63.8    70.2    53.8    28.0
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis........      8.8    14.8    33.1    30.6
 Diabetes mellitus..........................     11.5    16.2    21.2    17.7
 Accidents and adverse effects..............    105.7   100.0   119.5    82.0
   Motor vehicle accidents..................     39.8    38.2    50.1    32.9
 Suicide....................................      7.0     7.8     9.9    11.1
 Homicide and legal intervention............     51.1    44.9    82.1    71.9
 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)..      ---     ---     ---     ---
 White female
     All causes.............................    645.0   555.0   501.7   411.1
 Diseases of heart..........................    223.6   197.1   167.8   134.6
   Ischemic heart disease...................     ---     ---     ---     97.4
 Cerebrovascular diseases...................     79.7    68.7    56.2    35.2
 Malignant neoplasms........................    119.4   109.5   107.6   107.7
   Respiratory system.......................      4.6     5.1    10.1    18.2
   Colorectal...............................     19.0    17.0    15.3    13.3
   Breast...................................     22.5    22.4    23.4    22.8
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.....      2.8     3.3     5.3     9.2
 Pneumonia and influenza....................     18.9    19.0    15.0     9.4
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis........      5.8     6.6     8.7     7.0
 Diabetes mellitus..........................     16.4    13.7    12.8     8.7
 Accidents and adverse effects..............     30.6    25.5    27.2    21.4
   Motor vehicle accidents..................     10.6    11.1    14.4    12.3
 Suicide....................................      5.3     5.3     7.2     5.7
 Homicide and legal intervention............      1.4     1.5     2.2     3.2
 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)..      ---     ---     ---     ---
 Black female
     All causes.............................  1,106.7   916.9   814.4   631.1
 Diseases of heart..........................    349.5   292.6   251.7   201.1
   Ischemic heart disease...................    ---     ---     ---     116.1
 Cerebrovascular diseases...................    155.6   139.5   107.9    61.7
 Malignant neoplasms........................    131.9   127.8   123.5   129.7
   Respiratory system.......................      4.1     5.5    10.9    19.5
   Colorectal...............................     15.0    15.4    16.1    15.3
   Breast...................................     19.3    21.3    21.5    23.3
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.....     ---     ---     ---      6.3
 Pneumonia and influenza....................     50.4    43.9    29.2    12.7
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis........      5.7     8.9    17.8    14.4
 Diabetes mellitus..........................     22.7    27.3    30.9    22.1
 Accidents and adverse effects..............     38.5    35.9    35.3    25.1
   Motor vehicle accidents..................     10.3    10.0    13.8     8.4
 Suicide....................................      1.7     1.9     2.9     2.4
 Homicide and legal intervention............     11.7    11.8    15.0    13.7
 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)..      ---     ---     ---     ---
      Sex, race, and cause of death             1981    1982    1983    1984
                All races               Deaths per 100,000 resident population
       All causes...........................    568.2   553.8   550.5   545.9
 Diseases of heart..........................    195.0   190.5   188.8   183.6
   Ischemic heart disease...................    143.4   139.3   135.2   129.7
 Cerebrovascular diseases...................     38.1    35.8    34.4    33.4
 Malignant neoplasms........................    131.6   132.5   132.6   133.5
   Respiratory system.......................     36.6    37.5    37.9    38.4
   Colorectal...............................     15.1    15.0    14.9    15.0
   Prostate2/...............................     14.3    14.4    14.6    14.5
   Breast3/.................................     22.7    22.8    22.7    23.2
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.....     16.3    16.2    17.4    17.7
 Pneumonia and influenza....................     12.3    10.9    11.8    12.2
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis........     11.4    10.5    10.2    10.0
 Diabetes mellitus..........................      9.8     9.6     9.9     9.5
 Accidents and adverse effects..............     39.8    36.6    35.3    35.0
   Motor vehicle accidents..................     21.8    19.3    18.5    19.1
 Suicide....................................     11.5    11.6    11.4    11.6
 Homicide and legal intervention............     10.4     9.7     8.6     8.4
 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)..     ---     ---     ---     ---
 White male
     All causes.............................    724.4   706.0   698.4   689.9
 Diseases of heart..........................    268.8   262.1   257.8   249.5
   Ischemic heart disease...................    209.1   203.0   195.7   187.0
 Cerebrovascular diseases...................     38.9    36.6    35.2    33.9
 Malignant neoplasms........................    158.3   159.4   158.9   159.0
   Respiratory system.......................     57.8    58.5    58.0    58.4
   Colorectal...............................     17.9    17.7    17.8    17.8
   Prostate.................................     13.1    13.2    13.4    13.3
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.....     26.8    26.2    27.6    27.6
 Pneumonia and influenza....................     15.6    14.3    15.3    15.8
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis........     14.8    14.1    13.4    13.2
 Diabetes mellitus..........................      9.3     9.2     9.2     9.0
 Accidents and adverse effects..............     59.1    54.1    51.8    51.3
   Motor vehicle accidents..................     33.4    29.3    27.8    28.4
 Suicide....................................     18.9    19.4    19.3    19.7
 Homicide and legal intervention............     10.3     9.5     8.4     8.2
 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)..     ---     ---     ---     ---
 Black male
     All causes.............................  1,067.7 1,035.0 1,019.6 1,011.7
 Diseases of heart..........................    316.7   309.4   308.2   300.1
   Ischemic heart disease...................    188.8   182.2   175.8   168.5
 Cerebrovascular diseases...................     72.7    68.9    64.2    62.8
 Malignant neoplasms........................    232.0   235.2   232.2   234.9
   Respiratory system.......................     84.1    85.8    83.3    85.9
   Colorectal...............................     19.1    19.6    19.0    19.9
   Prostate.................................     29.9    29.1    29.9    29.7
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.....     21.4    20.6    22.2    22.8
 Pneumonia and influenza....................     26.4    23.2    24.3    25.2
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis........     27.3    23.5    22.8    22.5
 Diabetes mellitus..........................     16.8    16.1    17.7    17.6
 Accidents and adverse effects..............     74.7    68.3    66.2    64.7
   Motor vehicle accidents..................     30.7    27.2   26.4    27.2
 Suicide....................................     11.0    10.8    10.5    11.2
 Homicide and legal intervention............     69.2    62.3    53.8    50.8
 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)..     ---     ---     ---     ---
 White female
     All causes.............................    401.4   393.3   392.7   391.3
 Diseases of heart..........................    129.8   127.4   126.7   124.0
   Ischemic heart disease...................     93.2    90.9    89.0    86.0
 Cerebrovascular diseases...................     33.1    31.0    29.6    28.9
 Malignant neoplasms........................    107.2   108.2   108.5   109.9
   Respiratory system.......................     18.8    20.0    21.0    21.6
   Colorectal...............................     12.9    12.7    12.5    12.8
   Breast...................................     22.8    22.8    22.7    23.1
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.....      9.8    10.0    11.3    11.8
 Pneumonia and influenza....................      9.0     7.6     8.6     8.8
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis........      6.7     6.1     6.0     5.9
 Diabetes mellitus..........................      8.4     8.3     8.6     8.0
 Accidents and adverse effects..............     20.2    18.7    18.3    18.5
   Motor vehicle accidents..................     11.7    10.5    10.3    10.9
 Suicide....................................      6.0     5.8     5.6     5.6
 Homicide and legal intervention............      3.1     3.1     2.8     2.9
 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)..     ---     ---     ---     ---
 Black female
     All causes.............................    599.1   581.4   590.4   585.3
 Diseases of heart..........................    191.2   186.3   191.5   186.6
   Ischemic heart disease...................    110.1   106.9   106.8   102.6
 Cerebrovascular diseases...................     58.1    54.7    53.8    51.8
 Malignant neoplasms........................    127.1   128.7   129.8   131.0
   Respiratory system.......................     20.1    20.4    22.0    21.4
   Colorectal...............................     15.3    15.5    15.1    15.3
   Breast...................................     23.7    24.6    24.4    26.1
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.....      6.3     7.3     7.6     8.1
 Pneumonia and influenza....................     11.3    10.1    10.2    11.3
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis........     12.7    10.9    10.8    10.3
 Diabetes mellitus..........................     21.3    19.8    21.1    20.5
 Accidents and adverse effects..............     21.6    20.8    21.9    20.1
   Motor vehicle accidents..................      7.7     7.5     7.5     7.6
 Suicide....................................      2.5     2.2     2.1     2.3
 Homicide and legal intervention............     12.9    12.0    11.2    11.0
 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)..     ---     ---     ---     ---
       Sex, race, and cause of death            1985    1986    1987
                All races              Deaths per 100,000 resident population
       All causes...........................    546.1   541.7   535.5
 Diseases of heart..........................    180.5   175.0   169.6
   Ischemic heart disease...................    125.5   118.8   113.9
 Cerebrovascular diseases...................     32.3    31.0    30.3
 Malignant neoplasms........................    133.6   133.2   132.9
   Respiratory system.......................     38.8    39.0    39.7
   Colorectal...............................     14.8    14.4    14.3
   Prostate2/...............................     14.6    15.0    14.9
   Breast3/.................................     23.2    23.1    22.9
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.....     18.7    18.8    18.7
 Pneumonia and influenza....................     13.4    13.5    13.1
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis........      9.6     9.2     9.1
 Diabetes mellitus..........................      9.6     9.6     9.8
 Accidents and adverse effects..............     34.7    35.2    34.6
   Motor vehicle accidents..................     18.8    19.4    19.5
 Suicide....................................     11.5    11.9    11.7
 Homicide and legal intervention............      8.3     9.0     8.6
 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)..     ---      ---     5.5
 White male
     All causes.............................    688.7   679.8   668.2
 Diseases of heart..........................    244.5   234.8   225.9
   Ischemic heart disease...................    180.8   169.9   161.7
 Cerebrovascular diseases...................     32.8    31.1    30.3
 Malignant neoplasms........................    159.2   158.8   158.4
   Respiratory system.......................     58.2    58.0    58.6
   Colorectal...............................     17.6    17.2    17.1
   Prostate.................................     13.3    13.8    13.7
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.....     28.5    28.1    27.4
 Pneumonia and influenza....................     17.4    17.5    16.8
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis........     12.6    12.2    12.1
 Diabetes mellitus..........................      9.2     9.1     9.5
 Accidents and adverse effects..............     50.4    51.1    49.7
   Motor vehicle accidents..................     27.6    28.7    28.4
 Suicide....................................     19.9    20.5    20.1
 Homicide and legal intervention............      8.1     8.4     7.7
 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)..     ---     ---      8.3
 Black male
     All causes.............................  1,024.0 1,026.9 1,023.2
 Diseases of heart..........................    301.0   294.3   287.1
   Ischemic heart disease...................    164.9   153.9   150.8
 Cerebrovascular diseases...................     60.8    58.9    57.1
 Malignant neoplasms........................    231.6   229.0   227.9
   Respiratory system.......................     84.4    83.9    84.2
   Colorectal...............................     19.5    19.3    19.7
   Prostate.................................     30.2    30.1    30.1
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.....     23.9    24.6    24.0
 Pneumonia and influenza....................     26.8    27.2    26.4
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis........     23.4    20.8    22.0
 Diabetes mellitus..........................     17.7    17.9    18.3
 Accidents and adverse effects..............     66.7    66.9    66.8
   Motor vehicle accidents..................     27.7    29.2    28.5
 Suicide....................................     11.3    11.5    12.0
 Homicide and legal intervention............     49.9    55.9    53.8
 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)..     ---     ---     25.4
 White female
     All causes.............................    390.6   387.7   384.1
 Diseases of heart..........................    121.7   119.0   116.3
   Ischemic heart disease...................     82.9    79.5    76.9
 Cerebrovascular diseases...................     27.9    27.1    26.3
 Malignant neoplasms........................    110.3   110.1   109.7
   Respiratory system.......................     22.6    23.1    23.8
   Colorectal...............................     12.3    12.0    11.8
   Breast...................................     23.3    23.0    22.8
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.....     12.9    13.3    13.7
 Pneumonia and influenza....................      9.8     9.9     9.7
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis........      5.6     5.4     5.1
 Diabetes mellitus..........................      8.1     8.1     8.1
 Accidents and adverse effects..............     18.4    18.4    18.6
   Motor vehicle accidents..................     10.8    11.0    11.4
 Suicide....................................      5.3     5.4     5.3
 Homicide and legal intervention............      2.9     2.9     2.9
 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)..     ---     ---      0.6
 Black female
     All causes.............................    589.1   588.2   586.2
 Diseases of heart..........................    186.8   185.1   180.8
   Ischemic heart disease...................    100.8    97.0    93.6
 Cerebrovascular diseases...................     50.3    47.6    46.7
 Malignant neoplasms........................    130.4   132.1   132.0
   Respiratory system.......................     22.5    23.3    24.3
   Colorectal...............................     16.1    15.2    15.5
   Breast...................................     25.3    25.8    26.5
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.....      8.7     8.9     9.5
 Pneumonia and influenza....................     12.4    13.1    12.2
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis........     10.1     9.3     9.1
 Diabetes mellitus..........................     21.1    21.4    21.3
 Accidents and adverse effects..............     20.7    21.0    21.0
   Motor vehicle accidents..................      8.2     8.5     8.7
 Suicide....................................      2.1     2.4     2.1
 Homicide and legal intervention............     10.8    11.8    12.3
 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)..     ---     ---      4.7
 1/Includes deaths of nonresidents of the United States.
 2/Male only.
 3/Female only.
 NOTE: For data years shown, the code numbers for cause of death are based on
       the then current International Classification of Diseases, which
       are described in Appendix II, tables IV and V.
 SOURCES: National Center for Health Statistics: Vital Statistics Rates in the
          United States, 1940-1960, by R. D. Grove and A. M. Hetzel. DHEW Pub.
          No. (PHS) 1677. Public Health Service. Washington. U.S. Government
          Printing Office, 1968; Unpublished data from the Division of Vital
          Statistics; Vital Statistics of the United States, Vol. II,
          Mortality, Part A, 1950-86. Public Health Service. Washington. U.S.
          Government Printing Office; Data computed by the Division of Analysis
          from data compiled by the Division of Vital Statistics and from
          table 1.
3Crude death rate,# deaths,rank select causes:sex/race:U.S.'50-87
 Table 24. Crude death rates, numbers of deaths, and rank for selected
           causes of death, according to sex and race: United States, 1985-87
 (Data are based on the National Vital Statistics System)
 Sex, race, and cause of death                  1985    1986    1987
                                                 Deaths per 100,000
 All races                                       resident population
 All causes..................................   873.9   873.2   872.4
 Diseases of heart...........................   323.0   317.5   312.4
   Ischemic heart disease....................   224.8   216.0   210.4
 Cerebrovascular diseases....................    64.1    62.1    61.6
 Malignant neoplasms.........................   193.3   194.7   195.9
   Respiratory system........................    53.3    54.1    55.5
   Colorectal................................    23.6    23.2    23.1
   Prostate1/................................    22.3    23.2    23.5
   Breast2/..................................    32.7    32.8    32.8
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases......    31.3    31.8    32.2
 Pneumonia and influenza.....................    28.3    29.0    28.4
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis.........    11.2    10.9    10.8
 Diabetes mellitus...........................    15.5    15.4    15.8
 Accidents and adverse effects...............    39.1    39.5    39.0
   Motor vehicle accidents...................    19.2    19.9    19.8
 Suicide.....................................    12.3    12.8    12.7
 Homicide and legal intervention.............     8.3     9.0     8.7
 Human immunodeficiency virus infection......    ---     ---      5.5
 White male
 All causes..................................   960.0   954.4   947.8
 Diseases of heart...........................   358.9   348.6   340.1
   Ischemic heart disease....................   264.8   251.6   243.0
 Cerebrovascular diseases....................    52.5    50.5    49.9
 Malignant neoplasms.........................   217.2   218.8   220.5
   Respiratory system........................    77.3    77.8    79.1
   Colorectal................................    25.0    24.6    24.8
   Prostate..................................    21.7    22.8    23.0
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases......    43.5    43.4    43.0
 Pneumonia and influenza.....................    29.3    29.9    29.1
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis.........    14.5    14.1    14.1
 Diabetes mellitus...........................    12.9    12.8    13.5
 Accidents and adverse effects...............    54.4    55.0    53.6
   Motor vehicle accidents...................    28.2    29.2    28.8
 Suicide.....................................    21.5    22.3    22.1
 Homicide and legal intervention.............     8.2     8.6     7.9
 Human immunodeficiency virus infection......    ---     ---      8.6
 Black male
 All causes..................................   976.8   987.7   989.5
 Diseases of heart...........................   285.0   281.3   276.1
   Ischemic heart disease....................   156.6   147.6   145.5
 Cerebrovascular diseases....................    58.5    57.1    55.7
 Malignant neoplasms.........................   212.2   211.4   212.2
   Respiratory system........................    74.5    74.6    75.5
   Colorectal................................    18.3    18.5    18.7
   Prostate..................................    31.2    31.4    31.8
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases......    23.1    23.8    23.5
 Pneumonia and influenza.....................    26.8    27.6    26.9
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis.........    19.1    17.3    18.3
 Diabetes mellitus...........................    16.3    16.5    16.9
 Accidents and adverse effects...............    64.0    65.0    64.9
   Motor vehicle accidents...................    26.7    28.6    27.7
 Suicide.....................................    10.8    11.1    11.6
 Homicide and legal intervention.............    48.4    55.0    53.3
 Human immunodeficiency virus infection......    ---     ---     23.4
 White female
 All causes..................................   837.1   840.7   845.5
 Diseases of heart...........................   320.7   319.0   317.1
   Ischemic heart disease....................   220.1   214.6   211.2
 Cerebrovascular diseases....................    78.1    76.2    75.8
 Malignant neoplasms.........................   183.7   185.6   186.9
   Respiratory system........................    34.6    35.9    37.5
   Colorectal................................    24.7    24.2    24.0
   Breast....................................    34.6    34.6    34.5
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases......    25.4    26.6    27.9
 Pneumonia and influenza.....................    30.3    31.0    30.9
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis.........     7.6     7.5     7.2
 Diabetes mellitus...........................    16.9    16.7    17.0
 Accidents and adverse effects...............    24.2    24.4    24.6
   Motor vehicle accidents...................    11.4    11.5    11.9
 Suicide.....................................     5.6     5.9     5.7
 Homicide and legal intervention.............     2.9     3.0     3.0
 Human immunodeficiency virus infection......    ---     ---      0.6
 Black female
 All causes..................................   727.7   733.9   737.3
 Diseases of heart...........................   248.1   250.8   248.3
   Ischemic heart disease....................   136.4   134.3   131.4
 Cerebrovascular diseases....................    68.0    65.0    64.3
 Malignant neoplasms.........................   143.9   146.7   147.8
   Respiratory system........................    23.3    24.3    25.4
   Colorectal................................    19.7    18.7    19.0
   Breast....................................    25.6    26.2    27.2
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases......     9.9    10.1    11.1
 Pneumonia and influenza.....................    17.6    18.6    17.7
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis.........     9.5     8.7     8.6
 Diabetes mellitus...........................    25.5    26.0    26.3
 Accidents and adverse effects...............    22.7    23.0    23.1
   Motor vehicle accidents...................     8.3     8.5     8.8
 Suicide.....................................     2.1     2.3     2.1
 Homicide and legal intervention.............    11.0    12.1    12.6
 Human immunodeficiency virus infection......    ---     ---      4.7
 Sex, race, and cause of death                  1985       1986      1987
 All races              Number
 All causes..................................2,086,440  2,105,361   2,123,323
 Diseases of heart...........................  771,169    765,490     760,353
   Ischemic heart disease....................  536,805    520,729     512,138
 Cerebrovascular diseases....................  153,050    149,643     149,835
 Malignant neoplasms.........................  461,563    469,376     476,927
   Respiratory system........................  127,311    130,450     134,983
   Colorectal................................   56,451     55,816      56,334
   Prostate1/................................   25,943     27,262      27,864
   Breast2/..................................   40,093     40,539      40,899
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases......   74,662     76,559      78,380
 Pneumonia and influenza.....................   67,615     69,812      69,225
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis.........   26,767     26,159      26,201
 Diabetes mellitus...........................   36,969     37,184      38,532
 Accidents and adverse effects...............   93,457     95,277      95,020
   Motor vehicle accidents...................   45,901     47,865      48,290
 Suicide.....................................   29,453     30,904      30,796
 Homicide and legal intervention.............   19,893     21,731      21,103
 Human immunodeficiency virus infection......  3/6,040   3/10,900      13,468
 White male
 All causes..................................  950,455   952,554     953,382
 Diseases of heart...........................  355,374   347,967     342,063
   Ischemic heart disease....................  262,139   251,111     244,461
 Cerebrovascular diseases....................   51,965    50,365      50,237
 Malignant neoplasms.........................  215,079   218,381     221,757
   Respiratory system........................   76,567    77,647      79,604
   Colorectal................................   24,782    24,593      24,901
   Prostate..................................   21,472    22,708      23,169
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases......   43,074    43,341      43,290
 Pneumonia and influenza.....................   29,028    29,891      29,284
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis.........   14,321    14,099      14,175
 Diabetes mellitus...........................   12,758    12,788      13,553
 Accidents and adverse effects...............   53,856    54,864      53,936
   Motor vehicle accidents...................   27,894    29,163      29,017
 Suicide.....................................   21,256    22,270      22,188
 Homicide and legal intervention.............    8,122     8,567       7,979
 Human immunodeficiency virus infection......      ---        ---       8,700
 Black male
 All causes..................................  133,610   137,214     139,551
 Diseases of heart...........................   38,982    39,076      38,934
   Ischemic heart disease....................   21,425    20,498      20,521
 Cerebrovascular diseases....................    8,000     7,938       7,852
 Malignant neoplasms.........................   29,028    29,363      29,928
   Respiratory system........................   10,193    10,368      10,647
   Colorectal................................    2,504     2,564       2,642
   Prostate..................................    4,273     4,358       4,488
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases......    3,154     3,302       3,319
 Pneumonia and influenza.....................    3,664     3,836       3,795
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis.........    2,616     2,404       2,574
 Diabetes mellitus...........................    2,230     2,295       2,388
 Accidents and adverse effects...............    8,752     9,035       9,159
   Motor vehicle accidents...................    3,659     3,974       3,913
 Suicide.....................................    1,481     1,537       1,635
   Motor vehicle accidents...................   11,795    12,026      12,564
 Human immunodeficiency virus infection......      ---       ---       3,301
 ::
 White female
 All causes..................................  868,599    878,529     889,685
 Diseases of heart...........................  332,778    333,396     333,669
   Ischemic heart disease....................  228,376    224,287     222,229
 Cerebrovascular diseases....................   81,067     79,641      79,810
 Malignant neoplasms.........................  190,648    193,971      196,71
   Respiratory system........................   35,945     37,532      39,468
   Colorectal................................   25,620     25,249      25,212
   Breast....................................   35,886     36,183      36,297
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases......   26,364     27,781      29,378
 Pneumonia and influenza.....................   31,480     32,432      32,527
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis.........    7,871      7,817       7,591
 Diabetes mellitus...........................   17,547     17,496      17,842
 Accidents and adverse effects...............   25,155     25,451      25,874
   Motor vehicle accidents...................   11,795     12,026      12,564
 Suicide.....................................    5,831      6,167       6,029
 Homicide and legal intervention.............    3,041      3,123       3,149
 Human immunodeficiency virus infection......      ---        ---         628
 Black female
 All causes..................................  110,597    113,112     115,263
 Diseases of heart...........................   37,702     38,650      38,813
   Ischemic heart disease....................   20,736     20,703      20,549
 Cerebrovascular diseases....................   10,341     10,014      10,055
 Malignant neoplasms.........................   21,878     22,616      23,099
   Respiratory system........................    3,536      3,744       3,975
   Colorectal................................    2,988      2,877       2,968
   Breast....................................    3,896      4,045       4,252
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases......    1,505      1,554       1,733
 Pneumonia and influenza.....................    2,674      2,864       2,770
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis.........    1,439      1,341       1,342
 Diabetes mellitus...........................    3,874      4,004       4,109
 Accidents and adverse effects...............    3,455      3,550       3,618
   Motor vehicle accidents...................    1,257      1,313       1,374
 Suicide.....................................      314        355         328
 Homicide and legal intervention.............    1,666      1,861       1,969
 Human immunodeficiency virus infection......      ---        ---         739
     Sex, race, and cause of death               1985    1986    1987
              All races                                  Rank
 All causes..................................     ...     ...     ...
 Diseases of heart...........................       1       1       1
   Ischemic heart disease....................     ...     ...     ...
 Cerebrovascular diseases....................       3       3       3
 Malignant neoplasms.........................       2       2       2
   Respiratory system........................     ...     ...     ...
   Colorectal................................     ...     ...     ...
   Prostate1/................................     ...     ...     ...
   Breast2/..................................     ...     ...     ...
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases......       5       5       5
 Pneumonia and influenza.....................       6       6       6
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis.........       9       9       9
 Diabetes mellitus...........................       7       7       7
 Accidents and adverse effects...............       4       4       4
   Motor vehicle accidents...................     ...     ...     ...
 Suicide.....................................       8       8       8
 Homicide and legal intervention.............      12      12      12
 Human immunodeficiency virus infection......      19      16      15
 White male
 All causes..................................     ...     ...     ...
 Diseases of heart...........................       1       1       1
   Ischemic heart disease....................     ...     ...     ...
 Cerebrovascular diseases....................       4       4       4
 Malignant neoplasms.........................       2       2       2
   Respiratory system........................     ...     ...     ...
   Colorectal................................     ...     ...     ...
   Prostate..................................     ...     ...     ...
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases......       5       5       5
 Pneumonia and influenza.....................       6       6       6
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis.........       8       8       8
 Diabetes mellitus...........................       9       9       9
 Accidents and adverse effects...............       3       3       3
   Motor vehicle accidents...................     ...     ...     ...
 Suicide.....................................       7       7       7
 Homicide and legal intervention.............      12      11      12
 Human immunodeficiency virus infection......     ---     ---      11
 Black male
 All causes..................................     ...     ...     ...
 Diseases of heart...........................       1       1       1
   Ischemic heart disease....................     ...     ...     ...
 Cerebrovascular diseases....................       4       4       4
 Malignant neoplasms.........................       2       2       2
   Respiratory system........................     ...     ...     ...
   Colorectal................................     ...     ...     ...
   Prostate..................................     ...     ...     ...
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases......       8       8       8
 Pneumonia and influenza.....................       6       6       6
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis.........       9       9      10
 Diabetes mellitus...........................      10      10      11
 Accidents and adverse effects...............       3       3       3
   Motor vehicle accidents...................     ...     ...     ...
 Suicide.....................................      13      14      14
 Homicide and legal intervention.............       5       5       5
 Human immunodeficiency virus infection......     ---     ---       9
 White female
 All causes..................................     ...     ...     ...
 Diseases of heart...........................       1       1       1
   Ischemic heart disease....................     ...     ...     ...
 Cerebrovascular diseases....................       3       3       3
 Malignant neoplasms.........................       2       2       2
   Respiratory system........................     ...     ...     ...
   Colorectal................................     ...     ...     ...
   Breast....................................     ...     ...     ...
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases......       5       5       5
 Pneumonia and influenza.....................       4       4       4
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis.........      10      11      11
 Diabetes mellitus...........................       7       7       7
 Accidents and adverse effects...............       6       6       6
   Motor vehicle accidents...................     ...     ...     ...
 Suicide.....................................      12      12      12
 Homicide and legal intervention.............      17      17      16
 Human immunodeficiency virus infection......     ---     ---      24
 Black female
 All causes..................................     ...     ...     ...
 Diseases of heart...........................       1       1       1
   Ischemic heart disease....................     ...     ...     ...
 Cerebrovascular diseases....................       3       3       3
 Malignant neoplasms.........................       2       2       2
   Respiratory system........................     ...     ...     ...
   Colorectal................................     ...     ...     ...
   Breast....................................     ...     ...     ...
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases......      11      11      11
 Pneumonia and influenza.....................       7       6       6
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis.........      12      12      12
 Diabetes mellitus...........................       4       4       4
 Accidents and adverse effects...............       5       5       5
   Motor vehicle accidents...................     ...     ...     ...
 Suicide.....................................      19      19      19
 Homicide and legal intervention.............       9       9      10
 Human immunodeficiency virus infection......     ---     ---      16
 1/Male only.
 2/Female only.
 3/Estimates.
 NOTE: For data years shown, the code numbers for cause of death are based on
       the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision,
       described in Appendix II, table V.
 SOURCES: National Center for Health Statistics: Vital Statistics of the
          United States, Vol. II, Mortality, Part A, for data years 1985-87.
          Public Health Service. Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office;
          Data computed by the Division of Analysis from data compiled by the
          Division of Vital Statistics and from table 1.
3Yrs potential life lost <age 65:some cause:sex/race:U.S'80,85-87
 Table 25. Years of potential life lost before age 65 for selected causes of
           death, according to sex and race: United States, 1980 and 1985-87
 (Data are based on the National Vital Statistics System)
                                                  Years lost in thousands
         Sex, race, and cause of death           1980   1985   1986   1987
  All races
       All causes............................   12,896 11,859 12,093 12,074
 Diseases of heart...........................    1,691  1,577  1,557  1,520
   Ischemic heart disease....................    1,094    940    892    857
 Cerebrovascular diseases....................      283    251    246    248
 Malignant neoplasms.........................    1,824  1,834  1,832  1,817
   Respiratory system........................      426    435    431    437
   Colorectal................................      138    136    133    138
   Prostate1/................................       17     18     18     17
   Breast2/..................................      212    224    228    229
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases......      115    128    129    132
 Pneumonia and influenza.....................      196    170    175    172
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis.........      292    238    232    235
 Diabetes mellitus...........................      113    115    121    123
 Accidents and adverse effects...............    2,760  2,279  2,358  2,306
   Motor vehicle accidents...................    1,690  1,385  1,456  1,442
 Suicide.....................................      621    657    680    671
 Homicide and legal intervention.............      751    611    680    656
 Human immunodeficiency virus infection......      ---    ---    ---    363
  White male
       All causes............................    6,520  5,916  6,016  5,924
 Diseases of heart...........................    1,010    914    892    864
   Ischemic heart disease....................      745    625    591    562
 Cerebrovascular diseases....................      105     92     89     90
 Malignant neoplasms.........................      801    784    783    769
   Respiratory system........................      245    236    233    235
   Colorectal................................       63     63     61     63
   Prostate..................................       13     13     14     14
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases......       55     56     57     57
 Pneumonia and influenza.....................       76     69     72     69
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis.........      143    121    119    122
 Diabetes mellitus...........................       45     48     50     53
 Accidents and adverse effects...............    1,774  1,420  1,464  1,408
   Motor vehicle accidents...................    1,115    870    918    893
 Suicide.....................................      436    468    487    476
 Homicide and legal intervention.............      313    243    260    237
 Human immunodeficiency virus infection......      ---    ---    ---    227
  Black male
       All causes............................    1,688  1,597  1,697  1,756
 Diseases of heart...........................      195    197    199    196
   Ischemic heart disease....................       94     86     82     80
 Cerebrovascular diseases....................       41     37     38     37
 Malignant neoplasms.........................      138    144    143    142
   Respiratory system........................       47     49     48     47
   Colorectal................................        9     10     10     11
   Prostate..................................        4      4      4      4
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases......       13     14     15     16
 Pneumonia and influenza.....................       37     32     32     34
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis.........       46     39     36     38
 Diabetes mellitus...........................       12     13     14     14
 Accidents and adverse effects...............      271    238    253    257
   Motor vehicle accidents...................      120    113    124    122
 Suicide.....................................       38     42     43     46
 Homicide and legal intervention.............      267    213    250    249
 Human immunodeficiency virus infection......      ---    ---    ---     93
  White female
       All causes............................    3,425  3,117  3,109  3,090
 Diseases of heart...........................      345    325    321    317
   Ischemic heart disease....................      196    172    164    161
 Cerebrovascular diseases....................       96     82     80     80
 Malignant neoplasms.........................      738    745    737    734
   Respiratory system........................      114    128    126    129
   Colorectal................................       55     51     50     50
   Breast....................................      182    189    189    189
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases......       37     46     45     47
 Pneumonia and influenza.....................       55     46     46     44
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis.........       68     52     50     48
 Diabetes mellitus...........................       39     38     41     40
 Accidents and adverse effects...............      557    469    479    482
   Motor vehicle accidents...................      376    320    329    340
 Suicide.....................................      125    121    124    122
 Homicide and legal intervention.............       94     86     91     89
 Human immunodeficiency virus infection......      ---    ---    ---     17
 Black female
       All causes............................    1,015    951    983  1,010
 Diseases of heart...........................      120    117    120    116
   Ischemic heart disease....................       49     44     43     41
 Cerebrovascular diseases....................       37     34     33     34
 Malignant neoplasms.........................      124    128    135    136
   Respiratory system........................       17     19     19     20
   Colorectal................................        9     10     10     10
   Breast....................................       27     32     36     37
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases......        8     10     10     11
 Pneumonia and influenza.....................       24     19     21     20
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis.........       27     20     19     20
 Diabetes mellitus...........................       14     14     15     14
 Accidents and adverse effects...............       92     84     90     89
   Motor vehicle accidents...................       38     39     41     43
 Suicide.....................................        9      8      9      9
 Homicide and legal intervention.............       63     55     62     65
 Human immunodeficiency virus infection......      ---    ---    ---     24
                                               Years lost per 1,000 population
                                                    under 65 years of age
         Sex, race, and cause of death          1980    1985    1986    1987
  All races
       All causes............................   64.2    56.4    57.1    56.5
 Diseases of heart...........................    8.4     7.5     7.3     7.1
   Ischemic heart disease....................    5.4     4.5     4.2     4.0
 Cerebrovascular diseases....................    1.4     1.2     1.2     1.2
 Malignant neoplasms.........................    9.1     8.7     8.6     8.5
   Respiratory system........................    2.1     2.1     2.0     2.0
   Colorectal................................    0.7     0.6     0.6     0.6
   Prostate1/................................    0.1     0.1     0.1     0.1
   Breast2/..................................    1.1     1.1     1.1     1.1
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases......    0.6     0.6     0.6     0.6
 Pneumonia and influenza.....................    1.0     0.8     0.8     0.8
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis.........    1.5     1.1     1.1     1.1
 Diabetes mellitus...........................    0.6     0.5     0.6     0.6
 Accidents and adverse effects...............   13.7    10.8    11.1    10.8
   Motor vehicle accidents...................    8.4     6.6     6.9     6.8
 Suicide.....................................    3.1     3.1     3.2     3.1
 Homicide and legal intervention.............    3.7     2.9     3.2     3.1
 Human immunodeficiency virus infection......    ---     ---     ---     1.7
  White male
       All causes............................   76.1    66.8    67.5    66.1
 Diseases of heart...........................   11.8    10.3    10.0     9.6
   Ischemic heart disease....................    8.7     7.1     6.6     6.3
 Cerebrovascular diseases....................    1.2     1.0     1.0     1.0
 Malignant neoplasms.........................    9.4     8.8     8.8     8.6
   Respiratory system........................    2.9     2.7     2.6     2.6
   Colorectal................................    0.7     0.7     0.7     0.7
   Prostate..................................    0.2     0.1     0.2     0.2
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases......    0.6     0.6     0.6     0.6
 Pneumonia and influenza.....................    0.9     0.8     0.8     0.8
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis.........    1.7     1.4     1.3     1.4
 Diabetes mellitus...........................    0.5     0.5     0.6     0.6
 Accidents and adverse effects...............   20.7    16.0    16.4    15.7
   Motor vehicle accidents...................   13.0     9.8    10.3    10.0
 Suicide.....................................    5.1     5.3     5.5     5.3
 Homicide and legal intervention.............    3.7     2.7     2.9     2.6
 Human immunodeficiency virus infection......    ---     ---     ---     2.5
  Black male
       All causes............................  143.8   125.4   131.2   133.8
 Diseases of heart...........................   16.6    15.4    15.4    14.9
   Ischemic heart disease....................    8.0     6.8     6.3     6.1
 Cerebrovascular diseases....................    3.5     2.9     2.9     2.8
 Malignant neoplasms.........................   11.7    11.3    11.1    10.8
   Respiratory system........................    4.0     3.8     3.7     3.6
   Colorectal................................    0.8     0.8     0.8     0.8
   Prostate..................................    0.3     0.3     0.3     0.3
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases......    1.1     1.1     1.2     1.2
 Pneumonia and influenza.....................    3.2     2.5     2.5     2.6
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis.........    3.9     3.0     2.8     2.9
 Diabetes mellitus...........................    1.0     1.0     1.1     1.1
 Accidents and adverse effects...............   23.1    18.7    19.6    19.6
   Motor vehicle accidents...................   10.2     8.8     9.6     9.3
 Suicide.....................................    3.3     3.3     3.4     3.5
 Homicide and legal intervention.............   22.8    16.7    19.3    19.0
 Human immunodeficiency virus infection......    ---     ---     ---     7.1
  White female
       All causes............................   39.8    35.3    35.0    34.6
 Diseases of heart...........................    4.0     3.7     3.6     3.5
   Ischemic heart disease....................    2.3     1.9     1.8     1.8
 Cerebrovascular diseases....................    1.1     0.9     0.9     0.9
 Malignant neoplasms.........................    8.6     8.4     8.3     8.2
   Respiratory system........................    1.3     1.4     1.4     1.4
   Colorectal................................    0.6     0.6     0.6     0.6
   Breast....................................    2.1     2.1     2.1     2.1
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases......    0.4     0.5     0.5     0.5
 Pneumonia and influenza.....................    0.6     0.5     0.5     0.5
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis.........    0.8     0.6     0.6     0.5
 Diabetes mellitus...........................    0.5     0.4     0.5     0.4
 Accidents and adverse effects...............    6.5     5.3     5.4     5.4
   Motor vehicle accidents...................    4.4     3.6     3.7     3.8
 Suicide.....................................    1.5     1.4     1.4     1.4
 Homicide and legal intervention.............    1.1     1.0     1.0     1.0
 Human immunodeficiency virus infection......    ---     ---     ---     0.2
 Black female
       All causes............................   79.3    69.0    70.3    71.3
 Diseases of heart...........................    9.4     8.5     8.6     8.2
   Ischemic heart disease....................    3.8     3.2     3.1     2.9
 Cerebrovascular diseases....................    2.9     2.5     2.4     2.4
 Malignant neoplasms.........................    9.7     9.3     9.7     9.6
   Respiratory system........................    1.3     1.4     1.4     1.4
   Colorectal................................    0.7     0.7     0.7     0.7
   Breast....................................    2.1     2.3     2.6     2.6
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases......    0.7     0.7     0.7     0.8
 Pneumonia and influenza.....................    1.8     1.4     1.5     1.4
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis.........    2.1     1.5     1.4     1.4
 Diabetes mellitus...........................    1.1     1.0     1.0     1.0
 Accidents and adverse effects...............    7.2     6.1     6.4     6.3
   Motor vehicle accidents...................    3.0     2.8     2.9     3.0
 Suicide.....................................    0.7     0.6     0.7     0.7
 Homicide and legal intervention.............    4.9     4.0     4.4     4.6
 Human immunodeficiency virus infection......    ---     ---     ---     1.7
 1/Male only.
 2/Female only.
 NOTE: For data years shown, the code numbers for cause of death are based on
       the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, described
       in Appendix II, table V.
 SOURCES: National Center for Health Statistics: Vital Statistics of the
          United States, Vol. II, Mortality, Part A, for data years 1980-87.
          Public Health Service. Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office;
          Data computed by the Division of Analysis from data compiled by the
          Division of Vital Statistics and from table 1.
3Death rate diseases  of heart by  sex/race/age:U.S. 1950-87
 Table 26. Death rates for diseases of heart, according to sex, race,
           and age: United States, selected years 1950-87
 (Data are based on the National Vital Statistics System)
     Sex, race, and age     19501/   19601/   1970     1980     1981    1982
          All races                Deaths per 100,000 resident population
   All ages, age adjusted.  307.2    286.2    253.6    202.0    195.0   190.5
   All ages, crude........  355.5    369.0    362.0    336.0    328.7   326.0
 Under 1 year.............    3.5      6.6     13.1     22.8     21.3    21.1
 1-4 years................    1.3      1.3      1.7      2.6      2.5     2.3
 5-14 years...............    2.1      1.3      0.8      0.9      0.9     1.1
 15-24 years..............    6.8      4.0      3.0      2.9      2.6     2.7
 25-34 years..............   19.4     15.6     11.4      8.3      8.4     8.2
 35-44 years..............   86.4     74.6     66.7     44.6     43.2    40.7
 45-54 years..............  308.6    271.8    238.4    180.2    177.7   169.4
 55-64 years..............  808.1    737.9    652.3    494.1    481.5    468.7
 65-74 years..............1,839.8  1,740.5  1,558.2  1,218.6  1,175.8  1,156.4
 75-84 years..............4,310.1  4,089.4  3,683.8  2,993.1  2,850.3  2,801.4
 85 years and over........9,150.6  9,317.8  7,891.3  7,777.1  7,458.8  7,341.8
 White male
   All ages, age adjusted.  381.1    375.4    347.6    277.5    268.8    262.1
   All ages, crude........  433.0    454.6    438.3    384.0    375.8    371.0
 Under 1 year.............    4.1      6.9     12.0     22.5     20.0     22.3
 1-4 years................    1.1      1.0      1.5      2.1      2.2      2.1
 5-14 years...............    1.7      1.1      0.8      0.9      0.9      0.9
 15-24 years..............    5.8      3.6      3.0      2.9      2.6      2.8
 25-34 years..............   20.1     17.6     12.3      9.1      9.4      9.5
 35-44 years..............  110.6    107.5     94.6     61.8     60.6     57.2
 45-54 years..............  423.6    413.2    365.7    269.8    265.6    253.8
 55-64 years..............1,081.7  1,056.0    979.3    730.6    708.7    689.9
 65-74 years..............2,308.3  2,297.9  2,177.2  1,729.7  1,669.9  1,636.2
 75-84 years..............4,907.3  4,839.9  4,617.6  3,883.2  3,751.5  3,674.7
 85 years and over........9,950.5 10,135.8  8,818.0  8,958.0  8,596.0  8,442.2
 Black male
   All ages, age adjusted.  415.5    381.2    375.9    327.3    316.7    309.4
   All ages, crude........  348.4    330.6    330.3    301.0    289.7    282.3
 Under 1 year.............  ---       13.9     33.5     42.8     35.6     34.4
 1-4 years................  ---        3.8      3.9      6.3      4.4      4.3
 5-14 years...............    6.4      3.0      1.4      1.3      1.7      1.5
 15-24 years..............   18.0      8.7      8.3      8.3      6.7      6.0
 25-34 years..............   51.9     43.1     41.6     30.3     29.3     26.6
 35-44 years..............  198.1    168.1    189.2    136.6    129.3    119.4
 45-54 years..............  624.1    514.0    512.8    433.4    426.1    406.4
 55-64 years..............1,434.0  1,236.8  1,135.4    987.2    981.5    950.4
 65-74 years..............2,140.1  2,281.4  2,237.8  1,847.2  1,812.7  1,822.5
 75-84 years..............  ---    3,533.6  3,783.4  3,578.8  3,302.5  3,245.9
 85 years and over........  ---    6,037.9  5,367.6  6,819.5  6,394.5  6,378.6
 White female
   All ages, age adjusted.  223.6    197.1    167.8    134.6    129.8    127.4
   All ages, crude........  289.4    306.5    313.8    319.2    314.6    315.8
 Under 1 year.............    2.7      4.3      7.0     15.7     18.0     14.8
 1-4 years................    1.1      0.9      1.2      2.1      2.2      1.7
 5-14 years...............    1.9      0.9      0.7      0.8      0.8      1.0
 15-24 years..............    5.3      2.8      1.7      1.7      1.6      1.7
 25-34 years..............   12.2      8.2      5.5      3.9      4.2      3.8
 35-44 years..............   40.5     28.6     23.9     16.4     16.2     15.6
 45-54 years..............  141.9    103.4     91.4     71.2     71.2     66.6
 55-64 years..............  460.2    383.0    317.7     48.1    243.7    237.9
 65-74 years..............1,400.9  1,229.8  1,044.0    796.7    769.4    759.6
 75-84 years..............3,925.2  3,629.7  3,143.5  2,493.6  2,359.0  2,331.7
 85 years and over........9,084.7  9,280.8  7,839.9  7,501.6  7,215.1  7,118.6
 Black female
   All ages, age adjusted.  349.5    292.6    251.7    201.1    191.2    186.3
   All ages, crude........  289.9    268.5    261.0    249.7    241.1    237.0
 Under 1 year.............  ---       12.0     31.3     43.6     29.2     30.0
 1-4 years................  ---        2.8      4.2      4.4      4.0      3.9
 5-14 years...............    8.8      3.0      1.8      1.7      1.4      1.7
 15-24 years..............   19.8     10.0      6.0      4.6      4.2      4.3
 25-34 years..............   52.0     35.9     24.7     15.7     13.7     13.3
 35-44 years..............  185.0    125.3     99.8     61.7     56.0     53.4
 45-54 years..............  526.8    360.7    290.9    202.4    197.8    192.2
 55-64 years..............1,210.7    952.3    710.5    530.1    517.2    501.9
 65-74 years..............1,659.4  1,680.5  1,553.2  1,210.3  1,152.3  1,124.3
 75-84 years..............  ---    2,926.9  2,964.1  2,707.2  2,509.4  2,445.0
 85 years and over........  ---    5,650.0  5,003.8  5,796.5  5,583.9  5,491.3
       Sex, race, and age   1983     1984     1985     1986     1987
            All races        Deaths per 100,000 resident population
   All ages, age adjusted.  188.8    183.6    180.5    175.0    169.6
   All ages, crude........  329.2    323.5    323.0    317.5    312.4
 Under 1 year.............   26.0     26.1     24.5     26.1     25.2
 1-4 years................    2.5      2.4      2.1      2.5      2.2
 5-14 years...............    0.9      1.0      0.9      0.9      0.9
 15-24 years..............    2.6      2.7      2.8      2.8      2.8
 25-34 years..............    8.3      8.0      8.2      8.6      8.4
 35-44 years..............   39.3     38.7     38.0     37.5     35.6
 45-54 years..............  164.7    156.7    152.9    144.6    140.5
 55-64 years..............  463.0    450.3    439.1    424.2    408.8
 65-74 years..............1,139.2  1,102.7  1,080.6  1,043.0  1,007.9
 75-84 years..............2,816.3  2,748.6  2,712.6  2,637.5  2,560.0
 85 years and over........7,335.5  7,251.0  7,275.0  7,178.7  7,074.2
 White male
   All ages, age adjusted.  257.8    249.5    244.5    234.8    225.9
   All ages, crude........  370.9    361.8    358.9    348.6    340.1
 Under 1 year.............   24.1     24.6     23.8     26.0     24.8
 1-4 years................    2.2      2.2      1.7      2.1      1.8
 5-14 years...............    0.9      0.9      0.8      0.9      0.9
 15-24 years..............    2.7      2.8      3.0      3.0      3.0
 25-34 years..............    9.6      9.2      9.2      9.5      9.3
 35-44 years..............   55.3     54.0     52.4     51.7     48.7
 45-54 years..............  243.0     31.2    224.4    208.8    201.6
 55-64 years..............  674.1    655.5    635.6    610.3    582.7
 65-74 years..............1,603.6  1,533.0  1,501.0  1,440.9  1,378.0
 75-84 years..............3,664.3  3,579.3  3,532.9  3,405.2  3,291.0
 85 years and over........8,503.4  8,416.4  8,396.3  8,138.4  8,030.6
 Black male
   All ages, age adjusted.  308.2    300.1    301.0    294.3    287.1
   All ages, crude........  288.5    282.2    285.0    281.3    276.1
 Under 1 year.............   54.5     48.4     46.7     49.8     45.7
 1-4 years................    5.1      4.4      4.4      5.3      5.1
 5-14 years...............    1.5      1.5      1.5      1.4      1.6
 15-24 years..............    6.6      6.7      7.2      6.7      6.9
 25-34 years..............   27.5     27.5     29.1     29.3     26.9
 35-44 years..............  115.9    121.1    122.0    123.6    118.8
 45-54 years..............  398.2    384.6    382.4    365.1    362.8
 55-64 years..............  928.0    895.9    882.6    864.9    814.7
 65-74 years..............1,804.5  1,734.7  1,738.4  1,673.1  1,659.7
 75-84 years..............3,457.5  3,375.7  3,450.0  3,407.3  3,371.6
 85 years and over........5,907.9  6,015.9  6,098.5  6,268.7  6,050.7
 ::
 White female
   All ages, age adjusted.  126.7    124.0    121.7    119.0    116.3
   All ages, crude........  321.5    319.3    320.7    319.0    317.1
 Under 1 year.............   19.3     20.3     18.3     19.1     19.4
 1-4 years................    2.1      2.0      1.6      2.1      1.7
 5-14 years...............    0.8      0.9      0.9      0.7      0.7
 15-24 years..............    1.6      1.8      1.7      1.6      1.7
 25-34 years..............    3.8      3.7      3.8      4.1      4.1
 35-44 years..............   14.5     14.1     14.3     13.8     13.1
 45-54 years..............   67.4     63.1     62.1      9.8     58.8
 55-64 years..............  237.5    231.6    225.8    221.4    217.1
 65-74 years..............  745.6    735.3    713.7    693.9    675.1
 75-84 years..............2,332.4  2,273.1  2,233.3  2,180.2  2,120.7
 85 years and over........7,133.7  7,044.7  7,089.3  7,021.3  6,924.6
 Black female
   All ages, age adjusted.  191.5    186.6    186.8    185.1    180.8
   All ages, crude........  248.1    244.6    248.1    250.8    248.3
 Under 1 year.............   45.6     45.1     39.5     42.8     36.4
 1-4 years................    3.6      4.3      5.2      4.8      4.4
 5-14 years...............    1.1      1.4      1.7      1.5      1.4
 15-24 years..............    4.4      4.3      4.6      4.6      4.4
 25-34 years..............   13.6     12.5     13.1     15.3     14.8
 35-44 years..............   53.0     52.8     50.4     50.1     46.5
 45-54 years..............  182.8    174.1    172.6    172.5    165.7
 55-64 years..............  517.7    499.6    500.4    479.0    469.9
 65-74 years..............1,159.8  1,127.1  1,133.6  1,108.3  1,090.2
 75-84 years..............2,660.1  2,618.9  2,606.0  2,623.5  2,566.3
 85 years and over........5,298.4  5,315.0  5,441.0  5,698.6  5,627.6
 1/Includes deaths of nonresidents of the United States.
 NOTE: For data years shown, the code numbers for cause of death are based on
       the then current International Classification of Diseases, which are
       described in Appendix II, tables IV and V.
 SOURCES: National Center for Health Statistics: Vital Statistics of the
          United States, Vol. II, Mortality, Part A, 1950-86. Public Health
          Service. Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office; Data computed
          by the Division of Analysis from data compiled by the Division of
          Vital Statistics and from table 1.
3Death rate cerebrovascular disease by sex/race/age:U.S. 1950-87
 Table 27. Death rates for cerebrovascular diseases, according to sex, race,
           and age: United States, selected years 1950-87
 (Data are based on the National Vital Statistics System)
      Sex, race, and age   19501/    19601/    1970     1980    1981     1982
 All races                      Deaths per 100,000 resident population
   All ages, age adjusted.   88.6     79.7      66.3     40.8    38.1     35.8
   All ages, crude........  104.0    108.0     101.9     75.1    71.3     68.0
 Under 1 year.............    5.1      4.1       5.0      4.4     3.7      3.7
 1-4 years................    0.9      0.8       1.0      0.5     0.3      0.3
 5-14 years...............    0.5      0.7       0.7      0.3     0.3      0.3
 15-24 years..............    1.6      1.8       1.6      1.0     0.9      0.7
 25-34 years..............    4.2      4.7       4.5      2.6     2.6      2.4
 35-44 years..............   18.7     14.7      15.6      8.5     8.4      7.7
 45-54 years..............   70.4     49.2      41.6     25.2    24.9     23.7
 55-64 years..............  195.3    147.3     115.8     65.2    62.9     58.9
 65-74 years..............  549.7    469.2     384.1    219.5   206.3    193.5
 75-84 years..............1,499.6  1,491.3   1,254.2    788.6   715.6    675.1
 85 years and over........2,990.1  3,680.5   3,014.3  2,288.9 2,126.8  2,000.8
 White male
   All ages, age adjusted.   87.0     80.3      68.8    41.9     38.9     36.6
   All ages, crude........  100.5    102.7      93.5    63.3     59.4     56.7
 Under 1 year.............    5.9      4.3       4.5     3.8      3.5      3.6
 1-4 years................    1.1      0.8       1.2     0.4      0.3      0.3
 5-14 years...............    0.5      0.7       0.8     0.2      0.3      0.3
 15-24 years..............    1.6      1.7       1.6     1.0      0.8      0.7
 25-34 years..............    3.4      3.5       3.2     2.0      2.1      2.0
 35-44 years..............   13.1     11.3      11.8     6.5      6.4      5.6
 45-54 years..............   53.7     40.9      35.6    21.7     20.5     20.2
 55-64 years..............  182.2    139.0     119.9    64.2     61.6     57.3
 65-74 years..............  569.7    501.0     420.0   240.4    225.3    211.5
 75-84 years..............1,556.3  1,564.8   1,361.6   854.8    775.6    727.3
 85 years and over........3,127.1  3,734.8   3,018.1 2,236.9  2,051.4  1,944.7
 Black male
   All ages, age adjusted.  146.2    141.2     122.5     77.5     72.7    68.9
   All ages, crude........  122.0    122.9     108.8     73.1     68.2    64.3
 Under 1 year.............  ---        8.5      12.3     11.2      9.1     7.7
 1-4 years................  ---        1.9       1.4      0.6      0.4     0.6
 5-14 years...............    0.7      0.9       0.8      0.5      0.3     0.5
 15-24 years..............    3.3      3.7       3.0      2.1      1.5     1.2
 25-34 years..............   12.0     12.8      14.6      7.7      7.2     6.3
 35-44 years..............   59.3     47.4      52.7     29.2     29.2    27.8
 45-54 years..............  211.9    166.1     136.1     82.1     84.2    76.6
 55-64 years..............  522.8    439.9     343.4    189.8    182.3   174.3
 65-74 years..............  783.6    899.2     780.1    472.8    437.0   428.1
 75-84 years..............  ---    1,475.2   1,445.7  1,067.6    943.9   881.7
 85 years and over........  ---    2,700.0   1,963.1  1,873.2  1,787.3 1,637.5
 ::
 White female
   All ages, age adjusted.   79.7     68.7      56.2     35.2     33.1     31.0
   All ages, crude........  103.3    110.1     109.8     88.8     85.1     81.7
 Under 1 year.............    2.9      2.6       3.2      3.3      2.3      2.1
 1-4 years................    0.6      0.5       0.6      0.4      0.3      0.2
 5-14 years...............    0.4      0.6       0.6      0.3      0.3      0.2
 15-24 years..............    1.2      1.4       1.1      0.7      0.8      0.6
 25-34 years..............    2.9      3.4       3.4      2.0      2.0      1.7
 35-44 years..............   13.6     10.1      11.5      6.7      6.7      5.9
 45-54 years..............   55.0     33.8      30.5     18.7     18.8     17.8
 55-64 years..............  156.9    103.0      78.1     48.7     47.7     44.0
 65-74 years..............  498.1    383.3     303.2    172.8    163.6    154.2
 75-84 years..............1,471.3  1,444.7   1,176.8    730.3    665.4    628.9
 85 years and over........3,017.9  3,795.7   3,167.6  2,367.8  2,206.0  2,074.5
 Black female
   All ages, age adjusted.  155.6    139.5     107.9     61.7     58.1     54.7
   All ages, crude........  128.3    127.7     112.2     77.9     74.4     70.6
 Under 1 year.............  ---        6.7       9.1      6.4      6.2      6.5
 1-4 years................  ---        1.3       1.4      0.5      0.3      0.6
 5-14 years...............   0.6       1.0       0.8      0.3      0.4      0.3
 15-24 years..............   4.2       3.4       3.0      1.7      1.6      1.4
 25-34 years..............  15.9      17.4      14.3      7.0      6.6      6.5
 35-44 years..............  75.0      57.4      49.1     21.6     21.0     21.1
 45-54 years.............. 248.9     166.2     119.4     61.9     59.9     56.7
 55-64 years.............. 567.7     452.0     272.4    138.7    129.8    127.5
 65-74 years.............. 754.4     830.5     673.5    362.2    345.1    305.3
 75-84 years..............  ---    1,413.1   1,338.3    918.6    828.3    800.8
 85 years and over........  ---    2,578.9   2,210.5  1,896.3  1,832.1  1,689.6
     Sex, race, and age     1983            1984      1985     1986     1987
          All races         Deaths per 100,000 resident population
   All ages, age adjusted.   34.4     33.4      32.3     31.0     30.3
   All ages, crude........   66.5     65.3      64.1     62.1     61.6
 Under 1 year.............    3.9      3.0       3.6      2.9      3.4
 1-4 years................    0.4      0.4       0.3      0.3      0.4
 5-14 years...............    0.3      0.3       0.2      0.2      0.2
 15-24 years..............    0.8      0.8       0.8      0.7      0.6
 25-34 years..............    2.2      2.2       2.1      2.2      2.2
 35-44 years..............    7.3      7.5       7.2      7.1      7.0
 45-54 years..............   22.8     22.6      21.1     20.4     20.1
 55-64 years..............   57.6     55.8      54.3     53.0     52.2
 65-74 years..............  182.2    177.0     171.3    164.1    157.2
 75-84 years..............  652.7    626.2     605.8    573.8    562.6
 85 years and over........1,912.5  1,883.8   1,837.5  1,762.6  1,733.1
 White male
   All ages, age adjusted.   35.2     33.9      32.8     31.1     30.3
   All ages, crude........   55.5     53.8      52.5     50.5     49.9
 Under 1 year.............    4.0      2.6       3.7      2.5      3.6
 1-4 years................    0.5      0.3       0.3      0.2      0.5
 5-14 years...............    0.2      0.2       0.2      0.2      0.2
 15-24 years..............    0.8      0.8       0.7      0.7      0.6
 25-34 years..............    1.9      1.8       1.8      1.8      1.8
 35-44 years..............    5.5      5.9       5.4      5.7      5.4
 45-54 years..............   19.1     19.3      18.0     16.5     16.7
 55-64 years..............   56.5     54.3      54.2     51.4     50.7
 65-74 years..............  197.1    190.4     183.7    171.4    165.4
 75-84 years..............  714.8    671.1     651.1    617.3    601.2
 85 years and over........1,862.9  1,846.4   1,747.8  1,697.0  1,663.1
 Black male
   All ages, age adjusted.   64.2     62.8      60.8     58.9     57.1
   All ages, crude........   61.3     60.0      58.5     57.1     55.7
 Under 1 year.............    7.5      8.2       9.8      8.0      5.9
 1-4 years................    0.2      0.8       0.8      0.5      0.5
 5-14 years...............    0.4      0.6       0.1      0.2      0.3
 15-24 years..............    1.4      1.2       1.3      1.1      0.9
 25-34 years..............    5.9      5.7       5.7      6.1      5.4
 35-44 years..............   24.3     26.0      25.9     27.2     27.1
 45-54 years..............   74.1     72.9      70.6     68.2     67.5
 55-64 years..............  163.8    159.0     151.6    144.3    143.9
 65-74 years..............  388.0    379.8     358.9    337.8    318.5
 75-84 years..............  844.1    819.5     817.6    809.9    777.6
 85 years and over........1,479.4  1,395.2   1,363.1  1,350.7  1,339.1
 ::
 White female
   All ages, age adjusted.   29.6     28.9      27.9     27.1     26.3
   All ages, crude........   79.8     79.2      78.1     76.2     75.8
 Under 1 year.............    2.5      2.6       2.2      1.8      2.0
 1-4 years................    0.2      0.3       0.3      0.2      0.3
 5-14 years...............    0.3      0.3       0.3      0.2      0.2
 15-24 years..............    0.7      0.6       0.7      0.6      0.6
 25-34 years..............    1.6      1.6       1.6      1.6      1.7
 35-44 years..............    5.6      5.6       5.3      5.0      5.1
 45-54 years..............   16.9     17.0      15.4     15.5     14.5
 55-64 years..............   42.6     42.0      39.7     40.1     38.7
 65-74 years..............  144.6    140.9     138.0    136.3    129.3
 75-84 years..............  602.0    580.9     559.4    530.7    524.0
 85 years and over........1,986.5  1,962.5   1,923.0  1,837.3  1,807.8
 Black female
   All ages, age adjusted.   53.8     51.8      50.3     47.6     46.7
   All ages, crude........   70.5     68.5      68.0     65.0     64.3
 Under 1 year.............    7.3      3.3       5.3      5.3      7.8
 1-4 years................    0.5      0.5       0.5      0.4      0.6
 5-14 years...............    0.4      0.4       0.3      0.3      0.2
 15-24 years..............    1.6      1.7       1.5      1.0      1.1
 25-34 years..............    5.1      6.1       5.6      6.0      5.8
 35-44 years..............   20.1     19.2      19.3     18.5     17.5
 45-54 years..............   55.7     50.3      49.8     46.4     47.2
 55-64 years..............  126.0    112.6     111.3    109.4    108.7
 65-74 years..............  308.4    304.6     281.5    268.5    261.2
 75-84 years..............  786.7    803.4     775.4    710.7    685.7
 85 years and over........1,603.1  1,470.7   1,585.6  1,504.1  1,480.9
 1/Includes deaths of nonresidents of the United States.
 NOTE: For data years shown, the code numbers for cause of death are based
       on the then current International Classification of Diseases, which
       are described in Appendix II, tables IV and V.
 SOURCES: National Center for Health Statistics: Vital Statistics of the
          United States, Vol. II, Mortality, Part A, 1950-86. Public Health
          Service. Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office; Data computed
          by the Division of Analysis from data compiled by the Division
          of Vital Statistics and from table 1.
3Death rate malignant neoplasm by sex/race/age:U.S. 1950-87
 Table 28. Death rates for malignant neoplasms, according to sex, race, and
           age: United States, selected years 1950-87
 (Data are based on the National Vital Statistics System)
    Sex, race, and age      19501/   19601/   1970     1980     1981     1982
         All races              Deaths per 100,000 resident population
   All ages, age adjusted.  125.3    125.8    129.8    132.8    131.6    132.5
   All ages, crude........  139.8    149.2    162.8    183.9    184.0    187.2
 Under 1 year.............    8.7      7.2      4.7      3.2      2.5      3.7
 1-4 years................   11.7     10.9      7.5      4.5      4.9      4.6
 5-14 years...............    6.7      6.8      6.0      4.3      4.1      4.1
 15-24 years..............    8.6      8.3      8.3      6.3      5.7      5.9
 25-34 years..............   20.0     19.5     16.5     13.7     13.0     13.2
 35-44 years..............   62.7     59.7     59.5     48.6     47.2     46.2
 45-54 years..............  175.1    177.0    182.5    180.0    178.1    176.0
 55-64 years..............  392.9    396.8    423.0    436.1    434.8    439.7
 65-74 years..............  692.5    713.9    751.2    817.9    814.8    824.9
 75-84 years..............1,153.3  1,127.4  1,169.2  1,232.3  1,221.8  1,238.7
 85 years and over........1,451.0  1,450.0  1,320.7  1,594.6  1,575.3  1,598.6
 White male
   All ages, age adjusted.  130.9    141.6    154.3    160.5    158.3    159.4
   All ages, crude........  147.2    166.1    185.1    208.7    207.9    211.7
 Under 1 year.............    9.6      7.9      4.3      3.5      2.5      3.5
 1-4 years................   13.1     13.1      8.5      5.4      5.5      5.2
 5-14 years...............    7.6      8.0      7.0      5.2      4.6      4.9
 15-24 years..............    9.9     10.3     10.6      7.8      6.8      6.8
 25-34 years..............   17.7     18.8     16.2     13.6     12.6     12.8
 35-44 years..............   44.5     46.3     50.1     41.1     39.7     39.3
 45-54 years..............  150.8    164.1    172.0    175.4    173.8    170.9
 55-64 years..............  409.4    450.9    498.1    497.4    494.4    497.3
 65-74 years..............  798.7    887.3    997.0  1,070.7  1,060.3  1,067.8
 75-84 years..............1,367.6  1,413.7  1,592.7  1,779.7  1,749.5  1,790.0
 85 years and over........1,732.7  1,791.4  1,772.2  2,375.6  2,358.7  2,413.4
 Black male
   All ages, age adjusted.  126.1    158.5    198.0    229.9    232.0    235.2
   All ages, crude........  106.6    136.7    171.6    205.5    206.3    208.2
 Under 1 year.............   ---       6.8      5.3      4.5      2.7      2.3
 1-4 years................   ---       7.9      7.6      5.1      4.5      4.0
 5-14 years...............    5.8      4.4      4.8      3.7      4.7      4.5
 15-24 years..............    7.9      9.7      9.4      8.1      7.0      6.9
 25-34 years..............   18.0     18.4     18.8     14.1     14.1     14.8
 35-44 years..............   55.7     72.9     81.3     73.8     75.8     70.6
 45-54 years..............  211.7    244.7    311.2    333.0    332.2    333.1
 55-64 years..............  490.8    579.7    689.2    812.5    814.8    838.2
 65-74 years..............  636.4    938.5  1,168.9  1,417.2  1,462.1  1,477.3
 75-84 years..............   ---   1,053.3  1,624.8  2,029.6  2,010.5  2,048.4
 85 years and over........   ---   1,155.2  1,387.0  2,393.9  2,383.6  2,566.1
 ::
 White female
   All ages, age adjusted.  119.4    109.5    107.6    107.7    107.2    108.2
   All ages, crude........  139.9    139.8    149.4    170.3    172.0    175.6
 Under 1 year.............    7.8      6.8      5.4      2.7      2.6      3.5
 1-4 years................   11.3      9.7      6.9      3.6      4.5      4.3
 5-14 years...............    6.3      6.2      5.4      3.7      3.5      3.5
 15-24 years..............    7.5      6.5      6.2      4.7      4.5      4.9
 25-34 years..............   20.9     18.8     16.3     13.5     12.9     12.9
 35-44 years..............   74.5     66.6     62.4     50.9     48.6     48.5
 45-54 years..............  185.8    175.7    177.3    166.4    165.5    163.5
 55-64 years..............  362.5    329.0    338.6    355.5    356.3    361.5
 65-74 years..............  616.5    562.1    554.7    605.2    605.7    618.4
 75-84 years..............1,026.6    939.3    903.5    905.4    907.8    913.0
 85 years and over........1,348.3  1,304.9  1,126.6  1,266.8  1,257.2  1,270.6
 Black female
   All ages, age adjusted.  131.9    127.8    123.5    129.7    127.1    128.7
   All ages, crude........  111.8    113.8    117.3    136.5    135.2    137.9
 Under 1 year.............   ---       6.7      3.3      3.0      0.7      3.1
 1-4 years................   ---       6.9      5.7      3.9      4.5      4.2
 5-14 years...............    3.9      4.8      4.0      3.4      4.0      3.5
 15-24 years..............    8.8      6.9      6.4      5.7      4.6      5.4
 25-34 years..............   34.3     31.0     20.9     18.3     17.4     17.9
 35-44 years..............  119.8    102.4     94.6     73.5     73.7     69.4
 45-54 years..............  277.0    254.8    228.6    230.2    217.4    216.7
 55-64 years..............  484.6    442.7    404.8    450.4    446.4    455.4
 65-74 years..............  477.3    541.6    615.8    662.4    656.2    674.9
 75-84 years..............   ---     696.3    763.3    923.9    916.2    944.3
 85 years and over........   ---     728.9    791.5  1,159.9  1,133.9  1,129.6
     Sex, race, and age     1983     1984     1985     1986     1987
         All races          Deaths per 100,000 resident population
   All ages, age adjusted.  132.6    133.5    133.6    133.2    132.9
   All ages, crude........  189.3    191.8    193.3    194.7    195.9
 Under 1 year.............    3.6      3.1      3.0      2.6      2.7
 1-4 years................    4.7      4.0      3.8      4.0      3.8
 5-14 years...............    3.9      3.6      3.5      3.4      3.3
 15-24 years..............    5.6      5.5      5.4      5.4      5.1
 25-34 years..............   12.8     13.0     13.1     13.1     12.4
 35-44 years..............   45.6     46.6     45.7     45.3     43.5
 45-54 years..............  172.2    170.5    169.1    165.7    164.3
 55-64 years..............  443.0    448.4    450.5    444.4    447.0
 65-74 years..............  829.3    835.1    838.3    847.0    843.6
 75-84 years..............1,254.7  1,272.3  1,281.0  1,287.3  1,298.4
 85 years and over........1,583.4  1,604.0  1,591.5  1,612.0  1,618.0
 White male
   All ages, age adjusted.  158.9    159.0    159.2    158.8    158.4
   All ages, crude........  213.8    215.1    217.2    218.8    220.5
 Under 1 year.............    3.5      2.7      3.1      3.0      2.7
 1-4 years................    5.3      4.4      4.4      4.7      4.1
 5-14 years...............    4.4      4.1      4.0      3.9      4.1
 15-24 years..............    6.7      6.8      6.5      6.8      6.0
 25-34 years..............   12.6     12.5     13.0     13.5     11.9
 35-44 years..............   38.3     38.5     39.5     37.7     36.7
 45-54 years..............  166.7    164.0    161.2    158.5    157.1
 55-64 years..............  499.5    504.5    508.4    504.3    509.8
 65-74 years..............1,063.7  1,064.1  1,061.2  1,063.3  1,061.1
 75-84 years..............1,805.3  1,806.9  1,820.1  1,827.0  1,826.6
 85 years and over........2,416.3  2,438.6  2,424.5  2,462.3  2,475.5
 Black male
   All ages, age adjusted.  232.2    234.9    231.6    229.0    227.9
   All ages, crude........  210.5    214.0    212.2    211.4    212.2
 Under 1 year.............    3.9      3.2      2.4      1.7      2.1
 1-4 years................    4.7      3.5      3.3      3.1      4.3
 5-14 years...............    4.1      3.6      3.6      3.8      2.7
 15-24 years..............    5.6      6.4      6.4      6.3      6.5
 25-34 years..............   14.7     15.8     14.7     14.2     14.3
 35-44 years..............   70.7     74.4     71.2     71.4     64.9
 45-54 years..............  315.5    314.1    313.6    303.6    296.7
 55-64 years..............  821.6    841.7    803.3    776.0    767.3
 65-74 years..............1,457.4  1,444.9  1,448.7  1,455.1  1,453.6
 75-84 years..............2,196.8  2,226.3  2,238.3  2,249.2  2,329.5
 85 years and over........2,219.0  2,471.4  2,507.7  2,620.9  2,659.4
 ::
 White female
   All ages, age adjusted.  108.5    109.9    110.3    110.1    109.7
   All ages, crude........  177.9    181.7    183.7    185.6    186.9
 Under 1 year.............    3.5      2.9      3.0      2.4      3.0
 1-4 years................    4.4      3.8      3.5      3.4      3.6
 5-14 years...............    3.4      3.0      3.1      3.1      2.8
 15-24 years..............    4.6      4.3      4.3      4.2      3.9
 25-34 years..............   12.3     12.8     12.6     12.1     12.3
 35-44 years..............   48.0     49.0     47.0     47.4     45.1
 45-54 years..............  160.0    160.0    160.6    155.6    154.9
 55-64 years..............  366.8    370.0    374.1    369.4    370.1
 65-74 years..............  627.4    638.6    645.3    658.7    654.0
 75-84 years..............  919.5    944.2    949.2    956.4    968.6
 85 years and over........1,265.7  1,284.3  1,270.9  1,283.6  1,291.0
 Black female
   All ages, age adjusted.  129.8    131.0    130.4    132.1    132.0
   All ages, crude........  140.7    142.9    143.9    146.7    147.8
 Under 1 year.............    3.3      2.5      4.3      2.8      1.8
 1-4 years................    3.1      3.1      2.5      4.3      2.6
 5-14 years...............    3.6      3.3      3.0      2.9      3.0
 15-24 years..............    5.0      4.3      4.3      4.7      5.3
 25-34 years..............   17.3     16.5     17.0     17.8     15.8
 35-44 years..............   68.9     74.3     69.5     72.2     72.9
 45-54 years..............  217.8    215.1    208.1    215.3    214.5
 55-64 years..............  452.9    462.2    465.4    451.6    457.3
 65-74 years..............  694.2    685.8    694.2    717.5    703.4
 75-84 years..............  972.4  1,013.7  1,014.6  1,017.9  1,045.5
 85 years and over........1,132.6  1,154.9  1,228.8  1,254.5  1,256.6
 1/Includes deaths of nonresidents of the United States.
 NOTE: For data years shown, the code numbers for cause of death are based
       on the then current International Classification of Diseases, which
       are described in Appendix II, tables IV and V.
 SOURCES: National Center for Health Statistics: Vital Statistics of the
          United States, Vol. II, Mortality, Part A, 1950-86. Public Health
          Service. Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office; Data computed
          by the Division of Analysis from data compiled by the Division of
          Vital Statistics and from table 1.
3Death rate malig neoplasm-respiratory sys:sex/race/age:U.S'50-87
 Table 29. Death rates for malignant neoplasms of respiratory system,
           according to sex, race, and age: United States, selected years
           1950-87
 (Data are based on the National Vital Statistics System)
      Sex, race, and age         19501/  19601/  1970    1980    1981    1982
           All races                  Deaths per 100,000 resident population
       All ages, age adjusted.   12.8    19.2     28.4    36.4    36.6    37.5
       All ages, crude........   14.1    22.2     34.2    47.9    48.5    50.2
 Under 1 year.................    0.1     0.2      0.1     0.2     0.2     0.2
 1-4 years....................    0.1     0.1      0.1     0.1     0.0     0.0
 5-14 years...................    0.1     0.0      0.0     0.0     0.0     0.1
 15-24 years..................    0.2     0.1      0.2     0.1     0.1     0.1
 25-34 years..................    0.9     1.1      1.0     0.8     0.7     0.8
 35-44 years..................    5.1     7.3     11.6     9.6     9.5     8.8
 45-54 years..................   22.9    32.0     46.2    56.5    56.7    56.0
 55-64 years..................   55.2    81.5    116.2   144.3   145.9   150.8
 65-74 years..................   69.3   117.2    174.6   243.1   245.3   254.6
 75-84 years..................   69.3   102.9    175.1   251.4   252.6   263.5
 85 years and over............   64.0    79.1    113.5   184.5   187.7   196.0
 White male
     All ages, age adjusted.     21.6    34.6     49.9    58.0    57.8    58.5
     All ages, crude........     24.1    39.6     58.3    73.4    73.7    75.5
 Under 1 year...............      0.2     0.1      0.2     0.2     0.1     0.1
 1-4 years..................      0.1     0.0      0.1     0.0     0.0     0.1
 5-14 years.................      0.1     0.0      0.0     0.0     0.0     0.1
 15-24 years................      0.3     0.2      0.2     0.2     0.2     0.1
 25-34 years................      1.2     1.6      1.4     0.9     0.9     0.9
 35-44 years................      7.9    10.4     15.4    11.2    11.1    10.1
 45-54 years................     39.1    53.0     67.6    74.3    74.6    72.4
 55-64 years................     95.9   149.8    199.3   215.0   212.8   216.8
 65-74 years................    119.4   225.1    344.8   418.4   415.1   424.1
 75-84 years................    109.1   191.9    360.7   516.1   515.8   534.1
 85 years and over..........    102.7   133.9    221.8   391.5   420.6   439.1
 Black male
     All ages, age adjusted.     16.9    36.6     60.8    82.0    84.1    85.8
     All ages, crude........     14.3    31.1     51.2    70.8    71.8    73.0
 Under 1 year...............      -       0.4      0.4     0.4     -       0.3
 1-4 years..................      -       0.1      0.1     0.2     -       -
 5-14 years.................      0.1     0.0      0.1     0.0     0.0     0.2
 15-24 years................      0.4     0.2      0.3     0.3     0.2     0.3
 25-34 years................      2.1     2.6      2.9     1.9     1.1     1.4
 35-44 years................      9.4    20.7     32.6    26.9    26.0    22.0
 45-54 years................     41.1    75.0    123.5   142.8   146.0   143.5
 55-64 years................     78.8   161.8    250.3   340.3   356.0   367.6
 65-74 years................     65.2   184.6    322.2   499.4   518.7   540.6
 75-84 years................     ---    126.3    290.6   499.6   486.2   505.7
 85 years and over..........     ---    110.3    154.4   337.7   343.6   385.7
 ::
 White female
     All ages, age adjusted.      4.6     5.1     10.1    18.2    18.8    20.0
     All ages, crude........      5.4     6.4     13.1    26.5    27.6    29.7
 Under 1 year...............      -       0.2      0.1     0.1     0.1     0.1
 1-4 years..................      0.1     0.1      0.1     0.1     0.0     0.0
 5-14 years.................      0.1     0.0      0.1     0.1     0.0     0.0
 15-24 years................      0.2     0.1      0.1     0.0     0.1     0.1
 25-34 years................      0.5     0.6      0.6     0.5     0.5     0.6
 35-44 years................      2.2     3.4      6.0     6.8     6.3     6.3
 45-54 years................      6.5     9.8     22.1    33.9    33.6    35.3
 55-64 years................     15.5    16.7     39.3    74.2    78.3    83.9
 65-74 years................     27.2    26.5     45.4   108.1   114.1   123.6
 75-84 years................     40.0    36.5     56.8    99.3   102.7   110.2
 85 years and over..........     44.0    45.2     57.4    96.8    92.0    96.1
 Black female
     All ages, age adjusted.      4.1     5.5     10.9    19.5    20.1    20.4
     All ages, crude........      3.4     4.9     10.1    19.3    19.8    20.5
 Under 1 year...............      -       -        -       0.4     -       0.3
 1-4 years..................      -       0.1      0.1     -       -       -
 5-14 years.................      -       0.1      -       0.0     -       0.0
 15-24 years................      0.3     -        0.1     0.1     0.1     0.0
 25-34 years................      1.2     0.8      0.5     0.8     0.6     0.7
 35-44 years................      2.7     3.4     10.5     7.9     9.7     9.9
 45-54 years................      8.8    12.8     25.3    46.4    46.4    40.4
 55-64 years................     15.3    20.7     36.4    83.8    89.1    92.8
 65-74 years................     16.4    20.7     49.3    91.7    89.6    98.0
 75-84 years................     ---     33.1     52.6    81.1    83.5    98.5
 85 years and over..........     ---     44.7     47.6    90.5    86.6    88.7
    Sex, race, and age          1983     1984     1985    1986    1987
        All races               Deaths per 100,000 resident population
       All ages, age adjusted.   37.9    38.4     38.8    39.0    39.7
       All ages, crude........   51.3    52.3     53.3    54.1    55.5
 Under 1 year.................    0.2     0.3      0.1     0.1     0.1
 1-4 years....................    0.1     0.1      0.0     0.0     0.0
 5-14 years...................    0.1     0.1      0.0     0.0     0.0
 15-24 years..................    0.1     0.1      0.1     0.1     0.1
 25-34 years..................    0.7     0.7      0.8     0.7     0.8
 35-44 years..................    8.9     8.2      8.1     7.9     7.7
 45-54 years..................   54.6    53.9     52.8    51.7    51.6
 55-64 years..................  151.8   156.1    158.4   157.8   160.4
 65-74 years..................  258.7   262.7    268.0   271.7   278.1
 75-84 years..................  278.3   286.4    294.5   303.9   313.3
 85 years and over............  191.6   199.3    202.0   214.9   221.8
 White male
     All ages, age adjusted.     58.0    58.4     58.2    58.0    58.6
     All ages, crude........     75.9    76.8     77.3    77.8    79.1
 Under 1 year...............      0.3     0.3      -       0.1     0.1
 1-4 years..................      0.1     0.0      0.0     0.0     -
 5-14 years.................      0.1     0.1      0.0     0.0     -
 15-24 years................      0.2     0.2      0.2     0.2     0.1
 25-34 years................      0.7     0.8      0.7     0.9     0.9
 35-44 years................     10.0     9.1      9.4     8.5     8.5
 45-54 years................     68.7    67.8     65.2    63.7    63.5
 55-64 years................    215.2   220.0    221.7   221.3   223.7
 65-74 years................    420.7   421.3    419.1   417.0   422.9
 75-84 years................    550.1   556.5    562.6   570.7   572.9
 85 years and over..........    435.9   446.8    459.1   477.5   495.4
 Black male
     All ages, age adjusted.     83.3    85.9     84.4    83.9    84.2
     All ages, crude........     72.6    75.5     74.5    74.6    75.5
 Under 1 year...............      0.4     1.1      0.3     -       0.7
 1-4 years..................      0.2     -        -       -       -
 5-14 years.................      0.0     0.0      0.0     -       -
 15-24 years................      0.2     0.2      0.3     0.2     0.2
 25-34 years................      1.5     1.6      1.9     1.4     1.8
 35-44 years................     23.0    23.6     22.8    22.3    19.6
 45-54 years................    137.7   131.8    132.1   131.3   126.8
 55-64 years................    346.2   373.0    352.1   337.3   333.3
 65-74 years................    530.3   529.3    534.8   542.3   562.8
 75-84 years................    536.8   576.5    581.3   606.5   629.9
 85 years and over..........    309.5   423.8    390.8   456.7   459.4
 ::
 White female
     All ages, age adjusted.     21.0    21.6     22.6    23.1    23.8
     All ages, crude........     31.5    32.8     34.6    35.9    37.5
 Under 1 year...............      0.1     0.1      0.2     0.2     0.1
 1-4 years..................      0.1     0.1      0.1     -       0.1
 5-14 years.................      0.0     0.0      0.0     0.0     0.0
 15-24 years................      0.1     0.1      0.1     0.1     0.1
 25-34 years................      0.5     0.6      0.6     0.5     0.6
 35-44 years................      6.6     5.9      5.6     5.8     5.7
 45-54 years................     35.3    35.6     36.0    34.9    35.0
 55-64 years................     87.8    89.9     94.2    94.9    98.1
 65-74 years................    132.3   139.2    149.1   156.0   161.1
 75-84 years................    122.2   129.9    140.3   149.0   161.7
 85 years and over..........     96.7   102.5    102.1   113.8   117.6
 Black female
     All ages, age adjusted.     22.0    21.4     22.5    23.3    24.3
     All ages, crude........     22.3    21.9     23.3    24.3    25.4
 Under 1 year...............      -       -        0.4     -       -
 1-4 years..................      0.1     0.1      -       -       0.1
 5-14 years.................      0.0     0.0      0.0     -       0.0
 15-24 years................      -       0.1      0.1     0.1     0.1
 25-34 years................      0.7     0.6      1.0     0.6     0.4
 35-44 years................      8.7     7.7      7.7     8.6     8.9
 45-54 years................     45.4    42.4     40.7    42.8    43.9
 55-64 years................     97.2    98.4    105.6   102.4   107.0
 65-74 years................    110.6   106.1    118.9   130.9   136.5
 75-84 years................    108.5   112.3    108.6   123.5   129.9
 85 years and over..........     96.9    86.5    112.2   102.1   110.5
 1/Includes deaths of nonresidents of the United States.
 NOTE: For data years shown, the code numbers for cause of death are based
       on the then current International Classification of Diseases, which
       are described in Appendix II, tables IV and V.
 SOURCES: National Center for Health Statistics: Vital Statistics of the
          United States, Vol. II, Mortality, Part A, 1950-86. Public Health
          Service. Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office; Data
          computed by the Division of Analysis from data compiled by the
          Division of Vital Statistics and from table 1.
3Death rate malignant neoplasm-female breast:race/age:U.s.'50-87
 Table 30. Death rates for malignant neoplasm of breast for females, according
           to race and age: United States, selected years 1950-87
 (Data are based on the National Vital Statistics System)
      Race and age           19501/    19601/    1970    1980    1981    1982
        All races                 Deaths per 100,000 resident population
       All ages, age adjusted. 22.2      22.3    23.1    22.7    22.7    22.8
       All ages, crude........ 24.7      26.1    28.4    30.6    30.9    31.4
 Under 25 years...............  0.1      0.1      0.0     0.0     0.0     0.1
 25-34 years..................  3.8      3.8      3.9     3.3     3.3     3.4
 35-44 years.................. 20.8     20.2     20.4    17.9    17.4    17.3
 45-54 years.................. 46.9     51.4     52.6    48.1    48.1    47.2
 55-64 years.................. 70.4     70.8     77.6    80.5    79.1    80.2
 65-74 years.................. 94.0     90.0     93.8   101.1   104.4   103.8
 75-84 years..................139.8    129.9    127.4   126.4   126.6   130.9
 85 years and over............195.5    191.9    157.1   169.3   171.9   178.1
 White
      All ages, age adjusted.  22.5     22.4     23.4    22.8    22.8    22.8
      All ages, crude........  25.7     27.2     29.9    32.3    32.7    33.1
 Under 25 years...............  0.1      0.0      0.0     0.0     0.0     0.0
 25-34 years..................  3.7      3.6      3.7     3.0     3.1     3.2
 35-44 years.................. 20.8     19.7     20.2    17.3    16.8    17.0
 45-54 years.................. 47.1     51.2     53.0    48.1    48.2    46.5
 55-64 years.................. 70.9     71.8     79.3    81.3    79.9    80.8
 65-74 years.................. 96.3     91.6     95.9   103.7   106.6   105.4
 75-84 years..................143.6    132.8    129.6   128.4   128.8   133.0
 85 years and over............204.2    199.7    161.9   171.7   174.0   181.9
 Black
       All ages, age adjusted.  19.3    21.3     21.5    23.3    23.7    24.6
       All ages, crude........  16.4    18.7     19.7    22.9    23.5    24.5
 Under 25 years...............   0.1     0.2      0.1     0.0     0.1     0.1
 25-34 years..................   4.9     6.1      5.9     5.3     5.2     5.2
 35-44 years..................  21.0    24.8     24.4    24.1    23.7    22.3
 45-54 years..................  46.5    54.4     52.0    52.7    53.1    57.7
 55-64 years..................  64.3    63.2     64.7    79.9    79.4    83.0
 65-74 years..................  67.0    72.3     77.3    84.3    92.0    97.1
 75-84 years.................. ---      87.5    101.8   114.1   112.6   122.0
 85 years and over............ ---      92.1    112.1   149.9   158.0   145.2
        Race and age           1983     1984     1985     1986    1987
          All races            Deaths per 100,000 resident population
       All ages, age adjusted.  22.7    23.2     23.2     23.1    22.9
       All ages, crude........  31.6    32.5     32.7     32.8    32.8
 Under 25 years...............   0.1     0.0      0.0      0.0     0.0
 25-34 years..................   3.2     3.3      3.0      3.1     3.1
 35-44 years..................  16.6    18.5     17.5     18.3    17.5
 45-54 years..................  45.9    45.8     46.7     45.4    45.4
 55-64 years..................  81.9    82.0     83.6     80.9    80.7
 65-74 years.................. 104.9   108.0    107.7    109.9   108.3
 75-84 years.................. 130.9   136.2    137.7    136.2   137.8
 85 years and over............ 175.1   180.0    175.9    180.0   176.5
 White
       All ages, age adjusted.  22.7    23.1     23.3     23.0    22.8
       All ages, crude........  33.3    34.2     34.6     34.6    34.5
 Under 25 years...............   0.1     0.0      0.0      0.0     0.0
 25-34 years..................   3.0     3.1      2.8      2.7     2.9
 35-44 years..................  16.0    17.4     16.7     17.3    16.4
 45-54 years..................  45.3    45.3     46.5     44.4    44.3
 55-64 years..................  82.8    82.2     84.2     81.8    81.3
 65-74 years.................. 106.9   110.1    110.0    112.4   110.6
 75-84 years.................. 133.1   138.3    140.4    139.7   140.5
 85 years and over............ 178.6   183.7    178.9    182.7   179.2
 Black
       All ages, age adjusted.  24.4    26.1     25.3     25.8    26.5
       All ages, crude........  24.4    26.3     25.6     26.2    27.2
 Under 25 years...............   0.1     0.0      0.1      0.1     0.1
 25-34 years..................   4.6     5.0      4.4      5.6     4.7
 35-44 years..................  23.8    28.9     26.3     28.3    28.9
 45-54 years..................  55.3    55.5     54.4     59.1    60.1
 55-64 years..................  82.9    90.5     88.5     83.6    88.2
 65-74 years..................  95.0   100.1     99.3    100.5   101.0
 75-84 years.................. 120.6   128.2    121.0    112.1   125.3
 85 years and over............ 143.4   149.6    152.5    162.1   162.5
  NOTE: For data years shown, the code numbers for cause of death are based on
        the then current International Classification of Diseases, which are
        described in Appendix II, tables IV and V.
 SOURCES: National Center for Health Statistics: Vital Statistics of the
          United States, Vol. II, Mortality, Part A, 1950-86. Public Health
          Service. Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office; Data computed
          by the Division of Analysis from data compiled by the Division of
          Vital Statistics and from table 1.
3Maternal mortality: complication-pregnancy/birth:race/age:'50-87
 Table 31. Maternal mortality rates for complications of pregnancy,
           childbirth, and the puerperium, according to race and age: United
           States, selected years 1950-87
 (Data are based on the National Vital Statistics System)
        Race and age           19501/ 19601/  1970   1980   1981   1982
        All races                 Deaths per 100,000 live births
    All ages, age adjusted..... 73.7   32.1   21.5    9.4    8.9    8.0
    All ages, crude............ 83.3   37.1   21.5    9.2    8.5    7.9
 Under 20 years................ 70.7   22.7   18.9    7.6    7.6    6.5
 20-24 years................... 47.6   20.7   13.0    5.8    6.5    4.5
 25-29 years................... 63.5   29.8   17.0    7.7    6.6    7.6
 30-34 years...................107.7   50.3   31.6   13.6   11.4   11.4
 35 years and over2/...........222.0  104.3   81.9   36.3   28.7   24.2
        White
       All ages, age adjusted.. 53.1   22.4   14.5    6.8    6.5    5.7
       All ages, crude......... 61.1   26.0   14.4    6.7    6.3    5.8
 Under 20 years................ 44.9   14.8   13.9    5.9   *4.3   *4.1
 20-24 years................... 35.7   15.3    8.4    4.3    5.3    3.1
 25-29 years................... 45.0   20.3   11.2    5.5    5.1    5.5
 30-34 years................... 75.9   34.3   18.8    9.4    8.7    9.1
 35 years and over2/...........174.1   73.9   59.6   25.8   19.8   17.2
        Black
       All ages, age adjusted..  ---   92.0   64.3   23.9   22.1   20.0
       All ages, crude.........  ---  103.6   59.8   21.5   20.4   18.2
 Under 20 years................  ---   54.8   31.8   12.8   16.8  *12.3
 20-24 years...................  ---   56.9   41.0   13.4   13.0   11.6
 25-29 years...................  ---   92.8   63.8   21.4   17.9   22.3
 30-34 years...................  ---  150.6  115.6   41.9   34.2  *22.9
 35 years and over2/...........  ---  299.5  204.7   96.5   83.1  *70.5
      Race and age              1983   1984   1985   1986   1987
        All races                 Deaths per 100,000 live births
       All ages, age adjusted..  7.9    7.3    7.6    7.0    6.1
       All ages, crude.........  8.0    7.8    7.8    7.2    6.6
 Under 20 years................  5.4    6.3    6.9    5.9    5.1
 20-24 years...................  7.5    4.3    5.4    5.7    4.8
 25-29 years...................  6.6    6.9    6.4    5.8    5.3
 30-34 years...................  9.1   11.5    8.9    7.8    8.9
 35 years and over2/........... 20.7   21.9   25.0   21.4   15.1
        White
       All ages, age adjusted..  5.8    4.9    5.0    4.7    4.9
       All ages, crude.........  5.9    5.4    5.2    4.9    5.1
 Under 20 years................ *4.4   *4.3   *4.3   *4.1   *5.4
 20-24 years...................  4.9   *2.0    3.4    3.7    3.9
 25-29 years...................  5.2    5.7    4.7    3.6    3.9
 30-34 years...................  6.0    7.8    5.2    5.2    6.0
 35 years and over2/........... 17.3   16.0   17.8   16.1   11.8
        Black
       All ages, age adjusted.. 19.3   20.5   21.0   19.3   14.3
       All ages, crude......... 18.3   19.7   20.4   18.8   14.2
 Under 20 years................ *7.0  *11.4  *12.1  *10.6   *4.1
 20-24 years................... 20.2   15.2   14.0   13.9    9.4
 25-29 years................... 16.0   15.6   18.4   19.3   14.3
 30-34 years................... 31.1   37.9   35.8   29.0   30.9
 35 years and over2/...........*41.4  *67.6   72.6  *58.6  *43.1
 1/Includes deaths of nonresidents of the United States.
 2/Rates computed by relating deaths of women 35 years and over to live births
 to women 35-49 years.
 *Based on fewer than 20 deaths.
 NOTE: For data years shown, the code numbers for cause of death are based on
       the then current International Classification of Diseases, which are
       described in Appendix II, tables IV and V.
 SOURCES: National Center for Health Statistics: Vital Statistics of the
          United States, Vol. II, Mortality, Part A, 1950-86. Public Health
          Service. Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office; Vital
          Statistics of the United States, Vol. I, ty, 1950-86. Public
          Health Service. Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office; Data
          computed by the Division of Analysis from data compiled by the
          Division of Vital Statistics; U.S. Bureau of the Census: Population
          estimates and projections. Current Population Reports. Series P-25,
          No. 499. Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office, May 1973.
3Death rate motor vehicle accidents by sex/race/age:U.S. 1950-87
 Table 32. Death rates for motor vehicle accidents, according to sex, race
           and age: United States, selected years 1950-87
 (Data are based on the National Vital Statistics System)
      Sex, race, and age       19501/ 19601/   1970   1980   1981   1982
           All races             Deaths per 100,000 resident population
       All ages, age adjusted.   23.3   22.5   27.4   22.9   21.8   19.3
       All ages, crude........   23.1   21.3   26.9   23.5   22.4   19.8
 Under 1 year.................    8.4    8.1    9.8    7.0    6.1    5.8
 1-4 years....................   11.5   10.0   11.5    9.2    7.8    7.9
 5-14 years...................    8.8    7.9   10.2    7.9    7.5    6.8
 15-24 years..................   34.4   38.0   47.2   44.8   41.2   36.9
 25-34 years..................   24.6   24.3   30.9   29.1   28.6   24.1
 35-44 years..................   20.3   19.3   24.9   20.9   20.2   17.7
 45-54 years..................   22.2   21.4   25.5   18.6   17.8   15.7
 55-64 years..................   29.2   25.1   27.9   17.4   17.3   15.2
 65-74 years..................   38.8   31.4   32.8   19.2   19.4   17.5
 75-84 years..................   52.7   41.8   43.5   28.1   27.3   25.2
 85 years and over............   45.1   37.9   34.2   27.6   25.8   23.7
          White male
     All ages, age adjusted...   35.9   34.0   40.1   34.8   33.4   29.3
     All ages, crude..........   35.1   31.5   39.1   35.9   34.5   30.1
 Under 1 year.................    9.1    8.8    9.1    7.0    6.2    5.9
 1-4 years....................   13.2   11.3   12.2    9.5    8.1    8.2
 5-14 years...................   12.0   10.3   12.6    9.8    9.9    8.5
 15-24 years..................   58.3   62.7   75.2   73.8   67.6   60.8
 25-34 years..................   39.1   38.6   47.0   46.6   46.3   38.5
 35-44 years..................   30.9   28.4   35.2   30.7   29.9   26.3
 45-54 years..................   31.6   29.7   34.6   26.3   25.5   22.4
 55-64 years..................   41.9   34.4   39.0   23.9   24.0   20.8
 65-74 years..................   59.1   45.5   46.2   25.8   26.3   23.1
 75-84 years..................   86.4   66.8   69.2   43.6   43.8   39.6
 85 years and over............   79.3   61.9   65.5   57.3   54.5   48.4
          Black male
     All ages, age adjusted...   39.8   38.2   50.1   32.9   30.7   27.2
     All ages, crude..........   37.2   33.1   44.3   31.1   28.8   25.9
 Under 1 year.................    ---    6.8   10.6    7.8    6.0    5.0
 1-4 years....................    ---   12.7   16.9   13.7    9.7   11.1
 5-14 years...................    9.7   10.4   16.1   10.5    9.3    8.6
 15-24 years..................   41.6   46.4   58.1   34.9   30.8   29.2
 25-34 years..................   57.4   51.0   70.4   44.9   42.2   36.6
 35-44 years..................   45.9   43.6   59.5   41.2   40.0   33.9
 45-54 years..................   49.9   48.1   61.4   39.1   39.0   33.9
 55-64 years..................   58.8   47.3   62.1   40.3   35.6   31.8
 65-74 years..................   48.5   46.1   54.9   41.8   42.4   33.7
 75-84 years..................    ---   51.8   51.6   46.5   43.9   39.8
 85 years and over............    ---   58.6   45.7   34.0   36.4   37.5
         White female
     All ages, age adjusted...   10.6   11.1   14.4   12.3   11.7   10.5
     All ages, crude..........   10.9   11.2   14.8   12.8   12.3   11.0
 Under 1 year.................    7.8    7.5   10.2    7.1    6.5    5.6
 1-4 years....................   10.1    8.3    9.6    7.7    6.8    7.0
 5-14 years...................    5.6    5.3    6.9    5.7    5.1    5.0
 15-24 years..................   12.6   15.6   22.7   23.0   21.8   18.9
 25-34 years..................    9.0    9.0   12.7   12.2   12.4   10.6
 35-44 years..................    8.1    8.9   12.3   10.6    9.9    8.8
 45-54 years..................   10.8   11.4   14.3   10.2    9.5    8.5
 55-64 years..................   15.0   15.3   16.1   10.5   10.7    9.3
 65-74 years..................   20.9   19.3   22.1   13.4   13.3   12.6
 75-84 years..................   25.4   23.8   28.1   19.0   18.0   17.3
 85 years and over............   22.3   22.2   18.1   15.3   14.7   13.9
         Black female
     All ages, age adjusted...   10.3   10.0   13.8    8.4    7.7    7.5
     All ages, crude..........   10.2    9.7   13.4    8.3    7.7    7.6
 Under 1 year.................    ---    8.1   11.9    5.3    3.1    4.8
 1-4 years....................    ---    8.8   12.6    9.5    8.7    7.8
 5-14 years...................    6.2    5.9    9.3    5.2    5.2    5.6
 15-24 years..................   11.5    9.9   13.4    8.0    7.7    7.8
 25-34 years..................   10.7    9.8   13.3   10.6    8.2    8.8
 35-44 years..................   11.1   11.0   16.1    8.3    7.7    7.8
 45-54 years..................   10.6   11.8   16.4    9.1    8.2    7.1
 55-64 years..................   14.0   14.0   17.0    9.3    9.3    7.9
 65-74 years..................   12.7   14.2   16.3    8.5   10.2    9.1
 75-84 years..................    ---    8.8   14.4   11.1   11.8    8.5
 85 years and over............    ---   21.1   15.4   12.3    6.3    9.6
      Sex, race, and age         1983   1984   1985   1986   1987
           All races          Deaths per 100,000 resident population
       All ages, age adjusted.   18.5   19.1   18.8   19.4   19.5
       All ages, crude........   19.0   19.6   19.2   19.9   19.8
 Under 1 year.................    5.2    4.4    4.8    4.9    5.3
 1-4 years....................    7.5    6.9    7.1    7.0    6.8
 5-14 years...................    6.6    6.7    6.8    6.9    7.0
 15-24 years..................   35.1   36.7   36.1   39.0   37.8
 25-34 years..................   23.4   23.8   22.8   24.2   24.2
 35-44 years..................   16.8   17.1   17.1   16.6   17.3
 45-54 years..................   15.3   15.4   15.2   15.1   15.4
 55-64 years..................   14.7   15.7   15.5   15.1   15.6
 65-74 years..................   17.1   18.0   17.7   17.9   18.5
 75-84 years..................   26.0   28.2   27.6   28.8   29.3
 85 years and over............   25.0   25.0   26.1   25.3   27.1
          White male
     All ages, age adjusted...   27.8   28.4   27.6   28.7   28.4
     All ages, crude..........   28.5   29.1   28.2   29.2   28.8
 Under 1 year.................    5.7    3.9    4.5    4.1    4.3
 1-4 years....................    8.3    7.5    7.6    7.0    7.2
 5-14 years...................    8.4    8.4    8.5    8.7    9.1
 15-24 years..................   57.0   59.1   57.4   62.6   59.2
 25-34 years..................   37.0   37.3   35.5   37.3   36.8
 35-44 years..................   24.3   24.3   24.1   23.7   24.4
 45-54 years..................   21.2   21.7   20.9   20.8   20.6
 55-64 years..................   19.9   20.9   20.6   19.9   20.8
 65-74 years..................   22.5   24.0   21.7   22.4   24.0
 75-84 years..................   39.8   41.8   41.2   42.9   43.4
 85 years and over............   54.7   52.6   56.4   51.6   58.6
          Black male
     All ages, age adjusted...   26.4   27.2   27.7   29.2   28.5
     All ages, crude..........   25.2   26.4   26.7   28.6   27.7
 Under 1 year.................    3.6    5.7    5.9    8.0    8.3
 1-4 years....................   10.9    9.8   10.7   10.7    9.9
 5-14 years...................    8.5    8.7    8.9    9.6    9.2
 15-24 years..................   28.3   31.9   32.1   35.3   36.2
 25-34 years..................   35.9   36.8   37.2   41.7   38.2
 35-44 years..................   33.6   33.8   35.4   35.1   35.2
 45-54 years..................   32.4   28.5   29.9   31.4   32.4
 55-64 years..................   31.2   31.5   34.3   31.9   30.1
 65-74 years..................   29.6   35.5   30.0   27.2   31.2
 75-84 years..................   41.7   45.0   42.2   53.1   36.2
 85 years and over............   28.6   57.1   36.9   62.7   40.6
         White female
     All ages, age adjusted...   10.3   10.9   10.8   11.0   11.4
     All ages, crude..........   10.8   11.5   11.4   11.5   11.9
 Under 1 year.................    4.8    4.4    3.9    4.6    5.8
 1-4 years....................    6.0    5.4    5.7    6.0    5.9
 5-14 years...................    4.7    5.1    5.2    4.9    4.9
 15-24 years..................   18.8   20.1   20.1   21.5   21.7
 25-34 years..................   10.7   11.0   10.0   10.8   11.6
 35-44 years..................    8.8    9.4    9.4    8.4    9.3
 45-54 years..................    8.5    8.9    8.9    8.5    9.2
 55-64 years..................    9.3   10.3    9.9    9.6   10.4
 65-74 years..................   12.6   13.0   14.3   14.4   13.7
 75-84 years..................   17.9   20.6   19.9   20.5   22.0
 85 years and over............   14.0   13.8   15.1   14.7   15.9
         Black female
     All ages, age adjusted...    7.5    7.6    8.2    8.5    8.7
     All ages, crude..........    7.6    7.8    8.3    8.5    8.8
 Under 1 year.................    5.1    5.1    7.8    5.3    5.3
 1-4 years....................    8.0    6.9    6.8    6.9    7.5
 5-14 years...................    4.3    4.4    4.3    4.8    4.7
 15-24 years..................    8.6    8.4    9.1    9.1    9.5
 25-34 years..................    7.4    9.0    9.2   10.3   11.1
 35-44 years..................    7.3    8.6    9.1    8.7    9.2
 45-54 years..................    8.7    6.4    8.2    8.7    9.0
 55-64 years..................    8.1    8.5    9.5   10.9    8.8
 65-74 years..................    9.6    9.7    9.6    9.7   11.8
 75-84 years..................   15.1   13.7   15.0   10.0   10.9
 85 years and over............    7.8    9.8    9.4   11.0    7.2
 1/Includes deaths of nonresidents of the United States.
 NOTE: For data years shown, the code numbers for cause of death are based
       on the then current International Classification of Diseases, which
       are described in Appendix II, tables IV and V.
 SOURCES: National Center for Health Statistics: Vital Statistics of the
          United States, Vol. II, Mortality, Part A, 1950-86. Public Health
          Service. Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office; Data
          computed by the Division of Analysis from data compiled by the
          Division of Vital Statistics and from table 1.
3Death rate homicide/legal intervention:sex/race/age:U.S. 1950-87
 Table 33. Death rates for homicide and legal intervention, according to
           sex, race, and age: United States, selected years 1950-87
 (Data are based on the National Vital Statistics System)
      Sex, race, and age      19501/ 19601/   1970   1980   1981   1982
           All races             Deaths per 100,000 resident population
       All ages, age adjusted.   5.4    5.2    9.1   10.8   10.4    9.7
       All ages, crude........   5.3    4.7    8.3   10.7   10.3    9.6
 Under 1 year.................   4.4    4.8    4.3    5.9    6.1    6.7
 1-4 years....................   0.6    0.7    1.9    2.5    2.6    2.7
 5-14 years...................   0.5    0.5    0.9    1.2    1.3    1.2
 15-24 years..................   6.3    5.9   11.7   15.6   14.7   13.7
 25-34 years..................   9.9    9.7   16.6   19.6   18.5   17.3
 35-44 years..................   8.8    8.1   13.7   15.1   14.4   13.3
 45-54 years..................   6.1    6.2   10.1   11.1   11.3   10.2
 55-64 years..................   4.0    4.2    7.1    7.0    7.1    6.5
 65-74 years..................   3.2    2.8    5.0    5.7    4.8    4.9
 75-84 years..................   2.6    2.4    4.0    5.2    5.3    4.7
 85 years and over............   2.3    2.4    4.2    5.3    5.3    5.8
          White male
     All ages, age adjusted...   3.9    3.9    7.3   10.9   10.3    9.5
     All ages, crude..........   3.9    3.6    6.8   10.9   10.4    9.6
 Under 1 year.................   4.3    3.8    2.9    4.3    4.7    5.8
 1-4 years....................   0.4    0.6    1.4    2.0    1.6    1.9
 5-14 years...................   0.4    0.4    0.5    0.9    0.9    0.8
 15-24 years..................   3.7    4.4    7.9   15.5   14.4   13.1
 25-34 years..................   5.4    6.2   13.0   18.9   17.6   16.2
 35-44 years..................   6.4    5.5   11.0   15.5   15.1   13.9
 45-54 years..................   5.5    5.0    9.0   11.9   12.1   10.9
 55-64 years..................   4.4    4.3    7.7    7.8    7.9    7.1
 65-74 years..................   4.1    3.4    5.6    6.9    5.2    5.0
 75-84 years..................   3.5    2.7    5.1    6.3    5.1    5.2
 85 years and over............   1.8    2.7    6.4    6.4    7.9    8.2
          Black male
     All ages, age adjusted...  51.1   44.9   82.1   71.9   69.2   62.3
     All ages, crude..........  47.3   36.6   67.6   66.6   64.8   59.1
 Under 1 year.................   ---   10.3   14.3   18.6   11.1   16.1
 1-4 years....................   ---    1.7    5.1    7.2    8.9    8.7
 5-14 years...................   1.8    1.4    4.2    2.9    4.1    3.4
 15-24 years..................  58.9   46.4  102.5   84.3   78.2   72.0
 25-34 years.................. 110.5   92.0  158.5  145.1  136.9  124.3
 35-44 years..................  83.7   77.5  126.2  110.3  106.1   91.4
 45-54 years..................  54.6   54.8  100.5   83.8   83.8   74.1
 55-64 years..................  35.7   31.8   59.8   55.6   53.4   49.3
 65-74 years..................  18.7   19.1   40.6   33.9   36.3   36.6
 75-84 years..................   ---   16.1   19.0   27.6   33.5   24.8
 85 years and over............   ---   10.3   19.6   17.0   29.1   19.6
         White female
     All ages, age adjusted...   1.4    1.5    2.2    3.2    3.1    3.1
     All ages, crude..........   1.4    1.4    2.1    3.2    3.1    3.1
 Under 1 year.................   3.9    3.5    2.9    4.3    4.9    4.2
 1-4 years....................   0.6    0.5    1.2    1.5    1.8    1.7
 5-14 years...................   0.4    0.3    0.5    1.0    1.0    1.0
 15-24 years..................   1.3    1.5    2.7    4.7    4.3    4.4
 25-34 years..................   1.9    2.0    3.4    4.3    4.3    4.3
 35-44 years..................   2.2    2.2    3.2    4.1    3.6    4.0
 45-54 years..................   1.6    1.9    2.2    3.0    3.2    2.9
 55-64 years..................   1.3    1.5    2.0    2.1    2.2    2.2
 65-74 years..................   1.1    1.1    1.7    2.5    2.1    2.4
 75-84 years..................   1.2    1.2    2.5    3.3    3.6    2.9
 85 years and over............   1.9    1.5    1.9    4.0    3.3    3.9
         Black female
     All ages, age adjusted...  11.7   11.8   15.0   13.7   12.9   12.0
     All ages, crude..........  11.5   10.4   13.3   13.5   12.7   12.0
 Under 1 year.................   ---   13.8   10.7   12.8   13.1   13.3
 1-4 years....................   ---    1.7    6.3    6.4    5.7    6.4
 5-14 years...................   1.2    1.0    2.0    2.2    2.3    2.0
 15-24 years..................  16.5   11.9   17.7   18.4   16.9   15.3
 25-34 years..................  26.6   24.9   25.6   25.8   23.2   21.0
 35-44 years..................  17.8   20.5   25.1   17.7   16.3   16.1
 45-54 years..................   8.5   12.7   17.5   12.5   11.9   11.5
 55-64 years..................   3.6    6.8    8.1    8.9   11.2    8.0
 65-74 years..................   3.4    3.3    7.7    8.6    6.6    8.1
 75-84 years..................   ---    2.5    5.7    6.7    9.2    8.8
 85 years and over............   ---    2.6    9.8    8.5    4.5   12.2
      Sex, race, and age        1983   1984   1985   1986   1987
           All races         Deaths per 100,000 resident population
       All ages, age adjusted.   8.6    8.4    8.3    9.0    8.6
       All ages, crude........   8.6    8.4    8.3    9.0    8.7
 Under 1 year.................   5.3    6.5    5.3    7.4    7.2
 1-4 years....................   2.3    2.4    2.4    2.7    2.3
 5-14 years...................   1.0    1.3    1.2    1.1    1.2
 15-24 years..................  12.4   12.0   12.1   14.2   14.0
 25-34 years..................  15.4   14.7   14.7   16.1   15.1
 35-44 years..................  11.8   11.3   11.3   11.4   10.8
 45-54 years..................   8.7    8.5    8.1    8.3    7.7
 55-64 years..................   6.1    5.8    5.7    5.4    5.5
 65-74 years..................   4.3    4.2    4.3    4.4    4.3
 75-84 years..................   4.9    4.4    4.3    4.6    4.8
 85 years and over............   5.0    4.3    4.1    4.7    5.1
          White male
     All ages, age adjusted...   8.4    8.2    8.1    8.4    7.7
     All ages, crude..........   8.6    8.3    8.2    8.6    7.9
 Under 1 year.................   3.3    4.9    3.7    5.4    6.0
 1-4 years....................   1.7    1.9    1.9    1.9    1.8
 5-14 years...................   0.9    0.9    1.1    0.9    0.8
 15-24 years..................  11.5   11.1   11.2   12.5   11.2
 25-34 years..................  14.9   14.1   13.9   14.6   13.2
 35-44 years..................  12.4   11.8   11.5   11.6   10.2
 45-54 years..................   9.1    9.4    8.6    8.6    8.3
 55-64 years..................   6.4    6.3    6.3    6.0    6.3
 65-74 years..................   4.6    4.2    4.5    4.3    4.2
 75-84 years..................   4.6    4.2    4.5    4.6    4.9
 85 years and over............   5.6    5.3    3.9    4.4    5.4
          Black male
     All ages, age adjusted...  53.8   50.8   49.9   55.9   53.8
     All ages, crude..........  51.4   48.7   48.4   55.0   53.3
 Under 1 year.................  14.0   20.1   16.0   22.5   19.4
 1-4 years....................   7.2    5.0    6.5    9.3    4.8
 5-14 years...................   3.1    3.2    3.2    3.2    4.3
 15-24 years..................  66.8   61.5   66.1   79.2   85.6
 25-34 years.................. 102.0   96.2   94.3  108.0   98.9
 35-44 years..................  82.0   78.1   76.3   79.4   78.4
 45-54 years..................  57.8   57.1   51.1   56.3   46.0
 55-64 years..................  46.7   40.6   37.8   35.4   32.8
 65-74 years..................  28.1   30.3   27.6   30.0   28.0
 75-84 years..................  32.4   28.3   21.5   27.9   29.5
 85 years and over............  27.0   28.6   16.9   25.4   29.0
         White female
     All ages, age adjusted...   2.8    2.9    2.9    2.9    2.9
     All ages, crude..........   2.8    2.9    2.9    3.0    3.0
 Under 1 year.................   3.7    4.0    4.3    5.1    4.2
 1-4 years....................   1.2    1.7    1.6    1.4    1.5
 5-14 years...................   0.7    0.9    0.8    0.8    0.8
 15-24 years..................   3.7    4.3    3.6    4.3    3.9
 25-34 years..................   4.1    3.9    4.4    4.4    4.6
 35-44 years..................   3.5    3.4    3.6    3.5    3.5
 45-54 years..................   2.9    2.7    2.9    2.8    2.7
 55-64 years..................   2.2    2.2    2.3    1.9    1.9
 65-74 years..................   2.0    1.9    2.2    2.2    2.4
 75-84 years..................   3.1    2.9    3.1    3.1    3.1
 85 years and over............   3.8    2.6    3.2    3.3    3.8
         Black female
     All ages, age adjusted...  11.2   11.0   10.8   11.8   12.3
     All ages, crude..........  11.3   11.2   11.0   12.1   12.6
 Under 1 year.................  15.3   16.4   10.3   17.0   18.7
 1-4 years....................   6.3    6.7    6.3    6.8    7.2
 5-14 years...................   1.4    3.1    2.0    2.3    2.0
 15-24 years..................  15.7   14.8   14.2   16.2   17.7
 25-34 years..................  19.9   19.3   19.8   21.9   22.4
 35-44 years..................  14.8   14.4   14.8   14.8   14.4
 45-54 years..................   9.5    7.5    9.0    8.5   10.5
 55-64 years..................   6.3    6.7    6.4    6.8    7.6
 65-74 years..................   7.0    6.8    7.2    8.7    6.9
 75-84 years..................  11.3    9.8    7.6    8.6   10.4
 85 years and over............   8.5    7.5   11.5   13.1   10.5
 1/Includes deaths of nonresidents of the United States.
 NOTE: For data years shown, the code numbers for cause of death are based
       on the then current International Classification of Diseases, which
       are described in Appendix II, tables IV and V.
 SOURCES: National Center for Health Statistics: Vital Statistics of the
          United States, Vol. II, Mortality, Part A, 1950-86. Public Health
          Service. Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office; Data
          computed by the Division of Analysis from data compiled by the
          Division of Vital Statistics and from table 1.
3Death rate for suicide by sex/race/age:U.S. select years 1950-87
 Table 34. Death rates for suicide, according to sex, race, and age: United
           States, selected years 1950-87
 (Data are based on the National Vital Statistics System)
      Sex, race, and age      19501/ 19601/   1970   1980   1981   1982
           All races          Deaths per 100,000 resident population
       All ages, age adjusted. 11.0    10.6   11.8   11.4   11.5   11.6
       All ages, crude........ 11.4    10.6   11.6   11.9   12.0   12.2
 Under 1 year.................  ---     ---    ---    ---    ---    ---
 1-4 years....................  ---     ---    ---    ---    ---    ---
 5-14 years...................  0.2     0.3    0.3    0.4    0.5    0.6
 15-24 years..................  4.5     5.2    8.8   12.3   12.3   12.1
 25-34 years..................  9.1    10.0   14.1   16.0   16.3   16.0
 35-44 years.................. 14.3    14.2   16.9   15.4   15.9   15.3
 45-54 years.................. 20.9    20.7   20.0   15.9   16.1   16.6
 55-64 years.................. 27.0    23.7   21.4   15.9   16.4   16.9
 65-74 years.................. 29.3    23.0   20.8   16.9   16.2   17.4
 75-84 years.................. 31.1    27.9   21.2   19.1   18.6   20.3
 85 years and over............ 28.8    26.0   19.0   19.2   17.7   17.6
          White male
     All ages, age adjusted... 18.1    17.5   18.2   18.9   18.9   19.4
     All ages, crude.......... 19.0    17.6   18.0   19.9   20.0   20.7
 Under 1 year.................  ---     ---    ---    ---    ---    ---
 1-4 years....................  ---     ---    ---    ---    ---    ---
 5-14 years...................  0.3     0.5    0.5    0.7    0.8    0.9
 15-24 years..................  6.6     8.6   13.9   21.4   21.1   21.2
 25-34 years.................. 13.8    14.9   19.9   25.6   26.2   26.1
 35-44 years.................. 22.4    21.9   23.3   23.5   24.3   23.6
 45-54 years.................. 34.1    33.7   29.5   24.2   23.9   25.8
 55-64 years.................. 45.9    40.2   35.0   25.8   26.3   27.9
 65-74 years.................. 53.2    42.0   38.7   32.5   30.3   33.1
 75-84 years.................. 61.9    55.7   45.5   45.5   43.8   48.5
 85 years and over............ 61.9    61.3   45.8   52.8   53.6   53.9
          Black male
     All ages, age adjusted...  7.0     7.8    9.9   11.1   11.0   10.8
     All ages, crude..........  6.3     6.4    8.0   10.3   10.2   10.1
 Under 1 year.................  ---     ---    ---    ---    ---    ---
 1-4 years....................  ---     ---    ---    ---    ---    ---
 5-14 years...................  ---     0.1    0.1    0.3    0.2    0.8
 15-24 years..................  4.9     4.1   10.5   12.3   11.1   11.0
 25-34 years..................  9.3    12.4   19.2   21.8   21.8   20.3
 35-44 years.................. 10.4    12.8   12.6   15.6   15.5   15.6
 45-54 years.................. 10.4    10.8   13.8   12.0   12.3   11.8
 55-64 years.................. 16.5    16.2   10.6   11.7   12.5   11.9
 65-74 years.................. 10.0    11.3    8.7   11.1    9.7   12.1
 75-84 years..................  ---     6.6    8.9   10.5   18.0   12.2
 85 years and over............  ---     6.9    8.7   18.9   12.7   16.1
         White female
     All ages, age adjusted...  5.3     5.3    7.2    5.7    6.0    5.8
     All ages, crude..........  5.5     5.3    7.1    5.9    6.2    6.1
 Under 1 year.................  ---     ---    ---    ---    ---    ---
 1-4 years....................  ---     ---    ---    ---    ---    ---
 5-14 years...................  0.1     0.1    0.1    0.2    0.3    0.3
 15-24 years..................  2.7     2.3    4.2    4.6    4.9    4.5
 25-34 years..................  5.2     5.8    9.0    7.5    7.7    7.5
 35-44 years..................  8.2     8.1   13.0    9.1    9.5    9.2
 45-54 years.................. 10.5    10.9   13.5   10.2   11.1   10.4
 55-64 years.................. 10.7    10.9   12.3    9.1    9.4    9.5
 65-74 years.................. 10.6     8.8    9.6    7.0    7.3    7.4
 75-84 years..................  8.4     9.2    7.2    5.7    5.5    6.1
 85 years and over............  8.9     6.1    5.8    5.8    3.7    3.9
         Black female
     All ages, age adjusted...  1.7     1.9    2.9    2.4    2.5    2.2
     All ages, crude..........  1.5     1.6    2.6    2.2    2.4    2.1
 Under 1 year................. ---      ---    ---    ---    ---    ---
 1-4 years.................... ---      ---    ---    ---    ---    ---
 5-14 years................... ---      0.0    0.2    0.1    0.1    0.1
 15-24 years..................  1.8     1.3    3.8    2.3    2.4    2.2
 25-34 years..................  2.6     3.0    5.7    4.1    4.6    3.7
 35-44 years..................  2.0     3.0    3.7    4.6    4.2    4.0
 45-54 years..................  3.5     3.1    3.7    2.8    2.5    3.1
 55-64 years..................  1.1     3.0    2.0    2.3    2.9    2.2
 65-74 years..................  1.9     2.3    2.9    1.7    3.0    2.1
 75-84 years..................  ---     1.3    1.7    1.4    1.0    1.3
 85 years and over............  ---     ---    2.8    ---    1.8    0.9
      Sex, race, and age       1983    1984   1985   1986   1987
           All races        Deaths per 100,000 resident population
       All ages, age adjusted. 11.4    11.6   11.5   11.9   11.7
       All ages, crude........ 12.1    12.4   12.3   12.8   12.7
 Under 1 year................. ---     ---     ---    ---    ---
 1-4 years.................... ---     ---     ---    ---    ---
 5-14 years...................  0.6     0.7    0.8    0.8    0.7
 15-24 years.................. 11.9    12.5   12.9   13.1   12.9
 25-34 years.................. 15.8    15.5   15.2   15.7   15.4
 35-44 years.................. 14.6    15.1   14.6   15.2   15.0
 45-54 years.................. 16.2    16.2   15.6   16.4   15.9
 55-64 years.................. 16.5    17.3   16.7   17.0   16.6
 65-74 years.................. 17.7    18.8   18.5   19.7   19.4
 75-84 years.................. 22.3    22.0   24.1   25.2   25.8
 85 years and over............ 19.0    18.4   19.1   20.8   22.1
          White male
     All ages, age adjusted... 19.3    19.7   19.9   20.5   20.1
     All ages, crude.......... 20.6    21.3   21.5   22.3   22.1
 Under 1 year................. ---     ---     ---    ---    ---
 1-4 years.................... ---     ---     ---    ---    ---
 5-14 years...................  0.9     1.1    1.3    1.2    1.2
 15-24 years.................. 20.6    22.0   22.7   23.6   22.7
 25-34 years.................. 26.2    25.8   25.4   26.4   25.6
 35-44 years.................. 23.2    23.7   23.5   23.9   23.9
 45-54 years.................. 25.5    25.3   25.1   26.3   25.4
 55-64 years.................. 27.4    28.8   28.6   28.7   28.7
 65-74 years.................. 33.2    35.6   35.3   37.6   36.8
 75-84 years.................. 52.5    52.0   57.1   58.9   60.9
 85 years and over............ 56.8    55.8   60.3   66.3   71.9
          Black male
     All ages, age adjusted... 10.5    11.2   11.3   11.5   12.0
     All ages, crude..........  9.9    10.6   10.8   11.1   11.6
 Under 1 year................. ---     ---     ---    ---    ---
 1-4 years.................... ---     ---     ---    ---    ---
 5-14 years...................  0.5     0.5    0.6    0.8    0.8
 15-24 years.................. 11.5    11.2   13.3   11.5   12.9
 25-34 years.................. 19.1    20.7   19.6   21.3   21.1
 35-44 years.................. 14.0    16.5   14.9   17.5   17.9
 45-54 years.................. 12.1    11.6   13.5   12.8   13.0
 55-64 years.................. 11.6    13.4   11.5    9.9   10.3
 65-74 years.................. 13.6    13.8   15.8   16.1   17.6
 75-84 years.................. 15.8    15.1   15.6   16.0   20.9
 85 years and over............ 12.7    11.1    7.7   17.9   13.0
         White female
     All ages, age adjusted...  5.6     5.6    5.3    5.4    5.3
     All ages, crude..........  5.9     5.9    5.6    5.9    5.7
 Under 1 year................. ---     ---     ---    ---    ---
 1-4 years.................... ---     ---     ---    ---    ---
 5-14 years...................  0.3     0.3    0.5    0.3    0.3
 15-24 years..................  4.6     4.7    4.7    4.7    4.6
 25-34 years..................  7.2     6.6    6.4    6.2    6.3
 35-44 years..................  8.2     8.4    7.7    8.3    7.9
 45-54 years..................  9.9    10.0    9.0    9.6    9.4
 55-64 years..................  9.1     9.1    8.4    9.0    8.4
 65-74 years..................  7.9     7.8    7.3    7.7    7.6
 75-84 years..................  6.6     6.8    7.0    8.0    7.5
 85 years and over............  5.3     5.1    4.7    5.0    4.8
         Black female
     All ages, age adjusted...  2.1     2.3    2.1    2.4    2.1
     All ages, crude..........  2.0     2.2    2.1    2.3    2.1
 Under 1 year................. ---     ---     ---    ---    ---
 1-4 years.................... ---     ---     ---    ---    ---
 5-14 years...................  0.6     0.2    0.2    0.2    0.2
 15-24 years..................  2.7     2.4    2.0    2.3    2.5
 25-34 years..................  2.9     3.5    3.0    3.8    4.0
 35-44 years..................  3.5     3.2    3.6    2.8    2.9
 45-54 years..................  3.0     3.5    3.2    3.2    2.2
 55-64 years..................  1.7     3.1    2.2    4.2    1.8
 65-74 years..................  1.3     2.5    2.0    2.8    2.5
 75-84 years..................  1.3     0.5    4.5    2.6    2.3
 85 years and over............  2.3     0.8    1.4    ---    ---
 1/Includes deaths of nonresidents of the United States.
 NOTE: For data years shown, the code numbers for cause of death are based
       on the then current International Classification of Diseases, which
       are described in Appendix II, tables IV and V.
 SOURCES: National Center for Health Statistics: Vital Statistics of the
          United States, Vol. II, Mortality, Part A, 1950-86. Public Health
          Service. Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office; Data
          computed by the Division of Analysis from data compiled by the
          Division of Vital Statistics and from table 1.
3Death for selected occupational diseases males by age:U.S.'70-87
 Table 35. Deaths for selected occupational diseases for males, according to
           age: United States, selected years 1970-87
 (Data are based on the National Vital Statistics System)
       Age and cause of death         1970  1975  1978  1979  1980  1981
          25 years and over                     Number of deaths1/
 Malignant neoplasm of peritoneum
  and pleura (mesothelioma).........   602   591   557   559   552   556
 Coalworkers' pneumoconiosis........  1155   973   840   918   977  1053
 Asbestosis.........................    25    43    64    86    96    98
 Silicosis..........................   351   243   162   220   202   165
             25-64 years
 Malignant neoplasm of peritoneum
  and pleura (mesothelioma).........   308   280   254   246   241   229
 Coalworkers' pneumoconiosis........   294   188   116   130   136   116
 Asbestosis.........................    17    22    31    29    30    21
 Silicosis..........................    90    64    50    51    49    44
          65 years and over
 Malignant neoplasm of peritoneum
  and pleura (mesothelioma).........   294   311   303   313   311   327
 Coalworkers' pneumoconiosis........   861   785   724   788   841   937
 Asbestosis.........................     8    21    33    57    66    77
 Silicosis..........................   261   179   112   169   153   121
       Age and cause of death         1982  1983  1984  1985  1986  1987
          25 years and over                     Number of deaths1/
 Malignant neoplasm of peritoneum
  and pleura (mesothelioma).........   576   584   584   571   564   575
 Coalworkers' pneumoconiosis........   954   926   923   947   882   823
 Asbestosis.........................    99   128   131   130   180   195
 Silicosis..........................   176   149   160   138   135   153
             25-64 years
 Malignant neoplasm of peritoneum
  and pleura (mesothelioma).........   234   211   211   210   200   196
 Coalworkers' pneumoconiosis........   116    88    97    89    71    71
 Asbestosis.........................    26    30    25    29    37    32
 Silicosis..........................    42    37    34    30    22    32
          65 years and over
 Malignant neoplasm of peritoneum
  and pleura (mesothelioma).........   342   373   373   361   364   379
 Coalworkers' pneumoconiosis........   838   838   826   858   811   752
 Asbestosis.........................    73    98   106   101   143   163
 Silicosis..........................   134   112   126   108   113   121
 1/This table classifies deaths according to underlying cause. Multiple
 cause of death data from the Vital Statistics System can be used to
 identify additional deaths for which occupational disease is a
 nonunderlying cause of death rather than the underlying cause. In 1985 and
 1986 among men 25 years and over the numbers of additional deaths for which
 occupational disease is a nonunderlying cause are shown below.
 Nonunderlying cause of death         1985  1986
 Malignant neoplasm of peritoneum
  and pleura (mesothelioma).........   102   106
 Coalworkers' pneumoconiosis........  1652  1536
 Asbestosis.........................   382   494
 Silicosis..........................   187   175
 NOTE: Selection of occupational diseases based on definitions in D.
       Rutstein et al.: Sentinel health events (occupational): A basis for
       physician recognition and public health surveillance, Am. J. Public
       Health 73(9): 1054-1062, Sept. 1983. For data years shown, the code
       numbers for cause of death are based on the then current
       International Classification of Diseases, which are described in
       Appendix II, tables IV and V. Changes in number of deaths from 1978
       to 1979 may be affected by changes in coding from the Eighth Revision
       to the Ninth Revision.
 SOURCES: Data computed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety
          and Health from data compiled by the Division of Vital Statistics,
          National Center for Health Statistics; Data computed by the
          Division of Epidemiology and Health Promotion from data compiled
          by the Division of Vital Statistics.
3Provisional death rate:all  causes by race/sex/age:U.S. 1986-88
 Table 36. Provisional death rates for all causes, according to race, sex, and
           age: United States, 1986-88
 (Data are based on a 10-percent sample of death certificates from the National
                                             All races
       Sex and age              1986         1987         1988
       Both sexes           Deaths per 100,000 resident population
 All ages, age adjusted.       540.2        536.2        536.3
 All ages, crude........       870.8        874.0        883.0
 Under 1 year...........      1036.7       1006.5       1001.9
 1-4 years..............        50.8         51.6         50.7
 5-14 years.............        26.4         25.6         26.2
 15-24 years............       102.6        101.6        104.8
 25-34 years............       130.2        131.4        133.6
 35-44 years............       212.5        211.8        217.6
 45-54 years............       504.6        498.9        486.4
 55-64 years............      1259.0       1246.8       1246.3
 65-74 years............      2787.8       2763.6       2731.2
 75-84 years............      6316.4       6266.1       6324.4
 85 years and over......     15291.1      15405.7      15577.7
          Male
 All ages, age adjusted.       707.1        698.6        699.8
 All ages, crude........       937.8        935.1        944.2
 Under 1 year...........      1156.7       1122.7       1121.5
 1-4 years..............        56.1         58.4         56.2
 5-14 years.............        32.0         31.8         30.5
 15-24 years............       151.5        150.5        154.0
 25-34 years............       189.9        189.1        196.0
 35-44 years............       286.7        290.4        296.2
 45-54 years............       666.8        638.0        636.5
 55-64 years............      1647.9       1625.8       1624.2
 65-74 years............      3660.4       3635.7       3583.2
 75-84 years............      8296.8       8206.1       8243.2
 85 years and over......     18167.9      18037.2      18475.2
         Female
 All ages, age adjusted.       405.4        404.5        403.5
 All ages, crude........       807.2        815.9        825.0
 Under 1 year...........       911.5        883.8        876.3
 1-4 years..............        45.2         44.4         44.9
 5-14 years.............        20.6         19.1         21.7
 15-24 years............        52.7         51.7         54.5
 25-34 years............        70.4         73.6         71.2
 35-44 years............       140.4        135.4        141.0
 45-54 years............       351.5        367.3        344.3
 55-64 years............       913.7        909.6        909.4
 65-74 years............      2098.3       2070.4       2051.4
 75-84 years............      5132.7       5102.4       5166.6
 85 years and over......     14154.2      14376.5      14451.7
                                         White
       Sex and age              1986         1987         1988
       Both sexes           Deaths per 100,000 resident population
 All ages, age adjusted.       518.2        514.0        513.4
 All ages, crude........       895.4        900.2        910.0
 Under 1 year...........       877.3        836.9        818.4
 1-4 years..............        45.7         49.1         47.6
 5-14 years.............        24.5         24.2         23.9
 15-24 years............        99.6         98.3         98.8
 25-34 years............       114.5        116.0        115.6
 35-44 years............       187.0        183.2        188.7
 45-54 years............       460.2        454.2        441.4
 55-64 years............      1201.9       1187.9       1193.9
 65-74 years............      2734.8       2711.3       2679.4
 75-84 years............      6287.0       6243.7       6305.2
 85 years and over......     15503.3      15698.5      15888.0
          Male
 All ages, age adjusted.       680.7        671.0        670.5
 All ages, crude........       955.3        951.6        960.3
 Under 1 year...........       989.7        938.7        937.5
 1-4 years..............        51.0         54.2         51.7
 5-14 years.............        29.9         30.1         29.0
 15-24 years............       146.3        145.3        144.4
 25-34 years............       167.3        166.7        169.6
 35-44 years............       250.8        251.1        254.7
 45-54 years............       607.4        577.7        573.0
 55-64 years............      1579.8       1554.7       1557.4
 65-74 years............      3615.5       3585.7       3533.8
 75-84 years............      8304.9       8200.1       8234.6
 85 years and over......     18536.5      18456.4      18933.7
         Female
 All ages, age adjusted.       387.0        386.9        385.8
 All ages, crude........       838.3        851.0        861.8
 Under 1 year...........       758.2        729.7        692.8
 1-4 years..............        40.2         43.7         43.3
 5-14 years.............        18.8         18.1         18.5
 15-24 years............        51.6         50.0         52.0
 25-34 years............        60.6         64.2         60.5
 35-44 years............       123.7        115.7        123.0
 45-54 years............       318.6        335.0        314.2
 55-64 years............       862.8        857.8        865.7
 65-74 years............      2035.6       2012.4       1993.0
 75-84 years............      5087.4       5075.9       5145.3
 85 years and over......     14327.7      14641.8      14727.8
                                           Black
       Sex and age              1986         1987         1988
       Both sexes           Deaths per 100,000 resident population
 All ages, age adjusted.       768.7        767.1        769.9
 All ages, crude........       842.1        843.6        853.9
 Under 1 year...........      1952.1       2001.7       2030.4
 1-4 years..............        80.2         68.1         66.1
 5-14 years.............        36.9         35.7         38.7
 15-24 years............       124.0        128.6        143.3
 25-34 years............       252.4        248.7        266.5
 35-44 years............       440.7        467.2        476.9
 45-54 years............       923.7        913.3        908.9
 55-64 years............      1934.9       1922.3       1859.7
 65-74 years............      3634.5       3609.4       3587.3
 75-84 years............      7209.8       7209.9       7257.6
 85 years and over......     13563.4      12868.8      13206.1
          Male
 All ages, age adjusted.      1003.4       1005.4       1018.4
 All ages, crude........       964.0        973.1        988.4
 Under 1 year...........      2140.4       2218.0       2196.7
 1-4 years..............        84.0         85.1         82.8
 5-14 years.............        44.2         45.6         39.1
 15-24 years............       189.9        194.9        214.2
 25-34 years............       379.0        370.3        404.9
 35-44 years............       635.9        673.5        703.9
 45-54 years............      1282.1       1244.4       1294.3
 55-64 years............      2499.5       2473.5       2415.9
 65-74 years............      4561.7       4592.0       4527.3
 75-84 years............      9103.4       9238.8       9360.3
 85 years and over......     15507.5      14956.5      15342.9
         Female
 All ages, age adjusted.       585.0        579.9        574.9
 All ages, crude........       732.3        726.7        732.6
 Under 1 year...........      1759.9       1780.9       1860.1
 1-4 years..............        76.2         50.5         48.8
 5-14 years.............        29.3         25.6         38.4
 15-24 years............        59.9         64.0         74.1
 25-34 years............       139.7        140.1        142.8
 35-44 years............       277.5        295.0        286.9
 45-54 years............       633.7        644.4        596.3
 55-64 years............      1471.4       1465.6       1399.1
 65-74 years............      2955.7       2879.4       2887.1
 75-84 years............      6060.5       5979.6       5997.8
 85 years and over......     12671.2      11921.1      12259.5

 NOTE: Includes deaths of nonresidents of the United States.
 SOURCES: National Center for Health Statistics: Annual summary of births,
          marriages, divorces, and deaths, United States, 1987. Monthly Vital
          Statistics Report. Vol. 36, No. 13. DHHS Pub. No. (PHS) 88-1120.
          July 29, 1988; Annual summary of births, marriages, divorces, and
          deaths, United States, 1988. Monthly Vital Statistics Report.
          Vol. 37, No. 13. DHHS Pub. No. (PHS) 89-1120. July 26, 1989. Public
          Health Service. Hyattsville, Md.
3Provisional age-adjusted death rate: selected causes:U.S.'86-88
 Table 37. Provisional age-adjusted death rates for selected causes of death:
           United States, 1986-88
 (Data are based on a 10-percent sample of death certificates from the
 National Vital Statistics System)
              Cause of death                1986      1987      1988
                                     Deaths per 100,000 resident population
 All causes..............................  540.2     536.2     536.3
 Diseases of heart.......................  175.4     169.9     166.7
   Ischemic heart disease................  119.6     114.0     110.4
 Cerebrovascular diseases................   30.4      30.1      29.8
 Malignant neoplasms.....................  132.5     133.1     133.3
   Respiratory system....................   38.3      39.3      40.6
   Breast1/..............................   23.4      23.0      23.3
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases..   18.5      18.7      19.2
 Pneumonia and influenza.................   13.6      13.2      14.2
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis.....    9.2       9.0       9.0
 Diabetes mellitus.......................    9.4       9.6       9.9
 Accidents and adverse effects...........   35.5      34.6      35.1
   Motor vehicle accidents...............   19.8      19.7      20.1
 Suicide.................................   12.0      11.7      11.3
 Homicide and legal intervention.........    8.8       8.4       9.0
 Human immunodeficiency virus infection..    ---       5.3       6.5
 1/Female only.
 NOTES: Includes deaths of nonresidents of the United States. Code numbers for
        cause of death are based on the International Classification of
        Diseases, Ninth Revision, described in Appendix II, table V.
 SOURCES: National Center for Health Statistics: Annual summary of births,
          marriages, divorces, and deaths, United States, 1986. Monthly
          Vital Statistics Report. Vol. 35, No. 13. DHHS Pub. No. (PHS)
          87-1120. Aug. 24, 1987; Annual summary of births, marriages,
          divorces, and deaths, United States, 1987. Monthly Vital
          Statistics Report. Vol. 36, No. 13. DHHS Pub. No. (PHS) 88-1120.
          July 29, 1988; Annual summary of births,
          marriages, divorces, and deaths, United States, 1988. Monthly Vital
          Statistics Report. Vol. 37, No. 13. DHHS Pub. No. (PHS) 89-1120.
          July 26, 1989. Public Health Service. Hyattsville, Md. Figure for
          breast cancer was computed by Division of Analysis.
3Provisional death rate: 3 leading causes of death: U.S. 1986-88
 Table 38. Provisional death rates for the 3 leading causes of death,
           according to age: United States, 1986-88
 (Data are based on a 10-percent sample of death certificates from the
 National Vital Statistics System)
          Cause of death and age              1986      1987      1988
            Diseases of heart         Deaths per 100,000 resident population
 All ages................................    318.7     313.4     312.2
 Under 1 year............................     29.2      23.9      23.6
 1-14 years..............................      1.3       1.3       1.4
 15-24 years.............................      2.4       2.9       2.8
 25-34 years.............................      7.6       7.5       7.3
 35-44 years.............................     36.9      34.4      33.0
 45-54 years.............................    142.8     140.7     131.4
 55-64 years.............................    430.9     408.9     405.6
 65-74 years.............................   1047.6    1019.5     985.6
 75-84 years.............................   2649.2    2556.3    2554.4
 85 years and over.......................   7169.2    7122.1    7119.1
           Malignant neoplasms
 All ages................................    193.3     196.1     198.6
 Under 1 year............................      1.6       3.7       1.3
 1-14 years..............................      3.6       3.7       3.5
 15-24 years.............................      5.4       5.1       5.0
 25-34 years.............................     12.2      12.5      10.8
 35-44 years.............................     46.3      44.4      44.3
 45-54 years.............................    164.1     164.5     157.2
 55-64 years.............................    447.1     448.5     456.5
 65-74 years.............................    841.0     845.8     845.4
 75-84 years.............................   1261.4    1282.8    1324.8
 85 years and over.......................   1602.3    1631.7    1664.5
         Cerebrovascular diseases
 All ages................................     61.3      61.3      61.1
 Under 1 year............................      1.3       2.4       1.0
 1-14 years..............................      0.2       0.2       0.1
 15-24 years.............................      0.6       0.9       0.9
 25-34 years.............................      2.1       2.2       2.1
 35-44 years.............................      7.0       6.6       7.1
 45-54 years.............................     19.7      20.8      20.4
 55-64 years.............................     51.0      51.8      51.9
 65-74 years.............................    162.4     153.4     155.7
 75-84 years.............................    566.2     563.0     544.4
 85 years and over.......................   1750.0    1734.2    1710.3
 NOTES: Includes deaths of nonresidents of the United States. Code
        numbers for cause of death are based on the International
        Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, described in
        Appendix II, table V.
 SOURCES: National Center for Health Statistics: Annual summary of
          births, marriages, divorces, and deaths, United States, 1987.
          Monthly Vital Statistics Report. Vol. 36, No. 13. DHHS Pub.
          No. (PHS) 88-1120. July 29, 1988; Annual summary of births,
          marriages, divorces, and deaths, United States, 1988. Monthly
          Vital Statistics Report. Vol. 37, No. 13. DHHS Pub. No. (PHS)
          89-1120. July 26, 1989. Public Health Service. Hyattsville, Md.
2Determinants and Measures of Health
3Progress toward '90 health promotion goals:U.S. select yrs'77-87
 Table 39. Progress toward 1990 health promotion goals: United States,
           selected years 1977-87

       1990 goals                      1977   1979   1980   1982   1983
      Infants (under 1 year)              Deaths per 1,000 live births
 To continue to improve infant
 health, and by 1990, to reduce
 infant mortality by at least 35
 percent to fewer than 9 deaths
 per 1,000 live births...............  14.1   13.1   12.6   11.5   11.2
       Children (1-14 years)              Deaths per 100,000 population
 To improve child health, foster
 optimal childhood development,
 and by 1990, reduce deaths among
 children ages 1 to 14 years by at
 least 20 percent to fewer than 34
 per 100,000.........................  42.3   40.1   38.5   36.7   35.3
     Adolescents and young adults
           (15-24 years)
 To improve the health and health
 habits of adolescents and young
 adults, and by 1990, to reduce
 deaths among people ages 15 to 24
 by at least 20 percent to fewer
 than 92 per 100,000................. 114.8  114.8  115.4  101.0   96.0
        Adults (25-64 years)
 To improve the health of adults,
 and by 1990, to reduce deaths
 among people ages 25 to 64 by at
 least 25 percent to fewer than
 400 per 100,000..................... 532.9  500.2  498.0  462.3  452.8
           Older adults
        (65 years and over)          Restricted-activity days per person
 To improve the health and quality
 of life for older adults and, by
 1990, to reduce the average annual
 number of days of restricted
 activity due to acute and chronic
 conditions by 20 percent, to fewer
 than 30 days per year for people
 aged 65 and older1/.................  36.5   41.9   39.2   31.6   32.1
 To reduce the average annual           Bed-disability days per person
 number of days of bed disability
 due to acute and chronic conditions
 by 20 percent, to fewer than 12
 days per year for people aged 65
 and over1/..........................  14.5   13.7   13.8   14.7   16.7
                                                                   1990
       1990 goals                      1984   1985   1986   1987   goal
      Infants (under 1 year)              Deaths per 1,000 live births
 To continue to improve infant
 health, and by 1990, to reduce
 infant mortality by at least 35
 percent to fewer than 9 deaths
 per 1,000 live births...............  10.8   10.6   10.4   10.1      9
       Children (1-14 years)             Deaths per 100,000 population
 To improve child health, foster
 optimal childhood development,
 and by 1990, reduce deaths among
 children ages 1 to 14 years by at
 least 20 percent to fewer than 34
 per 100,000.........................  34.1   33.8   33.7   33.3     34
     Adolescents and young adults
           (15-24 years)
 To improve the health and health
 habits of adolescents and young
 adults, and by 1990, to reduce
 deaths among people ages 15 to 24
 by at least 20 percent to fewer
 than 92 per 100,000.................  96.8   95.9  102.3   99.4     92
        Adults (25-64 years)
 To improve the health of adults,
 and by 1990, to reduce deaths
 among people ages 25 to 64 by at
 least 25 percent to fewer than
 400 per 100,000..................... 443.5  438.7  431.0  423.4    400
           Older adults
        (65 years and over)          Restricted-activity days per person
 To improve the health and quality
 of life for older adults and, by
 1990, to reduce the average annual
 number of days of restricted
 activity due to acute and chronic
 conditions by 20 percent, to fewer
 than 30 days per year for people
 aged 65 and older1/.................  31.8   33.1   32.1   30.3     30
 To reduce the average annual           Bed-disability days per person
 number of days of bed disability
 due to acute and chronic conditions
 by 20 percent, to fewer than 12
 days per year for people aged 65
 and over1/..........................  15.1   13.7   14.9   14.0     12

 1/Levels of estimates for 1982-87 may not be comparable to estimates for
 previous years because the 1982-87 data are based on a revised questionaire
 and field procedures.
 SOURCES: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health and Surgeon General:
          Healthy People--The Surgeon General's Report on Health Promotion
          and Disease Prevention, 1979. DHEW Pub. No. (PHS) 79-55071. Public
          Health Service. Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1979;
          National Center for Health Statistics: Vital Statistics of the
          United States, Vol. II, Mortality, Part A, for data years 1977-87.
          Public Health Service. Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office;
          Data computed by Division of Analysis from data compiled by Division
          of Vital Statistics and from table 1; Division of Health Interview
          Statistics: Current estimates from the National Health Interview
          Survey: United States, 1987. Vital and Health Statistics. Series 10,
          No. 166. DHHS Pub. No. (PHS) 88-1594. Public Health Service.
          Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office, Sept. 1988.
3Vaccination child age 1-4:some diseases: race/MSA:U.S.'70s,83-85
 Table 40. Vaccinations of children 1-4 years of age for selected diseases,
           according to race and residence in metropolitan statistical area
           (MSA): United States, 1970, 1976, and 1983-85
 (Data are based on household interviews of a sample of the civilian
 noninstitutionalized population)
                               Race                   Inside MSA
      Vaccination                         All   Central Remaining  Outside
        and year       Total   White    other     city    areas      MSA
    All respondents                   Percent of population
 Measles:
   1970................ 57.2    60.4     41.9     55.2     61.7     54.3
   1976................ 65.9    68.3     54.8     62.5     67.2     67.3
   1983................ 64.9    66.8     57.2     60.4     66.3     66.7
   1984................ 62.8    65.4     52.0     56.6     63.3     66.4
   1985................ 60.8    63.6     48.8     55.5     63.3     61.9
 Rubella:
   1970................ 37.2    38.3     31.8     38.3     39.2     34.3
   1976................ 61.7    63.8     51.5     59.5     63.5     61.5
   1983................ 64.0    66.3     54.7     59.5     65.2     66.0
   1984................ 60.9    63.9     48.3     56.1     60.4     64.6
   1985................ 58.9    61.6     47.7     53.9     61.0     60.3
 DTP:1,2/
   1970................ 76.1    79.7     58.8     68.9     80.7     77.1
   1976................ 71.4    75.3     53.2     64.1     75.7     72.9
   1983................ 65.7    70.1     47.7     55.4     69.4     69.4
   1984................ 65.7    69.1     51.3     57.9     66.6     69.8
   1985................ 64.9    68.7     48.7     55.5     68.4     67.9
 Polio:2/
   1970................ 65.9    69.2     50.1     61.0     70.8     64.7
   1976................ 61.6    66.2     39.9     53.8     65.3     63.9
   1983................ 57.0    61.9     36.7     47.7     60.3     60.3
   1984................ 54.8    58.4     39.9     48.7     55.2     58.5
   1985................ 55.3    58.9     40.1     47.1     58.4     58.0
 Mumps:
   1970................  ---     ---      ---      ---      ---      ---
   1976................ 48.3    50.3     38.7     45.6     50.7     47.9
   1983................ 59.5    61.8     50.0     52.6     60.2     63.6
   1984................ 58.7    61.3     47.7     51.8     58.3     63.6
   1985................ 58.9    61.8     47.0     52.4     61.0     61.4
 Respondents consulting
 vaccination records, 19853/
 Measles............... 76.9    78.1     67.2     73.5     76.7     79.0
 Rubella............... 73.8    75.0     64.1     70.4     75.0     74.6
 DTP1,2/............... 87.0    88.5     75.2     79.6     89.7     88.6
 Polio2/............... 75.7    77.5     61.5     68.9     79.6     75.9
 Mumps................. 75.5    77.1     62.7     70.5     76.8     77.0
 1/Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis.
 2/3 doses or more.
 3/The data in this panel are based only on 35 percent of white respondents
 and 19 percent of all other respondents who consulted records for some or all
 vaccination questions. One month prior to interview all sampled households
 were asked to check vaccination records such as those from a private
 physician, the health department, or military.
 NOTE: Beginning in 1976, the category "don't know" was added to response
       categories. Prior to 1976, the lack of this option resulted in some
       forced positive answers, particularly for vaccinations requiring
       multiple dose schedules, that is, polio and DTP.
 SOURCE: Division of Immunization, Center for Prevention Services, Centers for
         Disease Control: Unpublished data from the United States
         Immunization Survey.
3Select notifiable disease rate by disease: U.S. select yrs'50-88
 Table 41. Selected notifiable disease rates, according to disease: United
           States, selected years 1950-88
 (Data are based on reporting by State health departments)
              Disease                  1950     1960     1970     1980
                                         Cases per 100,000 population
 Diphtheria........................    3.83     0.51     0.21     0.00
 Hepatitis A1/.....................     ---      ---    27.87    12.84
 Hepatitis B1/.....................     ---      ---     4.08     8.39
 Mumps.............................     ---      ---    55.55     3.86
 Pertussis (whooping cough)........   79.82     8.23     2.08     0.76
 Poliomyelitis, total..............   22.02     1.77     0.02     0.00
   Paralytic2/.....................     ---     1.40     0.02     0.00
 Rubella (German measles)..........     ---      ---    27.75     1.72
 Rubeola (measles).................  211.01   245.42    23.23     5.96
 Salmonellosis, excluding typhoid
  fever............................     ---     3.85    10.84    14.88
 Shigellosis.......................   15.45     6.94     6.79     8.41
 Tuberculosis3/....................   80.50    30.83    18.22    12.25
 Varicella (chickenpox)............     ---      ---      ---    96.69
 Sexually transmitted diseases:4/
   Syphilis5/......................  146.02    68.78    45.26    30.51
     Primary and secondary.........   16.73     9.06    10.89    12.06
     Early latent..................   39.71    10.11     8.08     9.00
     Late and late latent..........   70.22    45.91    24.94     9.30
     Congenital....................    8.97     2.48     0.97     0.12
   Gonorrhea.......................  192.45   145.33   297.22   444.99
   Chancroid.......................    3.34     0.94     0.70     0.35
   Granuloma inguinale.............    1.19     0.17     0.06     0.02
   Lymphogranuloma venereum........    0.95     0.47     0.30     0.09
                                               Number of cases
 Diphtheria........................    5796      918      435        3
 Hepatitis A1/.....................     ---      ---    56797    29087
 Hepatitis B1/.....................     ---      ---     8310    19015
 Mumps.............................     ---      ---   104953     8576
 Pertussis (whooping cough)........  120718    14809     4249     1730
 Poliomyelitis, total..............   33300     3190       33        9
   Paralytic2/.....................     ---     2525       31        8
 Rubella (German measles)..........     ---      ---    56552     3904
 Rubeola (measles).................  319124   441703    47351    13506
 Salmonellosis, excluding typhoid
  fever............................     ---     6929    22096    33715
 Shigellosis.......................   23367    12487    13845    19041
 Tuberculosis3/....................  121742    55494    37137    27749
 Varicella (chickenpox)............     ---      ---      ---   190894
 Sexually transmitted diseases:4/
   Syphilis5/......................  217558   122538    91382    68832
     Primary and secondary.........   23939    16145    21982    27204
     Early latent..................   59256    18017    16311    20297
     Late and late latent..........  113569    81798    50348    20979
     Congenital....................   13377     4416     1953      277
   Gonorrhea.......................  286746   258933   600072  1004029
   Chancroid.......................    4977     1680     1416      788
   Granuloma inguinale.............    1783      296      124       51
   Lymphogranuloma venereum........    1427      835      612      199
              Disease                  1985     1986     1987     1988
                                         Cases per 100,000 population
 Diphtheria........................    0.00     0.00     0.00     0.00
 Hepatitis A1/.....................   10.03    10.02    10.39    11.60
 Hepatitis B1/.....................   11.50    11.17    10.65     9.43
 Mumps.............................    1.30     3.37     5.43     2.05
 Pertussis (whooping cough)........    1.50     1.74     1.16     1.40
 Poliomyelitis, total..............    0.00     0.00     0.00     0.00
   Paralytic2/.....................    0.00     0.00     0.00     0.00
 Rubella (German measles)..........    0.26     0.23     0.13     0.09
 Rubeola (measles).................    1.18     2.61     1.50     1.38
 Salmonellosis, excluding typhoid
  fever............................   27.37    20.73    20.92    19.91
 Shigellosis.......................    7.14     7.11     9.80    12.46
 Tuberculosis3/....................    9.30     9.44     9.25     9.13
 Varicella (chickenpox)............  123.23   122.42   136.68   122.43
 Sexually transmitted diseases:4/
   Syphilis5/......................   28.50    28.53    35.81    42.37
     Primary and secondary.........   11.45    11.67    14.54    16.43
     Early latent..................    9.15     9.12    11.55    14.58
     Late and late latent..........    7.77     7.58     9.44    11.05
     Congenital....................    0.14     0.17     0.28     0.30
   Gonorrhea.......................  384.28   376.37   323.14   298.74
   Chancroid.......................    0.87     1.30     2.07     2.04
   Granuloma inguinale.............    0.02     0.02     0.01     0.00
   Lymphogranuloma venereum........    0.10     0.14     0.13     0.07
                                               Number of cases
 Diphtheria........................       3        -        3        2
 Hepatitis A1/.....................   23210    23430    25280    28507
 Hepatitis B1/.....................   26611    26107    25916    23177
 Mumps.............................    2982     7790    12848     4866
 Pertussis (whooping cough)........    3589     4195     2823     3450
 Poliomyelitis, total..............       7       10        6        9
   Paralytic2/.....................       7       10                 9
 Rubella (German measles)..........     630      551      306      225
 Rubeola (measles).................    2822     6282     3655     3396
 Salmonellosis, excluding typhoid
  fever............................   65347    49984    50916    48948
 Shigellosis.......................   17057    17138    23860    30617
 Tuberculosis3/....................   22201    22768    22517    22436
 Varicella (chickenpox)............  178162   183243   213196   192857
 Sexually transmitted diseases:4/
   Syphilis5/......................   67563    68291    86545   103437
     Primary and secondary.........   27131    27921    35145    40117
     Early latent..................   21689    21819    27914    35600
     Late and late latent..........   18414    18149    22811    26987
     Congenital....................     329      410      681      751
   Gonorrhea.......................  911419   900856   780905   719536
   Chancroid.......................    2067     3102     4998     5001
   Granuloma inguinale.............      44       56       22       11
   Lymphogranuloma venereum........     226      335      303      185
 1/Reports from New York City are not available for 1985 and 1986.
 2/Data for 1986 and 1987 updated due to late reports; data for 1988 may also
 be updated.
 3/Data after 1974 are not comparable to prior years because of changes in
 reporting criteria effective in 1975.
 4/Newly reported civilian cases.
 5/Includes stage of syphilis not stated.
 NOTES: Rates greater than 0 but less than 0.005 are shown as 0.00. The total
        resident population was used to calculate all rates except sexually
        transmitted diseases, for which the civilian resident population was
        used. Population data from those States where diseases were not
        notifiable or not available were excluded from rate calculation.
 SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control: Final 1988 reports of notifiable
          diseases, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 37(54). Public
          Health Service, Atlanta, Ga., Oct. 1989, in press; Division of
          Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Center for Prevention Services,
          Centers for Disease Control: Selected data.
3AIDS cases by age at diagnosis,sex,race/ethnicity:U.S. 1983-89
 Table 42. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases, according to age
           at diagnosis, sex, and race/ethnicity: United States, 1983-89
 (Data are based on reporting by State health departments)
    Age at diagnosis, sex, and      All
          race/ethnicity         years1,2/  1983    1984    1985    1986
                                         Number, by year of report
 Total3/......................... 106270    2066    4445    8205   13167
               Male
 All males, 13 years and over3/..  95231    1891    4118    7551   12011
 White, not Hispanic.............  58462    1138    2611    4806    7545
 Black, not Hispanic.............  23648     479     947    1718    2765
 Hispanic........................  12192     268     538     972    1592
 13-19 years.....................    317       5      17      29      42
 20-29 years.....................  19105     392     845    1482    2486
 30-39 years.....................  44680     883    1986    3612    5668
 40-49 years.....................  21201     432     897    1665    2567
 50-59 years.....................   7264     154     306     600     921
 60 years and over...............   2664      25      67     163     327
              Female
 All females, 13 years and over3/   9266     141     277     525     970
 White, not Hispanic.............   2668      34      79     143     272
 Black, not Hispanic.............   5045      67     141     284     523
 Hispanic........................   1449      38      57      94     162
 13-19 years.....................     76       3       4       4      12
 20-29 years.....................   2553      57      94     175     279
 30-39 years.....................   4376      51     130     233     447
 40-49 years.....................   1259      14      25      49     129
 50-59 years.....................    463      11       8      27      47
 60 years and over...............    539       5      16      37      56
             Children
 All children, under 13 years3/..   1773      34      50     129     186
 White, not Hispanic.............    411       7      10      25      43
 Black, not Hispanic.............    977      22      28      86     107
 Hispanic........................    369       5      12      18      35
 Under 1 year....................    707      19      33      56      77
 1-12 years......................   1066      15      17      73     109
    Age at diagnosis, sex, and                                All
          race/ethnicity            1987    1988  19892/    years1,2/
                                                             Percent
                                                          distribution
 Total3/.........................  21140   30947   25467     ...
               Male
 All males, 13 years and over3/..  19137   27313   22442   100.0
 White, not Hispanic.............  12352   16256   13305    61.4
 Black, not Hispanic.............   4332    7151    6046    24.8
 Hispanic........................   2255    3645    2815    12.8
 13-19 years.....................     69      87      66     0.3
 20-29 years.....................   3845    5518    4364    20.1
 30-39 years.....................   8881   12722   10559    46.9
 40-49 years.....................   4290    6125    5063    22.3
 50-59 years.....................   1466    2022    1738     7.6
 60 years and over...............    586     839     652     2.8
              Female
 All females, 13 years and over3/   1684    3064    2553   100.0
 White, not Hispanic.............    544     864     723    28.8
 Black, not Hispanic.............    896    1663    1438    54.4
 Hispanic........................    230     502     357    15.6
 13-19 years.....................     11      24      18     0.8
 20-29 years.....................    477     784     665    27.6
 30-39 years.....................    751    1512    1231    47.2
 40-49 years.....................    233     419     383    13.6
 50-59 years.....................     90     146     132     5.0
 60 years and over...............    122     179     124     5.8
             Children
 All children, under 13 years3/..    319     570     472   100.0
 White, not Hispanic.............     86     152      84    23.2
 Black, not Hispanic.............    161     302     264    55.1
 Hispanic........................     69     111     117    20.8
 Under 1 year....................    138     193     184    39.9
 1-12 years......................    181     377     288    60.1
 1/Includes cases prior to 1983.
 2/Data are as of September 30, 1989, and reflect reporting delays.
 3/Includes all other races not shown separately.
 NOTES: The AIDS case definition was changed in September 1987 to allow for
        the presumptive diagnosis of AIDS-associated diseases and conditions
        and to expand the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus-associated
        diseases reportable as AIDS. Excludes residents of U.S. territiories.
 SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control, Center for Infectious Diseases, AIDS
         Program.
3Deaths AIDS cases: age at diagnosis,sex,race/ethnicity:U.S.83-89
 Table 43. Deaths among acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases,
           according to age at diagnosis, sex, and race/ethnicity: United
           States, 1983-89
 (Data are based on reporting by State health departments)
     Age at diagnosis, sex, and      All
           race/ethnicity          years1,2/    1983    1984    1985    1986
                                               Number, by year of death
 Total3/..........................     63159    1416    3231    6314   10705
               Male
 All males, 13 years and over3/...     56722    1283    2947    5775    9713
 White, not Hispanic..............     34424     727    1802    3568    6068
 Black, not Hispanic..............     14610     372     728    1423    2299
 Hispanic.........................      7196     179     394     749    1274
 13-19 years......................       177       3      12      23      32
 20-29 years......................     10795     265     569    1113    1858
 30-39 years......................     25862     586    1348    2649    4459
 40-49 years......................     12975     302     679    1277    2195
 50-59 years......................      4921     114     264     529     819
 60 years and over................      1992      13      75     184     350
              Female
 All females, 13 years and over3/.      5457     104     237     437     850
 White, not Hispanic..............      1590      23      55     142     241
 Black, not Hispanic..............      2998      56     134     209     458
 Hispanic.........................       816      25      47      82     140
 13-19 years......................        46       2       1       5      10
 20-29 years......................      1462      40      89     129     233
 30-39 years......................      2487      35     104     197     393
 40-49 years......................       727      13      22      46      97
 50-59 years......................       300       9       7      18      38
 60 years and over................       435       5      14      42      79
             Children
 All children, under 13 years3/...       980      29      47     102     142
 White, not Hispanic..............       251       6       9      27      34
 Black, not Hispanic..............       516      20      27      58      77
 Hispanic.........................       201       3      11      16      29
 Under 1 year.....................       489      17      31      44      68
 1-12 years.......................       491      12      16      58      74
                                                                All
     Age at diagnosis, sex, and         1987    1988  19892/  years1,2/
           race/ethnicity
                                                               Percent
                                                            distribution
                                         Number, by year of death
 Total3/..........................     14150   17119    9488     ...
               Male
 All males, 13 years and over3/...     12621   15188    8556   100.0
 White, not Hispanic..............      7521    8943    5461    60.7
 Black, not Hispanic..............      3314    4123    2146    25.8
 Hispanic.........................      1674    1971     857    12.7
 13-19 years......................        42      37      27     0.3
 20-29 years......................      2399    2877    1593    19.0
 30-39 years......................      5761    6821    3922    45.6
 40-49 years......................      2842    3541    2004    22.9
 50-59 years......................      1064    1323     749     8.7
 60 years and over................       513     589     261     3.5
              Female
 All females, 13 years and over3/.      1282    1680     796   100.0
 White, not Hispanic..............       400     479     233    29.1
 Black, not Hispanic..............       711     918     473    54.9
 Hispanic.........................       163     266      81    15.0
 13-19 years......................        11      11       5     0.8
 20-29 years......................       336     414     198    26.8
 30-39 years......................       567     785     375    45.6
 40-49 years......................       170     250     123    13.3
 50-59 years......................        84      93      46     5.5
 60 years and over................       114     127      49     8.0
             Children
 All children, under 13 years3/...       247     251     136   100.0
 White, not Hispanic..............        66      67      35    25.6
 Black, not Hispanic..............       121     132      69    52.7
 Hispanic.........................        57      49      29    20.5
 Under 1 year.....................       116     122      75    49.9
 1-12 years.......................       131     129      61    50.1
 1/Includes cases prior to 1983.
 2/Data are as of September 30, 1989, and reflect reporting delays.
 3/Includes all other races not shown separately.
 NOTES: The AIDS case definition was changed in September 1987 to allow for
        the presumptive diagnosis of AIDS-associated diseased and conditions
        and to expand the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus-
        associated diseases reportable as AIDS. Excludes residents of
        U.S. territories.
 SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control, Center for Infectious Diseases,
         AIDS Program.
3AIDS cases:race/ethnicity,transmission cat. person>13:U.S.'83-89
 Table 44. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases, according to race/
           ethnicity, sex, and transmission category for persons 13 years of
           age and over: United States, 1983-89
 (Data are based on reporting by State health departments)
     Race/ethnicity, sex, and       All
       transmission category       years1    1983   1984   1985   1986   1987
                                             Number, by year of report
 Total3/..........................104497     2032   4395   8076  12981  20821
 Male homosexual/bisexual......... 64726     1263   2867   5426   8521  13546
 Intravenous drug use............. 20590      367    776   1393   2231   3522
 Male homosexual/bisexual and
  intravenous drug use............  7250      200    408    595    988   1524
 Hemophilia/coagulation disorder..  1002       11     36     75    123    214
 Born in Caribbean/African
  countries.......................  1530       85    110    141    220    266
 Heterosexual4/...................  3310       23     57    137    334    605
   Sexual contact with intravenous
    drug user.....................  2367       16     42    101    231    419
 Transfusion......................  2571       26     52    168    305    630
 Undetermined5/...................  3518       57     89    141    259    514
           Race/ethnicity
 White, not Hispanic.............. 61130     1172   2690   4949   7817  12896
 Male homosexual/bisexual......... 47064      927   2160   4047   6219  10045
 Intravenous drug use.............  4473       72    147    251    405    815
 Male homosexual/bisexual and
  intravenous drug use............  4481      124    265    378    651    976
 Hemophilia/coagulation disorder..   848       10     26     64    113    184
 Born in Caribbean/African
  countries.......................     3        -      1      -      1      -
 Heterosexual4/...................  1006        2     16     32     94    196
   Sexual contact with intravenous
    drug user.....................   559        -      9     16     45    101
 Transfusion......................  1918       21     39    130    236    475
 Undetermined5/...................  1337       16     36     47     98    205
 Black, not Hispanic.............. 28693      546   1088   2002   3288   5228
 Male homosexual/bisexual......... 10626      195    402    795   1322   2103
 Intravenous drug use............. 11111      182    405    749   1201   1872
 Male homosexual/bisexual and
  intravenous drug use............  1946       44     95    145    236    387
 Hemophilia/coagulation disorder..    65        -      5      4      4     12
 Born in Caribbean/African
  countries.......................  1510       85    109    141    218    263
 Heterosexual4/...................  1674       10     23     79    160    306
   Sexual contact with intravenous
    drug user.....................  1289        6     17     62    117    238
 Transfusion......................   409        2     10     26     44     93
 Undetermined5/...................  1352       28     39     63    103    192
 Hispanic......................... 13641      306    595   1066   1754   2485
 Male homosexual/bisexual.........  6352      137    289    542    893   1250
 Intravenous drug use.............  4900      113    223    385    612    823
 Male homosexual/bisexual and
  intravenous drug use............   783       31     47     70     97    148
 Hemophilia/coagulation disorder..    65        1      4      7      5     11
 Born in Caribbean/African
  countries.......................    10        -      -      -      -      3
 Heterosexual4/...................   600       11     18     26     77    100
   Sexual contact with intravenous
    drug user.....................   506       10     16     23     69     79
 Transfusion......................   186        2      2      7     19     44
 Undetermined5/...................   745       11     12     29     51    106
                Sex
 Male............................. 95231     1891   4118   7551  12011  19137
 Homosexual/bisexual.............. 64726     1263   2867   5426   8521  13546
 Intravenous drug use............. 15785      287    605   1110   1755   2685
 Homosexual/bisexual and
  intravenous drug use............  7250      200    408    595    988   1524
 Hemophilia/coagulation disorder..   976       11     34     72    119    209
 Born in Caribbean/African
  countries.......................  1127       73     93    111    164    191
 Heterosexual4/...................   914        2     11     23     61    147
   Sexual contact with intravenous
    drug user.....................   676        1     10     21     44    109
 Transfusion......................  1607       16     30    109    201    415
 Undetermined5/...................  2846       39     70    105    202    420
 Female...........................  9266      141    277    525    970   1684
 Intravenous drug use.............  4805       80    171    283    476    837
 Hemophilia/coagulation disorder..    26        -      2      3      4      5
 Born in Caribbean/African
  countries.......................   403       12     17     30     56     75
 Heterosexual4/...................  2396       21     46    114    273    458
   Sexual contact with intravenous
    drug user.....................  1691       15     32     80    187    310
 Transfusion......................   964       10     22     59    104    215
 Undetermined5/...................   672       18     19     36     57     94
     Race/ethnicity, sex, and                         All
       transmission category        1988    19892/   years  1984   1988  19892/
                                  Number, by year of report
                                                          Percent distribution
 Total3/.......................... 30377    24995  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0
 Male homosexual/bisexual......... 17911    14670   61.9   65.2   59.0   58.7
 Intravenous drug use.............  6819     5341   19.7   17.7   22.4   21.4
 Male homosexual/bisexual and
  intravenous drug use............  1946     1519    6.9    9.3    6.4    6.1
 Hemophilia/coagulation disorder..   298      238    1.0    0.8    1.0    1.0
 Born in Caribbean/African
  countries.......................   375      285    1.5    2.5    1.2    1.1
 Heterosexual4/...................  1122     1025    3.2    1.3    3.7    4.1
   Sexual contact with intravenous
    drug user.....................   817      734    2.3    1.0    2.7    2.9
 Transfusion......................   836      550    2.5    1.2    2.8    2.2
 Undetermined5/...................  1070     1367    3.4    2.0    3.5    5.5
           Race/ethnicity
 White, not Hispanic.............. 17120    14028  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0
 Male homosexual/bisexual......... 12903    10393   77.0   80.3   75.4   74.1
 Intravenous drug use.............  1483     1265    7.3    5.5    8.7    9.0
 Male homosexual/bisexual and
  intravenous drug use............  1132      924    7.3    9.9    6.6    6.6
 Hemophilia/coagulation disorder..   245      199    1.4    1.0    1.4    1.4
 Born in Caribbean/African
  countries.......................     1        -    0.0    0.0    0.0      -
 Heterosexual4/...................   354      311    1.6    0.6    2.1    2.2
   Sexual contact with intravenous
    drug user.....................   202      185    0.9    0.3    1.2    1.3
 Transfusion......................   606      407    3.1    1.4    3.5    2.9
 Undetermined5/...................   396      529    2.2    1.3    2.3    3.8
 Black, not Hispanic..............  8814     7484  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0
 Male homosexual/bisexual.........  3060     2652   37.0   36.9   34.7   35.4
 Intravenous drug use.............  3685     2952   38.7   37.2   41.8   39.4
 Male homosexual/bisexual and
  intravenous drug use............   577      440    6.8    8.7    6.5    5.9
 Hemophilia/coagulation disorder..    26       14    0.2    0.5    0.3    0.2
 Born in Caribbean/African
  countries.......................   369      278    5.3   10.0    4.2    3.7
 Heterosexual4/...................   549      543    5.8    2.1    6.2    7.3
   Sexual contact with intravenous
    drug user.....................   434      411    4.5    1.6    4.9    5.5
 Transfusion......................   148       86    1.4    0.9    1.7    1.1
 Undetermined5/...................   400      519    4.7    3.6    4.5    6.9
 Hispanic.........................  4147     3172  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0
 Male homosexual/bisexual.........  1747     1440   46.6   48.6   42.1   45.4
 Intravenous drug use.............  1620     1085   35.9   37.5   39.1   34.2
 Male homosexual/bisexual and
  intravenous drug use............   232      141    5.7    7.9    5.6    4.4
 Hemophilia/coagulation disorder..    22       15    0.5    0.7    0.5    0.5
 Born in Caribbean/African
  countries.......................     3        3    0.1      -    0.1    0.1
 Heterosexual4/...................   205      161    4.4    3.0    4.9    5.1
   Sexual contact with intravenous
    drug user.....................   173      134    3.7    2.7    4.2    4.2
 Transfusion......................    64       48    1.4    0.3    1.5    1.5
 Undetermined5/...................   254      279    5.5    2.0    6.1    8.8
                Sex
 Male............................. 27313    22442  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0
 Homosexual/bisexual.............. 17911    14670   68.0   69.6   65.6   65.4
 Intravenous drug use.............  5204     4025   16.6   14.7   19.1   17.9
 Homosexual/bisexual and
  intravenous drug use............  1946     1519    7.6    9.9    7.1    6.8
 Hemophilia/coagulation disorder..   293      231    1.0    0.8    1.1    1.0
 Born in Caribbean/African
  countries.......................   266      190    1.2    2.3    1.0    0.8
 Heterosexual4/...................   318      352    1.0    0.3    1.2    1.6
   Sexual contact with intravenous
    drug user.....................   228      263    0.7    0.2    0.8    1.2
 Transfusion......................   506      329    1.7    0.7    1.9    1.5
 Undetermined5/...................   869     1126    3.0    1.7    3.2    5.0
 Female...........................  3064     2553  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0
 Intravenous drug use.............  1615     1316   51.9   61.7   52.7   51.5
 Hemophilia/coagulation disorder..     5        7    0.3    0.7    0.2    0.3
 Born in Caribbean/African
  countries.......................   109       95    4.3    6.1    3.6    3.7
 Heterosexual4/...................   804      673   25.9   16.6   26.2   26.4
   Sexual contact with intravenous
    drug user.....................   589      471   18.2   11.6   19.2   18.4
 Transfusion......................   330      221   10.4    7.9   10.8    8.7
 Undetermined5/...................   201      241    7.3    6.9    6.6    9.4
 1/Includes cases prior to 1983.
 2/Data are as of September 30, 1989, and reflect reporting delays.
 3/Includes all other races not shown separately.
 4/Includes persons who have had heterosexual contact with a person with human
 immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or at risk of HIV infection.
 5/Includes persons for whom risk information is incomplete (because of death,
 refusal to be interviewed, or loss to followup), persons still under
 investigation, men reported only to have had heterosexual contact with
 prostitutes, and interviewed persons for whom no specific risk is identified.
 NOTES: The AIDS case definition was changed in September 1987 to allow for
        the presumptive diagnosis of AIDS-associated diseases and conditions
        and to expand the spectrum of HIV-associated diseases reportable as
        AIDS. Excludes residents of U.S. territories.
 SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control, Center for Infectious Diseases,
         AIDS Program.
3Deaths AIDS cases:race/ethnicity,transmission cat. age>13:'83-89
 Table 45. Deaths among acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases,
           according to race/ethnicity, sex, and transmission category for
           persons 13 years of age and over: United States, 1983-89
 (Data are based on reporting by State health departments)
     Race/ethnicity, sex, and       All
       transmission category       years1  1983   1984   1985   1986   1987
                                           Number, by year of death
 Total3/.......................... 62179   1387   3184   6212  10563  13903
 Male homosexual/bisexual......... 38366    823   1972   3966   6774   8361
 Intravenous drug use............. 12144    275    621   1164   1909   2863
 Male homosexual/bisexual and
  intravenous drug use............  4527    134    307    468    790   1018
 Hemophilia/coagulation disorder..   628      9     24     72    100    149
 Born in Caribbean/African
  countries.......................   873     73     79    105    138    179
 Heterosexual4/...................  1806     15     42    119    248    405
   Sexual contact with intravenous
    drug user.....................  1283     10     35     82    171    290
 Transfusion......................  1871     18     64    184    341    488
 Undetermined5/...................  1964     40     75    134    263    440
           Race/ethnicity
 White, not Hispanic.............. 36014    750   1857   3710   6309   7921
 Male homosexual/bisexual......... 27605    582   1453   2923   4946   5947
 Intravenous drug use.............  2474     63    104    218    338    591
 Male homosexual/bisexual and
  intravenous drug use............  2726     73    189    289    502    612
 Hemophilia/coagulation disorder..   541      8     21     59     88    128
 Born in Caribbean/African
  countries.......................     -      -      -      -      -      -
 Heterosexual4/...................   511      2      5     30     76    109
   Sexual contact with intravenous
    drug user.....................   273      -      4     10     38     60
 Transfusion......................  1421     15     51    140    264    373
 Undetermined5/...................   736      7     34     51     95    161
 Black, not Hispanic.............. 17608    428    862   1632   2757   4025
 Male homosexual/bisexual.........  6617    149    296    619   1085   1487
 Intravenous drug use.............  6798    135    345    633   1069   1571
 Male homosexual/bisexual and
  intravenous drug use............  1263     40     77    124    201    284
 Hemophilia/coagulation disorder..    41      -      1      6      3     13
 Born in Caribbean/African
  countries.......................   867     73     79    104    138    177
 Heterosexual4/...................   966      8     23     63    109    236
   Sexual contact with intravenous
    drug user.....................   742      5     18     50     80    182
 Transfusion......................   278      1     10     28     43     75
 Undetermined5/...................   778     22     31     55    109    182
 Hispanic.........................  8012    204    441    831   1414   1837
 Male homosexual/bisexual.........  3767     90    204    401    692    841
 Intravenous drug use.............  2827     76    171    308    494    693
 Male homosexual/bisexual and
  intravenous drug use............   519     20     40     54     82    118
 Hemophilia/coagulation disorder..    37      1      2      5      9      6
 Born in Caribbean/African
  countries.......................     5      -      -      1      -      2
 Heterosexual4/...................   316      5     14     26     60     59
   Sexual contact with intravenous
    drug user.....................   263      5     13     22     52     48
 Transfusion......................   125      1      2     10     26     27
 Undetermined5/...................   416     11      8     26     51     91
                Sex
 Male............................. 56722   1283   2947   5775   9713  12621
 Homosexual/bisexual.............. 38366    823   1972   3966   6774   8361
 Intravenous drug use.............  9374    218    476    933   1477   2212
 Homosexual/bisexual and
  intravenous drug use............  4527    134    307    468    790   1018
 Hemophilia/coagulation disorder..   610      9     23     68     97    147
 Born in Caribbean/African
  countries.......................   637     64     61     87     94    129
 Heterosexual4/...................   451      1      6     25     43     97
   Sexual contact with intravenous
    drug user.....................   337      -      6     22     32     70
 Transfusion......................  1171      7     43    118    236    295
 Undetermined5/...................  1586     27     59    110    202    362
 Female...........................  5457    104    237    437    850   1282
 Intravenous drug use.............  2770     57    145    231    432    651
 Hemophilia/coagulation disorder..    18      -      1      4      3      2
 Born in Caribbean/African
  countries.......................   236      9     18     18     44     50
 Heterosexual4/...................  1355     14     36     94    205    308
   Sexual contact with intravenous
    drug user.....................   946     10     29     60    139    220
 Transfusion......................   700     11     21     66    105    193
 Undetermined5/...................   378     13     16     24     61     78
     Race/ethnicity, sex, and                       All
       transmission category        1988  19892/  years  1984   1988  19892/
                                   Number, by year of death
                                                        Percent distribution
 Total3/.......................... 16868   9352  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0
 Male homosexual/bisexual......... 10092   5975   61.7   61.9   59.8   63.9
 Intravenous drug use.............  3579   1600   19.5   19.5   21.2   17.1
 Male homosexual/bisexual and
  intravenous drug use............  1107    641    7.3    9.6    6.6    6.9
 Hemophilia/coagulation disorder..   174     92    1.0    0.8    1.0    1.0
 Born in Caribbean/African
  countries.......................   163     83    1.4    2.5    1.0    0.9
 Heterosexual4/...................   601    366    2.9    1.3    3.6    3.9
   Sexual contact with intravenous
    drug user.....................   424    263    2.1    1.1    2.5    2.8
 Transfusion......................   535    232    3.0    2.0    3.2    2.5
 Undetermined5/...................   617    363    3.2    2.4    3.7    3.9
           Race/ethnicity
 White, not Hispanic..............  9422   5694  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0
 Male homosexual/bisexual.........  7088   4401   76.7   78.2   75.2   77.3
 Intravenous drug use.............   728    405    6.9    5.6    7.7    7.1
 Male homosexual/bisexual and
  intravenous drug use............   634    399    7.6   10.2    6.7    7.0
 Hemophilia/coagulation disorder..   154     75    1.5    1.1    1.6    1.3
 Born in Caribbean/African
  countries.......................     -      -      -      -      -      -
 Heterosexual4/...................   180    107    1.4    0.3    1.9    1.9
   Sexual contact with intravenous
    drug user.....................    92     67    0.8    0.2    1.0    1.2
 Transfusion......................   405    168    3.9    2.7    4.3    3.0
 Undetermined5/...................   233    139    2.0    1.8    2.5    2.4
 Black, not Hispanic..............  5041   2619  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0
 Male homosexual/bisexual.........  1887   1001   37.6   34.3   37.4   38.2
 Intravenous drug use.............  2015    962   38.6   40.0   40.0   36.7
 Male homosexual/bisexual and
  intravenous drug use............   343    178    7.2    8.9    6.8    6.8
 Hemophilia/coagulation disorder..     9      9    0.2    0.1    0.2    0.3
 Born in Caribbean/African
  countries.......................   163     80    4.9    9.2    3.2    3.1
 Heterosexual4/...................   309    212    5.5    2.7    6.1    8.1
   Sexual contact with intravenous
    drug user.....................   237    166    4.2    2.1    4.7    6.3
 Transfusion......................    81     40    1.6    1.2    1.6    1.5
 Undetermined5/...................   234    137    4.4    3.6    4.6    5.2
 Hispanic.........................  2237    938  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0
 Male homosexual/bisexual.........   995    500   47.0   46.3   44.5   53.3
 Intravenous drug use.............   823    225   35.3   38.8   36.8   24.0
 Male homosexual/bisexual and
  intravenous drug use............   124     63    6.5    9.1    5.5    6.7
 Hemophilia/coagulation disorder..     8      6    0.5    0.5    0.4    0.6
 Born in Caribbean/African
  countries.......................     -      2    0.1      -      -    0.2
 Heterosexual4/...................   107     43    3.9    3.2    4.8    4.6
   Sexual contact with intravenous
    drug user.....................    92     29    3.3    2.9    4.1    3.1
 Transfusion......................    40     17    1.6    0.5    1.8    1.8
 Undetermined5/...................   140     82    5.2    1.8    6.3    8.7
                Sex
 Male............................. 15188   8556  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0
 Homosexual/bisexual.............. 10092   5975   67.6   66.9   66.4   69.8
 Intravenous drug use.............  2734   1226   16.5   16.2   18.0   14.3
 Homosexual/bisexual and
  intravenous drug use............  1107    641    8.0   10.4    7.3    7.5
 Hemophilia/coagulation disorder..   168     90    1.1    0.8    1.1    1.1
 Born in Caribbean/African
  countries.......................   111     51    1.1    2.1    0.7    0.6
 Heterosexual4/...................   147    128    0.8    0.2    1.0    1.5
   Sexual contact with intravenous
    drug user.....................   111     92    0.6    0.2    0.7    1.1
 Transfusion......................   328    142    2.1    1.5    2.2    1.7
 Undetermined5/...................   501    303    2.8    2.0    3.3    3.5
 Female...........................  1680    796  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0
 Intravenous drug use.............   845    374   50.8   61.2   50.3   47.0
 Hemophilia/coagulation disorder..     6      2    0.3    0.4    0.4    0.3
 Born in Caribbean/African
  countries.......................    52     32    4.3    7.6    3.1    4.0
 Heterosexual4/...................   454    238   24.8   15.2   27.0   29.9
   Sexual contact with intravenous
    drug user.....................   313    171   17.3   12.2   18.6   21.5
 Transfusion......................   207     90   12.8    8.9   12.3   11.3
 Undetermined5/...................   116     60    6.9    6.8    6.9    7.5
 1/Includes cases prior to 1983.
 2/Data are as of September 30, 1989, and reflect reporting delays.
 3/Includes all other races not shown separately.
 4/Includes persons who have had heterosexual contact with a person with human
 immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or at risk of HIV, infection.
 5/Includes persons for whom risk information is incomplete (because of death,
 refusal to be interviewed, or loss to followup), persons still under
 investigation, men reported only to have had heterosexual contact with
 prostitutes, and interviewed persons for whom no specific risk is identified.
 NOTES: The AIDS case definition was changed in September 1987 to allow for
        the presumptive diagnosis of AIDS-associated diseases and conditions
        to expand the spectrum of HIV-associated diseases reportable
        as AIDS. Excludes residents of U.S. territories.
 SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control, Center for Infectious Diseases,
         AIDS Program.
3AIDS cases by geographic division and state: U.S. 1983-89
 Table 46. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases, according to
           geographic division and State: United States, 1983-89
 (Data are based on reporting by State health departments)


  Geographic division    All
       and State       years1,2/    1983     1984     1985     1986     1987
                                        Number, by year of report
 United States.........  106270     2066     4445     8205    13167    21140
 New England...........    4253       57      154      281      530      846
 Maine.................     130        -        -       11       21       25
 New Hampshire.........     124        1        3        4       13       32
 Vermont...............      47        -        1        2        6       15
 Massachusetts.........    2330       33       87      165      282      455
 Rhode Island..........     266        4        6       12       31       69
 Connecticut...........    1356       19       57       87      177      250
 Middle Atlantic.......   35266     1039     1959     3155     4863     6136
 New York..............   24800      866     1587     2483     3786     3964
 New Jersey............    7430      136      281      469      770     1512
 Pennsylvania..........    3036       37       91      203      307      660
 East North Central....    7014       61      198      355      833     1407
 Ohio..................    1526        7       30       53      211      335
 Indiana...............     607        4       25       27       71      132
 Illinois..............    3196       39      101      190      358      631
 Michigan..............    1305        9       32       61      151      212
 Wisconsin.............     380        2       10       24       42       97
 West North Central....    2311       15       45      130      239      474
 Minnesota.............     592        4       11       41       95      130
 Iowa..................     152        -        3       12       21       29
 Missouri..............    1134        7       27       51       73      238
 North Dakota..........      16        -        -        2        4        1
 South Dakota..........      16        -        -        1        2        2
 Nebraska..............     122        1        2        7       10       24
 Kansas................     279        3        2       16       34       50
 South Atlantic........   18799      272      585     1302     2073     3691
 Delaware..............     209        2        4       12       22       39
 Maryland..............    1898       27       54      150      189      457
 District of Columbia..    1881       19       90      177      227      466
 Virginia..............    1283       27       40      108      160      242
 West Virginia.........      96        -        5        6        8       22
 North Carolina........     969        8       15       66       83      211
 South Carolina........     610       11        7       38       58       84
 Georgia...............    2777       26       56      191      300      512
 Florida...............    9076      152      314      554     1026     1658
 East South Central....    1921       10       24       72      165      323
 Kentucky..............     289        4       10       17       32       47
 Tennessee.............     699        2        5       18       72       72
 Alabama...............     600        3        6       29       33      153
 Mississippi...........     333        1        3        8       28       51
 West South Central....    9417      112      315      617     1185     2161
 Arkansas..............     229        -        1       10       30       47
 Louisiana.............    1449       18       55      103      165      337
 Oklahoma..............     444        5        9       20       50      107
 Texas.................    7295       89      250      484      940     1670
 Mountain..............    2984       33       74      163      333      635
 Montana...............      34        -        -        1        3        6
 Idaho.................      48        -        -        4        3       10
 Wyoming...............      26        -        1        1        3        1
 Colorado..............    1159       21       38       62      166      226
 New Mexico............     220        1        3       14       21       47
 Arizona...............     863        7       20       51       80      218
 Utah..................     222        2        7       17       21       39
 Nevada................     412        2        5       13       36       88
 Pacific...............   24305      467     1091     2130     2946     5467
 Washington............    1435        7       59      112      171      331
 Oregon................     636        5       13       34       64      160
 California............   21744      446     1005     1951     2638     4878
 Alaska................      69        1        1        5       16       15
 Hawaii................     421        8       13       28       57       83
                                                               12 months
                                                                 ending
  Geographic division                                  All    September 30,
       and State           1988  19892/             years1       1989
                                                                 Cases per
                         Number, by year          Percent       100,000
                           of report           distribution   population3
 United States.........   30947    25467             100.0        13.45
 New England...........    1287     1074               4.0        10.80
 Maine.................      27       46               0.1         3.97
 New Hampshire.........      38       33               0.1         4.11
 Vermont...............      11       11               0.0         2.20
 Massachusetts.........     712      583               2.2        13.01
 Rhode Island..........      85       59               0.3         8.45
 Connecticut...........     414      342               1.3        13.64
 Middle Atlantic.......   10293     7285              33.2        26.03
 New York..............    6979     4681              23.3        35.82
 New Jersey............    2458     1741               7.0        28.88
 Pennsylvania..........     856      863               2.9         9.32
 East North Central....    2152     1978               6.6         5.97
 Ohio..................     508      374               1.4         4.51
 Indiana...............      80      268               0.6         4.87
 Illinois..............     995      864               3.0         9.67
 Michigan..............     457      379               1.2         5.30
 Wisconsin.............     112       93               0.4         2.76
 West North Central....     772      632               2.2         4.71
 Minnesota.............     167      141               0.6         4.36
 Iowa..................      42       45               0.1         2.00
 Missouri..............     412      325               1.1         8.54
 North Dakota..........       3        6               0.0         0.87
 South Dakota..........       7        4               0.0         0.83
 Nebraska..............      51       27               0.1         2.72
 Kansas................      90       84               0.3         4.05
 South Atlantic........    5458     5330              17.7        16.16
 Delaware..............      62       68               0.2        11.54
 Maryland..............     544      472               1.8        13.48
 District of Columbia..     504      395               1.8        84.06
 Virginia..............     346      360               1.2         7.07
 West Virginia.........      21       34               0.1         2.04
 North Carolina........     278      307               0.9         5.69
 South Carolina........     173      239               0.6         8.01
 Georgia...............     827      853               2.6        17.99
 Florida...............    2703     2602               8.5        27.46
 East South Central....     760      565               1.8         4.75
 Kentucky..............      91       88               0.3         2.91
 Tennessee.............     330      200               0.7         5.17
 Alabama...............     213      161               0.6         5.37
 Mississippi...........     126      116               0.3         5.65
 West South Central....    2874     2133               8.9        10.34
 Arkansas..............      80       61               0.2         2.96
 Louisiana.............     403      368               1.4        10.44
 Oklahoma..............     153      100               0.4         4.52
 Texas.................    2238     1604               6.9        12.46
 ::
 Mountain..............     899      840               2.8         7.84
 Montana...............      16        8               0.0         1.54
 Idaho.................      11       20               0.0         2.14
 Wyoming...............       6       14               0.0         2.71
 Colorado..............     326      315               1.1        11.54
 New Mexico............      59       75               0.2         6.34
 Arizona...............     280      206               0.8         7.63
 Utah..................      81       55               0.2         4.93
 Nevada................     120      147               0.4        17.13
 Pacific...............    6452     5630              22.9        19.13
 Washington............     356      398               1.4        10.38
 Oregon................     178      180               0.6         7.95
 California............    5794     4913              20.5        22.19
 Alaska................      19       12               0.1         2.57
 Hawaii................     105      127               0.4        14.15
 1/Includes cases prior to 1983.
 2/Data are as of September 30, 1989, and reflect reporting delays.
 3/Resident population as of mid-1988, based on extrapolation from 1980-85
 data from the U.S. Bureau of the Census.
 NOTES: The AIDS case definition was changed in September 1987 to allow for
        the presumptive diagnosis of AIDS-associated diseases and conditions
        and to expand the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus-associated
        diseases reportable as AIDS. Excludes residents of U.S. territories.
 SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control, Center for Infectious Diseases,
         AIDS Program.
3Deaths among AIDS cases by geographic division/state:U.S.'83-89
 Table 47. Deaths among acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases,
           according to geographic division and State: United States, 1983-89
 (Data are based on reporting by State health departments)


   Geographic division      All
        and State         years1,   1983    1984    1985    1986    1987
                                      Number, by year of death
   Geographic division      All
        and State         years1,   1983    1984    1985    1986    1987
                                      Number, by year of death
 United States...........  63159    1416    3231    6314   10705   14150
 New England.............   2215      45     101     216     364     488
 Maine...................     61       -       -       7      14      10
 New Hampshire...........     72       1       -       6      13      14
 Vermont.................     21       1       1       1       6       5
 Massachusetts...........   1172      30      54     110     171     249
 Rhode Island............    145       2       5       7      21      42
 Connecticut.............    744      11      41      85     139     168
 Middle Atlantic.........  21298     749    1465    2535    3943    4975
 New York................  14793     615    1147    1966    2853    3469
 New Jersey..............   4609     104     232     415     785    1079
 Pennsylvania............   1896      30      86     154     305     427
 East North Central......   4084      43     132     313     587     852
 Ohio....................    851       9      32      62     127     186
 Indiana.................    356       6      13      21      57      79
 Illinois................   1892      21      63     154     273     368
 Michigan................    769       5      16      59      95     167
 Wisconsin...............    216       2       8      17      35      52
 West North Central......   1279       6      33     100     207     286
 Minnesota...............    311       2       8      27      61      76
 Iowa....................     76       1       2       7      15      17
 Missouri................    626       2      18      47      88     128
 North Dakota............      9       -       -       2       2       2
 South Dakota............      9       -       -       1       3       1
 Nebraska................     80       1       2       4      12      16
 Kansas..................    168       -       3      12      26      46
 South Atlantic..........  11013     188     440     960    1637    2420
 Delaware................    121       -       2       6      20      30
 Maryland................   1126      13      51     111     165     261
 District of Columbia....   1136      13      41     130     198     233
 Virginia................    765      20      25      78     135     182
 West Virginia...........     60       -       4       7       8      11
 North Carolina..........    509       5      24      44      83     108
 South Carolina..........    322       1      13      30      43      77
 Georgia.................   1592      17      55     127     215     337
 Florida.................   5382     119     225     427     770    1181
 East South Central......   1029      11      24      75     143     233
 Kentucky................    176       5      10      13      23      34
 Tennessee...............    381       3       6      27      64      84
 Alabama.................    332       3       6      27      34      79
 Mississippi.............    140       -       2       8      22      36
 West South Central......   5779      77     217     506     971    1443
 Arkansas................    139       1       -       8      20      30
 Louisiana...............    889      13      29      95     137     209
 Oklahoma................    250       1      11      12      39      64
 Texas...................   4501      62     177     391     775    1140
 Mountain................   1669      18      62     131     277     371
 Montana.................     16       -       -       1       2       5
 Idaho...................     26       -       -       1       3       6
 Wyoming.................     13       -       1       2       1       3
 Colorado................    649      10      40      57     111     143
 New Mexico..............    126       -       1       7      22      24
 Arizona.................    462       4      12      38      86     100
 Utah....................    136       1       3      12      25      31
 Nevada..................    241       3       5      13      27      59
 Pacific.................  14793     279     757    1478    2576    3082
 Washington..............    771       8      31      81     127     176
 Oregon..................    354       2       9      22      68      74
 California..............  13401     267     709    1336    2342    2777
 Alaska..................     25       1       -       6       7       3
 Hawaii..................    242       1       8      33      32      52
                                                     All
   Geographic division     1988   19892/           years1,2/
        and State
                            Number, by year          Percent
                               of death           distribution
 United States...........  17119    9488           100.0
 New England.............    618     338             3.5
 Maine...................     19      11             0.1
 New Hampshire...........     24      12             0.1
 Vermont.................      5       2             0.0
 Massachusetts...........    343     198             1.9
 Rhode Island............     42      26             0.2
 Connecticut.............    185      89             1.2
 Middle Atlantic.........   5481    1747            33.7
 New York................   3762     668            23.4
 New Jersey..............   1185     737             7.3
 Pennsylvania............    534     342             3.0
 East North Central......   1228     894             6.5
 Ohio....................    254     174             1.3
 Indiana.................    105      71             0.6
 Illinois................    583     409             3.0
 Michigan................    228     197             1.2
 Wisconsin...............     58      43             0.3
 West North Central......    370     272             2.0
 Minnesota...............     83      52             0.5
 Iowa....................     19      14             0.1
 Missouri................    190     151             1.0
 North Dakota............      2       1             0.0
 South Dakota............      3       1             0.0
 Nebraska................     30      15             0.1
 Kansas..................     43      38             0.3
 South Atlantic..........   3121    2148            17.4
 Delaware................     30      31             0.2
 Maryland................    315     203             1.8
 District of Columbia....    298     213             1.8
 Virginia................    219     104             1.2
 West Virginia...........     12      18             0.1
 North Carolina..........    140     104             0.8
 South Carolina..........    107      48             0.5
 Georgia.................    482     345             2.5
 Florida.................   1518    1082             8.5
 East South Central......    327     210             1.6
 Kentucky................     49      40             0.3
 Tennessee...............    118      78             0.6
 Alabama.................    106      76             0.5
 Mississippi.............     54      16             0.2
 West South Central......   1679     860             9.1
 Arkansas................     50      30             0.2
 Louisiana...............    247     151             1.4
 Oklahoma................     82      41             0.4
 Texas...................   1300     638             7.1
 Mountain................    472     329             2.6
 Montana.................      6       2             0.0
 Idaho...................     11       5             0.0
 Wyoming.................      1       5             0.0
 Colorado................    178     107             1.0
 New Mexico..............     32      38             0.2
 Arizona.................    137      82             0.7
 Utah....................     40      24             0.2
 Nevada..................     67      66             0.4
 Pacific.................   3823    2690            23.4
 Washington..............    224     122             1.2
 Oregon..................    111      67             0.6
 California..............   3404    2464            21.2
 Alaska..................      7       -             0.0
 Hawaii..................     77      37             0.4
 1/Includes cases prior to 1983.
 2/Data are as of September 30, 1989, and reflect reporting delays.
 NOTES: The AIDS case definition was changed in September 1987 to allow for
        the presumptive diagnosis of AIDS-associated diseases and conditions
        and to expand the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus-
        associated diseases reportable as AIDS. Excludes residents of U.S.
        territories.
 SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control, Center for Infectious Diseases,
         AIDS Program.
3Age-adjusted cancer incident rate:select sites:sex/race: '73-87
 Table 48. Age-adjusted cancer incidence rates for selected cancer sites,
           according to sex and race: Selected years 1973-87
 (Data are based on the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results
 Program's population-based registries in Atlanta, Detroit, Seattle-Puget
 Sound, San Francisco-Oakland, Connecticut, Iowa, New Mexico, Utah, and
 Hawaii)
    Race, sex, and site       1973     1975     1980     1983     1984
        White male          Number of new cases per 100,000 population2/
 All sites................   363.8    377.6    404.2    417.2    421.1
 Oral cavity and pharynx..    17.4     18.2     16.8     18.0     16.8
 Esophagus................     4.8      4.8      4.9      5.1      4.8
 Stomach..................    14.0     12.5     12.3     10.8     10.9
 Colon and rectum.........    54.2     54.9     58.4     60.1     62.7
   Colon..................    34.7     36.0     39.2     41.3     43.1
   Rectum.................    19.5     19.0     19.3     18.7     19.6
 Pancreas.................    12.7     12.4     11.0     11.3     11.0
 Lung and bronchus........    72.5     75.7     82.1     82.3     84.4
 Prostate gland...........    62.4     68.5     78.0     83.3     82.0
 Urinary bladder..........    27.2     28.5     31.2     30.4     32.0
 Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma...    10.3     11.4     12.5     14.4     15.3
 Leukemia.................    14.4     14.1     14.1     14.0     13.5
        Black male
 All sites................   437.8    435.5    507.9    526.3    529.8
 Oral cavity and pharynx..    16.5     17.2     23.0     23.4     26.6
 Esophagus................    12.9     17.3     16.3     20.1     17.5
 Stomach..................    25.9     19.8     21.4     22.1     17.4
 Colon and rectum.........    42.4     46.8     63.5     60.6     54.9
   Colon..................    31.3     33.9     46.0     46.0     42.0
   Rectum.................    11.0     12.9     17.5     14.6     12.9
 Pancreas.................    15.7     15.4     17.6     18.6     15.1
 Lung and bronchus........   104.4    100.7    130.7    129.4    139.0
 Prostate gland...........   105.1    110.7    125.5    131.0    136.4
 Urinary bladder..........    10.7     13.6     14.5     15.1     15.5
 Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma...     9.0      7.1      9.3      9.0     11.0
 Leukemia.................    12.0     12.4     12.8     12.0     10.1
       White female
 All sites................   293.8    308.8    308.5    321.8    330.1
 Colon and rectum.........    41.6     42.9     44.5     43.9     44.5
   Colon..................    30.2     30.9     32.7     32.5     32.1
   Rectum.................    11.4     12.0     11.7     11.4     12.3
 Pancreas.................     7.5      7.1      7.3      8.1      8.4
 Lung and bronchus........    17.9     21.9     28.3     34.4     34.9
 Melanoma of skin.........     5.8      6.8      8.9      9.0      8.8
 Breast...................    83.8     89.0     86.7     95.2     99.5
 Cervix uteri.............    12.7     11.1      9.0      8.0      8.3
 Corpus uteri.............    29.4     33.5     25.2     24.6     23.9
 Ovary....................    14.6     14.4     14.0     14.0     14.7
 Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma...     7.5      8.4      9.1     10.0     10.9
       Black female
 All sites................   279.0    292.5    302.6    317.0    321.3
 Colon and rectum.........    40.6     42.9     49.3     49.1     47.4
   Colon..................    29.2     32.3     40.8     36.1     37.6
   Rectum.................    11.5     10.5      8.5     13.0      9.8
 Pancreas.................    11.5     11.7     12.9     12.3     13.3
 Lung and bronchus........    20.7     20.4     33.9     34.6     39.8
 Breast...................    67.8     77.2     73.3     85.7     83.6
 Cervix uteri.............    29.5     27.7     19.0     15.0     17.5
 Corpus uteri.............    14.8     16.8     14.0     15.8     14.8
 Ovary....................    10.3     10.1      9.9     11.6      9.3
 Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma...     5.4      4.0      5.9      7.9      6.1
                                                      Estimated
                                                        annual
                                                       percent
    Race, sex, and site       1985     1986     1987   change1/
        White male        Number of new cases per 100,000 population2/
 All sites................   425.1    430.2    441.3      1.2
 Oral cavity and pharynx..    16.4     16.1     16.8     -0.5
 Esophagus................     5.3      5.2      5.5      0.6
 Stomach..................    10.6     10.8     10.4     -1.8
 Colon and rectum.........    63.4     61.9     60.5      0.9
   Colon..................    43.2     42.7     41.6      1.4
   Rectum.................    20.1     19.2     18.9     -0.1
 Pancreas.................    10.7     10.9     10.3     -1.0
 Lung and bronchus........    82.0     81.6     82.3      0.8
 Prostate gland...........    85.7     89.1     99.2      2.7
 Urinary bladder..........    30.9     31.9     33.0      1.1
 Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma...    15.6     16.4     17.8      3.8
 Leukemia.................    13.6     13.4     12.5     -0.7
        Black male
 All sites................   522.3    518.3    520.1      1.6
 Oral cavity and pharynx..    22.3     24.5     25.7      3.2
 Esophagus................    19.1     21.4     17.3      1.5
 Stomach..................    18.3     18.4     19.8     -0.9
 Colon and rectum.........    59.0     58.0     58.5      2.0
   Colon..................    45.5     42.8     44.7      2.3
   Rectum.................    13.5     15.3     13.8      1.1
 Pancreas.................    19.6     15.9     15.2      0.0
 Lung and bronchus........   129.6    131.3    118.9      2.0
 Prostate gland...........   130.2    126.8    136.1      2.0
 Urinary bladder..........    15.9     17.3     16.7      2.3
 Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma...     9.8     11.0      8.8      2.6
 Leukemia.................    12.6     10.0     12.0     -0.4
       White female
 All sites................   339.7    336.8    344.0      0.9
 Colon and rectum.........    45.7     42.8     40.5      0.1
   Colon..................    33.8     31.9     29.7      0.2
   Rectum.................    11.9     10.8     10.9     -0.2
 Pancreas.................     8.2      7.8      7.3      0.5
 Lung and bronchus........    35.9     37.5     38.7      5.4
 Melanoma of skin.........     9.7      9.8     10.1      3.8
 Breast...................   105.7    108.4    115.9      1.8
 Cervix uteri.............     7.5      7.9      7.3     -3.6
 Corpus uteri.............    23.2     22.3     22.5     -2.8
 Ovary....................    15.0     13.4     14.5     -0.2
 Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma...    11.1     11.1     10.9      2.7
       Black female
 All sites................   323.5    328.6    321.8      1.2
 Colon and rectum.........    45.9     47.2     46.7      1.4
   Colon..................    36.1     36.6     36.1      1.9
   Rectum.................     9.8     10.6     10.5      0.0
 Pancreas.................    11.5     13.2     14.5      1.1
 Lung and bronchus........    40.8     43.2     37.5      5.4
 Breast...................    92.9     94.6     90.9      2.0
 Cervix uteri.............    16.1     15.5     15.1     -4.6
 Corpus uteri.............    14.9     14.0     13.0     -0.4
 Ovary....................    10.2      8.8     10.1      0.1
 Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma...     6.8      6.6      8.0      4.3
 1/The estimated annual percent change has been calculated by fitting a
 linear regression model to the natural logarithm of the yearly rates from
 1973-87.
 2/Age adjusted by the direct method to the 1970 U.S. population.
 SOURCE: National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 1988
         Annual Cancer Statistics Review, Including a Report on the Status of
         Cancer Control. NIH Pub. No. 89-2789. U.S. Department of Health and
         Human Services. Public Health Service. Bethesda, Md., 1989.
35-year relative cancer survival rate select sites:sex/race'74-86
 Table 49. Five-year relative cancer survival rates for selected sites,
           according to race and sex: 1974-76, 1977-80, and 1981-86
 (Data are based on the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program's
 population-based registries in Atlanta, Detroit, Seattle-Puget Sound,
 San Francisco-Oakland, Connecticut, Iowa, New Mexico, Utah, and Hawaii)
                                  All race                White
      Sex and site       1974-76 1977-80 1981-86 1974-76 1977-80 1981-86
          Male                           Percent of patients
 All sites..............    40.6    42.9    45.1    41.7    44.1    46.6
 Oral cavity and pharynx    52.0    50.6    49.0    54.2    53.1    52.0
 Esophagus..............     3.6     4.9     7.1     4.3     5.7     7.5
 Stomach................    13.6    14.8    15.8    12.8    13.8    14.7
 Colon..................    49.3    51.6    56.8    49.7    51.9    57.5
 Rectum.................    47.3    48.7    52.0    47.7    49.9    53.1
 Pancreas...............     3.0     2.4     2.8     3.2     2.4     2.7
 Lung and bronchus......    11.0    11.7    11.6    10.9    11.9    11.8
 Prostate gland.........    66.5    70.6    73.3    67.4    71.7    74.7
 Urinary bladder........    73.4    76.1    79.7    74.2    76.6    80.3
 Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.    46.7    46.0    49.7    47.4    46.6    50.6
 Leukemia...............    32.4    34.6    34.3    32.9    35.5    35.3
         Female
 All sites..............    56.4    55.4    55.9    57.2    56.2    57.0
 Colon..................    50.4    53.1    55.9    50.5    53.3    56.5
 Rectum.................    49.1    50.6    54.9    49.5    51.4    55.6
 Pancreas...............     2.3     2.7     3.4     2.3     2.2     3.1
 Lung and bronchus......    15.5    16.2    16.0    15.7    16.2    16.2
 Melanoma of skin.......    84.2    86.1    86.5    84.3    86.3    86.6
 Breast.................    74.0    74.3    76.6    74.7    75.0    77.5
 Cervix uteri...........    68.3    67.3    65.8    69.1    68.2    67.3
 Corpus uteri...........    88.2    84.3    82.6    89.0    85.6    84.0
 Ovary..................    36.5    38.0    38.9    36.2    37.4    38.7
 Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.    47.2    50.4    51.9    47.3    50.4    52.2
                                  Black
      Sex and site       1974-76 1977-80 1981-86
          Male              Percent of patients
 All sites..............    31.1    32.4    32.8
 Oral cavity and pharynx    30.5    28.8    26.8
 Esophagus..............     2.2     2.9     5.9
 Stomach................    15.6    15.4    17.5
 Colon..................    43.5    46.0    45.9
 Rectum.................    34.2    36.7    37.8
 Pancreas...............     1.1     3.5     3.2
 Lung and bronchus......    10.8     9.7     9.9
 Prostate gland.........    57.7    62.2    62.1
 Urinary bladder........    53.9    60.9    63.2
 Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.    43.5    42.3    41.5
 Leukemia...............    31.1    27.7    28.3
         Female
 All sites..............    46.5    45.7    44.4
 Colon..................    47.1    49.2    48.7
 Rectum.................    48.2    36.9    44.9
 Pancreas...............     3.2     6.7     3.8
 Lung and bronchus......    12.6    16.9    13.7
 Melanoma of skin.......     ---     ---   *67.5
 Breast.................    62.6    62.9    64.3
 Cervix uteri...........    62.9    61.9    57.1
 Corpus uteri...........    62.2    56.0    55.0
 Ovary..................    40.8    39.4    37.6
 Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.    53.4    56.6    49.4
 *Standard error is greater than 10 percentage points.
 NOTES: Rates are based on followup of patients through 1986. The rate is the
        ratio of the observed survival rate for the patient group to the
        expected survival rate for persons in the general population similar
        to the patient group with respect to age, sex, race, and calendar year
        of observation. It estimates the chance of surviving the effects of
        cancer.
 SOURCE: National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 1988 Annual
         Cancer Statistics Review, Including a Report on the Status of Cancer
         Control. NIH Pub. No. 89-2789. U.S. Department of Health and Human
         Services. Public Health Service. Bethesda, Md., 1989; National
         Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Prevention and Control:
         Unpublished data.
3Limitation of activity done by chronic cond.:select chars.'83,88
 Table 50. Limitation of activity caused by chronic conditions, according
           selected characteristics: United States, 1983 and 1988
 (Data are based on household interviews of a sample of the civilian
 noninstitutionalized population)
                      Total with      Limited      Limited in   Unable to
                      limitation    but not in  amount or kind   carry on
                      of activity      major        of major       major
                                     activity       activity     activity
   Characteristic     1983   1988   1983   1988   1983   1988   1983   1988
                                      Percent of population
 Total1,2/..........  13.8   13.1    4.1    4.0    6.0    5.3    3.6    3.8
         Age
 Under 15 years.....   4.8    5.0    1.3    1.2    3.1    3.4    0.4    0.4
   Under 5 years....   2.1    2.2    0.5    0.7    1.1    1.0    0.5    0.5
   5-14 years.......   6.2    6.5    1.8    1.5    4.1    4.7    0.3    0.3
 15-44 years........   8.5    8.4    2.7    2.7    3.9    3.5    1.9    2.2
 45-64 years........  24.3   22.4    5.9    5.5   10.2    8.4    8.2    8.6
 65 years and over..  40.2   37.0   14.8   14.4   15.0   12.1   10.4   10.5
   65-74 years......  37.6   33.9   13.5   12.6   13.3   10.3   10.7   11.1
   75 years and over  44.4   41.8   16.8   17.2   17.7   14.9    9.9    9.7
        Sex1/
 Male...............  13.9   13.2    3.8    3.7    5.6    5.2    4.6    4.3
 Female.............  13.6   12.9    4.5    4.3    6.4    5.3    2.7    3.4
       Race1/
 White..............  13.4   12.8    4.2    4.0    5.9    5.3    3.3    3.5
 Black..............  17.5   16.3    3.8    3.8    7.5    5.9    6.2    6.6
  Family income1,3/
 Less than $10,000..  23.0   23.2    5.4    5.4    9.6    8.6    8.0    9.1
 $10,000-$14,999....  16.6   15.4    4.5    4.2    6.8    6.2    5.2    5.0
 $15,000-$19,999....  14.4   13.1    4.3    4.0    6.6    5.3    3.5    3.7
 $20,000-$34,999....  11.0   10.7    3.7    3.5    5.1    4.6    2.1    2.6
 $35,000 or more....   9.4    8.1    3.7    3.0    4.1    3.6    1.6    1.4
 Geographic region1/
 Northeast..........  13.0   11.5    4.0    3.8    5.4    4.2    3.6    3.4
 Midwest............  13.1   13.2    3.9    3.9    5.9    5.8    3.2    3.5
 South..............  14.7   14.2    4.1    4.2    6.7    5.7    3.9    4.3
 West...............  14.2   12.8    4.7    3.9    5.8    5.1    3.7    3.7
 Location of residence1/
 Within MSA.........  13.5   12.6    4.1    3.9    5.9    5.0    3.5    3.7
 Outside MSA........  14.4   14.9    4.2    4.2    6.4    6.4    3.8    4.3

 1/Age adjusted.
 2/Includes all other races not shown separately and unknown family income
 3/Family income categories for 1983. Income categories for 1988 are: less
 than $13,000; $13,000-$18,999; $19,000-$24,999; $25,000-$44,999; and
 $45,000 or more.
 SOURCE: Division of Health Interview Statistics, National Center for Heal
         Statistics: Data from the National Health Interview Survey.
3Disability days & incidence associated w/acute cond.by age'83-88
 Table 51. Disability days associated with acute conditions and incidence
           of acute conditions, according to age: United States, 1983-88
 (Data are based on household interviews of a sample of the civilian
 noninstitutionalized population)
                Age                1983    1984   1985    1986    1987    1988
     Restricted-activity days                    Number per person
 All ages1/...................      7.2     7.4    6.8     7.7     6.8     7.1
 Under 15 years...............      8.2     7.9    6.9     8.2     7.5     8.1
   Under 5 years..............      9.5     8.8    7.5     9.0     9.4     9.7
   5-14 years.................      7.5     7.4    6.7     7.8     6.6     7.2
 15-44 years..................      6.6     7.1    6.5     7.0     6.5     6.7
 45-64 years..................      6.3     6.6    6.0     7.0     6.1     5.8
 65 years and over............      9.2     9.1    9.6    10.2     8.0     8.2
   65-74 years................      8.7     8.3    8.9    10.2     8.2     7.3
   75 years and over..........     10.1    10.2   10.9    10.1     7.7     9.6
       Bed-disability days2/
 All ages1/...................      3.4     3.3    3.1     3.4     3.0     3.1
 Under 15 years...............      4.0     3.6    3.4     3.8     3.4     3.9
   Under 5 years..............      4.7     3.8    3.5     3.9     4.4     4.9
   5-14 years.................      3.6     3.5    3.3     3.8     2.8     3.4
 15-44 years..................      3.0     3.2    2.8     3.1     2.8     2.8
 45-64 years..................      2.8     2.6    2.7     3.1     2.6     2.4
 65 years and over............      4.5     3.9    3.9     4.6     3.4     3.4
   65-74 years................      4.4     3.7    2.8     3.9     3.7     3.1
   75 years and over..........      4.7     4.3    5.7     5.5     3.0     4.0
        Incidence of acute
           conditions3/                       Number per 100 persons
 All ages1/...................    182.9   184.9  183.1   189.5   180.8   184.8
 Under 15 years...............    288.1   289.3  280.0   302.7   281.7   296.5
   Under 5 years..............    354.5   345.1  334.6   360.4   358.9   362.8
   5-14 years.................    252.8   259.2  250.9   271.7   240.4   261.3
 15-44 years..................    165.1   172.2  170.1   180.5   168.7   162.6
 45-64 years..................    109.3   104.4  112.9   125.1   101.4   107.9
 65 years and over............    100.9    98.8   98.4   119.5   100.4   108.9
   65-74 years................    103.1    97.4   98.9   118.2    94.8   107.8
   75 years and over..........     97.3   101.0   97.7   121.5   109.4   110.6
 1/Age adjusted.
 2/A subset of restricted-activity days.
 3/Excludes conditions involving neither medical attention nor activity
 restriction.
 SOURCE: Division of Health Interview Statistics, National Center for
         Health Statistics: Data from the National Health Interview
         Survey.
3Self-assessment of health by select characteristics:U.S. '83-87
 Table 52. Self-assessment of health, according to selected characteristics
           United States, 1983 and 1988
 (Data are based on household interviews of a sample of the civilian
 noninstitutionalized population)
                             Excellent    Very good      Good        Fair
                                                                    or poor
   Characteristic   Total   1983  1988   1983  1988   1983  1988   1983  1988
                                        Percent distribution
 Total1,2/.......... 100.0  40.7  40.2   25.4  27.7   23.2  22.7   10.7   9.4
         Age
 Under 15 years..... 100.0  53.3  53.3   24.9  26.6   18.8  17.4    3.0   2.7
   Under 5 years.... 100.0  54.0  53.9   25.1  26.2   18.0  16.4    2.9   3.4
   5-14 years....... 100.0  52.9  53.0   24.8  26.7   19.3  17.9    3.1   2.4
 15-44 years........ 100.0  44.7  42.6   27.9  30.5   21.5  21.4    6.0   5.5
 45-64 years........ 100.0  26.6  28.2   24.0  26.5   29.3  28.2   20.1  17.1
 65 years and over.. 100.0  16.6  16.3   19.2  21.5   30.8  32.8   33.3  29.4
   65-74 years...... 100.0  16.9  17.5   19.1  22.8   31.7  33.1   32.3  26.6
   75 years and over 100.0  16.2  14.5   19.4  19.5   29.4  32.2   34.9  33.8
        Sex1/
 Male............... 100.0  43.0  42.2   25.0  27.5   21.8  21.4   10.2   8.9
 Female............. 100.0  38.6  38.3   25.7  27.8   24.6  24.0   11.1   9.9
       Race1/
 White.............. 100.0  42.6  41.8   25.8  28.4   22.1  21.4    9.6   8.5
 Black.............. 100.0  28.5  30.1   21.8  23.3   30.0  30.2   19.7  16.4
  Family income1,3/
 Less than $10,000.. 100.0  29.1  27.9   22.1  24.1   27.6  28.2   21.2  19.8
 $10,000-$14,999.... 100.0  34.2  33.6   24.8  27.4   27.2  27.0   13.9  12.0
 $15,000-$19,999.... 100.0  37.0  37.4   26.9  29.5   25.7  24.1   10.5   9.0
 $20,000-$34,999.... 100.0  43.7  42.7   27.4  29.1   22.0  21.7    6.9   6.5
 $35,000 or more.... 100.0  53.1  52.6   26.2  27.2   16.1  16.2    4.7   4.0
 Geographic region1/
 Northeast.......... 100.0  41.7  41.2   26.5  29.8   22.7  21.1    9.1   7.8
 Midwest............ 100.0  40.9  41.4   26.5  28.2   22.9  21.8    9.7   8.6
 South.............. 100.0  38.3  37.5   24.0  25.9   24.7  25.1   13.1  11.5
 West............... 100.0  43.5  42.1   25.0  27.9   22.0  21.6    9.5   8.4
 Location of residence1/
 Within MSA......... 100.0  41.5  41.4   25.8  27.6   22.7  22.2   10.0   9.0
 Outside MSA........ 100.0  39.1  36.2   24.4  28.1   24.6  24.8   12.0  11.0
 1/Age adjusted.
 2/Includes all other races not shown separately and unknown family income.
 3/Family income categories for 1983. Income categories for 1988 are: less
 than $13,000; $13,000-$18,999; $19,000-$24,999; $25,000-$44,999; and
 $45,000 or more.
 SOURCE: Division of Health Interview Statistics, National Center for Health
         Statistics: Data from the National Health Interview Survey.
3Current cigarette smoking age>18 by sex/race/age:U.S. 1965-87
 Table 53. Current cigarette smoking by persons 18 years of age and over,
           according to sex, race, and age: United States, selected years
           1965-87
 (Data are based on household interviews of a sample of the civilian
 noninstitutionalized population)
         Sex, race, and age          1965   1974   1979   1983   1985   1987
            All persons                 Percent of persons 18 years of age
                                                     and  over
 18 years and over, age adjusted...  42.3   37.2   33.5   32.2   30.0   28.7
 18 years and over, crude..........  42.4   37.1   33.5   32.1   30.1   28.8
             All males
 18 years and over, age adjusted...  51.6   42.9   37.2   34.7   32.1   31.0
 18 years and over, crude..........  51.9   43.1   37.5   35.1   32.6   31.2
 18-24 years.......................  54.1   42.1   35.0   32.9   28.0   28.2
 25-34 years.......................  60.7   50.5   43.9   38.8   38.2   34.8
 35-44 years.......................  58.2   51.0   41.8   41.0   37.6   36.6
 45-64 years.......................  51.9   42.6   39.3   35.9   33.4   33.5
 65 years and over.................  28.5   24.8   20.9   22.0   19.6   17.2
 White:
    18 years and over, age adjusted  50.8   41.7   36.5   34.1   31.3   30.4
 18-24 years.......................  53.0   40.8   34.3   32.5   28.4   29.2
 25-34 years.......................  60.1   49.5   43.6   38.6   37.3   33.8
 35-44 years.......................  57.3   50.1   41.3   40.8   36.6   36.2
 45-64 years.......................  51.3   41.2   38.3   35.0   32.1   32.4
 65 years and over.................  27.7   24.3   20.5   20.6   18.9   16.0
 Black:
    18 years and over, age adjusted  59.2   54.0   44.1   41.3   39.9   39.0
 18-24 years.......................  62.8   54.9   40.2   34.2   27.2   24.9
 25-34 years.......................  68.4   58.5   47.5   39.9   45.6   44.9
 35-44 years.......................  67.3   61.5   48.6   45.5   45.0   44.0
 45-64 years.......................  57.9   57.8   50.0   44.8   46.1   44.3
 65 years and over.................  36.4   29.7   26.2   38.9   27.7   30.3
            All females
 18 years and over, age adjusted...  34.0   32.5   30.3   29.9   28.2   26.7
 18 years and over, crude..........  33.9   32.1   29.9   29.5   27.9   26.5
 18-24 years.......................  38.1   34.1   33.8   35.5   30.4   26.1
 25-34 years.......................  43.7   38.8   33.7   32.6   32.0   31.8
 35-44 years.......................  43.7   39.8   37.0   33.8   31.5   29.6
 45-64 years.......................  32.0   33.4   30.7   31.0   29.9   28.6
 65 years and over.................   9.6   12.0   13.2   13.1   13.5   13.7
 White:
    18 years and over, age adjusted  34.3   32.3   30.6   30.1   28.3   27.2
 18-24 years.......................  38.4   34.0   34.5   36.5   31.8   27.8
 25-34 years.......................  43.4   38.6   34.1   32.2   32.0   31.9
 35-44 years.......................  43.9   39.3   37.2   34.8   31.0   29.2
 45-64 years.......................  32.7   33.0   30.6   30.6   29.7   29.0
 65 years and over.................   9.8   12.3   13.8   13.2   13.3   13.9
 Black:
    18 years and over, age adjusted  32.1   35.9   30.8   31.8   30.7   27.2
 18-24 years.......................  37.1   35.6   31.8   32.0   23.7   20.4
 25-34 years.......................  47.8   42.2   35.2   38.0   36.2   35.8
 35-44 years.......................  42.8   46.4   37.7   32.7   40.2   35.3
 45-64 years.......................  25.7   38.9   34.2   36.3   33.4   28.4
 65 years and over.................   7.1    8.9    8.5   13.1   14.5   11.7
 NOTES: A current smoker is a person who has smoked at least 100 cigarettes
        and who now smokes; includes occasional smokers. Excludes unknown
        smoking status.
 SOURCE: Division of Health Interview Statistics, National Center for Health
         Statistics: Data from the National Health Interview Survey; Data
         computed by the Division of Epidemiology and Health Promotion
         from data compiled by the Division of Health Interview Statistics.
3Prevalence cigarette smoking age>25 by sex/race/education:'74-87
 Table 54. Age-adjusted prevalence of current cigarette smoking by persons 25
           years of age and over, according to sex, race, and education:
           United States, selected years 1974-87
 (Data are based on household interviews of a sample of the civilian
 noninstitutionalized population)
 Sex, race, and education    1974     1979     1983     1985     1987
                     Percent of persons 25 years of age and over, age adjusted
 All persons1/...........    37.1     33.3     31.7     30.2     29.1
 Less than 12 years......    43.8     41.1     40.8     41.0     40.6
 12 years................    36.4     33.7     33.6     32.1     31.8
 13-15 years.............    35.8     33.2     30.3     29.7     27.2
 16 or more years........    27.5     22.8     20.7     18.6     16.7
 All males1/.............    43.0     37.6     35.1     32.9     31.5
 Less than 12 years......    52.4     48.1     47.2     46.0     45.7
 12 years................    42.6     39.1     37.4     35.6     35.2
 13-15 years.............    41.6     36.5     33.0     33.0     28.4
 16 or more years........    28.6     23.1     21.8     19.7     17.3
 White males1/...........    41.9     36.9     34.5     31.9     30.6
 Less than 12 years......    51.6     48.0     47.9     45.2     45.3
 12 years................    42.2     38.6     37.1     34.8     34.6
 13-15 years.............    41.4     36.4     32.6     32.3     28.0
 16 or more years........    28.1     22.8     21.1     19.2     17.4
 Black males1/...........    53.8     44.9     42.8     42.5     41.9
 Less than 12 years......    58.3     50.1     46.0     51.1     49.4
 12 years................   *51.2     48.4     47.2     41.9     43.6
 13-15 years.............   *45.7     39.3     44.7     42.3     32.4
 16 or more years........   *41.8    *37.9    *31.3    *32.0     20.9
 All females1/...........    32.2     29.6     28.8     27.8     26.9
 Less than 12 years......    36.8     35.0     35.3     36.7     36.1
 12 years................    32.5     29.9     30.9     29.6     29.2
 13-15 years.............    30.2     30.0     27.5     26.7     26.0
 16 or more years........    26.1     22.5     19.2     17.4     16.1
 White females1/.........    31.9     29.8     28.8     27.6     27.0
 Less than 12 years......    37.0     36.1     35.5     37.1     37.0
 12 years................    32.1     29.9     30.9     29.4     29.4
 13-15 years.............    30.5     30.6     28.0     27.1     26.2
 16 or more years........    25.8     21.9     18.9     16.8     16.4
 Black females1/.........    35.9     30.6     31.8     32.1     28.6
 Less than 12 years......    36.4     31.9     36.9     39.2     35.0
 12 years................    41.9     33.0     35.2     32.3     28.1
 13-15 years.............    33.2    *28.8     26.5     23.7     27.2
 16 or more years........   *35.2    *43.4    *38.7     27.5     19.5
 1/Includes unknown education.
 *For age groups where percent smoking was 0 or 100 the age-adjustment
 procedure was modified to substitute the percent from the next lower
 education group. These age-adjusted percents should be considered
 unreliable because of small sample size.
 NOTES: A current smoker is a person who has smoked at least 100 cigarettes
        and who now smokes; includes occusional smokers. Excludes unknown
        smoking status.
 SOURCE: Data computed by the Division of Epidemiology and Health Promotion,
         National Center for Health Statistics from data compiled by the
         Division of Health Interview Statistics.
3Use select substances past month age 12-25 by age/sex:U.S.'74-88
 Table 55. Use of selected substances in the past month by youths 12-17
           years of age and young adults 18-25 years of age, according to
           age and sex: United States, selected years 1974-88
 (Data are based on household interviews of a sample of the population
 12 years of age and over in the coterminous United States)
 Substance, age, and sex  1974   1976   1977   1979   1982   1985   1988
       Cigarettes                          Percent of population
 Both sexes:
   12-17 years..........    25     23     22   (1/)     15     15     12
     12-13 years........    13     11     10   (1/)             6      3
     14-15 years........    25     20     22   (1/)     10     14     11
     16-17 years........    38     39     35   (1/)     30     25     20
   18-25 years..........    49     49     47   (1/)     40     37     35
 Male:
   12-17 years..........    27     21     23   (1/)     16     16     12
   18-25 years..........    50     48     50   (1/)     37     38     36
 Female:
   12-17 years..........    24     26     22   (1/)     13     15     11
   18-25 years..........    47     51     44   (1/)     42     35     35
        Alcohol2/
 Both sexes:
   12-17 years..........    34     32     31     37     27     31     25
     12-13 years........    19     19     13     20     10     11      6
     14-15 years........    32     31     28     36     23     35     23
     16-17 years........    51     47     52     55     45     46     42
   18-25 years..........    69     69     70     76     68     71     65
 Male:
   12-17 years..........    39     36     37     39     27     34     27
   18-25 years..........   ---     79     82     84     75     78     75
 Female:
   12-17 years..........    29     29     25     36     27     28     23
   18-25 years..........   ---     58     59     68     61     64     57
        Marijuana
 Both sexes:
   12-17 years..........    12     12     17     17     12     12      6
     12-13 years........    *2     *3     *4      4     *2     *4      1
     14-15 years........    12     13     16     17      8     11      5
     16-17 years........    20     21     30     28     23     21     12
   18-25 years..........    25     25     27     35     27     22     15
 Male:
   12-17 years..........    12     14     20     19     13     13      6
   18-25 years..........   ---     31     35     45     36     27     20
 Female:
   12-17 years..........    11     11     13     14     10     11      7
   18-25 years..........   ---     19     20     26     19     17     11
        Cocaine3/
 Both sexes:
   12-17 years..........  *1.0   *1.0   *0.8    1.4    1.6    1.5    1.1
   18-25 years..........   3.1    2.0    3.7    9.3    6.8    7.6    4.5
 Male:
   12-17 years..........   ---    ---    ---    ---    1.8    2.0    0.9
   18-25 years..........   ---    ---    ---    ---    9.1    9.0    6.0
 Female:
   12-17 years..........   ---    ---    ---    ---   *1.5   *1.0    1.4
   18-25 years..........   ---    ---    ---    ---    4.7    6.3    3.0
 1/Data not comparable because definitions differ.
 2/In 1979, 1982, 1985, and 1988, private answer sheets were used for
 alcohol questions; in earlier years, respondents answered questions
 aloud.
 3/The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) provides data on the number of
 people admitted to emergency rooms following cocaine use, based on a
 nonrandom sample of 562 participating emergency rooms in 21 metropolitan
 areas and 78 medical examiner facilities located primarily in 27
 metropolitan areas. Between 1985 and 1988 the annual number of cocaine-
 related emergency room visits in DAWN hospitals increased sharply from
 11,136 to 46,825. Cocaine-related emergency room visits increased from
 304 to 1,027 for youths 12-17 years of age and from 3,552 to 14,434 for
 young adults 18-25 years of age. (Unpublished data from National
 Institute on Drug Abuse, Drug Abuse Warning Network.)
 *Relative standard error greater than 30 percent.
 SOURCES: National Institute on Drug Abuse: National Household Survey on
          Drug Abuse: Main Findings, 1979, by P. M. Fishburne, H. I.
          Abelson, and I. Cisin. DHHS Pub. No. (ADM) 80-976. Alcohol,
          Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration. Washington. U.S.
          Government Printing Office, 1980; National Household Survey on
          Drug Abuse: Main Findings, 1982, by J. D. Miller et al.
          DHHS Pub. No. (ADM) 83-1263. Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental
          Health Administration. Washington. U.S. Government Printing
          Office, 1983; National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Main
          Findings, 1985. DHHS Pub. No. (ADM) 88-1586. National Household
          Survey on Drug Abuse: Main Findings, 1988; Unpublished data.
3Alcohol consumption status age>18 by sex: U.S. select yrs '71-85
 Table 56. Alcohol consumption status of persons 18 years of age and over,
           according to sex: United States, selected years 1971-85
 (Data are based on interviews of samples of the noninstitutionalized
 population)
       Sex and
 alcohol consumption  1971   1973   1974   1975   1976   1979   1983   1985
     Both sexes                         Percent of persons
 Abstain............    36     34     36     36     33     33     40     35
 Light..............    34     29     28     31     38     34     29     35
 Moderate...........    20     23     28     21     19     24     21     22
 Heavier............    10     14     11     12     10      9     10      8
        Male
 Abstain............    30     25     24     27     26     25     28     24
 Light..............    29     24     24     27     33     29     28     33
 Moderate...........    26     29     34     26     24     31     28     29
 Heavier............    15     22     18     20     18     14     16     14
       Female
 Abstain............    42     42     42     45     39     40     50     45
 Light..............    40     35     32     35     44     38     30     37
 Moderate...........    13     17     21     15     15     18     15     15
 Heavier............     5      6      5      4      3      4      4      3
 NOTE: Alcohol consumption status is defined in ounces of absolute alcohol
       (ethanol) consumed per day as follows: abstain, 0; light, .01-.21;
       moderate, .22-.99; and heavier, 1.00 or more.
 SOURCES: Clark, W. B., Midanik, L., and Knupfer, G.: Report on the 1979
          National Survey. University of California. Contract No. ADM
          281-77-0021. Prepared for the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse
          and Alcoholism. Rockville, Md., Dec. 1981. 1983 and 1985 data
          computed by the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and
          Alcoholism from data compiled by the National Center for Health
          Statistics, Division of Health Interview Statistics.
3Elevated blood pressure age 20-74: race/sex/age:U.S. 60-62,71-80
 Table 57. Elevated blood pressure among persons 20-74 years of age,
           according to race, sex, and age: United States, 1960-62, 1971-74,
           and 1976-80
 (Data are based on physical examinations of a sample of the civilian
 noninstitutionalized population)
                                   All races                White
        Sex and age        1960-62 1971-74 1976-80  1960-62 1971-74 1976-80
                         Percent of population with systolic pressure at least
        Both sexes1/       140 mmHg or diastolic pressure at least 90 mmHg
 20-74 years, age adjusted.   37.4    38.4    38.0     36.2    37.3    37.0
 20-74 years, crude........   38.1    38.1    37.2     37.1    37.3    36.5
 20-24 years...............   12.9    13.5    16.1     13.1    13.7    16.0
 25-34 years...............   16.2    20.0    21.3     15.3    19.2    21.2
 35-44 years...............   30.0    32.3    33.1     28.3    29.7    31.0
 45-54 years...............   44.4    46.9    47.0     42.4    45.8    45.8
 55-64 years...............   62.3    59.4    56.7     60.9    58.4    55.2
 65-74 years...............   73.8    70.3    63.1     73.1    69.3    61.9
            Male
 20-74 years, age adjusted.   40.8    42.7    43.6     40.0    42.1    43.1
 20-74 years, crude........   41.0    42.0    42.5     40.4    41.6    42.3
 20-24 years...............   21.7    20.2    24.7     22.1    20.7    25.6
 25-34 years...............   23.3    27.5    31.1     22.3    27.2    31.3
 35-44 years...............   37.4    38.1    39.5     37.0    36.0    37.7
 45-54 years...............   47.2    52.8    51.8     46.0    53.0    51.8
 55-64 years...............   59.3    59.3    58.7     58.2    58.9    57.6
 65-74 years...............   65.9    65.4    62.0     65.0    64.0    60.6
          Female1/
 20-74 years, age adjusted.   34.0    34.3    32.6     32.3    32.6    31.0
 20-74 years, crude........   35.3    34.6    32.3     34.0    33.3    31.0
 20-24 years...............    4.2     7.1     7.8      3.8     6.9     6.5
 25-34 years...............    9.2    12.7    11.7      8.2    11.2    11.0
 35-44 years...............   22.9    26.9    27.1     19.9    23.8    24.6
 45-54 years...............   41.8    41.5    42.4     39.0    39.1    40.1
 55-64 years...............   65.0    59.5    54.9     63.3    57.9    53.0
 65-74 years...............   80.3    74.1    63.9     79.8    73.4    62.9
                         Percent of population with systolic pressure at least
        Both sexes1/       160 mmHg or diastolic pressure at least 95 mmHg
 20-74 years, age adjusted.   18.8    19.3    18.1     17.2    18.0    17.4
 20-74 years, crude........   19.2    19.2    17.6     17.8    18.0    17.0
 20-24 years...............    4.3     3.7     4.9      4.3     3.7     5.0
 25-34 years...............    5.6     6.8     8.0      4.3     6.1     7.8
 35-44 years...............   13.4    15.5    13.9     11.5    13.5    12.4
 45-54 years...............   21.4    24.3    25.1     19.1    22.2    24.1
 55-64 years...............   31.8    33.2    28.1     30.1    31.6    26.9
 65-74 years...............   48.7    40.9    34.5     46.9    39.5    33.9
            Male
 20-74 years, age adjusted.   18.8    20.7    20.9     17.4    19.6    20.4
 20-74 years, crude........   19.0    20.2    20.1     17.6    19.3    19.8
 20-24 years...............    6.7     5.7     7.4      6.5     5.8     8.0
 25-34 years...............    7.8     8.9    12.2      6.1     8.3    12.2
 35-44 years...............   16.2    19.1    17.0     14.9    17.2    15.2
 45-54 years...............   21.4    26.8    28.2     19.6    25.8    28.4
 55-64 years...............   29.3    32.5    31.2     27.4    31.2    29.8
 65-74 years...............   40.5    36.4    33.3     38.6    35.1    32.6
          Female1/
 20-74 years, age adjusted.   18.6    18.0    15.4     16.9    16.3    14.4
 20-74 years, crude........   19.3    18.3    15.2     18.0    16.8    14.5
 20-24 years...............    1.9     1.9     2.5      2.1     1.7     2.0
 25-34 years...............    3.4     4.8     3.8      2.5     4.0     3.4
 35-44 years...............   10.8    12.2    11.0      8.3    10.0     9.7
 45-54 years...............   21.5    21.9    22.3     18.7    18.8    20.0
 55-64 years...............   34.1    33.9    25.2     32.5    32.0    24.3
 65-74 years...............   55.4    44.4    35.4     53.8    42.9    34.9
                                   Black
        Sex and age        1960-62 1971-74 1976-80
                           Percent of population with
                           systolic pressure at least
        Both sexes1/       140 mmHg or diastolic pressure
                                at least 90 mmHg
 20-74 years, age adjusted.   48.8    49.6    46.6
 20-74 years, crude........   48.7    47.3    43.2
 20-24 years...............   13.1    13.7    16.9
 25-34 years...............   23.4    28.2    22.8
 35-44 years...............   44.0    54.5    47.6
 45-54 years...............   60.6    57.4    58.2
 55-64 years...............   78.9    71.8    70.5
 65-74 years...............   85.2    80.0    71.9
            Male
 20-74 years, age adjusted.   48.9    51.0    48.5
 20-74 years, crude........   49.6    48.9    45.7
 20-24 years...............  *18.4    18.6    22.2
 25-34 years...............   31.9    33.6    31.7
 35-44 years...............   44.2    60.5    52.8
 45-54 years...............   56.3    53.3    49.8
 55-64 years...............   75.1    67.5    71.8
 65-74 years...............  *76.8    79.3    69.2
          Female1/
 20-74 years, age adjusted.   49.0    48.5    45.2
 20-74 years, crude........   47.9    46.1    41.2
 20-24 years...............    8.7     9.3    12.2
 25-34 years...............   17.3    24.0    15.6
 35-44 years...............   43.8    49.9    43.7
 45-54 years...............   64.8    61.0    65.6
 55-64 years...............   82.8    75.3    69.4
 65-74 years...............  *92.1    80.6    74.0
                           Percent of population with
                           systolic pressure at 160 mmHg
        Both sexes1/       or diastolic pressure at
                                least 95 mmHg
 20-74 years, age adjusted.   32.9    32.4    24.6
 20-74 years, crude........   32.6    30.5    22.3
 20-24 years...............    5.1     4.5     4.3
 25-34 years...............   14.8    13.3     9.3
 35-44 years...............   29.0    31.9    24.7
 45-54 years...............   39.5    43.7    36.1
 55-64 years...............   50.4    52.1    39.3
 65-74 years...............   71.9    55.7    36.7
            Male
 20-74 years, age adjusted.   32.9    31.8    26.1
 20-74 years, crude........   32.9    30.1    23.9
 20-24 years...............   *9.7     5.6     4.3
 25-34 years...............   21.8    16.1    13.4
 35-44 years...............   28.1    36.8    33.9
 45-54 years...............   34.6    37.0    27.8
 55-64 years...............   50.3    49.5    45.5
 65-74 years...............  *63.3    50.3    32.3
          Female1/
 20-74 years, age adjusted.   33.2    33.0    23.5
 20-74 years, crude........   32.3    30.9    21.0
 20-24 years...............    1.3     3.5     4.4
 25-34 years...............    9.7    11.2     6.0
 35-44 years...............   29.8    28.2    17.5
 45-54 years...............   44.3    49.4    43.4
 55-64 years...............   50.5    54.2    34.2
 65-74 years...............  *79.0    59.8    40.0
 1/Excludes pregnant women.
 *Percents based on fewer than 45 persons are considered unreliable. Percent
 based on fewer than 25 persons are considered highly unreliable and are not
 shown.
 NOTE: Percents are based on a single measurement of blood pressure
       to provide comparable data across the 3 time periods.
 SOURCE: Division of Health Examination Statistics, National Center for
         Health Statistics: Unpublished data.

3Hypertension age 20-74 by race/sex/age:U.S.'60-62,'71-74,'76-80
 Table 58. Hypertension among persons 20-74 years of age, according to race,
           sex, and age: United States, 1960-62, 1971-74, and 1976-80
 (Data are based on physical examinations of a sample of the civilian
 noninstitutionalized population)
                                  All races                    White
 Sex and age             1960-62  1971-74  1976-80   1960-62  1971-74  1976-80
        Both sexes1/                     Percent of population
 20-74 years, age adjusted  38.5     40.0     40.6      37.1     38.7     39.4
 20-74 years, crude........ 39.0     39.7     39.7      37.9     38.7     38.9
 20-24 years..............  13.4     13.6     16.4      13.3     13.8     16.2
 25-34 years............... 17.3     20.6     22.0      16.1     19.5     21.9
 35-44 years............... 30.7     33.4     34.5      28.6     30.6     32.3
 45-54 years............... 45.5     49.1     50.2      43.4     47.5     48.9
 55-64 years............... 63.5     62.5     61.4      61.9     61.2     59.8
 65-74 years............... 75.7     73.5     69.7      74.9     72.5     68.5
            Male
 20-74 years, age adjusted. 41.4     44.0     45.3      40.6     43.3     44.8
 20-74 years, crude........ 41.7     43.3     44.0      41.0     42.8     43.8
 20-24 years............... 21.6     20.4     24.7      22.0     20.9     25.6
 25-34 years............... 23.5     27.6     31.4      22.5     27.3     31.7
 35-44 years............... 37.7     39.1     40.5      37.1     36.6     38.6
 45-54 years............... 47.6     55.0     53.6      46.5     54.6     53.5
 55-64 years............... 60.3     62.5     61.8      59.1     62.1     60.8
 65-74 years..............  68.8     67.2     67.1      68.1     65.8     65.8
          Female1/
 20-74 years, age adjusted. 35.5     36.1     36.0      33.4     34.1     34.2
 20-74 years, crude........ 36.6     36.5     35.6      34.9     34.9     34.2
 20-24 years...............  5.3      7.2      8.3       4.4      6.9      6.8
 25-34 years............... 11.2     13.7     12.8       9.7     11.7     12.0
 35-44 years............... 24.0     28.2     28.8      20.6     24.9     26.2
 45-54 years............... 43.4     43.6     47.1      40.6     40.9     44.5
 55-64 years............... 66.4     62.5     61.1      64.4     60.5     59.0
 65-74 years............... 81.5     78.3     71.8      80.7     77.5     70.6
                                      Black
 Sex and age                 1960-62  1971-74  1976-80
        Both sexes1/           Percent of population
 20-74 years, age adjusted.    51.4     53.5     50.5
 20-74 years, crude........    51.3     51.0     46.7
 20-24 years...............    15.6     13.7     18.2
 25-34 years...............    26.5     31.3     24.2
 35-44 years...............    47.0     58.0     49.6
 45-54 years...............    62.2     63.5     64.3
 55-64 years...............    82.0     77.7     76.0
 65-74 years...............    88.1     83.8     80.7
            Male
 20-74 years, age adjusted.    49.7     54.2     50.5
 20-74 years, crude........    50.5     52.1     47.4
 20-24 years...............   *18.4     18.4     22.2
 25-34 years...............    32.4     33.6     32.1
 35-44 years...............    46.6     64.7     54.3
 45-54 years...............    56.3     61.1     53.3
 55-64 years...............    76.2     72.0     73.8
 65-74 years...............   *76.8     81.5     75.1
          Female1/
 20-74 years, age adjusted.    53.4     52.9     50.6
 20-74 years, crude........    52.0     50.2     46.1
 20-24 years...............    13.3      9.5     14.6
 25-34 years...............    22.2     29.6     17.7
 35-44 years...............    47.3     52.8     46.0
 45-54 years...............    68.1     65.6     73.9
 55-64 years...............    87.8     82.5     77.9
 65-74 years...............   *97.5     85.6     85.0
 1/Excludes pregnant women.
 *Percents based on fewer than 45 persons are considered unreliable. Percents
 based on fewer than 25 persons are considered highly unreliable and are not
 shown.
 NOTE: A person with hypertension is defined by either having elevated blood
       pressure (systolic pressure of at least 140 mmHg or diastolic pressure
       of at least 90 mmHg) or taking antihypertensive medication.
       Percents are based on a single measurement of blood pressure to
       provide comparable data across the 3 time periods. In 1976-80, 31.3
       percent of persons 20-74 years of age had hypertension, based on the
       average of 3 blood pressure measurements, in contrast to 39.7 percent
       when a single measurement is used.
 SOURCE: Division of Health Examination Statistics, National Center for Health
         Statistics: Unpublished data.
3Borderline high & high cholesterol lvl age 20-74:U.S.60-62,71-80
 Table 59. Borderline high and high serum cholesterol levels among persons
           20-74 years of age, according to race, sex, and age: United States,
           1960-62, 1971-74, and 1976-80
 (Data are based on physical examinations of a sample of the civilian
 noninstitutionalized population)
                                 All races                     White
 Sex and age             1960-62  1971-74  1976-80   1960-62  1971-74  1976-80
         Both sexes              Percent of population with borderline
                                        high serum cholesterol
 20-74 years, age adjusted. 32.2     32.3     30.7      32.5     32.4     30.8
 20-74 years, crude........ 32.7     32.2     30.3      33.0     32.3     30.4
 20-24 years............... 21.5     22.5     22.1      22.7     22.3     22.1
 25-34 years............... 32.1     29.4     25.9      32.6     29.7     25.9
 35-44 years............... 39.6     35.1     32.3      39.6     35.7     32.9
 45-54 years............... 36.6     37.0     34.7      37.1     37.1     34.5
 55-64 years............... 29.1     35.2     35.6      28.6     34.7     35.5
 65-74 years............... 28.4     32.5     33.5      29.4     32.4     33.3
            Male
 20-74 years, age adjusted. 35.2     33.7     31.6      35.6     34.1     31.9
 20-74 years, crude........ 35.7     33.5     31.1      36.0     34.0     31.5
 20-24 years............... 23.3     19.6     20.4      24.1     19.6     20.7
 25-34 years............... 33.7     30.8     28.0      34.1     31.6     28.3
 35-44 years............... 40.7     36.0     33.0      39.7     37.0     33.7
 45-54 years............... 38.2     38.0     35.2      38.9     38.0     35.5
 55-64 years............... 36.3     39.9     37.3      36.7     40.0     37.6
 65-74 years............... 35.5     35.8     34.8      37.2     36.3     34.6
           Female
 20-74 years, age adjusted. 29.5     31.2     30.0      29.8     30.9     29.7
 20-74 years, crude........ 30.0     31.0     29.6      30.2     30.7     29.4
 20-24 years............... 20.0     25.1     23.7      21.4     24.7     23.6
 25-34 years............... 30.7     28.2     23.9      31.1     27.8     23.6
 35-44 years............... 38.5     34.3     31.7      39.4     34.5     32.1
 45-54 years............... 35.0     36.1     34.2      35.3     36.3     33.5
 55-64 years............... 22.3     31.0     34.0      21.0     29.9     33.7
 65-74 years............... 22.7     30.0     32.5      23.0     29.5     32.2
         Both sexes          Percent of population with high serum cholesterol
 20-74 years, age adjusted. 33.4     28.7     28.0      34.1     28.7     28.0
 20-74 years, crude........ 33.6     28.2     26.8      34.6     28.4     27.2
 20-24 years...............  9.4      8.5      6.4      10.0      8.5      6.3
 25-34 years............... 15.9     13.7     13.5      16.2     13.5     13.6
 35-44 years............... 28.3     25.3     24.1      29.2     25.2     24.4
 45-54 years............... 43.1     38.1     38.7      43.5     38.1     38.6
 55-64 years............... 56.2     45.1     45.3      58.3     45.3     45.9
 65-74 years............... 54.8     47.7     43.0      54.5     47.7     43.6
            Male
 20-74 years, age adjusted. 30.0     27.3     26.0      30.6     27.4     26.0
 20-74 years, crude........ 30.7     26.8     24.9      31.4     26.9     25.0
 20-24 years...............  8.1      7.0      6.2       9.1      7.6      6.1
 25-34 years............... 18.6     15.8     15.3      19.5     15.5     15.0
 35-44 years............... 33.9     31.8     27.9      35.5     31.8     27.9
 45-54 years............... 39.2     37.5     36.9      39.2     38.1     36.5
 55-64 years............... 41.6     36.2     36.8      42.3     36.1     37.3
 65-74 years............... 38.0     34.7     31.7      37.5     34.4     32.4
           Female
 20-74 years, age adjusted. 36.4     29.7     29.2      37.0     29.6     29.6
 20-74 years, crude........ 36.3     29.6     28.5      37.5     29.8     29.2
 20-24 years............... 10.5      9.8      6.6      10.8      9.4      6.5
 25-34 years............... 13.5     11.7     11.8      13.2     11.5     12.4
 35-44 years............... 23.1     19.3     20.7      23.3     18.9     21.1
 45-54 years............... 46.9     38.7     40.5      47.6     38.2     40.6
 55-64 years............... 70.1     53.1     52.9      73.0     53.7     53.7
 65-74 years............... 68.5     57.7     51.6      68.7     57.9     52.1
                                      Black
 Sex and age                1960-62  1971-74  1976-80
         Both sexes    Percent of population with borderline
                               high serum cholesterol
 20-74 years, age adjusted.    29.5     31.5     29.3
 20-74 years, crude........    30.7     31.0     28.4
 20-24 years...............    14.7     24.9     21.5
 25-34 years...............    25.1     28.5     23.9
 35-44 years...............    42.0     29.1     29.1
 45-54 years...............    33.6     36.0     33.5
 55-64 years...............    34.7     36.7     34.2
 65-74 years...............    17.8     33.8     35.3
            Male
 20-74 years, age adjusted.    31.1     29.2     27.5
 20-74 years, crude........    33.3     28.7     26.7
 20-24 years...............   *15.8     19.8     18.9
 25-34 years...............    24.5     25.2     22.6
 35-44 years...............    49.4     25.4     28.1
 45-54 years...............    35.4     38.6     31.8
 55-64 years...............    36.3     33.6     29.7
 65-74 years...............   *14.1     32.0     35.7
           Female
 20-74 years, age adjusted.    27.8     33.2     30.8
 20-74 years, crude........    28.4     32.9     29.9
 20-24 years...............    13.8     29.0     23.5
 25-34 years...............    25.5     31.0     25.0
 35-44 years...............    35.7     31.9     29.9
 45-54 years...............    31.7     33.9     34.9
 55-64 years...............   *32.9     39.2     38.0
 65-74 years...............   *20.7     35.2     35.0
         Both sexes          Percent of population with
                               high serum cholesterol
 20-74 years, age adjusted.    29.1     28.9     26.2
 20-74 years, crude........    28.4     27.2     23.8
 20-24 years...............     2.7      6.6      5.2
 25-34 years...............    15.8     15.6     13.4
 35-44 years...............    21.1     24.6     20.3
 45-54 years...............    42.0     39.2     40.5
 55-64 years...............    41.8     44.9     41.4
 65-74 years...............    60.2     47.8     39.3
            Male
 20-74 years, age adjusted.    25.9     26.6     25.7
 20-74 years, crude........    26.7     25.1     23.9
 20-24 years...............      *-      1.7      2.9
 25-34 years...............    13.9     19.4     19.3
 35-44 years...............    19.9     28.0     24.5
 45-54 years...............    40.8     32.8     40.3
 55-64 years...............    39.5     39.2     35.3
 65-74 years...............   *44.9     38.6     27.2
           Female
 20-74 years, age adjusted.    31.8     30.8     26.6
 20-74 years, crude........    29.9     28.8     23.7
 20-24 years...............     4.7     10.6      7.0
 25-34 years...............    17.1     12.7      8.7
 35-44 years...............    22.1     22.0     16.9
 45-54 years...............    43.3     44.6     40.7
 55-64 years...............   *44.4     49.4     46.5
 65-74 years...............   *72.6     54.8     48.4
 *Percents based on fewer than 45 persons are considered unreliable. Percents
 based on fewer than 25 persons are considered highly unreliable and are not
 shown.
 NOTES: Borderline high serum cholesterol is defined as greater than or equal
        to 200 mg/dl (5.17 mmol/L) but less than or equal to 239 mg/dl
        (6.19 mmol/L). High serum cholesterol is defined as greater than or
        equal to 240 mg/dl (6.20 mmol/L). Risk levels have been defined by the
        National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection,
        Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults, Nov. 1987.
        (Archives of Internal Medicine: January 1988, 148: 36-69).
3Overweight age 20-74 by race/sex/age:U.S. '60-62, '71-74, '76-80
 SOURCE: Division of Health Examination Statistics, National Center for
         Health Statistics: Unpublished data.
 Table 60. Overweight persons 20-74 years of age, according to race, sex, and
           age: United States, 1960-62, 1971-74, and 1976-80
 (Data are based on physical examinations of a sample of the civilian
 noninstitutionalized population)
                                    All races                   White
        Sex and age      1960-62  1971-74  1976-80   1960-62  1971-74  1976-80
         Both sexes                       Percent of population
 20-74 years, age adjusted. 25.0     25.7     26.2      24.1     24.8     25.1
 20-74 years, crude........ 25.5     25.5     25.7      24.6     24.7     24.8
 20-24 years............... 11.6     11.3     11.7      11.5     10.9     11.2
 25-34 years............... 18.7     20.5     20.2      17.5     19.7     19.4
 35-44 years............... 23.5     28.4     27.9      21.4     26.6     26.4
 45-54 years............... 29.4     30.0     31.7      28.6     29.1     30.2
 55-64 years............... 35.4     32.0     32.8      34.6     31.0     31.9
 65-74 years............... 33.5     31.5     32.7      33.8     31.0     31.9
            Male
 20-74 years, age adjusted. 23.2     24.1     24.8      23.5     24.3     24.9
 20-74 years, crude........ 23.4     24.0     24.2      23.7     24.1     24.4
 20-24 years............... 15.5     12.1     12.1      16.1     12.8     12.7
 25-34 years............... 21.6     23.6     20.4      21.2     23.6     20.9
 35-44 years............... 22.8     29.4     28.9      22.0     28.9     28.2
 45-54 years............... 28.1     27.6     31.0      29.0     28.2     30.5
 55-64 years............... 26.9     24.8     28.1      28.5     24.9     28.6
 65-74 years............... 21.8     23.0     25.2      22.6     23.1     25.8
           Female
 20-74 years, age adjusted. 26.5     26.9     27.4      24.4     25.0     25.2
 20-74 years, crude........ 27.4     27.0     27.1      25.4     25.2     25.1
 20-24 years...............  7.9     10.5     11.4       6.7      9.1      9.6
 25-34 years............... 15.9     17.6     20.0      13.9     15.9     17.9
 35-44 years............... 24.1     27.3     27.0      20.9     24.5     24.8
 45-54 years............... 30.7     32.3     32.5      28.2     29.9     29.9
 55-64 years............... 43.2     38.5     37.0      40.1     36.6     34.8
 65-74 years............... 42.9     38.0     38.5      42.8     37.0     36.5
                                       Black
        Sex and age          1960-62  1971-74  1976-80
         Both sexes             Percent of population
 20-74 years, age adjusted.    32.6     35.7     37.7
 20-74 years, crude........    33.4     34.9     35.7
 20-24 years...............    11.6     15.8     15.3
 25-34 years...............    31.1     29.1     26.3
 35-44 years...............    38.0     45.3     40.8
 45-54 years...............    34.3     39.4     52.1
 55-64 years...............    44.0     43.9     44.2
 65-74 years...............    31.5     37.3     46.0
            Male
 20-74 years, age adjusted.    21.7     25.0     27.5
 20-74 years, crude........    22.5     24.5     25.7
 20-24 years...............    *8.5      8.2      5.5
 25-34 years...............    33.0     26.1     17.5
 35-44 years...............    28.6     39.3     40.9
 45-54 years...............    20.6     22.4     41.4
 55-64 years...............    17.1     25.6     26.0
 65-74 years...............   *11.7     21.6     26.4
           Female
 20-74 years, age adjusted.    42.9     44.5     46.1
 20-74 years, crude........    43.0     43.2     43.8
 20-24 years...............    14.2     22.5     23.7
 25-34 years...............    29.6     31.5     33.5
 35-44 years...............    46.1     49.9     40.8
 45-54 years...............    47.8     53.5     61.2
 55-64 years...............    71.4     58.7     59.4
 65-74 years...............   *47.8     49.2     60.8
 *Based on fewer than 45 persons.
 NOTES: Overweight is defined for men as body mass index greater than or equal
        to 27.8 kilograms/meter2/, and for women as body mass index greater
        than or equal to 27.3 kilograms/meter2/. These cut points were used
        because they represent the sex-specific 85th percentiles for persons
        20-29 years of age in the 1976-80 National Health and Nutrition
        Examination Survey. Excludes pregnant women. Height was measured
        without shoes; two pounds are deducted from data for 1960-62 to allow
        for weight of clothing.
 SOURCE: Division of Health Examination Statistics, National Center for Health
         Statistics: Unpublished data.
3Air pollution by source & type of pollutant: U.S. 1970-87
 Table 61. Air pollution, according to source and type of pollutant: United
           States, selected years 1970-87
 (Data are calculated emissions estimates)
                                          Stationary
    Type of pollutant   All   Transport-     fuel    Industrial   Solid
        and year      sources   ation     combustion  processes   waste  Other
   Particulate matter            Emissions in 106/ metric tons per year
 1970...............   18.5       1.2        4.6        10.5       1.1     1.1
 1975...............   10.6       1.3        2.8         5.2       0.6     0.7
 1980...............    8.5       1.3        2.4         3.3       0.4     1.1
 1983...............    7.1       1.3        2.0         2.4       0.3     1.1
 1984...............    7.4       1.3        2.1         2.8       0.3     0.9
 1985...............    7.0       1.4        1.8         2.8       0.3     0.8
 1986...............    6.8       1.4        1.8         2.5       0.3     0.8
 1987...............    7.0       1.4        1.8         2.5       0.3     1.0
      Sulfur oxides
 1970...............   28.4       0.6       21.3         6.4       0.0     0.1
 1975...............   25.8       0.7       20.2         5.0       0.0     0.0
 1980...............   23.4       0.9       18.7         3.8       0.0     0.0
 1983...............   20.7       0.8       16.7         3.3       0.0     0.0
 1984...............   21.5       0.8       17.4         3.3       0.0     0.0
 1985...............   21.1       0.9       17.0         3.2       0.0     0.0
 1986...............   20.7       0.9       16.7         3.1       0.0     0.0
 1987...............   20.4       0.9       16.4         3.1       0.0     0.0
     Nitrogen oxides
 1970...............   18.3       7.7        9.1         0.7       0.4     0.3
 1975...............   19.2       9.0        9.3         0.7       0.1     0.1
 1980...............   20.4       9.3       10.1         0.7       0.1     0.2
 1983...............   19.0       8.5        9.6         0.5       0.1     0.2
 1984...............   19.7       8.6       10.2         0.6       0.1     0.2
 1985...............   19.8       8.8       10.2         0.6       0.1     0.1
 1986...............   19.3       8.5       10.0         0.6       0.1     0.1
 1987...............   19.5       8.4       10.3         0.6       0.1     0.1
 Volatile organic compounds
 1970...............   26.2      11.1        1.1         8.9       1.8     3.3
 1975...............   22.1       9.2        1.1         8.3       0.9     2.5
 1980...............   22.3       7.4        2.2         9.2       0.6     2.9
 1983...............   20.4       6.7        2.6         7.9       0.6     2.7
 1984...............   21.5       6.8        2.6         8.8       0.6     2.7
 1985...............   20.1       6.4        2.3         8.5       0.6     2.2
 1986...............   19.3       6.2        2.3         8.1       0.6     2.2
 1987...............   19.6       6.0        2.3         8.3       0.6     2.4
     Carbon monoxide
 1970...............  100.2      73.2        4.4         9.0       6.4     7.2
 1975...............   82.2      63.2        4.2         6.9       3.1     4.8
 1980...............   77.0      53.5        7.3         6.3       2.2     7.6
 1983...............   71.3      49.3        7.9         4.4       1.9     7.7
 1984...............   68.7      47.6        8.1         4.8       1.9     6.3
 1985...............   64.6      45.5        7.2         4.6       2.0     5.3
 1986...............   61.1      42.8        7.2         4.5       1.7     5.0
 1987...............   61.4      40.7        7.2         4.7       1.7     7.1
          Lead                   Emissions in 103/ metric tons per year
 1970...............  203.8     163.6        9.6        23.9       6.7     ---
 1975...............  147.0     122.6        9.3        10.3       4.8     ---
 1980...............   70.6      59.4        3.9         3.6       3.7     ---
 1983...............   46.3      40.7        0.6         2.4       2.6     ---
 1984...............   40.1      34.7        0.5         2.3       2.6     ---
 1985...............   21.1      15.5        0.5         2.3       2.8     ---
 1986...............    8.6       3.5        0.5         1.9       2.7     ---
 1987...............    8.1       3.0        0.5         2.0       2.6     ---
 NOTE: Because of modifications in methodology and use of more refined emission
       factors, data from this table should not be compared with data in
       previous editions of Health, United States.
 SOURCE: Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Technical Support
         Division, National Air Data Branch: National Air Pollutant Emission
         Estimates, 1940-1987. EPA-450/4-88-022. U.S. Environmental Protection
         Agency. Research Triangle Park, N.C., Mar. 1989.
3Employee w/potential exposure-continuous noise:by facility'73,82
 Table 62. Employees with potential exposure to continuous noise without
           controls in selected industries, according to size of facility:
           United States, 1972-74 and 1981-83
 (Data are based on interviews of a sample of nonagricultural businesses)
                                          All facilities       8-99 employees
              Industry                1972-74     1981-83     1972-74  1981-83
                                   Number of employees with potential exposure
 All industries....................   3451828     2543810      935163   976695
 General building contractors......     77526       93120       22783    63862
 Heavy construction contractors....     36697       95661       17706    38848
 Special trade contractors.........     70362      171213       38605   151886
 Textile mill products.............     51306      101109       20055    21898
 Apparel and other textile
  products.........................    131850      122264       77077    19896
 Lumber and wood products..........     54135       99913       32468    61981
 Paper and allied products.........    175953       77728       38330    19760
 Printing and publishing...........    120275      116221       36600    43960
 Chemicals and allied products.....     48037       42329       14569    12036
 Primary metals industries.........    414976      132726       35585    17135
 Fabricated metal products.........    354055      194830      126239    86187
 Machinery, except electrical......    245086      140604       56522    63052
 Miscellaneous manufacturing
  industries.......................     71039       22038       20442     8793
 Transportation by air.............     31352       47441        *946    13034
 Auto repair services and garages..     17861       33820       17301    33114
 Miscellaneous repair services.....     24294        4282        4125     2688
 Electric and electronic equipment.     90585       72471        4287    12126
                                  Percent of employees with potential exposure
 All industries....................       9.0         7.6         6.1      8.8
 General building contractors......      11.1        10.4         7.6     11.3
 Heavy construction contractors....       6.7        16.1         6.0     13.7
 Special trade contractors.........       5.5        10.8         4.1     12.1
 Textile mill products.............      22.1        14.2        21.7     20.7
 Apparel and other textile
  products.........................      14.4         9.8        15.4      4.7
 Lumber and wood products..........      33.9        17.2        39.6     20.4
 Paper and allied products.........      30.8        12.4        30.3     14.4
 Printing and publishing...........       9.7         9.8        10.5      9.2
 Chemicals and allied products.....       5.0         4.6         7.4      6.7
 Primary metals industries.........      30.8        12.4        29.5     12.4
 Fabricated metal products.........      26.2        13.0        28.3     15.5
 Machinery, except electrical......      15.9         5.9        21.1     10.4
 Miscellaneous manufacturing
  industries.......................      18.5         4.2        14.7      5.3
 Transportation by air.............       6.1        10.5        *3.1     16.8
 Auto repair services and garages..      14.0         8.0        15.7      8.0
 Miscellaneous repair services.....      13.2         2.1         2.7      1.5
 Electric and electronic equipment.       6.0         3.7         4.3      5.3
                                     100-499 employees   500 or more employees
              Industry                1972-74     1981-83     1972-74  1981-83
                                   Number of employees with potential exposure
 All industries....................   1196451      946106     1320214   621008
 General building contractors......     54743       22563          *-   *6,693
 Heavy construction contractors....      9057       43385      *9,933  *13,427
 Special trade contractors.........     31756       19327          *-      ---
 Textile mill products.............     25312       46430      *5,938    32780
 Apparel and other textile
  products.........................     54300       73380        *472  *28,987
 Lumber and wood products..........     14743       29783      *6,923   *8,147
 Paper and allied products.........     75073       41214     *62,549    16753
 Printing and publishing...........     16805       38081       66869    34179
 Chemicals and allied products.....     25749       21281        7718     9011
 Primary metals industries.........     88711       55683      290679    59907
 Fabricated metal products.........    145497       70147       82318    38495
 Machinery, except electrical......     64348       47989      124215    29562
 Miscellaneous manufacturing
  industries.......................     32232       13244     *18,364       *-
 Transportation by air.............      6665     *30,658     *23,740     3749
 Auto repair services and garages..      *560        *706         ---      ---
 Miscellaneous repair services.....   *17,304      *1,593      *2,865      ---
 Electric and electronic equipment.     35673       16224       50624    44120
                                  Percent of employees with potential exposure
 All industries....................      10.8         9.6        11.1      5.0
 General building contractors......      14.7        11.4          *-     *5.0
 Heavy construction contractors....       3.8        20.9       *67.3    *13.3
 Special trade contractors.........       9.5         5.8          *-      ---
 Textile mill products.............      26.2        13.4       *13.8     12.6
 Apparel and other textile
  products.........................      14.3        12.0        *1.2    *13.9
 Lumber and wood products..........      28.9        16.2       *26.0     *8.8
 Paper and allied products.........      28.3        14.6       *35.0      8.1
 Printing and publishing...........       5.4        10.6        11.6      9.9
 Chemicals and allied products.....      13.5         8.2         1.3      1.9
 Primary metals industries.........      39.9        17.9        28.9      9.6
 Fabricated metal products.........      28.1        11.8        21.3     11.0
 Machinery, except electrical......      17.4         7.3        13.8      2.7
 Miscellaneous manufacturing
  industries.......................      21.2         8.9       *19.7       *-
 Transportation by air.............      11.2       *28.0        *5.6      1.4
 Auto repair services and garages..      *3.3        *8.6         ---      ---
 Miscellaneous repair services.....     *76.4        *6.5       *28.8      ---
 Electric and electronic equipment.      10.7         2.9         4.7      3.7
 *Based on fewer than 10 facilities.
 SOURCE: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health: Unpublished
         data from the 1972-74 National Occupational Hazard Survey and
         1981-83 National Occupational Exposure Survey.
3Health & safety services in manufacturing by facility size'73,82
 Table 63. Health and safety services in manufacturing industries,
           according to size of facility: United States, 1972-74 and
           1981-83
 (Data are based on interviews of a sample of nonagricultural businesses)
                                   All facilities          8-99 employees
        Health and safety
        services available
           in facility           1972-74     1981-83    1972-741/      1981-83
                                              Number in thousands
 Employees....................... 38263       33218        15394        11078
       Occupational health
       and safety practices
                                             Percent of employees
 Regularly monitor environmental
  conditions2/...................  21.7        48.0          2.5         11.1
 Personal protective devices
  required in some work areas3/..  39.2        53.5         32.5         45.9
 Employer provides protective
  devices........................  52.5        80.2         41.9         70.4
        Medical facilities
          and practices
 Health unit at the facility.....  31.5        42.7          3.3          3.8
 Access to physician or clinic...  70.7       100.0         49.0        100.0
 Preemployment medical exams.....  38.5        49.4         12.8         20.0
 Periodic medical exams..........  14.4        30.1          6.0          8.4
 Records of employee absenteeism
  showing type of illness........  14.2         4.8          4.7          8.1

                                   100-499 employees      500 or more employees
        services available
           in facility           1972-74     1981-83      1972-74      1981-83
                                               Number in thousands
 Employees.......................  10883        9856        11985        12283
       Occupational health
       and safety practices                    Percent of employees
 Regularly monitor environmental
  conditions2/...................   12.0        43.4         55.5         85.1
 Personal protective devices
  required in some work areas3/..   45.9        59.0         41.6         56.0
 Employer provides protective
  devices........................   59.8        82.8         59.7         86.8
        Medical facilities
          and practices
 Health unit at the facility.....   18.8        31.7         79.5         86.7
 Access to physician or clinic...   76.3       100.0         93.5        100.0
 Preemployment medical exams.....   35.0        47.0         74.9         77.9
 Periodic medical exams..........   13.4        26.4         26.1         52.7
 Records of employee absenteeism
  showing type of illness........   10.1         3.0         30.4          3.3
 1/Includes facilities with less than 8 employees.
 2/Monitoring environmental conditions such as presence of fumes, gases, dust,
 noise, vibration, radiation.
 3/Includes respirators, protective clothing, etc.
 SOURCE: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health: Unpublished
         data from the 1972-74 National Occupational Hazard Survey and
         1981-83 National Occupational Exposure Survey.
1UTILIZATION OF HEALTH RESOURCES
2Ambulatory Care
3Physicians contacts by place of contact/select chars:U.S.'83.'88
 Table 64. Physician contacts, according to place of contact and selected
           patient characteristics: United States, 1983 and 1988
 (Data are based on household interviews of a sample of the civilian
 noninstitutionalized population)
                                                     Place of contact
                                                                   Hospital
                           Physician              Doctor's        outpatient
                           contacts                office        department1/
      Characteristic      1983   1988   Total    1983   1988    1983      1988
                          Number per
                            person                   Percent distribution
 Total3,4/............     5.1    5.3   100.0    56.1   59.3    14.9      12.8
            Age
 Under 15 years.......     4.6    4.6   100.0    54.7   58.1    13.3      11.7
   Under 5 years......     6.9    7.0   100.0    54.2   58.9    13.2      11.5
   5-14 years.........     3.3    3.3   100.0    55.3   57.2    13.4      11.9
 15-44 years..........     4.4    4.7   100.0    54.9   59.4    16.5      13.1
 45-64 years..........     5.8    6.1   100.0    59.0   59.7    15.3      14.1
 65 years and over....     7.6    8.7   100.0    59.2   61.8    12.4      12.4
   65-74 years........     7.3    8.4   100.0    60.7   61.4    14.2      14.0
   75 years and over..     8.2    9.2   100.0    56.9   62.4     9.8      10.0
           Sex3/
 Male.................     4.4    4.6   100.0    54.8   58.2    17.1      14.7
 Female...............     5.7    6.0   100.0    56.8   60.1    13.6      11.8
          Race3/
 White................     5.2    5.5   100.0    57.6   60.6    13.4      11.8
 Black................     4.9    4.8   100.0    44.3   49.3    26.8      21.5
     Family income3,5/
 Less than $10,000....     5.9    6.2   100.0    49.9   49.4    18.5      19.2
 $10,000-$14,999......     5.0    5.3   100.0    52.3   56.2    17.6      15.1
 $15,000-$19,999......     4.7    5.0   100.0    54.5   58.7    16.7      13.8
 $20,000-$34,999......     5.0    5.5   100.0    59.3   61.7    13.3      10.7
 $35,000 or more......     5.4    5.5   100.0    59.7   62.4    11.6       9.3
    Geographic region3/
 Northeast............     4.9    5.0   100.0    58.3   60.8    15.6      15.0
 Midwest..............     5.2    5.4   100.0    53.5   55.7    14.7      12.5
 South................     4.8    5.2   100.0    56.9   62.4    14.5      12.1
 West.................     5.4    5.9   100.0    56.0   57.8    15.3      12.6
        Location of
        residence3/
 Within MSA...........     5.2    5.5   100.0    54.9   58.3    15.7      12.8
 Outside MSA..........     4.6    4.9   100.0    59.1   63.4    13.2      13.1
                                       Place of contact
                           Telephone        Home          Other2/
      Characteristic      1983   1988    1983    1988   1983    1988


 Total3,4/............    15.5   13.7     1.5     1.4   12.0    12.7
            Age
 Under 15 years.......    20.5   18.2    *0.3     0.9   11.2    11.1
   Under 5 years......    21.0   17.9    *0.5    *1.1   11.1    10.5
   5-14 years.........    20.0   18.4    *0.1    *0.7   11.2    11.8
 15-44 years..........    14.3   11.9     0.6     0.8   13.7    14.7
 45-64 years..........    12.5   12.6     1.8     1.3   11.4    12.2
 65 years and over....    11.9    9.9     7.9     5.5    8.7    10.4
   65-74 years........    11.4   10.4     3.4     2.4   10.3    11.7
   75 years and over..    12.7    9.2    14.3     9.9    6.3     8.5
           Sex3/
 Male.................    13.5   12.3     1.5     1.4   13.2    13.5
 Female...............    16.8   14.4     1.5     1.4   11.2    12.4
          Race3/
 White................    16.3   14.4     1.5     1.3   11.1    11.9
 Black................     9.7    8.6     1.1     2.3   18.2    18.3
     Family income3,5/
 Less than $10,000....    12.4   11.3     1.5     2.1   17.7    18.0
 $10,000-$14,999......    13.0   12.0     2.0     1.1   15.1    15.6
 $15,000-$19,999......    16.4   13.7     1.3     1.6   11.1    12.2
 $20,000-$34,999......    16.2   16.1     0.7     0.8   10.5    10.7
 $35,000 or more......    19.0   15.1     1.1     1.6    8.6    11.6
    Geographic region3/
 Northeast............    14.1   12.3     1.8     1.5   10.2    10.4
 Midwest..............    17.2   16.7     1.2     1.8   13.5    13.2
 South................    15.7   12.5     1.9     1.1   11.1    11.9
 West.................    14.5   13.2     0.8     1.2   13.3    15.2
        Location of
        residence3/
 Within MSA...........    16.0   14.0     1.3     1.4   12.2    13.5
 Outside MSA..........    14.5   12.5     1.9     1.2   11.4     9.9
 1/Includes hospital outpatient clinic, emergency room, and other hospital
 contacts.
 2/Includes clinics or other places outside a hospital.
 3/Age adjusted.
 4/Includes all other races not shown separately and unknown family income.
 5/Family income categories for 1983. Income categories for 1988 are: less
 than $13,000; $13,000-$18,999; $19,000-$24,999; $25,000-$44,999; and
 $45,000 or more.
 *Relative standard error greater than 30 percent.
 SOURCE: Division of Health Interview Statistics, National Center for
         Health Statistics: Data from the National Health Interview Survey.
3Interval since last physician contact by patient chars.'64,83,88
 Table 65. Interval since last physician contact, according to selected
           patient characteristics: United States, 1964, 1983, and 1988
 (Data are based on household interviews of a sample of the civilian
 noninstitutionalized population)

                                              Less than 1 year
          Characteristic      Total       1964      1983     1988
                                           Percent distribution
 Total2,3/..................  100.0       66.9      75.2     77.1
               Age
 Under 15 years.............  100.0       68.4      80.5     82.0
   Under 5 years............  100.0       80.7      92.4     93.2
   5-14 years...............  100.0       61.7      74.2     76.1
 15-44 years................  100.0       66.3      70.8     72.2
 45-64 years................  100.0       64.5      73.2     76.1
 65 years and over..........  100.0       69.7      82.1     85.8
   65-74 years..............  100.0       68.8      80.6     84.9
   75 years and over........  100.0       71.3      84.7     87.1
              Sex2/
 Male.......................  100.0       63.5      70.6     72.3
 Female.....................  100.0       69.9      79.4     81.7
              Race2/
 White......................  100.0       68.1      75.6     77.6
 Black4/....................  100.0       58.3      74.7     75.8
        Family income2,5/
 Less than $10,000..........  100.0       58.6      74.7     76.4
 $10,000-$14,999............  100.0       62.5      72.4     73.9
 $15,000-$19,999............  100.0       66.8      74.0     76.3
 $20,000-$34,999............  100.0       70.2      76.0     78.1
 $35,000 or more............  100.0       73.6      79.0     81.0
       Geographic region2/
 Northeast..................  100.0       68.0      77.2     79.6
 Midwest....................  100.0       66.6      75.7     78.1
 South......................  100.0       65.2      73.8     75.5
 West.......................  100.0       69.0      75.0     76.5
     Location of residence2/
 Within MSA.................  100.0       68.2      76.1     77.8
 Outside MSA................  100.0       64.0      73.3     75.0
                                    1 year-less
                                   than 2 years           2 years or more1/
          Characteristic     1964     1983     1988     1964     1983     1988
                                            Percent distribution
 Total2,3/.................. 14.0     10.9     10.5     19.1     13.9     12.4
               Age
 Under 15 years............. 14.8     11.0     10.9     16.7      8.5      7.1
   Under 5 years............ 11.1      5.6      5.2      8.2      2.0      1.5
   5-14 years............... 16.9     13.8     13.9     21.4     12.0     10.0
 15-44 years................ 15.0     12.6     12.3     18.7     16.6     15.5
 45-64 years................ 13.0      9.9      9.0     22.5     17.0     14.9
 65 years and over..........  9.3      6.0      4.9     21.0     11.9      9.4
   65-74 years..............  9.4      6.6      4.9     21.8     12.8     10.2
   75 years and over........  9.3      5.0      4.8     19.5     10.3      8.0
              Sex2/
 Male....................... 15.0     12.0     11.8     21.5     17.3     15.9
 Female..................... 13.1      9.9      9.3     17.0     10.7      9.0
              Race2/
 White...................... 13.8     10.6     10.2     18.1     13.8     12.2
 Black4/.................... 15.1     12.2     12.0     26.6     13.1     12.2
        Family income2,5/
 Less than $10,000.......... 13.2     10.5     10.4     28.2     14.8     13.2
 $10,000-$14,999............ 14.2     11.3     11.3     23.3     16.3     14.8
 $15,000-$19,999............ 14.5     11.4     10.7     18.7     14.6     13.0
 $20,000-$34,999............ 14.0     10.8     10.1     15.7     13.3     11.8
 $35,000 or more............ 12.9     10.0      9.2     13.5     11.0      9.8
       Geographic region2/
 Northeast.................. 14.1     10.1      9.3     17.9     12.6     11.2
 Midwest.................... 14.2     10.9      9.9     19.2     13.4     11.9
 South...................... 13.9     11.7     11.5     20.9     14.5     13.0
 West....................... 13.7     10.3     10.6     17.3     14.7     12.9
     Location of residence2/
 Within MSA................. 14.0     10.6     10.2     17.8     13.3     12.0
 Outside MSA................ 14.1     11.5     11.5     21.9     15.1     13.5
 1/Includes persons who never visited a physician.
 2/Age adjusted.
 3/Includes all other races not shown separately and unknown family income.
 4/1964 data include all other races.
 5/Family income categories for 1983. Income categories in 1964 are: less
 than $2,000; $2,000-$3,999; $4,000-$6,999; $7,000-$9,999; and $10,000 or
 more; and, in 1988 are: less than $13,000; $13,000-$18,999; $19,000-
 $24,999; $25,000-$44,999; and $45,000 or more.
 SOURCE: Division of Health Interview Statistics, National Center for
         Health Statistics: Data from the National Health Interview Survey.
3Office visit to physician by specialty/patient chars:U.S.'80,'85
 Table 66. Office visits to physicians, according to physician specialty and
           selected patient characteristics:  United States, 1980 and 1985
 (Data are based on reporting by a sample of office-based physicians)
                               All           General and       Internal
                           specialties1/   family practice     medicine
     Characteristic        1980     1985    1980     1985    1980    1985
                                          Visits per person
 Total2/...............    2.63     2.71    0.86     0.81    0.30    0.30
          Age
 Under 15 years........    2.21     2.31    0.54     0.58    0.03    0.05
 15-44 years...........    2.36     2.28    0.81     0.75    0.20    0.19
 45-64 years...........    2.99     3.10    1.08     0.99    0.58    0.49
 65 years and over.....    4.22     4.85    1.56     1.41    0.95    1.07
   65-74 years.........    4.01     4.54    1.49     1.31    0.89    1.00
   75 years and over...    4.58     5.35    1.70     1.57    1.06    1.18
         Sex2/
 Male..................    2.25     2.28    0.73     0.68    0.28    0.25
 Female................    2.98     3.11    0.98     0.94    0.33    0.33
         Race2/
 White.................    2.73     2.84    0.89     0.84    0.31    0.31
 All other.............    2.03     1.94    0.70     0.69    0.24    0.21
                         Obstetrics and                         General
                           gynecology        Pediatrics         surgery
     Characteristic        1980     1985    1980     1985    1980    1985
                                         Visits per person
 Total2/...............    0.23     0.22    0.37     0.40    0.13    0.12
          Age
 Under 15 years........    0.01     0.01    1.20     1.28    0.05    0.03
 15-44 years...........    0.48     0.44    0.04     0.06    0.12    0.10
 45-64 years...........    0.12     0.15    0.01     0.01    0.20    0.21
 65 years and over.....    0.06     0.07    0.01     0.01    0.22    0.30
   65-74 years.........    0.06     0.09    0.00     0.00    0.23    0.29
   75 years and over...    0.05     0.04    0.01     0.01    0.20    0.32
         Sex2/
 Male..................    0.01     0.00    0.39     0.38    0.12    0.11
 Female................    0.44     0.42    0.34     0.42    0.13    0.14
         Race2/
 White.................    0.23     0.22    0.39     0.43    0.13    0.12
 All other.............    0.23     0.18    0.25     0.23    0.08    0.11
 1/Includes other specialties not shown separately.
 2/Age adjusted.
 NOTE: Rates are based on the civilian noninstitutionalized population,
       excluding Alaska and Hawaii.
 SOURCE: Division of Health Care Statistics, National Center for Health
         Statistics: Data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey
3Office visit to physician by select patient chars.:U.S.'80,'85
 Table 67. Office visits to physicians, according to selected patient
           characteristics: United States, 1980 and 1985
 (Data are based on reporting by a sample of office-based physician
                                             Visit lasted
                           Patient's          10 minutes         Return visit
                          first visit          or less1/           scheduled
    Characteristic      1980      1985      1980      1985      1980      1985
                                          Percent of visits
 Total2/..............  15.3      17.7      47.3      42.6      58.0      58.8
          Age
 Under 15 years.......  14.6      17.8      57.5      50.8      48.8      49.2
 15-44 years..........  18.7      20.8      46.9      41.6      58.2      58.9
 45-64 years..........  12.7      14.8      38.9      36.3      64.5      65.6
 65 years and over....   8.6      10.5      36.7      35.6      71.3      72.8
   65-74 years........   8.9      11.2      38.0      34.6      70.5      72.6
   75 years and over..   8.3       9.6      35.1      36.9      72.6      73.1
         Sex2/
 Male.................  17.3      19.5      46.4      43.3      55.9      56.7
 Female...............  14.4      16.9      47.7      42.2      58.9      59.8
        Race2/
 White................  14.8      17.4      47.3      42.3      57.8      58.4
 All other............  18.9      20.1      48.0      45.0      60.1      62.2
      Location of
 physician's office2/
 Within MSA...........  15.5      18.6      44.9      39.8      60.0      60.5
 Outside MSA..........  14.6      14.3      55.1      53.8      51.6      52.1
 1/Time spent in face-to-face contact between physician and patient.
 2/Age adjusted.
 NOTE: Rates are based on the civilian noninstitutionalized population,
       excluding Alaska and Hawaii.
 SOURCE: Division of Health Care Statistics, National Center for Health
         Statistics: Data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey.
3Dental visit & interval since last one by patient chars'64,81,86
 Table 68. Dental visits and interval since last visit, according to selected
           patient characteristics: United States, 1964, 1981, and 1886
 (Data are based on household interviews of a sample of the civilian
 noninstitutionalized population)
                                      Interval since last dental visit1/
                              Dental visits               Less than 1 year
     Characteristic       1964     1981     1986      1964      1981      1986
                             Number per person          Percent of population
 Total2,3/..............   1.6      1.7      2.0      42.7      50.4      56.3
           Age
 Under 15 years.........   1.3      1.5      1.7      39.6      48.5      53.8
   Under 5 years........   0.3      0.5      0.4      11.1      15.0      19.5
   5-14 years...........   1.9      2.0      2.3      55.1      65.2      71.7
 15-44 years............   1.9      1.8      2.0      51.8      55.6      61.6
 45-64 years............   1.7      1.8      2.2      39.1      50.1      55.9
 65 years and over......   0.8      1.5      2.1      21.5      34.9      42.6
   65-74 years..........   0.9      1.6      2.4      24.9      38.9      47.3
   75 years and over....   0.6      1.3      1.6      14.9      28.1      35.1
          Sex2/
 Male...................   1.4      1.5      1.8      40.9      48.4      54.1
 Female.................   1.7      1.8      2.1      44.4      52.4      58.5
         Race2/
 White..................   1.7      1.8      2.1      45.3      52.6      58.4
 Black4/................   0.8      1.1      1.3      22.3      36.3      42.6
    Family income2,5/
 Less than $10,000......   0.9      1.1      1.3      26.4      37.3      41.0
 $10,000-$14,999........   0.9      1.3      1.3      30.0      37.8      42.7
 $15,000-$19,999........   1.4      1.4      1.6      39.7      42.6      49.3
 $20,000-$34,999........   1.9      1.7      2.2      50.1      50.5      59.0
 $35,000 or more........   2.7      2.1      2.7      63.9      63.9      71.8
   Geographic region2/
 Northeast..............   2.1      2.1      2.2      48.5      55.6      60.9
 Midwest................   1.6      1.7      2.0      44.6      52.5      60.0
 South..................   1.2      1.5      1.6      35.8      45.2      49.5
 West...................   1.7      1.7      2.2      43.8      50.8      59.1
 Location of residence2/
 Within MSA.............   1.8      1.8      2.0      44.9      52.4      57.8
 Outside MSA............   1.2      1.4      1.7      37.8      46.3      51.8
                                  Interval since last dental visit1/
                             2 years or more           Never visited dentist
     Characteristic       1964     1981     1986      1964      1981      1986
                                         Percent of population
 Total2,3/..............  28.7     25.1     25.0      15.5      11.0      10.4
           Age
 Under 15 years.........   5.4      6.7      7.2      46.6      34.6      33.1
   Under 5 years........   0.3      0.6      0.5      87.0      82.2      78.5
   5-14 years...........   8.2      9.8     10.7      24.6      10.9       9.3
 15-44 years............  26.9     24.9     26.1       4.0       2.1       1.6
 45-64 years............  46.3     36.6     35.5       1.3       0.6       0.6
 65 years and over......  69.0     56.6     51.1       1.5       0.5       0.5
   65-74 years..........  65.2     52.1     46.6       1.1       0.3       0.5
   75 years and over....  76.3     64.0     58.3       2.4       0.6      *0.5
          Sex2/
 Male...................  29.6     26.5     26.7      16.1      11.4      10.6
 Female.................  28.0     23.8     23.3      15.0      10.8      10.1
         Race2/
 White..................  27.8     24.0     23.6      13.8      10.4       9.9
 Black4/................  37.6     33.9     35.6      28.0      14.4      12.7
    Family income2,5/
 Less than $10,000......  35.4     33.7     36.2      27.4      15.3      13.4
 $10,000-$14,999........  35.2     33.2     34.2      22.0      14.3      13.6
 $15,000-$19,999........  30.6     30.3     29.9      15.8      13.0      12.0
 $20,000-$34,999........  25.3     24.8     22.7      10.9      10.6      10.0
 $35,000 or more........  16.8     16.4     14.0       7.2       7.6       7.1
   Geographic region2/
 Northeast..............  26.1     22.6     23.0      12.5       9.0       8.9
 Midwest................  29.3     24.9     23.5      12.9       9.8       8.7
 South..................  30.9     28.5     29.1      20.9      12.9      12.1
 West...................  27.9     22.4     21.5      14.3      11.9      10.7
 Location of residence2/
 Within MSA.............  27.5     23.3     23.9      14.4      10.7      10.2
 Outside MSA............  31.8     28.7     28.3      17.9      11.8      11.0
 1/Percent not shown for an interval of 1 year-less than 2 years.
 2/Age adjusted.
 3/Includes all other races not shown separately and unknown family income.
 4/1964 data are for all other races.
 5/Family income categories for 1986. Income categories in 1964 are: less than
 $2,000; $2,000-$3,999; $4,000-$6,999; $7,000-$9,999; and $10,000 or more;
 and, in 1981 are: less than $7,000; $7,000-$9,999; $10,000-$14,999; $15,000-
 $24,999; and $25,000 or more.
 *Relative standard error greater than 30 percent.
 SOURCE: Division of Health Interview Statistics, National Center for Health
         Statistics: Data from the National Health Interview Survey.
2Inpatient Care
3Discharges,days of care,avg stay in short-stay hospital:64,84,88
 Table 69. Discharges, days of care, and average length of stay in short-
           stay hospitals, according to selected characteristics: United
           States, 1964, 1984, and 1988
 (Data are based on household interviews of a sample of the civilian
 noninstitutionalized population)

                               Discharges                    Days of care
     Characteristic    1964      1984      1988      1964       1984      1988
                                      Number per 1,000 population
 Total1,2/............109.1     114.7      93.4      970.9     871.9     622.7
          Age
 Under 15 years....... 67.6      60.9      45.9      405.7     334.4     256.4
   Under 5 years...... 94.3      96.7      77.6      731.1     595.8     522.4
   5-14 years......... 53.1      41.6      29.0      229.1     193.4     114.8
 15-44 years..........100.6      81.7      67.1      760.7     530.8     373.8
 45-64 years..........146.2     160.6     134.5     1559.3    1344.5     946.5
 65 years and over....190.0     318.0     259.7     2292.7    2917.6    2082.4
   65-74 years........181.2     277.7     235.8     2150.4    2528.3    1876.8
   75 years and over..206.7     382.6     297.6     2560.4    3542.9    2407.3
         Sex1/
 Male.................103.8     114.2      94.8     1010.2     926.6     647.4
 Female...............113.7     115.8      92.9      933.4     829.2     605.8
         Race1/
 White................112.4     114.3      92.5      961.4     833.2     607.8
 Black3/.............. 84.0     127.2     106.8     1062.9    1247.8     825.3
   Family income1,4/
 Less than $10,000....102.4     150.2     144.6     1051.2    1420.3    1019.8
 $10,000-$14,999......116.4     134.7     100.4     1213.9    1098.9     647.7
 $15,000-$19,999......110.7     119.8      90.7      939.8     868.0     600.9
 $20,000-$34,999......109.2     105.8      83.5      882.6     717.1     517.1
 $35,000 or more......110.7      96.1      67.5      918.9     608.2     408.6
  Geographic region1/
 Northeast............ 98.5     104.5      84.5      993.8     877.5     634.7
 Midwest..............109.2     125.2     101.4      944.9     965.6     623.8
 South................117.8     126.4     104.3      968.0     953.7     731.4
 West.................110.5      92.9      74.6      985.9     596.7     413.1
 Location of residence1/
 Within MSA...........107.5     108.1      87.4     1015.4     864.6     606.3
 Outside MSA..........113.3     128.4     113.9      871.9     888.9     682.1
                               Average length
                                   of stay
     Characteristic       1964      1984      1988
                               Number of days
 Total1,2/............     8.9       7.6       6.7
          Age
 Under 15 years.......     6.0       5.5       5.6
   Under 5 years......     7.8       6.2       6.7
   5-14 years.........     4.3       4.6       4.0
 15-44 years..........     7.6       6.5       5.6
 45-64 years..........    10.7       8.4       7.0
 65 years and over....    12.1       9.2       8.0
   65-74 years........    11.9       9.1       8.0
   75 years and over..    12.4       9.3       8.1
         Sex1/
 Male.................     9.7       8.1       6.8
 Female...............     8.2       7.2       6.5
         Race1/
 White................     8.6       7.3       6.6
 Black3/..............    12.7       9.8       7.7
   Family income1,4/
 Less than $10,000....    10.3       9.5       7.1
 $10,000-$14,999......    10.4       8.2       6.5
 $15,000-$19,999......     8.5       7.2       6.6
 $20,000-$34,999......     8.1       6.8       6.2
 $35,000 or more......     8.3       6.3       6.1
  Geographic region1/
 Northeast............    10.1       8.4       7.5
 Midwest..............     8.7       7.7       6.2
 South................     8.2       7.5       7.0
 West.................     8.9       6.4       5.5
 Location of residence1/
 Within MSA...........     9.4       8.0       6.9
 Outside MSA..........     7.7       6.9       6.0
 1/Age adjusted.
 2/Includes all other races not shown separately and unknown family income.
 3/1964 data include all other races.
 4/Family income categories for 1984. Income categories in 1964 are: less than
 $2,000; $2,000-$3,999; $4,000-$6,999; $7,000-$9,999; and $10,000 or more;
 and, in 1988 are: less than $13,000; $13,000-$18,999; $19,000-$24,999;
 $25,000-$44,999; and $45,000 or more.
 NOTE: Excludes deliveries.
 SOURCE: Division of Health Interview Statistics, National Center for Health
         Statistics: Data from the National Health Interview Survey.
3Discharges,days care,avg stay non-Fed short-stay hospital:'80-88
 Table 70. Discharges, days of care, and average length of stay in non-Federal
           short-stay hospitals, according to, selected characteristics:
           United States, 1980-88
 (Data are based on a sample of hospital records)
      Characteristic     19801/       1981       1982        1983        1984
                                    Discharges per 1,000 population
 Total3/..............    159.1      160.2      158.5       157.1       148.2
          Sex3/
 Male.................    140.1      141.0      140.5       139.9       131.8
 Female...............    178.1      179.5      176.5       174.4       164.7
           Age
 Under 15 years.......     71.6       72.9       71.2        70.8        62.0
 15-44 years..........    150.2      148.7      145.0       140.3       132.2
 45-64 years..........    194.8      195.3      195.5       192.2       183.3
 65 years and over....    383.7      396.5      398.8       412.7       400.4
   65-74 years........    315.9      330.0      324.2       334.2       319.6
   75 years and over..    489.1      498.4      511.4       529.3       520.1
   Geographic region3/
 Northeast............    148.4      146.5      145.9       144.2       135.1
 Midwest..............    176.4      179.9      176.0       167.9       156.7
 South................    166.2      165.2      165.2       167.7       159.5
 West.................    138.0      141.1      138.2       139.6       132.3
                                   Days of care per 1,000 population
 Total3/..............   1136.5     1134.0     1101.7      1068.8       960.1
          Sex3/
 Male.................   1072.6     1075.4     1047.6      1025.7       917.6
 Female...............   1201.7     1196.1     1157.7      1115.7      1005.8
           Age
 Under 15 years.......    315.8      337.1      326.4       323.4       277.7
 15-44 years..........    787.0      769.6      742.0       707.5       647.3
 45-64 years..........   1597.6     1564.0     1536.7      1460.6      1316.8
 65 years and over....   4098.3     4155.3     4026.2      4004.3      3574.8
   65-74 years........   3147.6     3259.2     3101.1      3069.5      2711.0
   75 years and over..   5576.5     5529.3     5423.5      5392.7      4855.5
   Geographic region3/
 Northeast............   1217.3     1190.2     1149.8      1115.6      1012.3
 Midwest..............   1309.4     1306.7     1283.0      1184.4      1059.9
 South................   1114.5     1112.9     1083.3      1087.1       962.9
 West.................    844.6      859.3      825.7       821.9       756.5
                                    Average length of stay in days
 Total3/..............      7.1        7.1        7.0         6.8         6.5
          Sex3/
 Male.................      7.7        7.6        7.5         7.3         7.0
 Female...............      6.7        6.7        6.6         6.4         6.1
           Age
 Under 15 years.......      4.4        4.6        4.6         4.6         4.5
 15-44 years..........      5.2        5.2        5.1         5.0         4.9
 45-64 years..........      8.2        8.0        7.9         7.6         7.2
 65 years and over....     10.7       10.5       10.1         9.7         8.9
   65-74 years........     10.0        9.9        9.6         9.2         8.5
   75 years and over..     11.4       11.1       10.6        10.2         9.3
   Geographic region3/
 Northeast............      8.2        8.1        7.9         7.7         7.5
 Midwest..............      7.4        7.3        7.3         7.1         6.8
 South................      6.7        6.7        6.6         6.5         6.0
 West.................      6.1        6.1        6.0         5.9         5.7
      Characteristic       1985       1986       1987      19882/
                              Discharges per 1,000 population
 Total3/..............    138.0      132.8      127.9       117.8
          Sex3/
 Male.................    123.5      119.8      115.0       105.8
 Female...............    152.7      146.2      141.2       130.2
           Age
 Under 15 years.......     57.2       53.5       51.3        49.2
 15-44 years..........    125.1      118.9      115.1       104.0
 45-64 years..........    169.5      162.2      156.9       140.5
 65 years and over....    368.3      367.3      350.5       334.1
   65-74 years........    294.9      296.8      280.9       262.8
   75 years and over..    476.5      470.5      451.6       436.5
   Geographic region3/
 Northeast............    129.7      124.1      118.9       126.5
 Midwest..............    143.5      139.8      135.3       120.2
 South................    143.4      136.3      127.9       118.9
 West.................    131.0      127.8      128.6       103.6
                             Days of care per 1,000 population
 Total3/..............    877.1      833.1      808.7       754.8
          Sex3/
 Male.................    841.2      803.4      789.2       739.6
 Female...............    914.7      865.0      831.1       772.6
           Age
 Under 15 years.......    260.8      244.7      240.6       245.3
 15-44 years..........    603.6      575.7      556.9       493.1
 45-64 years..........   1192.8     1101.4     1068.6       955.3
 65 years and over....   3215.1     3120.7     3029.9      2970.0
   65-74 years........   2417.8     2363.8     2294.4      2214.8
   75 years and over..   4389.4     4227.9     4097.8      4054.3
   Geographic region3/
 Northeast............    963.1      877.6      847.1       928.7
 Midwest..............    955.7      914.2      885.3       749.3
 South................    851.4      817.6      781.5       729.0
 West.................    717.9      703.0      712.5       606.7
                              Average length of stay in days
 Total3/..............      6.4        6.3        6.3         6.4
          Sex3/
 Male.................      6.8        6.7        6.9         7.0
 Female...............      6.0        5.9        5.9         5.9
           Age
 Under 15 years.......      4.6        4.6        4.7         5.0
 15-44 years..........      4.8        4.8        4.8         4.7
 45-64 years..........      7.0        6.8        6.8         6.8
 65 years and over....      8.7        8.5        8.6         8.9
   65-74 years........      8.2        8.0        8.2         8.4
   75 years and over..      9.2        9.0        9.1         9.3
   Geographic region3/
 Northeast............      7.4        7.1        7.1         7.3
 Midwest..............      6.7        6.5        6.5         6.2
 South................      5.9        6.0        6.1         6.1
 West.................      5.5        5.5        5.5         5.9
 1/Geographic data for 1980 are based on the civilian population as of April 1,
 1980
 2/Comparisons of 1988 data with data for earlier years should be made with
 caution as estimates of change between 1987 and 1988 may reflect improvements
 in the 1988 design (see Appendix I) rather than true changes in hospital use.
 3/Age adjusted.
 NOTES: Excludes newborn infants. Rates are based on the civilian population
        as of July 1.
 SOURCE: Division of Health Care Statistics, National Center for Health
         Statistics: Data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey.
3Discharges,days care non-Fed short-stay hosp. patient AIDS:84-88
 Table 71. Discharges, days of care, and average length of stay in non-Federal
           short-stay hospitals for patients discharged with the diagnosis of
           acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and for all
           patients: United States, 1984-88
 (Data are based on a sample of hospital records)
                              Discharges            Days of care
                      Number     Number       Number     Number      Average
 Type of discharge,     in      per 1,000       in      per 1,000   length of
 sex, age, and year  thousands  population  thousands  population stay in days
    Diagnosis of AIDS
 Total:
   1984................   10       0.04         123       0.52         12.1
   1985................   23       0.10         387       1.63         17.1
   1986................   37       0.16         606       2.53         16.2
   1987................   50       0.21         782       3.24         15.7
   19881/..............   71       0.29         983       4.03         13.8
 Male, 20-49 years:
   1984................   *9      *0.1           *1      *2.26        *13.2
   1985................   21       0.41         355       6.90         16.8
   1986................   30       0.58         482       9.21         16.0
   1987................   40       0.75         621      11.70         15.6
   19881/..............   58       1.09         753      13.98         12.9
      All patients
 Total:
   1984................ 7162      158.5      244652     1043.6          6.6
   1985................ 5056      147.9      226217      954.4          6.5
   1986................ 4256      143.1      218496      912.8          6.4
   1987................ 3387      138.2      214942      889.4          6.4
   19881/.............. 1146      127.6      203678      834.3          6.5
 Male, 20-49 years:
   1984................ 4497       89.5       27725      551.5          6.2
   1985................ 4393       85.4       27117      527.4          6.2
   1986................ 4300       82.2       26488      506.3          6.2
   1987................ 4075       76.8       26295      495.2          6.5
   19881/.............. 3670       68.2       22697      421.6          6.2
 1/Comparisons of 1988 data with data for earlier years should be made with
 caution as estimates of change between 1987 and 1988 may reflect improvements
 in the 1988 design (see Appendix I) rather than true changes in hospital use.
 *Based on a sample size of 30-59 discharges and should be used with caution.
 NOTES: Excludes newborn infants. Rates are based on the civilian population
        as of July 1. AIDS diagnosis category based on the International
        Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification and
        International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision Update. For a
        listing of the code numbers, see Appendix II, table VI.
 SOURCES: Division of Health Care Statistics, National Center for Health
          Statistics: Data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey;
          Utilization of short-stay hospitals by patients with AIDS: United
          States, 1984-1986, by E. J. Graves. Advance Data From Vital and
          Health Statistics. No. 156. DHHS Pub. No. (PHS) 88-1250. Public
          Health No. (PHS) 88-1250. Public Health Service. Hyattsville, Md.,
          1988; Unpublished data.
3Rates discharge,days care non-Fed hosp. by sex/age/diag:80,85-88
 Table 72. Rates of discharges and days of care in non-Federal short-stay
           hospitals, according to sex, age, and selected first-listed
           diagnosis: United States, 1980, 1985, 1987, and 1988
 (Data are based on a sample of hospital records)
                                                           Discharges
     Sex, age, and first-listed diagnosis        1980    1985    1987  19881/
                  Both sexes                     Number per 1,000 population
 Total2,3/....................................  159.1   138.0   127.9   117.8
 Females with delivery........................   14.7    14.1    14.0    13.4
 Diseases of heart............................   13.1    13.7    13.8    13.2
 Malignant neoplasms..........................    7.6     7.4     7.1     6.2
 Fracture, all sites..........................    4.9     4.4     4.0     3.8
 Pneumonia, all forms.........................    3.5     3.6     3.7     3.6
                     Male
 All ages2,3/.................................  140.1   123.5   115.0   105.8
 Diseases of heart............................   15.9    16.8    17.2    16.4
 Malignant neoplasms..........................    8.2     7.8     7.3     6.4
 Fracture, all sites..........................    5.2     4.7     4.3     4.1
 Pneumonia, all forms.........................    4.1     3.9     4.1     4.1
 Cerebrovascular diseases.....................    3.5     3.6     3.3     2.8
 Inguinal hernia..............................    4.3     3.0     2.3     2.0
 Under 15 years3/.............................   78.7    63.8    57.3    54.6
 Acute respiratory infection..................    5.9     5.2     4.2     3.8
 Pneumonia, all forms.........................    5.2     4.3     4.2     3.9
 Bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma............    4.0     4.1     3.9     4.1
 Congenital anomalies.........................    4.0     3.8     2.9     3.5
 Chronic disease of tonsils and adenoids......    5.4     3.5     2.9     2.3
 Noninfectious enteritis and colitis..........    4.0     2.8     2.2     1.6
 Otitis media and eustachian tube disorders...    4.5     2.2     1.8     2.0
 15-44 years3/................................   91.5    75.4    68.7    61.5
 Fracture, all sites..........................    6.3     5.3     4.9     4.5
 Psychoses....................................    3.0     3.7     4.1     3.9
 Alcohol dependence syndrome..................    3.5     3.5     2.8     2.1
 Diseases of heart............................    2.9     3.0     2.8     2.8
 Intervertebral disc disorders................    2.3     2.9     2.8     2.5
 Lacerations and open wounds..................    3.4     2.6     2.5     2.2
 45-64 years3/................................  195.4   176.2   163.1   146.4
 Diseases of heart............................   33.7    36.6    36.7    34.1
 Malignant neoplasms..........................   14.4    13.1    12.7     9.8
 Inguinal hernia..............................    6.9     5.1     4.0     3.3
 Cerebrovascular diseases.....................    4.7     5.0     4.7     4.2
 Intervertebral disc disorders................    3.7     4.6     4.8     3.9
 Alcohol dependence syndrome..................    6.4     4.5     3.2     2.2
 65 years and over3/..........................  411.8   393.2   381.9   360.3
 Diseases of heart............................   78.5    82.6    87.0    84.0
 Malignant neoplasms..........................   46.2    44.4    40.0    37.0
 Cerebrovascular diseases.....................   24.4    25.1    22.5    18.3
 Pneumonia, all forms.........................   15.0    17.3    18.4    20.1
 Hyperplasia of prostate......................   18.1    15.5    17.0    15.4
                    Female
 All ages2,3/.................................  178.1   152.7   141.2   130.2
 Delivery.....................................   29.0    27.7    27.6    26.5
 Diseases of heart............................   10.7    11.0    11.0    10.5
 Malignant neoplasms..........................    7.3     7.3     7.1     6.2
 Fracture, all sites..........................    4.4     4.0     3.7     3.3
 Pneumonia, all forms.........................    3.0     3.2     3.4     3.2
 Pregnancy with abortive outcome..............    4.1     2.8     2.1     1.9
 Under 15 years3/.............................   64.2    50.2    45.0    43.4
 Chronic disease of tonsils and adenoids......    6.4     3.7     2.7     2.4
 Acute respiratory infection..................    4.6     3.6     3.0     2.5
 Pneumonia, all forms.........................    3.6     3.6     3.5     3.1
 Bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma............    2.5     2.6     2.6     2.5
 Noninfectious enteritis and colitis..........    3.7     2.3     1.9     2.0
 Otitis media and eustachian tube disorders...    3.2     1.7     1.4     1.4
 15-44 years3/................................  206.9   173.4   160.3   145.6
 Delivery.....................................   70.7    67.8    67.4    64.9
 Pregnancy with abortive outcome..............    9.9     6.7     5.1     4.6
 Inflammatory disease of female pelvic organs.    5.1     3.7     3.2     2.5
 Benign neoplasms.............................    4.8     3.4     3.1     3.0
 Psychoses....................................    2.4     3.4     3.7     3.6
 Disorders of menstruation....................    6.6     2.6     2.0     1.5
 45-64 years3/................................  194.3   163.4   151.2   135.1
 Diseases of heart............................   17.8    17.9    18.7    17.2
 Malignant neoplasms..........................   16.6    15.6    16.2    14.7
 Benign neoplasms.............................    6.7     5.1     4.8     4.9
 Cholelithiasis...............................    4.7     4.4     4.6     4.1
 Psychoses....................................    3.1     4.1     4.6     4.2
 Diabetes.....................................    6.3     3.8     3.8     2.8
 65 years and over3/..........................  364.7   351.4   329.1   316.2
 Diseases of heart............................   64.8    68.1    66.9    65.8
 Malignant neoplasms..........................   28.5    28.1    26.4    23.4
 Cerebrovascular diseases.....................   21.6    23.3    22.1    19.6
 Fracture, all sites..........................   19.2    19.3    17.3    16.6
 Pneumonia, all forms.........................    9.7    11.8    12.6    13.4
 Eye diseases and conditions..................   16.4     8.2     4.7     5.8
                                                         Days of care
     Sex, age, and first-listed diagnosis        1980    1985    1987  19881/
                  Both sexes                     Number per 1,000 population
 Total2,3/.................................... 1136.5   877.1   808.7   754.8
 Females with delivery........................   55.5    46.1    42.8    39.2
 Diseases of heart............................  123.5    98.4    94.5    92.2
 Malignant neoplasms..........................   90.5    65.2    60.8    57.6
 Fracture, all sites..........................   51.2    37.1    34.3    30.8
 Pneumonia, all forms.........................   27.7    26.5    27.7    28.5
                     Male
 All ages2,3/................................. 1072.6   841.2   789.2   739.6
 Diseases of heart............................  145.0   116.9   114.0   111.8
 Malignant neoplasms..........................   98.7    71.1    65.9    59.9
 Fracture, all sites..........................   46.9    35.3    34.7    29.3
 Pneumonia, all forms.........................   32.5    29.8    31.4    32.3
 Cerebrovascular diseases.....................   41.9    36.0    31.5    26.8
 Inguinal hernia..............................   20.0     9.3     5.8     4.8
 Under 15 years3/.............................  341.5   287.5   269.9   275.5
 Acute respiratory infection..................   22.0    17.2    13.6    11.7
 Pneumonia, all forms.........................   25.2    18.1    18.6    16.9
 Bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma............   16.3    13.7    12.7    11.0
 Congenital anomalies.........................   22.2    20.5    15.9    18.7
 Chronic disease of tonsils and adenoids......    9.2     5.1     3.5     3.3
 Noninfectious enteritis and colitis..........   16.1     8.3     6.2     5.2
 Otitis media and eustachian tube disorders...   11.3     4.7     4.1     4.2
 15-44 years3/................................  581.0   458.9   441.1   388.2
 Fracture, all sites..........................   50.1    34.7    36.8    27.1
 Psychoses....................................   39.2    47.4    51.4    51.9
 Alcohol dependence syndrome..................   33.4    38.8    30.9    24.8
 Diseases of heart............................   21.7    16.6    15.8    16.1
 Intervertebral disc disorders................   20.7    18.7    14.8    12.6
 Lacerations and open wounds..................   17.9    11.0     9.4     9.4
 45-64 years3/................................ 1590.3  1219.9  1099.1   993.2
 Diseases of heart............................  288.1   237.4   218.8   210.1
 Malignant neoplasms..........................  167.2   119.8   114.2    95.1
 Inguinal hernia..............................   36.5    15.3     8.8     7.7
 Cerebrovascular diseases.....................   49.6    50.7    47.3    35.7
 Intervertebral disc disorders................   34.5    32.8    29.5    21.8
 Alcohol dependence syndrome..................   67.8    43.4    31.8    18.8
 65 years and over3/.......................... 4244.0  3315.0  3163.3  3083.5
 Diseases of heart............................  786.3   626.9   639.0   635.7
 Malignant neoplasms..........................  587.9   418.4   374.0   351.8
 Cerebrovascular diseases.....................  301.2   249.7   206.3   191.9
 Pneumonia, all forms.........................  166.1   172.6   180.9   200.4
 Hyperplasia of prostate......................  176.7   103.5    96.4    93.0
                    Female
 All ages2,3/................................. 1201.7   914.7   831.1   772.6
 Delivery.....................................  109.4    91.0    84.5    77.4
 Diseases of heart............................  105.1    82.5    78.3    75.7
 Malignant neoplasms..........................   85.8    61.7    57.9    56.6
 Fracture, all sites..........................   52.1    36.6    32.1    30.4
 Pneumonia, all forms.........................   24.0    24.3    25.1    25.7
 Pregnancy with abortive outcome..............    8.7     5.9     4.7     4.3
 Under 15 years3/.............................  288.9   232.9   209.9   213.6
 Chronic disease of tonsils and adenoids......   11.2     6.0     3.1     2.5
 Acute respiratory infection..................   16.0    11.3     8.9     8.9
 Pneumonia, all forms.........................   17.7    16.4    15.5    14.9
 Bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma............    9.6     9.0     9.3     7.3
 Noninfectious enteritis and colitis..........   16.8     6.8     5.0     5.4
 Otitis media and eustachian tube disorders...    7.1     3.9     3.6     3.0
 15-44 years3/................................  986.4   744.3   669.7   595.6
 Delivery.....................................  264.5   222.4   206.6   189.4
 Pregnancy with abortive outcome..............   21.2    14.4    11.3    10.5
 Inflammatory disease of female pelvic organs.   25.7    17.7    13.9    11.6
 Benign neoplasms.............................   25.7    17.2    14.1    13.2
 Psychoses....................................   36.7    52.3    52.0    57.7
 Disorders of menstruation....................   21.6     9.7     7.0     5.5
 45-64 years3/................................ 1604.1  1168.1  1040.5   920.5
 Diseases of heart............................  152.9   120.5   121.8   106.5
 Malignant neoplasms..........................  190.8   129.6   125.0   122.2
 Benign neoplasms.............................   44.8    32.0    25.3    24.8
 Cholelithiasis...............................   42.9    30.9    28.2    24.2
 Psychoses....................................   50.6    70.5    64.9    62.0
 Diabetes.....................................   63.5    31.4    30.0    21.8
 65 years and over3/.......................... 3999.8  3147.1  2938.6  2892.3
 Diseases of heart............................  701.1   551.3   511.0   520.6
 Malignant neoplasms..........................  383.8   280.6   250.6   258.5
 Cerebrovascular diseases.....................  287.9   249.3   236.8   193.0
 Fracture, all sites..........................  309.5   232.5   203.0   192.7
 Pneumonia, all forms.........................  109.2   116.9   126.9   138.7
 Eye diseases and conditions..................   67.3    21.0    13.1    12.5
 1/Comparisons of 1988 data with data for earlier years should be made with
 caution as estimates of change between 1987 and 1988 may reflect improvements
 in the 1988 design (see Appendix I) rather than true changes in hospital use.
 2/Age adjusted.
 3/Includes discharges with first-listed diagnoses not shown in table.
 NOTES: Excludes newborn infants. Rates are based on the civilian population.
        In each sex and age group, data are shown for diagnoses with the 5
        highest discharge rates in 1980 and 1987. Diagnostic categories are
        based on the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision,
        Clinical Modification. For a listing of the code numbers, see Appendix
        II, table VI.
 SOURCE: Division of Health Care Statistics, National Center for Health
         Statistics: Data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey.
3Discharge,avg stay non-Fed hosp.by sex/age/diagnosis:80,85,87,88
 Table 73. Discharges and average length of stay in non-Federal short-
           stay hospitals, according to sex, age, and selected first-
           listed diagnosis: United States, 1980, 1985, 1987, and 1988
 (Data are based on a sample of hospital records)

                                                          Discharges
     Sex, age, and first-listed diagnosis        1980    1985    1987  19881/
                  Both sexes                          Number in thousands
 Total2/......................................  37832   35056   33387   31146
 Females with delivery........................   3762    3854    3911    3781
 Diseases of heart............................   3201    3584    3736    3641
 Malignant neoplasms..........................   1829    1911    1879    1670
 Fracture, all sites..........................   1163    1129    1062    1014
 Pneumonia, all forms.........................    782     854     924     924
                     Male
 All ages2/...................................  15145   14160   13568   12642
 Diseases of heart............................   1688    1910    2016    1955
 Malignant neoplasms..........................    875     892     868     772
 Fracture, all sites..........................    582     550     519     506
 Pneumonia, all forms.........................    414     433     468     472
 Cerebrovascular diseases.....................    371     416     392     336
 Inguinal hernia..............................    458     343     266     232
 Under 15 years2/.............................   2063    1698    1537    1486
 Acute respiratory infection..................    154     138     114     103
 Pneumonia, all forms.........................    136     115     113     105
 Bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma............    105     110     105     111
 Congenital anomalies.........................    106     101      79      95
 Chronic disease of tonsils and adenoids......    141      92      77      64
 Noninfectious enteritis and colitis..........    106      74      59      44
 Otitis media and eustachian tube disorders...    118      59      47      55
 15-44 years2/................................   4687    4153    3874    3485
 Fracture, all sites..........................    320     290     274     257
 Psychoses....................................    155     204     231     219
 Alcohol dependence syndrome..................    180     195     160     118
 Diseases of heart............................    149     165     157     159
 Intervertebral disc disorders................    120     161     157     139
 Lacerations and open wounds..................    176     143     140     124
 45-64 years2/................................   4127    3776    3528    3221
 Diseases of heart............................    712     784     795     751
 Malignant neoplasms..........................    304     281     275     215
 Inguinal hernia..............................    146     110      88      72
 Cerebrovascular diseases.....................     99     107     102      93
 Intervertebral disc disorders................     78      98     103      86
 Alcohol dependence syndrome..................    134      97      70      49
 65 years and over2/..........................   4268    4533    4629    4450
 Diseases of heart............................    814     953    1054    1038
 Malignant neoplasms..........................    479     512     485     457
 Cerebrovascular diseases.....................    253     289     273     226
 Pneumonia, all forms.........................    156     199     222     248
 Hyperplasia of prostate......................    188     179     206     191
                    Female
 All ages2/...................................  22686   20896   19818   18504
 Delivery.....................................   3762    3854    3911    3781
 Diseases of heart............................   1513    1674    1720    1686
 Malignant neoplasms..........................    954    1019    1011     898
 Fracture, all sites..........................    580     579     543     508
 Pneumonia, all forms.........................    368     421     456     452
 Pregnancy with abortive outcome..............    531     382     301     266
 Under 15 years2/.............................   1609    1274    1150    1125
 Chronic disease of tonsils and adenoids......    160      94      69      61
 Acute respiratory infection..................    115      91      76      65
 Pneumonia, all forms.........................     91      91      90      79
 Bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma............     63      65      67      66
 Noninfectious enteritis and colitis..........     92      59      48      52
 Otitis media and eustachian tube disorders...     81      42      37      36
 15-44 years2/................................  10949    9813    9268    8448
 Delivery.....................................   3741    3838    3897    3768
 Pregnancy with abortive outcome..............    525     378     297     264
 Inflammatory disease of female pelvic organs.    268     210     184     145
 Benign neoplasms.............................    253     194     180     176
 Psychoses....................................    129     192     216     210
 Disorders of menstruation....................    347     148     114      88
 45-64 years2/................................   4533    3834    3571    3235
 Diseases of heart............................    415     420     441     411
 Malignant neoplasms..........................    387     367     383     351
 Benign neoplasms.............................    156     120     113     116
 Cholelithiasis...............................    109     103     109      97
 Psychoses....................................     72      95     108      99
 Diabetes.....................................    148      88      89      67
 65 years and over2/..........................   5596    5975    5830    5696
 Diseases of heart............................    995    1158     119     119
 Malignant neoplasms..........................    437     478     468     422
 Cerebrovascular diseases.....................    331     396     392     352
 Fracture, all sites..........................    295     328     307     300
 Pneumonia, all forms.........................    150     201     223     242
 Eye diseases and conditions..................    251     140      83     105
                                                        Average length
                                                            of stay
     Sex, age, and first-listed diagnosis        1980    1985    1987  19881/
                  Both sexes                            Number of days
 Total2/......................................    7.3     6.5     6.4     6.5
 Females with delivery........................    3.8     3.3     3.1     2.9
 Diseases of heart............................    9.5     7.3     6.9     7.1
 Malignant neoplasms..........................   12.0     8.9     8.7     9.4
 Fracture, all sites..........................   10.8     8.7     8.9     8.4
 Pneumonia, all forms.........................    7.9     7.4     8.0     8.4
                     Male
 All ages2/...................................    7.7     6.9     6.9     7.1
 Diseases of heart............................    9.1     7.0     6.7     6.9
 Malignant neoplasms..........................   12.0     9.1     9.0     9.4
 Fracture, all sites..........................    9.0     7.7     8.3     7.2
 Pneumonia, all forms.........................    8.2     7.8     7.9     8.3
 Cerebrovascular diseases.....................   12.1    10.0     9.6     9.8
 Inguinal hernia..............................    4.7     3.1     2.5     2.5
 Under 15 years2/.............................    4.3     4.5     4.7     5.0
 Acute respiratory infection..................    3.8     3.3     3.2     3.1
 Pneumonia, all forms.........................    4.9     4.2     4.4     4.4
 Bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma............    4.0     3.3     3.3     2.7
 Congenital anomalies.........................    5.5     5.4     5.4     5.4
 Chronic disease of tonsils and adenoids......    1.7     1.5     1.2     1.4
 Noninfectious enteritis and colitis..........    4.0     3.0     2.8     3.2
 Otitis media and eustachian tube disorders...    2.5     2.1     2.3     2.1
 15-44 years2/................................    6.3     6.1     6.4     6.3
 Fracture, all sites..........................    8.0     6.6     7.6     6.0
 Psychoses....................................   12.9    12.8    12.5    13.4
 Alcohol dependence syndrome..................    9.5    11.0    10.9    11.9
 Diseases of heart............................    7.5     5.5     5.7     5.7
 Intervertebral disc disorders................    8.8     6.4     5.3     5.1
 Lacerations and open wounds..................    5.2     4.2     3.8     4.3
 45-64 years2/................................    8.1     6.9     6.7     6.8
 Diseases of heart............................    8.5     6.5     6.0     6.2
 Malignant neoplasms..........................   11.6     9.1     9.0     9.7
 Inguinal hernia..............................    5.3     3.0     2.2     2.3
 Cerebrovascular diseases.....................   10.6    10.2    10.0     8.5
 Intervertebral disc disorders................    9.4     7.2     6.2     5.6
 Alcohol dependence syndrome..................   10.7     9.6     9.9     8.4
 65 years and over2/..........................   10.3     8.4     8.3     8.6
 Diseases of heart............................   10.0     7.6     7.3     7.6
 Malignant neoplasms..........................   12.7     9.4     9.3     9.5
 Cerebrovascular diseases.....................   12.3     9.9     9.2    10.5
 Pneumonia, all forms.........................   11.1    10.0     9.9    10.0
 Hyperplasia of prostate......................    9.8     6.7     5.7     6.0
                    Female
 All ages2/...................................    7.0     6.2     6.1     6.2
 Delivery.....................................    3.8     3.3     3.1     2.9
 Diseases of heart............................   10.0     7.6     7.2     7.4
 Malignant neoplasms..........................   12.0     8.7     8.3     9.4
 Fracture, all sites..........................   12.6     9.8     9.4     9.7
 Pneumonia, all forms.........................    8.4     8.1     8.1     8.6
 Pregnancy with abortive outcome..............    2.1     2.1     2.2     2.3
 Under 15 years2/.............................    4.5     4.6     4.7     4.9
 Chronic disease of tonsils and adenoids......    1.8     1.6     1.2     1.1
 Acute respiratory infection..................    3.5     3.2     3.0     3.5
 Pneumonia, all forms.........................    4.9     4.6     4.4     4.9
 Bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma............    3.8     3.5     3.6     2.9
 Noninfectious enteritis and colitis..........    4.6     2.9     2.7     2.7
 Otitis media and eustachian tube disorders...    2.2     2.3     2.5     2.2
 15-44 years2/................................    4.8     4.3     4.2     4.1
 Delivery.....................................    3.7     3.3     3.1     2.9
 Pregnancy with abortive outcome..............    2.1     2.2     2.2     2.3
 Inflammatory disease of female pelvic organs.    5.1     4.8     4.4     4.6
 Benign neoplasms.............................    5.4     5.0     4.5     4.4
 Psychoses....................................   15.1    15.4    13.9    15.9
 Disorders of menstruation....................    3.3     3.7     3.6     3.6
 45-64 years2/................................    8.3     7.1     6.9     6.8
 Diseases of heart............................    8.6     6.7     6.5     6.2
 Malignant neoplasms..........................   11.5     8.3     7.7     8.3
 Benign neoplasms.............................    6.7     6.3     5.3     5.1
 Cholelithiasis...............................    9.2     7.1     6.1     6.0
 Psychoses....................................   16.3    17.4    14.3    14.9
 Diabetes.....................................   10.0     8.3     7.9     7.8
 65 years and over2/..........................   11.0     9.0     8.9     9.1
 Diseases of heart............................   10.8     8.1     7.6     7.9
 Malignant neoplasms..........................   13.5    10.0     9.5    11.0
 Cerebrovascular diseases.....................   13.3    10.7    10.7     9.9
 Fracture, all sites..........................   16.1    12.1    11.7    11.6
 Pneumonia, all forms.........................   11.2     9.9    10.1    10.3
 Eye diseases and conditions..................    4.1     2.5     2.8     2.1
 1/Comparisons of 1988 data with data for earlier years should be made with
 caution as estimates of change between 1987 and 1988 may reflect improvements
 in the 1988 design (see Appendix I) rather than true changes in hospital use.
 2/Includes discharges with first-listed diagnoses not shown in table.
 NOTES: Excludes newborn infants. In each sex and age group, data are shown for
        diagnoses with the 5 highest discharge rates in 1980 and 1987.
        Diagnostic categories are based on the International Classification of
        Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification. For a listing of the
        code numbers, see Appendix II, table VI.
 SOURCE: Division of Health Care Statistics, National Center for Health
         Statistics: Data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey.
3Operations patients discharged non-Fed hosp.by sex/age:80,85-87
 Table 74. Operations for inpatients discharged from non-Federal short-
           stay hospitals, according to sex, age, and surgical category:
           United States, 1980, 1985, 1987, and 1988
 (Data are based on a sample of hospital records)
                                                            Operations in
                                                              thousands
             Sex, age, and surgical category           1980  1985  1987 19881/
                           Male
 All ages2,3/..........................................8505  8805  9073   9069
 Cardiac catheterization................................228   439   533    598
 Repair of inguinal hernia..............................483   370   290    261
 Prostatectomy..........................................335   367   410    358
 Reduction of fracture (excluding skull, nose, and jaw).325   339   367    337
 Direct heart revascularization (coronary bypass).......108     1   244    270
 Tonsillectomy, with or without adenoidectomy...........195   135   115     94
 Under 15 years3/......................................1068   831   725    751
 Tonsillectomy, with or without adenoidectomy...........138    97    85     69
 Reduction of fracture (excluding skull, nose, and jaw). 55    57    55     52
 Myringotomy............................................115    53    41     45
 Repair of inguinal hernia.............................. 86    46    34     31
 Appendectomy, excluding incidental4/................... 43    41    38     33
 Circumcision........................................... 43    31    26     20
 15-44 years3/.........................................2900  2717  2640   2489
 Reduction of fracture (excluding skull, nose, and jaw).188   187   206    178
 Excision or destruction of intervertebral disc and
  spinal fusion......................................... 67   119   110    111
 Operations on muscles, tendons, fascia, and bursa......110   100    95     93
 Appendectomy, excluding incidental4/................... 85    88   101     88
 Debridement of wound, infection, or burn............... 75    75   106     84
 Excision of semilunar cartilage of knee................ 94    48    28     30
 45-64 years3/.........................................2313  2494  2612   2568
 Cardiac catheterization................................129   241   289    296
 Repair of inguinal hernia..............................152   116    91     80
 Direct heart revascularization (coronary bypass)....... 72   102   131    134
 Prostatectomy.......................................... 83    81    90     67
 Excision or destruction of intervertebral disc and
  spinal fusion......................................... 43    60    74     69
 Operations on muscles, tendons, fascia, and bursa...... 58    50    51     44
 65 years and over3/...................................2224  2762  3097   3261
 Prostatectomy..........................................251   284   318    290
 Cardiac catheterization................................ 52   126   182    222
 Repair of inguinal hernia..............................119   116    96     88
 Biopsies on the digestive system....................... 61   107   113    121
 Direct heart revascularization (coronary bypass)....... 27    57   105    122
 Extraction of lens.....................................124    53    18     24
                          Female
 All ages2,3/.........................................15989 15994 16583  16555
 Procedures to assist delivery.........................2391  2494  2938   3131
 Cesarean section5/.....................................619   877   953    933
 Hysterectomy...........................................649   670   655    578
 Oophorectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy.................483   525   490    451
 Repair of current obstetrical laceration...............355   548   660    690
 Bilateral destruction or occlusion of fallopian tubes..641   466   415    406
 Diagnostic dilation and curettage of uterus............923   349   206    143
 Under 15 years3/.......................................771   553   471    519
 Tonsillectomy, with or without adenoidectomy...........156   100    74     66
 Myringotomy............................................ 87    36    20     32
 Reduction of fracture (excluding skull, nose, and jaw). 32    33    28     24
 Appendectomy, excluding incidental4/................... 34    28    28     25
 Operations on muscles, tendons, fascia, and bursa...... 23    11    11     16
 Adenoidectomy without tonsillectomy.................... 31    *7     *     *6
 15-44 years3/.........................................9625  9340  9937  10007
 Procedures to assist delivery.........................2381  2483  2927   3121
 Cesarean section.......................................614   875   951    931
 Repair of current obstetrical laceration...............352   546   656    688
 Bilateral destruction or occlusion of fallopian tubes..632   461   413    404
 Hysterectomy...........................................402   421   406    340
 Diagnostic dilation and curettage of uterus............625   232   141     86
 45-64 years3/.........................................3113  2893  2847   2622
 Hysterectomy...........................................203   190   188    188
 Oophorectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy.................162   165   163    165
 Cardiac catheterization................................ 58   108   151    136
 Cholecystectomy........................................107   104   114    101
 Biopsies on the digestive system....................... 66    71    77     61
 Biopsies on the integumentary system (breast, skin, and
  subcutaneous tissue).................................. 69    48    39     38
 65 years and over3/...................................2480  3208  3328   3407
 Reduction of fracture (excluding skull, nose, and jaw).127   163   169    156
 Biopsies on the digestive system....................... 72   140   152    144
 Arthroplasty and replacement of hip.................... 72   108   115    112
 Cardiac catheterization................................ 32   101   146    163
 Insertion of prosthetic lens (pseudophakos)............ 93    92    35     63
 Cholecystectomy........................................ 83    89   106    100
                                                        Operations per 1,000
                                                             population
           Sex, age, and surgical category             1980  1985  1987 19881/
                           Male
 All ages2,3/..........................................78.1  76.3  76.4   75.4
 Cardiac catheterization................................2.2   3.9   4.7    5.2
 Repair of inguinal hernia..............................4.6   3.3   2.5    2.2
 Prostatectomy..........................................3.1   3.2   3.4    2.9
 Reduction of fracture (excluding skull, nose, and jaw).2.9   2.8   3.0    2.7
 Direct heart revascularization (coronary bypass).......1.0   1.6   2.1    2.3
 Tonsillectomy, with or without adenoidectomy...........2.0   1.3   1.2    0.9
 Under 15 years3/......................................40.7  31.3  27.0   27.6
 Tonsillectomy, with or without adenoidectomy...........5.3   3.6   3.2    2.6
 Reduction of fracture (excluding skull, nose, and jaw).2.1   2.1   2.1    1.9
 Myringotomy............................................4.4   2.0   1.5    1.6
 Repair of inguinal hernia..............................3.3   1.7   1.3    1.1
 Appendectomy, excluding incidental4/...................1.6   1.5   1.4    1.2
 Circumcision...........................................1.6   1.2   1.0    0.7
 15-44 years3/.........................................56.6  49.4  46.8   43.9
 Reduction of fracture (excluding skull, nose, and jaw).3.7   3.4   3.7    3.1
 Excision or destruction of intervertebral disc and
  spinal fusion.........................................1.3   2.2   1.9    2.0
 Operations on muscles, tendons, fascia, and bursa......2.2   1.8   1.7    1.6
 Appendectomy, excluding incidental4/...................1.7   1.6   1.8    1.5
 Debridement of wound, infection, or burn...............1.5   1.4   1.9    1.5
 Excision of semilunar cartilage of knee................1.8   0.9   0.5    0.5
 45-64 years3/........................................109.5 116.4 120.7  116.7
 Cardiac catheterization................................6.1  11.3  13.4   13.5
 Repair of inguinal hernia..............................7.2   5.4   4.2    3.6
 Direct heart revascularization (coronary bypass).......3.4   4.8   6.1    6.1
 Prostatectomy..........................................3.9   3.8   4.2    3.1
 Excision or destruction of intervertebral disc and
  spinal fusion.........................................2.1   2.8   3.4    3.1
 Operations on muscles, tendons, fascia, and bursa......2.8   2.3   2.4    2.0
 65 years and over3/..................................214.6 239.5 255.5  264.0
 Prostatectomy.........................................24.2  24.7  26.3   23.4
 Cardiac catheterization................................5.0  10.9  15.0   17.9
 Repair of inguinal hernia.............................11.4  10.1   7.9    7.1
 Biopsies on the digestive system.......................5.9   9.3   9.3    9.8
 Direct heart revascularization (coronary bypass).......2.6   5.0   8.7    9.8
 Extraction of lens....................................12.0   4.6   1.5    1.9
                          Female
 All ages2,3/.........................................126.1 117.2 118.3  116.9
 Procedures to assist delivery.........................18.4  18.0  20.7   22.0
 Cesarean section5/.....................................4.8   6.3   6.7    6.5
 Hysterectomy...........................................5.2   5.0   4.8    4.3
 Oophorectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy.................3.9   4.0   3.7    3.4
 Repair of current obstetrical laceration...............2.8   3.9   4.7    4.9
 Bilateral destruction or occlusion of fallopian tubes..4.9   3.3   2.9    2.9
 Diagnostic dilation and curettage of uterus............7.3   2.6   1.5    1.1
 Under 15 years3/......................................30.8  21.8  18.4   20.0
 Tonsillectomy, with or without adenoidectomy...........6.2   3.9   2.9    2.5
 Myringotomy............................................3.5   1.4   0.8    1.2
 Reduction of fracture (excluding skull, nose, and jaw).1.3   1.3   1.1    0.9
 Appendectomy, excluding incidental4/...................1.4   1.1   1.1    1.0
 Operations on muscles, tendons, fascia, and bursa......0.9   0.5   0.4    0.6
 Adenoidectomy without tonsillectomy....................1.2  *0.3     *   *0.2
 15-44 years3/........................................181.9 165.0 171.9  172.5
 Procedures to assist delivery.........................45.0  43.9  50.6   53.8
 Cesarean section......................................11.6  15.5  16.4   16.0
 Repair of current obstetrical laceration...............6.7   9.6  11.3   11.9
 Bilateral destruction or occlusion of fallopian tubes.11.9   8.1   7.1    7.0
 Hysterectomy...........................................7.6   7.4   7.0    5.9
 Diagnostic dilation and curettage of uterus...........11.8   4.1   2.4    1.5
 45-64 years3/........................................133.4 123.3 120.5  109.5
 Hysterectomy...........................................8.7   8.1   8.0    7.9
 Oophorectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy.................7.0   7.0   6.9    6.9
 Cardiac catheterization................................2.5   4.6   6.4    5.7
 Cholecystectomy........................................4.6   4.4   4.8    4.2
 Biopsies on the digestive system.......................2.8   3.0   3.3    2.6
 Biopsies on the integumentary system (breast, skin, and
  subcutaneous tissue)..................................2.9   2.1   1.7    1.6
 65 years and over3/..................................161.6 188.7 187.9  189.2
 Reduction of fracture (excluding skull, nose, and jaw).8.3   9.6   9.5    8.6
 Biopsies on the digestive system.......................4.7   8.2   8.6    8.0
 Arthroplasty and replacement of hip....................4.7   6.4   6.5    6.2
 Cardiac catheterization................................2.1   6.0   8.2    9.1
 Insertion of prosthetic lens (pseudophakos)............6.1   5.4   2.0    3.5
 Cholecystectomy........................................5.4   5.2   6.0    5.5
 1/Comparisons of 1988 data with data for earlier years should be made
 with caution as estimates of change between 1987 and 1988 may reflect
 improvements in the 1988 design (see Appendix I) rather than true changes
 in hospital use.
 2/Rates are age adjusted.
 3/Includes operations not listed in table.
 4/Limited to estimated number of appendectomies, excluding those performed
 incidental to other abdominal surgery.
 5/Cesarean sections accounted for 16.5 percent of all deliveries in 1980,
 22.7 percent in 1985, 24.4 percent in 1987, and 24.7 percent in 1988.
 *Estimates based on fewer than 30 discharges are not shown; estimates
 based on 30-59 discharges should be used with caution.
 NOTES: Excludes newborn infants. Data do not reflect total use of
        operations because operations for outpatients are not included in
        the National Hospital Discharge Survey. In recent years, for
        example, lens extractions and myringotomies are frequently performed
        on outpatients. Rates are based on the civilian population. In each
        sex and age group, data are shown for operations with the 5 highest
        rates in 1980 and 1987. Surgical categories are based on the
        International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical
        Modification. For a listing of the code numbers, see Appendix II,
        table VII.
 SOURCE: Division of Health Care Statistics, National Center for Health
         Statistics: Data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey.
3Diagnostic/nonsurgical proc.patient non-Fed hosp:sex/age:80,85-7
 Table 75. Diagnostic and other nonsurgical procedures for inpatients
           discharged from non-Federal short-stay hospitals, according to
           sex, age, and procedure category: United States, 1980, 1985,
           1987, and 1988
 (Data are based on a sample of hospital records)
                                                          Procedures in
                                                            thousands
          Sex, age, and procedure category        1980    1985    1987  19881/
                        Male
 All ages2,3/.................................... 3386    5889    6643    6665
 Computerized axial tomography (CAT scan)........  152     671     814     775
 Diagnostic ultrasound...........................  114     478     616     599
 Cystoscopy......................................  543     461     444     399
 Angiocardiography using contrast material.......  174     431     617     749
 Radioisotope scan...............................  236     375     350     315
 Arteriography using contrast material...........  180     262     251     246
 Endoscopy of large intestine....................  228     259     245     170
 Under 15 years3/................................  217     297     377     424
 Spinal tap......................................   39      62      76      84
 Computerized axial tomography (CAT scan)........   17      35      54      42
 Diagnostic ultrasound...........................   *6      23      34      51
 Electroencephalogram............................   *5      19      20      15
 Application of cast or splint...................   21      16      13      14
 Cystoscopy......................................   23      11      *8      *4
 Radioisotope scan...............................   *8      *9      11      11
 15-44 years3/...................................  884    1294    1368    1382
 Computerized axial tomography (CAT scan)........   37     174     217     218
 Contrast myelogram..............................   88     130     111      79
 Diagnostic ultrasound...........................   25      96     113     111
 Radioisotope scan...............................   48      67      65      62
 Endoscopy of small intestine....................   38      61      67      43
 Endoscopy of large intestine....................   52      54      36      25
 Cystoscopy......................................   80      47      39      36
 Application of cast or splint...................   54      30      27      27
 45-64 years3/................................... 1128    1866    2060    2038
 Angiocardiography using contrast material.......  106     251     350     388
 Computerized axial tomography (CAT scan)........   43     182     205     200
 Diagnostic ultrasound...........................   41     146     178     173
 Radioisotope scan...............................   75     121     106     102
 Cystoscopy......................................  153     114     108      93
 Arteriography using contrast material...........   76      94      92      95
 Endoscopy of large intestine....................   86      76      70      48
 65 years and over3/............................. 1158    2432    2838    2821
 Cystoscopy......................................  287     288     290     266
 Computerized axial tomography (CAT scan)........   54     280     337     316
 Diagnostic ultrasound...........................   42     213     290     264
 Radioisotope scan...............................  105     177     167     139
 Endoscopy of large intestine....................   86     126     138      94
 Angiocardiography using contrast material.......   35     123     196     264
                       Female
 All ages2,3/.................................... 3532    6072    6820    6902
 Diagnostic ultrasound...........................  204     756     981     963
 Computerized axial tomography (CAT scan)........  154     707     833     838
 Radioisotope scan...............................  289     463     409     390
 Endoscopy of small intestine....................  164     281     341     279
 Angiocardiography using contrast material.......   84     219     375     439
 Laparoscopy (excluding that for ligation and division of
  fallopian tubes)...............................  235     209     176     133
 Cystoscopy......................................  324     184     149     143
 Under 15 years3/................................  191     256     293     356
 Spinal tap......................................   26      50      66      70
 Computerized axial tomography (CAT scan)........  *10      33      32      39
 Diagnostic ultrasound...........................   *5      25      35      45
 Electroencephalogram............................    *      15      15      19
 Cystoscopy......................................   38      *8      *5      *5
 Radioisotope scan...............................   *6      *8      *7       6
 Application of cast or splint...................   13      *6      *8       9
 15-44 years3/................................... 1203    1606    1687    1643
 Diagnostic ultrasound...........................   94     283     376     365
 Laparoscopy (excluding that for ligation and division of
  fallopian tubes)...............................  214     197     162     124
 Computerized axial tomography (CAT scan)........   36     137     149     156
 Contrast myelogram..............................   66      96      80      57
 Biliary tract X-ray.............................   60      90     107     109
 Endoscopy of large intestine....................   77      58      51      29
 Cystoscopy......................................   97      51      37      44
 45-64 years3/................................... 1030    1584    1734    1711
 Computerized axial tomography (CAT scan)........   42     167     191     188
 Diagnostic ultrasound...........................   44     154     182     176
 Radioisotope scan...............................   92     128     113     113
 Angiocardiography using contrast material.......   49     105     173     189
 Endoscopy of small intestine....................   55      78      93      68
 Cystoscopy......................................   93      48      44      33
 65 years and over3/............................. 1107    2626    3106    3192
 Computerized axial tomography (CAT scan)........   66     370     461     455
 Diagnostic ultrasound...........................   62     294     387     377
 Radioisotope scan...............................  143     244     219     209
 Endoscopy of large intestine....................  131     181     188     154
 Endoscopy of small intestine....................   55     133     180     150
 Cystoscopy......................................   96      77      62      61
                                                       Procedures per 1,000
                                                            population
          Sex, age, and procedure category        1980    1985    1987  19881\
                        Male
 All ages2,3/.................................... 31.3    51.1    56.2    55.6
 Computerized axial tomography (CAT scan)........  1.4     5.8     6.8     6.3
 Diagnostic ultrasound...........................  1.0     4.1     5.2     5.1
 Cystoscopy......................................  5.1     4.0     3.7     3.2
 Angiocardiography using contrast material.......  1.6     3.9     5.4     6.4
 Radioisotope scan...............................  2.1     3.3     2.9     2.6
 Arteriography using contrast material...........  1.7     2.3     2.1     2.0
 Endoscopy of large intestine....................  2.1     2.2     2.0     1.4
 Under 15 years3/................................  8.3    11.1    14.1    15.6
 Spinal tap......................................  1.5     2.3     2.8     3.1
 Computerized axial tomography (CAT scan)........  0.7     1.3     2.0     1.5
 Diagnostic ultrasound........................... *0.2     0.9     1.3     1.9
 Electroencephalogram............................ *0.2     0.7     0.8     0.5
 Application of cast or splint...................  0.8     0.6     0.5     0.5
 Cystoscopy......................................  0.9     0.4    *0.3    *0.1
 Radioisotope scan............................... *0.3    *0.4     0.4     0.4
 15-44 years3/................................... 17.3    23.5    24.3    24.4
 Computerized axial tomography (CAT scan)........  0.7     3.2     3.8     3.8
 Contrast myelogram..............................  1.7     2.4     2.0     1.4
 Diagnostic ultrasound...........................  0.5     1.7     2.0     2.0
 Radioisotope scan...............................  0.9     1.2     1.2     1.1
 Endoscopy of small intestine....................  0.7     1.1     1.2     0.8
 Endoscopy of large intestine....................  1.0     1.0     0.6     0.4
 Cystoscopy......................................  1.6     0.9     0.7     0.6
 Application of cast or splint...................  1.1     0.6     0.5     0.5
 45-64 years3/................................... 53.4    87.1    95.2    92.6
 Angiocardiography using contrast material.......  5.0    11.7    16.2    17.6
 Computerized axial tomography (CAT scan)........  2.0     8.5     9.5     9.1
 Diagnostic ultrasound...........................  1.9     6.8     8.2     7.9
 Radioisotope scan...............................  3.5     5.7     4.9     4.7
 Cystoscopy......................................  7.3     5.3     5.0     4.2
 Arteriography using contrast material...........  3.6     4.4     4.2     4.3
 Endoscopy of large intestine....................  4.0     3.5     3.2     2.2
 65 years and over3/.............................111.8   211.0   234.2   228.4
 Cystoscopy...................................... 27.7    25.0    23.9    21.6
 Computerized axial tomography (CAT scan)........  5.2    24.3    27.8    25.6
 Diagnostic ultrasound...........................  4.0    18.4    24.0    21.4
 Radioisotope scan............................... 10.1    15.4    13.8    11.3
 Endoscopy of large intestine....................  8.3    10.9    11.3     7.6
 Angiocardiography using contrast material.......  3.4    10.7    16.2    21.3
                       Female
 All ages2,3/.................................... 27.5    43.3    47.3    47.3
 Diagnostic ultrasound...........................  1.6     5.4     6.7     6.6
 Computerized axial tomography (CAT scan)........  1.2     4.9     5.6     5.6
 Radioisotope scan...............................  2.1     3.2     2.8     2.6
 Endoscopy of small intestine....................  1.3     2.0     2.3     1.8
 Angiocardiography using contrast material.......  0.7     1.6     2.7     3.1
 Laparoscopy (excluding that for ligation and division of
  fallopian tubes)...............................  1.8     1.5     1.2     0.9
 Cystoscopy......................................  2.6     1.3     1.0     1.0
 Under 15 years3/................................  7.6    10.1    11.5    13.8
 Spinal tap......................................  1.0     2.0     2.6     2.7
 Computerized axial tomography (CAT scan)........ *0.4     1.3     1.3     1.5
 Diagnostic ultrasound........................... *0.2     1.0     1.4     1.7
 Electroencephalogram............................    *     0.6     0.6     0.7
 Cystoscopy......................................  1.5    *0.3    *0.2    *0.2
 Radioisotope scan............................... *0.2    *0.3    *0.3     0.2
 Application of cast or splint...................  0.5    *0.2    *0.3     0.3
 15-44 years3/................................... 22.7    28.4    29.2    28.3
 Diagnostic ultrasound...........................  1.8     5.0     6.5     6.3
 Laparoscopy (excluding that for ligation and division of
  fallopian tubes)...............................  4.1     3.5     2.8     2.1
 Computerized axial tomography (CAT scan)........  0.7     2.4     2.6     2.7
 Contrast myelogram..............................  1.2     1.7     1.4     1.0
 Biliary tract X-ray.............................  1.1     1.6     1.9     1.9
 Endoscopy of large intestine....................  1.5     1.0     0.9     0.5
 Cystoscopy......................................  1.8     0.9     0.6     0.8
 45-64 years3/................................... 44.2    67.5    73.4    71.4
 Computerized axial tomography (CAT scan)........  1.8     7.1     8.1     7.8
 Diagnostic ultrasound...........................  1.9     6.6     7.7     7.3
 Radioisotope scan...............................  3.9     5.5     4.8     4.7
 Angiocardiography using contrast material.......  2.1     4.5     7.3     7.9
 Endoscopy of small intestine....................  2.3     3.3     3.9     2.8
 Cystoscopy......................................  4.0     2.1     1.9     1.4
 65 years and over3/............................. 72.1   154.4   175.3   177.2
 Computerized axial tomography (CAT scan)........  4.3    21.8    26.0    25.3
 Diagnostic ultrasound...........................  4.0    17.3    21.8    20.9
 Radioisotope scan...............................  9.3    14.4    12.4    11.6
 Endoscopy of large intestine....................  8.5    10.7    10.6     8.6
 Endoscopy of small intestine....................  3.6     7.8    10.2     8.3
 Cystoscopy......................................  6.2     4.5     3.5     3.4
 1/Comparisons of 1988 data with data for earlier years should be made with
 caution as estimates of change between 1987 and 1988 may reflect improvements
 in the 1988 design (see Appendix I) rather than true changes in hospital use.
 2/Rates are age adjusted.
 3/Includes nonsurgical procedures not shown.
 *Estimates based on fewer than 30 discharges are not shown; estimates
 based on 30-59 discharges should be used with caution.
 NOTES: Excludes newborn infants. Data do not reflect total use of procedures
        because procedures for outpatients are not included in the National
        Hospital Discharge Survey. For example, CAT scans are frequently
        performed on outpatients. Rates are based on the civilian population.
        In each sex and age group, data are shown for procedures with the 5
        highest rates in 1980 and 1987. Procedure categories are based on the
        International Classification  of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical
        Modification. For a listing of the code numbers, see Appendix II,
        table VIII.
 SOURCE: Division of Health Care Statistics, National Center for Health
         Statistics: Data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey.
3Admissions,avg stay,outpatient visits in hosp.by ownership:60-87
 Table 76. Admissions, average length of stay, and outpatient visits in
           short-stay hospitals, according to type of ownership: United
           States, selected years 1960-87
 (Data are based on reporting by a census of registered hospitals)
     Type of ownership      1960     1970     1975     1980     1983     1984
        Admissions                          Number in thousands
       All ownerships.....  24324    30706    35270    38140    38135    37143
 Federal..................   1354     1454     1751     1942     1934     1941
 Non-Federal..............  22970    29252    33519    36198    36201    35202
   Nonprofit..............  16788    20948    23735    25576    25837    25246
   Proprietary............   1550     2031     2646     3165     3299     3314
   State-local government.   4632     6273     7138     7458     7064     6642
  Average length of stay                       Number of days
       All ownerships.....    8.4      8.7      8.0      7.8      7.8      7.5
 Federal..................   21.4     17.0     14.4     12.9     12.4     11.9
 Non-Federal..............    7.6      8.2      7.7      7.6      7.6      7.3
   Nonprofit..............    7.4      8.2      7.8      7.7      7.7      7.4
   Proprietary............    5.7      6.8      6.6      6.5      6.6      6.3
   State-local government.    8.8      8.7      7.6      7.4      7.6      7.3
    Outpatient visits1/                    Number in thousands
       All ownerships.....    ---   173058   245938   255320   263729   267868
 Federal..................    ---    39514    49627    48568    49734    51394
 Non-Federal..............    ---   133545   196311   206752   213995   216474
   Nonprofit..............    ---    90992   132368   142864   151444   153928
   Proprietary............    ---     4698     7713     9696    10389    11090
   State-local government.    ---    37854    56230    54192    52163    51457
     Type of ownership       1985      1986     1987
        Admissions             Number in thousands
       All ownerships.....  35478     34399    33592
 Federal..................   1977      1988     1959
 Non-Federal..............  33501     32410    31633
   Nonprofit..............  24188     23492    22946
   Proprietary............   3242      3231     3157
   State-local government.   6071      5687     5530
  Average length of stay          Number of days
       All ownerships.....    7.3       7.3      7.4
 Federal..................   11.6      11.3     11.3
 Non-Federal..............    7.1       7.1      7.2
   Nonprofit..............    7.2       7.2      7.2
   Proprietary............    6.1       6.1      6.3
   State-local government.    7.2       7.4      7.6
    Outpatient visits1/       Number in thousands
       All ownerships..... 272833    285216   300960
 Federal..................  50059     50946    53256
 Non-Federal.............. 222773    234270   247704
   Nonprofit.............. 160002    168284   178089
   Proprietary............  12378     14896    16566
   State-local government.  50394     51091    53049
 1/Because of modifications in the collection of outpatient data for 1977 and
 1982, there are discontinuities in the trends for this item.
 NOTE: Excludes psychiatric and tuberculosis and other respiratory disease
       hospitals.
 SOURCES: American Hospital Association: Hospitals. JAHA 35(15):396-401 and 45
          (15):463-467, Aug. 1961 and Aug. 1971; Hospital Statistics, 1976,
          1981, 1984-87 Editions. Chicago, 1976, 1981, 1984-87. (Copyrights
          1961, 1971, 1976, 1981, 1984-87: Used with the permission of the
          American Hospital Association.)
3Nursing home resident >65 & rate/1000 by age/sex/race:60,73-7,85
 Table 77. Nursing home and personal care home residents 65 years of age
           and over and rate per 1,000 population, according to age, sex,
           and race: United States, 1963, 1973-74, 1977, and 1985
 (Data are based on a sample of nursing homes)
                                                Residents
    Age, sex, and race          1963    1973-742/       19773/       1985
           Age
 All ages................     445600       961500      1126000      1318300
 65-74 years.............      89600       163100       211400       212100
 75-84 years.............     207200       384900       464700       509000
 85 years and over.......     148700       413600       449900       597300
           Sex
 Male....................     141000       265700       294000       334400
 65-74 years.............      35100        65100        80200        80600
 75-84 years.............      65200       102300       122100       141300
 85 years and over.......      40700        98300        91700       112600
 Female..................     304500       695800       832000       983900
 65-74 years.............      54500        98000       131200       131500
 75-84 years.............     142000       282600       342600       367700
 85 years and over.......     108000       315300       358200       484700
          Race4/
 White...................     431700       920600      1059900      1227400
 65-74 years.............      84400       150100       187500       187800
 75-84 years.............     202000       369700       443200       473600
 85 years and over.......     145400       400800       429100       566000
 Black...................      13800        37700        60800        82000
 65-74 years.............       5200        12200        22000        22500
 75-84 years.............       5300        13400        19700        30600
 85 years and over.......       3300        12100        19100        29000
                                      Residents per 1,000 population1/
    Age, sex, and race          1963    1973-742/       19773/         1985
           Age
 All ages................       25.4         44.7         47.1         46.2
 65-74 years.............        7.9         12.3         14.4         12.5
 75-84 years.............       39.6         57.7         64.0         57.7
 85 years and over.......      148.4        257.3        225.9        220.3
           Sex
 Male....................       18.1         30.0         30.3         29.0
 65-74 years.............        6.8         11.3         12.6         10.8
 75-84 years.............       29.1         39.9         44.9         43.0
 85 years and over.......      105.6        182.7        146.3        145.7
 Female..................       31.1         54.9         58.6         57.9
 65-74 years.............        8.8         13.1         15.8         13.8
 75-84 years.............       47.5         68.9         75.4         66.4
 85 years and over.......      175.1        294.9        262.4        250.1
          Race4/
 White...................       26.6         46.9         48.9         47.7
 65-74 years.............        8.1         12.5         14.2         12.3
 75-84 years.............       41.7         60.3         67.0         59.1
 85 years and over.......      157.7        270.8        234.2        228.7
 Black...................       10.3         22.0         30.7         35.0
 65-74 years.............        5.9         11.1         17.6         15.4
 75-84 years.............       13.8         26.7         33.4         45.3
 85 years and over.......       41.8        105.7        133.6        141.5
 1/Residents per 1,000 population for 1973-74 and 1977 will differ from
 those presented in the sources because the rates have been recomputed
 using revised census estimates for these years (see source note).
 2/Excludes residents in personal care or domiciliary care homes.
 3/Includes residents in domiciliary care homes.
 4/For data years 1973-74 and 1977, all Hispanics were included in the
 white category. For 1963, black includes all other races.
 SOURCES: National Center for Health Statistics: Characteristics of
          residents in institutions for the aged and chronically ill,
          United States, April-June 1963, by G. S. Wunderlich. Vital and
          Health Statistics. Series 12, No. 2. DHEW Pub. No. (PHS) 1000.
          Public Health Service. Washington. U.S. Government Printing
          Office, Sept. 1965; Characteristics, social contacts, and
          activities of nursing home residents, United States: 1973-74
          National Nursing Home Survey, by A. Zappolo. Vital and Health
          Statistics. Series 13, No. 27. DHEW Pub. No. (HRA) 77-1778.
          Health Resources Administration. Washington. U.S. Government
          Printing Office, May 1977; Characteristics of nursing home
          residents, health status, and care received: National Nursing
          Home Survey, United States, May-December 1977, by E. Hing.
          Vital and Health Statistics. Series 13, No. 51. DHHS Pub.
          No. (PHS) 81-1712. Public Health Service. Washington. U.S.
          Government Printing Office, April 1981; The National Nursing
          Home Survey: 1985 summary for the United States, by E. Hing, E.
          Sekscenski, and G. Strahan. Vital and Health Statistics. Series
          13, No. 97. DHHS Pub. No. (PHS) 89-1758. Public Health Service.
          Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1989. U.S.
          Bureau of the Census: Preliminary estimates of the population
          of the United States by age, sex, and race: 1970-1981. Current
          Population Reports. Series P-25, No. 917. Washington. U.S.
          Government Printing Office, July 1982.
3Nursing home residents by select functional status & age:'77,'85
 Table 78. Nursing home residents, according to selected functional
           status and age: United States, 1977 and 1985
 (Data are based on a sample of nursing homes)
                                                  1977
                               All     Under 65   65-74    75-84    85 years
      Functional status       ages      years     years    years    and over
                                           Number of residents
 All residents............  1303100     177100    211400   464700    449900
                                           Percent distribution
 Total....................     100.0      100.0     100.0    100.0     100.0
        Dressing
 Independent..............      30.6       44.8      38.8     27.5      24.2
 Requires assistance1/....      69.4       55.2      61.2     72.5      75.8
     Using toilet room
 Independent..............      47.5       61.8      53.1     45.7      41.0
 Requires assistance......      42.5       28.1      37.8     44.7      48.0
 Does not use.............      10.1       10.1       9.1      9.6      11.0
        Mobility
 Walks independently......      33.9       53.6      43.2     33.2      22.5
 Walks with assistance....      28.8       15.7      21.4     30.5      35.6
 Chairfast................      32.0       25.5      30.5     31.5      35.9
 Bedfast..................       5.3        5.2       5.0      4.9       6.1
        Continence
 No difficulty controlling
  bowel or bladder........      54.7       68.0      62.4     52.9      47.8
 Difficulty controlling--
   Bowel..................       3.7        3.0       3.7      4.0       3.8
   Bladder................       9.0        5.8       6.5      9.4      11.1
   Bowel and bladder......      25.9       16.8      20.6     26.9      30.8
 Ostomy in either bowel
  or bladder..............       6.7        6.4       6.8      6.9       6.5
        Eating
 Independent..............      67.4       73.8      72.9     66.2      63.5
 Requires assistance2/....      32.6       26.2      27.1     33.8      36.5
         Vision
 Not impaired.............      67.2       81.0      75.4     67.9      57.2
 Partially impaired.......      19.0       10.9      13.4     19.6      24.1
 Severely impaired........       6.6        2.2       3.3      6.1      10.4
 Completely lost..........       2.9        2.2       2.6      2.6       3.8
 Unknown..................       4.3        3.8       5.3      3.9       4.5
         Hearing
 Not impaired.............      69.5       87.6      81.0     71.6      54.9
 Partially impaired.......      21.7        6.6      11.4     21.2      33.1
 Severely impaired........       4.3       *0.4       1.9      3.0       8.4
 Completely lost..........       0.7       *1.1      *0.7     *0.6      *0.7
 Unknown..................       3.7        4.4       5.0      3.6       3.0
                                                    1985
                               All     Under 65   65-74    75-84    85 years
      Functional status        ages     years     years    years    and over
                                            Number of residents
 All residents............  1491400     173100    212100   509000    597300
                                             Percent distribution
 Total....................     100.0      100.0     100.0    100.0     100.0
        Dressing
 Independent..............      24.6       41.1      29.8     24.1      18.3
 Requires assistance1/....      75.4       58.9      70.2     75.9      81.7
     Using toilet room
 Independent..............      39.1       57.1      43.4     39.7      32.0
 Requires assistance......      48.9       31.5      45.8     47.8      55.9
 Does not use.............      12.0       11.4      10.8     12.6      12.1
        Mobility
 Walks independently......      29.3       51.0      39.6     30.4      18.4
 Walks with assistance....      24.8       13.5      20.4     24.7      29.6
 Chairfast................      39.5       29.3      33.7     38.7      45.1
 Bedfast..................       6.5        6.2       6.3      6.1       6.9
        Continence
 No difficulty controlling
  bowel or bladder........      48.1       67.7      57.1     45.0      41.9
 Difficulty controlling--
   Bowel..................       1.9       *1.5      *2.0      1.7       2.2
   Bladder................      10.3        6.4       6.8     11.0      12.0
   Bowel and bladder......      31.7       16.8      27.5     33.6      35.8
 Ostomy in either bowel
  or bladder..............       8.1        7.5       6.6      8.7       8.1
        Eating
 Independent..............      60.7       68.5      66.6     60.9      56.1
 Requires assistance2/....      39.3       31.5      33.4     39.1      43.9
         Vision
 Not impaired.............      75.9       88.5      83.3     77.8      68.1
 Partially impaired.......      14.6        5.9      10.0     14.2      19.1
 Severely impaired........       5.6       *1.9       4.3      4.1       8.4
 Completely lost..........       2.5       *2.5      *1.3      2.1       3.2
 Unknown..................       1.4       *1.2      *1.0      1.8       1.2
         Hearing
 Not impaired.............      78.5       96.1      90.4     82.6      65.7
 Partially impaired.......      16.7       *3.1       7.4     14.8      25.5
 Severely impaired........       3.4       *0.1      *1.1      1.5       6.8
 Completely lost..........       0.6       *0.1      *0.4     *0.6      *0.8
 Unknown..................       0.8       *0.5      *0.7     *0.5       1.1
 1/Includes those who do not dress.
 2/Includes those who are tube or intravenously fed.
 *Relative standard error greater than 30 percent.
 SOURCES: Division of Health Care Statistics, National Center for Health
          Statistics: Characteristics of nursing home residents, health
          status, and care received: National Nursing Home Survey,
          United States, May-December 1977, by E. Hing. Vital and Health
          Statistics. Series 13, No. 51. DHHS Pub. No. (PHS) 81-1712.
          Public Health Service. Washington. U.S. Government Printing
          Office, April 1981; The National Nursing Home Survey: 1985
          summary for the United States, by E. Hing, E. Sekscenski, and
          G. Strahan. Vital and Health Statistics. Series 13, No. 97.
          DHHS Pub. No. (PHS) 89-1758. Public Health Service. Washington.
          U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1989.
3Admission mental health org. & rate per 1000000 civilians:'69-86
 Table 79. Admissions to mental health organizations and rate per 100,000
           civilian population, according to type of service and organization:
           United States, selected years 1969-86
 (Data are based on inventories of mental health organizations)
                                              Admissions in thousands
       Service and organization        1969       1975        1983       1986
  Inpatient and residential treatment
 All organizations.................... 1283       1558        1633       1817
 State and county mental hospitals....  487        434         339        330
 Private psychiatric hospitals........   92        126         165        235
 Non-Federal general hospital
  psychiatric services................  478        544         786        849
 Veterans Administration psychiatric
  services1/..........................  135        181         149        180
 Federally funded community mental
  health centers......................   60        236         ...        ...
 Residential treatment centers for
  emotionally disturbed children......    8         12          17         25
 All other2,3/........................   23         25         177        198
         Outpatient treatment
 All organizations.................... 1147       2291        2665       2765
 State and county mental hospitals....  164        146          84         62
 Private psychiatric hospitals........   26         33          78        123
 Non-Federal general hospital
  psychiatric services................  171        255         469        494
 Veterans Administration psychiatric
  services1/..........................   17         94         103        125
 Federally funded community mental
  health centers......................  177        785         ...        ...
 Residential treatment centers for
  emotionally disturbed children......    8         20          33         62
 Freestanding psychiatric outpatient
  clinics3/...........................  538        871         538        391
 All other2,3/........................   46         87        1360       1508
        Partial care treatment
 All organizations....................   55        163         177        189
 State and county mental hospitals....   11         14           4          6
 Private psychiatric hospitals........    3          3           6          9
 Non-Federal general hospital
  psychiatric services................   18         14          46         39
 Veterans Administration psychiatric
  services1/..........................    4          8          10          7
 Federally funded community mental
  health centers......................   13         94         ...        ...
 Residential treatment centers for
  emotionally disturbed children......    1          3           3          5
 Freestanding psychiatric outpatient
  clinics3,4/.........................    4         22           5        ...
 All other2,3,5/......................    2          5         103        123
                                        Rate per 100,000 civilian population
       Service and organization        1969       1975        1983       1986
  Inpatient and residential treatment
 All organizations....................644.2      736.5       701.4      759.9
 State and county mental hospitals....244.4      205.1       146.0      139.1
 Private psychiatric hospitals........ 46.2       59.4        70.9       98.0
 Non-Federal general hospital
  psychiatric services................240.1      257.2       336.8      354.8
 Veterans Administration psychiatric
  services1/.......................... 67.9       85.5        64.3       75.1
 Federally funded community mental
  health centers...................... 30.0      111.7         ...        ...
 Residential treatment centers for
  emotionally disturbed children......  3.8        5.7         7.1       10.2
 All other2,3/........................ 11.8       11.9        76.3       82.7
         Outpatient treatment
 All organizations....................575.9     1083.2      1147.5     1155.7
 State and county mental hospitals.... 82.5       69.1        36.3       26.0
 Private psychiatric hospitals........ 12.8       15.6        33.4       51.5
 Non-Federal general hospital
  psychiatric services................ 85.7      120.5       202.1      206.3
 Veterans Administration psychiatric
  services1/..........................  8.4       44.4        44.5       52.3
 Federally funded community mental
  health centers...................... 88.7      371.2         ...        ...
 Residential treatment centers for
  emotionally disturbed children......  4.0        9.4        14.1       25.8
 Freestanding psychiatric outpatient
  clinics3/...........................270.4      411.8       231.7      163.2
 All other2,3/........................ 23.4       41.2       585.4      630.6
        Partial care treatment
 All organizations.................... 27.8       77.2        76.3       78.9
 State and county mental hospitals....  5.3        6.7         1.6        2.4
 Private psychiatric hospitals........  1.4        1.5         2.4        3.7
 Non-Federal general hospital
  psychiatric services................  9.1        6.7        19.8       16.4
 Veterans Administration psychiatric
  services1/..........................  1.8        3.7         4.4        3.1
 Federally funded community mental
  health centers......................  6.5       44.5         ...        ...
 Residential treatment centers for
  emotionally disturbed children......  0.3        1.6         1.5        2.3
 Freestanding psychiatric outpatient
  clinics3,4/.........................  2.2       10.4         2.3        ...
 All other2,3,5/......................  1.2        2.1        44.3       51.0
 1/Includes Veterans Administration neuropsychiatric hospitals and Veterans
 Administration general hospitals with separate psychiatric services.
 2/Includes other multiservice mental health organizations with inpatient and
 residential treatment services that are not elsewhere classified.
 3/Beginning in 1983 a definitional change sharply increased the number of
 multiservice mental health organizations while decreasing the number of
 freestanding psychiatric outpatient clinics. See Appendix I.
 4/Beginning in 1986 outpatient psychiatric clinics providing partial
 care are counted as multiservice mental health organizations in the "all
 other" category.
 5/Includes freestanding psychiatric partial care organizations.
 NOTES: Changes in reporting procedures in 1981 affect the comparability of
        data with those from previous years. Some numbers in this table have
        been revised and differ from previous editions of Health, United
        States.
 SOURCES: Survey and Reports Branch, Division of Biometry and Applied Sciences,
          National Institute of Mental Health: R. W. Manderscheid and S. A.
          Barrett: Mental Health, United States, 1987. DHHS Pub. No. (ADM)
          87-1518, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1987; Unpublished data.
3Residential treatment in mental health org. civilians: '69-86
 Table 80. Inpatient and residential treatment episodes in mental
           health organizations, rate per 100,000 civilian population,
           and inpatient days, according to type of organization:
           United States, selected years 1969-86
 (Data are based on inventories of mental health organizations)
                 Organization                  1969       1975      19811/
                                                  Episodes in thousands
 All organizations...........................  1710       1817        1720
 State and county mental hospitals...........   767        599         499
 Private psychiatric hospitals...............   103        137         177
 Non-Federal general hospital psychiatric
  services...................................   535        566         677
 Veterans Administration psychiatric
  services2/.................................   187        214         206
 Federally funded community mental health
  centers....................................    65        247         ...
 Residential treatment centers for
  emotionally disturbed children.............    21         28          34
 All other3,4/...............................    32         26         127
                                                   Episodes per 100,000
                                                   civilian population
 All organizations........................... 859.1      859.6       755.6
 State and county mental hospitals........... 385.3      283.3       219.3
 Private psychiatric hospitals...............  51.5       64.8        77.5
 Non-Federal general hospital psychiatric
  services................................... 269.0      267.6       297.3
 Veterans Administration psychiatric
  services2/.................................  93.9      101.4        90.3
 Federally funded community mental health
  centers....................................  32.6      116.8         ...
 Residential treatment centers for
  emotionally disturbed children.............  10.7       13.4        15.1
 All other3,4/...............................  16.1       12.3        56.1
                                                    Days in thousands
 All organizations........................... 68934     104970       77053
 State and county mental hospitals........... 34185      70584       44558
 Private psychiatric hospitals...............  4237       4401        5578
 Non-Federal general hospital psychiatric
  services...................................  6500       8349       10727
 Veterans Administration psychiatric
  services2/................................. 17206      11725        7591
 Federally funded community mental health
  centers....................................  1924       3718         ...
 Residential treatment centers for
  emotionally disturbed children.............  4528       5900        6127
 All other3,4/...............................   354        293        2472
                 Organization                  1983       1986
                                            Episodes in thousands
 All organizations...........................  1861       2055
 State and county mental hospitals...........   459        445
 Private psychiatric hospitals...............   181        258
 Non-Federal general hospital psychiatric
  services...................................   820        883
 Veterans Administration psychiatric
  services2/.................................   171        204
 Federally funded community mental health
  centers....................................   ...        ...
 Residential treatment centers for
  emotionally disturbed children.............    33         47
 All other3,4/...............................   197        218
                                            Episodes per 100,000
                                            civilian population
 All organizations........................... 799.1      858.9
 State and county mental hospitals........... 197.7      186.0
 Private psychiatric hospitals...............  77.8      107.9
 Non-Federal general hospital psychiatric
  services................................... 351.3      369.0
 Veterans Administration psychiatric
  services2/.................................  73.4       85.2
 Federally funded community mental health
  centers....................................   ...        ...
 Residential treatment centers for
  emotionally disturbed children.............  14.0       19.7
 All other3,4/...............................  84.9       91.1
                                             Days in thousands
 All organizations........................... 81821      83413
 State and county mental hospitals........... 42427      39075
 Private psychiatric hospitals...............  6010       8568
 Non-Federal general hospital psychiatric
  services................................... 12529      12570
 Veterans Administration psychiatric
  services2/.................................  7425       7753
 Federally funded community mental health
  centers....................................   ...        ...
 Residential treatment centers for
  emotionally disturbed children.............  5776       8267
 All other3,4/...............................  7654       7180


 1/In 1981, some organizations were reclassified and data for some
 organization types were not available, resulting in a particularly large
 increase for the all other category in 1981.
 2/Includes Veterans Administration neuropsychiatric hospitals and Veterans
 Administration general hospitals with separate psychiatric services.
 3/Includes other multiservice mental health organizations with inpatient and
 residential treatment services that are not elsewhere classified.
 4/Beginning in 1983 a definitional change sharply increased the number of
 multiservice mental health organizations. See Appendix I.
 NOTES: Changes in reporting procedures in 1981 affect the comparability of
        data with those from previous years. Some numbers in this table have
        been revised and differ from previous editions of Health, United
        States.
 SOURCES: Survey and Reports Branch, Division of Biometry and Applied
          Sciences, National Institute of Mental Health: R. W. Manderscheid
          and S. A. Barrett: Mental Health, United States, 1987. DHHS Pub. No.
          (ADM) 87-1518. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1987; Unpublished
          data.
3Admission psychiatric org. & rate/100000 by sex/age/race:75,80,8
 Table 81. Admissions to selected inpatient psychiatric organizations and rate
           per 100,000 civilian population, according to sex, age, and race:
           United States, 1975, 1980, and 1986
 (Data are based on a survey of patients)
            State and county mental                       Non-Federal general
                   hospitals          Private psychiatric      hospitals1/
                                           hospitals
 Sex, age,
  and race       1975   1980   1986   1975   1980   1986   1975   1980   1986
   Both sexes                         Number in thousands
 Total..........  385    369    326    130    141    207    516    564    794
 Under 18 years.   25     17     16     15     17     42     43     44     46
 18-24 years....   72     77     58     19     23     22     93     98    120
 25-44 years....  166    177    189     47     56     91    220    249    405
 45-64 years....  102     78     48     35     32     34    121    123    142
 65 years and
  over..........   21     20     15     13     14     18     38     50     82
 White..........  296    265    217    119    123    177    451    469    607
 All other......   89    104    109     10     18     30     65     95    187
   Male
 Total..........  249    239    205     56     67    107    212    255    379
 Under 18 years.   16     11     10      8      9     23     20     20     21
 18-24 years....   52     56     39     10     13     14     45     52     57
 25-44 years....  107    119    125     20     27     50     85    115    215
 45-64 years....   61     43     25     14     13     14     48     46     60
 65 years and
  over..........   13     11      7      5      5      6     14     21     26
 White..........  191    171    135     51     58     89    184    213    274
 All other......   58     68     69      5      9     18     27     42    105
   Female
 Total..........  136    130    121     74     74    101    304    309    415
 Under 18 years.    9      5      6      8      7     20     23     23     25
 18-24 years....   20     22     19      9     10      8     48     45     63
 25-44 years....   59     58     64     28     29     41    135    135    190
 45-64 years....   41     35     24     21     18     20     74     77     81
 65 years and
  over..........    8      9      8      8      9     12     24     29     56
 White..........  105     94     82     69     65     88    267    256    333
 All other......   31     36     40      5      9     13     37     53     82
   Both sexes                  Rate per 100,000 civilian population
 Total..........182.2  163.6  136.1   61.4   62.6   86.7  243.8  250.0  331.7
 Under 18 years. 38.1   26.1   25.2   23.3   26.3   67.1   64.4   68.5   72.0
 18-24 years....271.8  264.6  215.5   73.7   79.6   81.3  352.8  334.2  443.7
 25-44 years....314.1  282.9  251.9   89.3   89.1  121.6  416.8  399.0  540.4
 45-64 years....233.5  175.7  107.0   80.1   71.0   75.2  278.5  276.4  314.9
 65 years and
  over.......... 91.8   78.0   50.9   57.7   54.1   61.9  170.3  195.4  281.5
 White..........161.1  136.8  106.7   64.9   63.4   87.3  245.4  241.8  299.0
 All other......321.9  328.0  299.8   37.9   57.5   83.1  233.3  300.0  514.3
   Male
 Total..........243.7  219.8  176.6   54.5   61.9   92.1  207.1  233.8  327.6
 Under 18 years. 48.3   35.4   30.1   22.5   28.9   69.8   59.1   62.6   63.7
 18-24 years....409.0  387.9  292.6   78.0   92.2  103.2  350.8  365.3  428.5
 25-44 years....418.4  388.1  338.4   76.6   86.8  136.1  332.8  374.7  584.2
 45-64 years....291.5  202.3  114.4   66.8   63.2   65.5  228.6  219.1  281.1
 65 years and
  over..........136.4  105.3   57.1   50.3   47.3   52.1  152.0  203.4  223.1
 White..........214.2  182.2  137.1   57.0   61.7   90.3  206.9  226.3  278.3
 All other......444.5  457.8  403.0   38.1   62.7  102.8  209.1  281.1  610.3
   Female
 Total..........124.7  111.1   98.1   67.8   63.3   81.5  278.1  265.1  335.5
 Under 18 years. 27.5   16.4   20.0   24.1   23.6   64.3   70.0   74.6   80.7
 18-24 years....143.1  145.8  141.0   69.6   67.4   60.2  354.6  304.4  458.3
 25-44 years....215.9  182.3  168.1  101.2   91.2  107.6  495.8  422.2  498.1
 45-64 years....180.5  151.7  100.2   92.3   78.1   84.0  324.3  328.2  345.8
 65 years and
  over.......... 60.8   59.6   46.7   62.8   58.8   68.6  182.9  190.0  321.3
 White..........111.2   94.1   78.1   72.5   65.0   84.5  281.7  256.4  318.6
 All other......212.0  212.6  207.2   37.7   52.8   65.5  254.9  316.7  428.0
 1/Non-Federal general hospitals include public and nonpublic facilities.
 SOURCES: Survey and Reports Branch, Division of Biometry and Applied Sciences,
          National Institute of Mental Health: C. A. Taube and S. A. Barrett:
          Mental Health, United States, 1985. DHHS Pub. No. (ADM) 85-1378. U.S.
          Government Printing Office, 1985; Unpublished data.
3Admission psychiatric org. by selected diagnoses/age:'75,'80,'86
 Table 82. Admissions to selected inpatient psychiatric organizations,
           according to selected primary diagnoses and age: United States,
           1975, 1980, and 1986
 (Data are based on a survey of patients)
                State and county      Private psychiatric  Non-Federal general
                mental hospitals           hospitals            hospitals1/
 Primary diagnosis
    and age     1975   1980   1986   1975   1980   1986   1975   1980    1986

   All diagnoses2/            Number per 100,000 civilian population
 All ages.......182.2  163.6  136.1   61.4   62.6   86.7  243.8  250.0   331.7
 Under 25 years.104.8  101.2   82.1   37.7   43.1   71.4  146.7  152.2   183.1
 25-44 years....314.1  282.9  251.9   89.3   89.1  121.6  416.8  399.0   540.4
 45-64 years....233.5  175.7  107.0   80.1   71.0   75.2  278.5  276.4   314.9
 65 years and
  over.......... 91.8   78.0   50.9   57.7   54.1   61.9  170.3  195.4   281.5
   Alcohol related
 All ages....... 50.4   35.5   22.5    5.1    5.8    6.6   17.0   18.8    41.4
 Under 25 years. 10.7   12.4   15.5    0.4    1.4    2.2    2.4    4.4    13.4
 25-44 years.... 86.2   64.0   42.6    7.6    9.3   10.0   31.0   34.3    92.6
 45-64 years....110.0   57.7   15.3   12.5   10.9   11.0   34.5   30.6    31.8
 65 years and
  over ..........14.8   11.5   *3.2    4.3    4.4    4.5   10.2   12.8    11.3
    Drug related
 All ages.......  6.8    7.8    8.7    1.5    1.8    6.1    8.4    7.4    20.2
 Under 25 years.  7.2    9.4    5.8    1.5    1.8    7.5    7.7    7.8    18.4
 25-44 years.... 12.6   12.9   14.2    2.3    3.0    9.3   13.8    9.3    41.2
 45-64 years.... *0.6    1.4   10.5    0.1    1.0   *1.8    6.5    7.1    *2.1
 65 years and
  over.......... *3.5   *0.7   *0.8    0.4    0.6    ---   *2.6   *2.0    *0.1
 Organic disorders3/
 All ages.......  9.6    6.8    4.3    2.5    2.2    2.0    9.0    7.4     9.8
 Under 25 years.  2.2    1.2   *0.2    0.7    0.5   *0.5    1.1   *0.8     1.7
 25-44 years....  6.4    4.7    2.6    1.1    0.9   *0.3    5.4    5.6     6.1
 45-64 years.... 12.2    8.1    7.3    1.7    2.7   *1.5    9.3    6.9     5.7
 65 years and
  over.......... 43.3   30.0   17.2   14.5   10.8   11.7   49.3   36.4    50.7
 Affective disorders
 All ages....... 21.3   22.0   22.8   26.0   26.8   41.9   91.9   79.2   121.9
 Under 25 years.  7.5    9.1    9.6    9.5   13.5   28.5   35.3   32.2    49.2
 25-44 years.... 40.6   36.9   43.2   39.4   38.9   63.4  160.9  123.7   176.8
 45-64 years.... 29.4   32.4   25.0   43.3   36.3   38.5  135.6  113.8   147.3
 65 years and
  over.......... 16.8   14.3    7.9   29.6   29.2   33.4   78.5   81.0   166.3
    Schizophrenia
 All ages....... 61.2   62.1   49.7   13.4   13.3    9.9   58.9   59.9    63.3
 Under 25 years. 35.9   36.6   18.6   11.1   10.6    5.7   42.0   38.3    30.4
 25-44 years....125.8  125.0  107.5   23.8   22.5   18.9  118.0  114.5   118.6
 45-64 years.... 63.5   54.8   35.9   11.3   11.6    8.5   50.3   53.6    68.9
 65 years and
  over..........  9.3   13.9   18.3    2.7    3.6   *1.8    5.6   16.3    14.0
 1/Non-Federal general hospitals include public and nonpublic facilities.
 2/Includes all other diagnoses not listed separately.
 3/Excludes alcohol and drug-related diagnoses.
 *Based on fewer than 5 sample admissions.
 NOTES: Primary diagnosis categories are based on the then current
        International Classification of Diseases and Diagnostic and
        Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. For a listing of the code
        numbers, see Appendix II, table IX.
 SOURCES: Survey and Reports Branch,Division of Biometry and Applied Sciences,
          National Institute of Mental Health: C. A. Taube and S. A. Barrett:
          Mental Health, United States, 1985. DHHS Pub. No. (ADM) 85-1378. U.S.
          Government Printing Office, 1985; Unpublished data.
1HEALTH CARE RESOURCES
2Personnel
3Persons employed in health service sites: U.S. select yrs '70-88
 Table 83. Persons employed in health service sites: United States, selected
           years 1970-88
 (Data are based on household interviews of a sample of the civilian
 noninstitutionalized population)
              Site                 19701/     1975     1980     1982      1983
                                          Number of persons in thousands
 All employed civilians........     76805    85846    99303    99526    100834
 All health service sites......      4246     5945     7339     7810      7874
 Offices of physicians.........       477      618      777      898       888
 Offices of dentists...........       222      331      415      415       441
 Offices of chiropractors2/....        19       30       40       53        54
 Hospitals.....................      2690     3441     4036     4341      4348
 Nursing and personal care
  facilities...................       509      891     1199     1217      1342
 Other health service sites....       330      634      872      886       801
                                          Percent of employed civilians
 All health service sites......       5.5      6.9      7.4      7.8       7.8
                                               Percent distribution
 All health service sites......     100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0     100.0
 Offices of physicians.........      11.2     10.4     10.6     11.5      11.3
 Offices of dentists...........       5.2      5.6      5.7      5.3       5.6
 Offices of chiropractors2/....       0.4      0.5      0.5      0.7       0.7
 Hospitals.....................      63.4     57.9     55.0     55.6      55.2
 Nursing and personal care
  facilities...................      12.0     15.0     16.3     15.6      17.0
 Other health service sites....       7.8     10.7     11.9     11.3      10.2
              Site                   1984     1985     1986     1987      1988
                                          Number of persons in thousands
 All employed civilians........    105005   107150   109597   112440    114968
 All health service sites......      7934     7910     8129     8478      8781
 Offices of physicians.........       896      894      896      950       985
 Offices of dentists...........       468      480      497      552       521
 Offices of chiropractors2/....        61       59       66       72        77
 Hospitals.....................      4288     4269     4368     4444      4520
 Nursing and personal care
  facilities...................      1362     1309     1339     1337      1467
 Other health service sites....       859      899      963     1123      1211
                                          Percent of employed civilians
 All health service sites......       7.6      7.4      7.4      7.5       7.6
                                               Percent distribution
 All health service sites......     100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0     100.0
 Offices of physicians.........      11.3     11.3     11.0     11.2      11.2
 Offices of dentists...........       5.9      6.1      6.1      6.5       5.9
 Offices of chiropractors2/....       0.8      0.7      0.8      0.8       0.9
 Hospitals.....................      54.0     54.0     53.7     52.4      51.5
 Nursing and personal care
  facilities...................      17.2     16.5     16.5     15.8      16.7
 Other health service sites....      10.8     11.4     11.8     13.2      13.8
 1/April 1, derived from decennial census; all other data years are annual
 averages from the Current Population Survey.
 2/Data for 1980 and 1982 are from the American Chiropractic Association;
 data for all other years are from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
 NOTES: Totals exclude persons in health-related occupations who are working
        in nonhealth industries, as classified by the U.S. Bureau of the
        Census, such as pharmacists employed in drugstores, school nurses,
        and nurses working in private households. Totals include Federal,
        State, and county health workers. In 1970-82, employed persons were
        classified according to the industry groups used in the 1970 Census
        of Population. Beginning in 1983, persons were classified according
        to the system used in the 1980 Census of Population.
 SOURCES: U.S. Bureau of the Census: 1970 Census of Population, occupation
          by industry. Subject Reports. Final Report PC(2)-7C. Washington.
          U.S. Government Printing Office, Oct. 1972; U.S. Bureau of Labor
          Statistics: Labor Force Statistics Derived from the Current
          Population Survey: A Databook, Vol. I. Washington. U.S. Government
          Printing Office, Sept. 1982; Employment and Earnings, January
          1983-89. Vol. 30, No. 1, Vol. 31, No. 1, Vol. 32, No. 1, Vol. 33,
          No. 1, Vol. 34, No. 1, Vol. 35, No. 1, and Vol. 36, No. 1.
          Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1983-89;
          American Chiropractic Association: Unpublished data.
3Non-fed physicians/10000 civilians by state/specialty:'75,85,87
 Table 84. Active non-Federal physicians per 10,000 civilian population,
           according to geographic division, State, and primary specialty:
           United States, 1975, 1985, and 1987
                                      Doctors of medicine2/
                   Total physicians1/     Patient care3/       Primary care4/
 Geographic division
     and State    1975   1985   1987   1975   1985   1987   1975   1985   1987
                                 Number per 10,000 civilian population
 United States....15.3   20.7   21.4   13.5   18.0   18.9    4.1    5.4    5.5
 New England......19.1   26.7   27.7   16.9   22.9   24.2    4.6    6.2    6.2
 Maine............12.8   18.7   19.3   10.7   15.6   16.0    3.8    5.4    5.4
 New Hampshire....14.3   18.1   18.5   13.1   16.7   17.2    4.6    5.6    5.7
 Vermont..........18.2   23.8   24.5   15.5   20.3   21.5    5.2    6.5    6.6
 Massachusetts....20.8   30.2   31.2   18.3   25.4   27.0    4.7    6.4    6.4
 Rhode Island.....17.8   23.3   24.9   16.1   20.2   21.8    4.4    5.5    5.6
 Connecticut......19.8   27.6   29.0   17.7   24.3   25.7    4.7    6.4    6.5
 Middle Atlantic..19.5   26.1   27.3   17.0   22.2   23.6    4.5    5.9    6.0
 New York.........22.7   29.0   30.1   20.2   25.2   26.9    5.1    6.3    6.3
 New Jersey.......16.2   23.4   24.5   14.0   19.8   21.1    4.1    5.5    5.8
 Pennsylvania.....16.6   23.6   24.8   13.9   19.2   20.4    4.0    5.4    5.5
 East North
  Central.........13.9   19.3   19.9   12.0   16.4   17.1    3.7    5.0    5.1
 Ohio.............14.1   19.9   20.6   12.2   16.8   17.5    3.7    4.8    4.8
 Indiana..........10.6   14.7   15.4    9.6   13.2   14.0    3.8    4.6    4.7
 Illinois.........14.5   20.5   21.1   13.1   18.2   18.9    4.1    5.5    5.7
 Michigan.........15.4   20.8   21.3   12.0   16.0   16.4    3.2    4.5    4.4
 Wisconsin........12.5   17.7   18.4   11.4   15.9   16.7    4.0    5.4    5.6
 West North
  Central.........13.3   18.3   19.1   11.4   15.6   16.4    3.8    5.2    5.3
 Minnesota........14.9   20.5   21.1   13.7   18.5   19.3    4.6    6.5    6.5
 Iowa.............11.4   15.6   16.5    9.4   12.4   13.1    3.5    4.3    4.4
 Missouri.........15.0   20.5   21.3   11.6   16.3   17.1    3.3    4.7    4.6
 North Dakota..... 9.7   15.8   16.7    9.2   14.9   15.8    4.1    5.8    6.0
 South Dakota..... 8.2   13.4   14.0    7.7   12.3   13.0    3.4    5.0    5.6
 Nebraska.........12.1   15.7   16.7   10.9   14.4   15.5    4.2    5.3    5.4
 Kansas...........12.8   17.3   17.8   11.2   15.1   15.7    3.9    5.2    5.1
 South Atlantic...14.0   19.7   20.8   12.6   17.6   18.6    3.7    5.2    5.4
 Delaware.........14.3   19.7   20.2   12.7   17.1   17.7    3.8    4.7    4.7
 Maryland.........18.6   30.4   31.5   16.5   24.9   26.7    4.2    6.5    6.8
 District of
  Columbia........39.6   55.3   57.2   34.6   45.6   47.5    7.2   10.3   10.6
 Virginia.........12.9   19.5   20.1   11.9   17.8   18.6    3.8    5.4    5.6
 West Virginia....11.0   16.3   17.2   10.0   14.6   15.2    3.3    4.4    4.6
 North Carolina...11.7   16.9   17.7   10.6   15.0   16.1    3.5    4.7    4.9
 South Carolina...10.0   14.7   15.5    9.3   13.6   14.5    3.3    4.5    4.7
 Georgia..........11.5   16.2   16.8   10.6   14.7   15.4    3.3    4.3    4.4
 Florida..........15.2   20.2   21.1   13.4   17.8   18.7    3.9    5.3    5.6
 East South
  Central.........10.5   15.0   15.9    9.7   14.0   14.9    3.2    4.5    4.7
 Kentucky.........10.9   15.1   16.0   10.1   13.9   15.1    3.6    4.8    5.0
 Tennessee........12.4   17.7   18.6   11.3   16.2   17.3    3.2    4.7    4.9
 Alabama.......... 9.2   14.2   15.0    8.6   13.1   14.0    3.0    4.2    4.4
 Mississippi...... 8.4   11.8   12.5    8.0   11.1   11.9    3.1    4.2    4.3
 West South
  Central.........11.9   16.4   17.1   10.5   14.5   15.2    3.5    4.5    4.5
 Arkansas......... 9.1   13.8   14.4    8.5   12.8   13.5    3.4    4.8    4.9
 Louisiana........11.4   17.3   17.9   10.5   16.1   16.8    3.3    4.5    4.5
 Oklahoma.........11.6   16.1   16.7    9.4   12.9   13.4    3.2    4.0    4.4
 Texas............12.5   16.8   17.3   11.0   14.7   15.3    3.6    4.5    4.5
 Mountain.........14.3   17.8   18.5   12.6   15.7   16.3    4.1    5.0    5.2
 Montana..........10.6   14.0   15.2   10.1   13.2   14.4    4.5    5.4    5.7
 Idaho............ 9.5   12.1   12.2    8.9   11.4   11.5    4.0    4.8    4.8
 Wyoming.......... 9.5   12.9   13.3    8.9   12.0   12.6    4.1    4.6    5.1
 Colorado.........17.3   20.7   21.0   15.0   17.7   18.3    4.6    5.6    5.6
 New Mexico.......12.2   17.0   17.7   10.1   14.7   15.5    3.4    4.8    5.2
 Arizona..........16.7   20.2   20.9   14.1   17.1   17.8    4.2    5.1    5.2
 Utah.............14.1   17.2   17.7   13.0   15.5   16.1    3.8    4.4    4.5
 Nevada...........11.9   16.0   16.1   10.9   14.5   14.7    3.6    4.6    4.7
 Pacific..........17.9   22.5   22.9   16.3   20.5   20.9    5.2    6.6    6.5
 Washington.......15.3   20.2   20.8   13.6   17.9   18.5    4.7    6.3    6.4
 Oregon...........15.6   19.7   20.0   13.8   17.6   18.1    4.6    6.1    6.0
 California.......18.8   23.7   23.8   17.3   21.5   21.7    5.5    6.7    6.6
 Alaska........... 8.4   13.0   13.8    7.8   12.1   12.7    3.5    5.6    5.7
 Hawaii...........16.2   21.5   22.5   14.7   19.8   20.7    4.9    7.0    7.1
 1/Includes active non-Federal doctors of medicine and doctors of osteopathy
 in all other specialties not shown separately.
 2/Excludes doctors of osteopathy; States with large numbers are Florida,
 Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Texas.
 3/Excludes doctors of medicine in medical teaching, administration, research,
 and other nonpatient care activities.
 4/Includes doctors of medicine in patient care office-based general practice
 and family practice, internal medicine, and pediatrics.
 SOURCES: Compiled by Health Resources and Services Administration, Bureau of
          Health Professions based on data from the American Medical Associa-
          tion the American Medical Association Physician Distribution and
          Licensure in the U.S., 1975, Physician Characteristics and
          Distribution in the U.S., 1986 Edition, and unpublished data;
          American Osteopathic Association: 1975-76 Yearbook and
          Directory of Osteopathic Physicians, 1985-86 Yearbook and Directory
          of Osteopathic Physicians, and 1987-88 Yearbook and Directory of
          Osteopathic Physicians.
3Type of physicians & # per 10000 people:U.S:'50-87;proj '90,2000
 Table 85. Active physicians, according to type of physician, and number per
           10,000 population: United States and outlying U.S. areas,
           selected 1950-87 estimates and 1990 and 2000 projections
 (Data are based on reporting by physicians and medical schools)
                                                                    Active
                        All           Doctors        Doctor       physicians
                      active            of             of         per 10,000
         Year        physicians      medicine      osteopathy     population
                                       Number of physicians
 1950................   219900          209000       10900            14.1
 1960................   259400          247300       12200            14.0
 1970................   326500          314200       12300            15.6
 1971................   337400          325000       12400            16.1
 1972................   348300          335500       12800            16.4
 1973................   355700          342500       13200            16.4
 1974................   370000          356400       13600            16.9
 1975................   384500          370400       14100            17.4
 1976................   399500          385000       14500            17.9
 1977................   405900          390800       15100            18.0
 1978................   424000          408300       15700            18.6
 1979................   440400          424000       16400            19.1
 1980................   457500          440400       17100            19.7
 1981................   466600          448700       18000            19.9
 1982................   483700          465000       18700            20.5
 1983................   501200          481500       19700            21.1
 1984................      ---             ---       20800             ---
 1985................   534800          512900       21900            22.0
 1986................   544100          520900       23200            22.2
 1987................   560300          536200       24100            22.6
     Projections
 1990................   601100          573300       27800            24.0
 2000................   721600          682100       39500            26.9
 NOTES: Population estimates include residents in the United States, Puerto
        Rico, and other U.S. outlying areas; U.S. citizens in foreign
        countries; and the Armed Forces in the United States and abroad. For
        1990 and 2000, the Series II projections of the total population
        from the U.S. Bureau of the Census are used. Estimation and projection
        methods are from the Bureau of Health Professions. The numbers for
        doctors of medicine differ from American Medical Association figures
        because physicians not classified by activity status and whose
        addresses are unknown are included in this table.
 SOURCES: Bureau of Health Professions: Sixth Report to the President and
          Congress on the Status of Health Personnel in the United States.
          Health Resources and Services Administration. DHHS Pub. No.
          HRS-P-OD-88-1, Rockville, Md., 1988. Seventh Report to the President
          and Congress on the Status of Health Personnel in the United States.
          Health Resources and Services Administration. Forthcoming;
          Unpublished data; American Medical Association: data from annual
          surveys; Unpublished data.
3Physicians by activity & place of medical education:U.S. '70-87
 Table 86. Physicians, according to activity and place of medical education:
           United States and outlying U.S. areas, selected years 1970-87
 (Data are based on reporting by physicians)
 Activity and place of medical education        1970         1975         1980
                                                     Number of physicians
 Doctors of medicine.....................     334028       393742       467679
 Professionally active...................     310845       340280       414916
 Place of medical education:
   U.S. medical graduates................     256427          ---       333325
   Foreign medical graduates1/...........      54418          ---        81591
 Activity:
   Non-Federal...........................     281344       312089       397129
     Patient care........................     255027       287837       361915
       Office-based practice.............     188924       213334       271268
         General and family practice.....      50816        46347        47772
         Cardiovascular diseases.........       3882         5046         6725
         Dermatology.....................       2932         3442         4372
         Gastroenterology................       1112         1696         2735
         Internal medicine...............      22950        28188        40514
         Pediatrics......................      10310        12687        17436
         Pulmonary diseases..............        785         1166         2040
         General surgery.................      18068        19710        22409
         Obstetrics and gynecology.......      13847        15613        19503
         Ophthalmology...................       7627         8795        10598
         Orthopedic surgery..............       6533         8148        10719
         Otolaryngology..................       3914         4297         5262
         Plastic surgery.................       1166         1706         2437
         Urological surgery..............       4273         5025         6222
         Anesthesiology..................       7369         8970        11336
         Diagnostic radiology............        896         1978         4190
         Emergency medicine..............        ---          ---          ---
         Neurology.......................       1192         1862         3245
         Pathology, anatomical/clinical..       2993         4195         5952
         Psychiatry......................      10078        12173        15946
         Radiology.......................       5781         6970         7791
         Other specialty.................      12400        15320        24064
       Hospital-based practice...........      66103        74503        90647
         Residents and interns...........      45840        53527        59615
         Full-time hospital staff........      20263        20976        31032
     Other professional activity2/.......      26317        24252        35214
   Federal...............................      29501        28191        17787
     Patient care........................      23508        24100        14597
       Office-based practice.............       3515         2095          732
       Hospital-based practice...........      19993        22005        13865
         Residents and interns...........       5388         4275         2427
         Full-time hospital staff........      14605        17730        11438
     Other professional activity2/.......       5993         4091         3190
 Inactive................................      19621        21449        25744
 Not classified3/........................        358        26145        20629
 Unknown address.........................       3204         5868         6390
 Activity and place of medical education       1985         1986         1987
                                                     Number of physicians
 Doctors of medicine.....................     552716       569160       585597
 Professionally active...................     497140       505750       521328
 Place of medical education:
   U.S. medical graduates................     392007       398314       410300
   Foreign medical graduates1/...........     105133       107436       111028
 Activity:
   Non-Federal...........................     475573       483812       499582
     Patient care........................     431527       436877       453230
       Office-based practice.............     329041       325757       337507
         General and family practice.....      53862        53622        55117
         Cardiovascular diseases.........       9054         9413         9925
         Dermatology.....................       5325         5354         5532
         Gastroenterology................       4135         4409         4764
         Internal medicine...............      52712        52287        55452
         Pediatrics......................      22392        22530        23370
         Pulmonary diseases..............       3035         3188         3474
         General surgery.................      24708        23542        23689
         Obstetrics and gynecology.......      23525        23580        24271
         Ophthalmology...................      12212        12134        12538
         Orthopedic surgery..............      13033        13061        13520
         Otolaryngology..................       5751         5768         6022
         Plastic surgery.................       3299         3355         3520
         Urological surgery..............       7081         7030         7182
         Anesthesiology..................      15285        15310        15986
         Diagnostic radiology............       7735         8065         8557
         Emergency medicine..............        ---         7277         7564
         Neurology.......................       4691         4797         5087
         Pathology, anatomical/clinical..       6877         6529         6747
         Psychiatry......................      18521        18162        18695
         Radiology.......................       7355         6144         6149
         Other specialty.................      28453        20200        20346
       Hospital-based practice...........     102486       111120       115723
         Residents and interns...........      72159        77618        79483
         Full-time hospital staff........      30327        33502        36240
     Other professional activity2/.......      44046        46935        46352
   Federal...............................      21567        21938        21746
     Patient care........................      17293        16985        16902
       Office-based practice.............       1156         1221         1149
       Hospital-based practice...........      16137        15764        15753
         Residents and interns...........       3252         2858         2717
         Full-time hospital staff........      12885        12906        13036
     Other professional activity2/.......       4274         4953         4844
 Inactive................................      38646        46835        48042
 Not classified3/........................      13950        13661        13364
 Unknown address.........................       2980         2914         2863
 1/Foreign medical graduates received their medical education in schools
 outside the United States and Canada.
 2/Includes medical teaching, administration, research, clinical fellows, and
 other.
 3/Not classified established in 1970; however, complete data not available
 until 1972.
 NOTES: Numbers in this table differ from previous editions; data are now
        included for Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Guam and other outlying
        areas. Data for 1970-86 are as of December 31. Data for 1987 are
        as of January 1, 1988.
 SOURCES: Haug, J. N., Roback, G. A., and Martin, B. C.: Distribution of
          Physicians in the United States, 1970. Chicago. American Medical
          Association, 1971; Goodman, L. J., and Mason, H. R.: Physician
          Distribution and Medical Licensure in the U.S., 1975. Chicago.
          American Medical Association, 1976; Bidese, C. M., and Danais,
          D. G.: Physician Characteristics and Distribution in the U.S.,
          1981. Chicago. American Medical Association, 1982; Roback, G. A.,
          Mead, D., and Randolph, L. L.: Physician Characteristics and
          Distribution in the U.S., 1986. Chicago. American Medical Associa-
          tion, 1986; Department of Data Release Services: Physician
          Characteristics and Distribution in the U.S., 1987. Chicago.
          American Medical Association, 1987; Unpublished data. (Copyrights
          1971, 1976, 1982, and 1986-87: Used with the permission of the
          American Medical Association.)
3Health personnel & # per 100000 by occupation/geo div:'70,80,87
 Table 87. Active health personnel and number per 100,000 population, according
           to occupation and geographic region: United States, 1970, 1980, and 1
                                   Number                           Geographic
                                     of                               Region
                                   active
                                   health           United
       Year and occupation       personnel          States           Northeast
               1970                     Number per 100,000 population1/
 Physicians......................      ---              ---             ---
   Federal.......................      ---              ---             ---
   Non-Federal...................   290862            142.7           185.0
     Doctors of medicine2/.......   279212            137.0           178.7
     Doctors of osteopathy.......    11650              5.7             6.3
 Dentists3/......................    95700             47.0            58.9
 Optometrists....................    18400              9.0             9.7
 Pharmacists.....................   112570             55.4            60.1
 Podiatrists.....................     7110              3.5             6.0
 Registered nurses...............   750000            368.9           491.2
 Veterinarians...................    25900             12.7             8.3
               1980
 Physicians......................   427028            189.8             ---
   Federal.......................    17548              7.8             ---
   Non-Federal...................   409480            182.0           224.5
     Doctors of medicine2/.......   393407            174.9           216.1
     Doctors of osteopathy.......    16073              7.1             8.4
 Dentists3/......................   121240             53.5            66.2
 Optometrists....................    22330              9.8             9.9
 Pharmacists.....................   142780             62.5            66.5
 Podiatrists.....................     8880              4.0             6.3
 Registered nurses...............  1272900            560.0           736.0
   Associate and diploma.........   908300            399.9           536.0
   Baccalaureate.................   297300            130.9           161.0
   Masters and doctorate.........    67300             29.6            39.0
 Veterinarians...................    36000             16.3            10.8
               1987
 Physicians......................   538216            222.7             ---
   Federal.......................    21746              9.0             ---
   Non-Federal...................   516470            213.7           273.9
     Doctors of medicine2/.......   493743            204.3           262.1
     Doctors of osteopathy.......    22727              9.4            11.7
 Dentists3/......................   140300             57.8            69.3
 Optometrists....................    25600             10.4             ---
 Pharmacists.....................   156300             63.8             ---
 Podiatrists.....................    11100              4.5             ---
 Registered nurses...............  1627000            668.5           845.1
   Associate and diploma.........  1054300            433.2           550.2
   Baccalaureate.................   468860            192.6           236.1
   Masters and doctorate.........   103810             42.6            58.9
 Veterinarians...................    45700             18.6             ---
                                                Geographic region
       Year and occupation          Midwest           South           West
               1970                      Number per 100,000 population1/
 Physicians......................      ---              ---             ---
   Federal.......................      ---              ---             ---
   Non-Federal...................    127.5            114.8           158.2
     Doctors of medicine2/.......    118.2            111.5           154.8
     Doctors of osteopathy.......      9.3              3.3             3.4
 Dentists3/......................     46.3             35.3            54.9
 Optometrists....................     10.3              6.6            10.5
 Pharmacists.....................     57.5             50.6            52.9
 Podiatrists.....................      3.6              1.6             3.0
 Registered nurses...............    367.5            281.8           355.9
 Veterinarians...................     16.1             11.8            15.0
               1980
 Physicians......................      ---              ---             ---
   Federal.......................      ---              ---             ---
   Non-Federal...................    165.2            157.0           200.0
     Doctors of medicine2/.......    153.3            152.8           195.8
     Doctors of osteopathy.......     11.9              4.2             4.2
 Dentists3/......................     52.7             42.6            59.2
 Optometrists....................     10.9              7.7            11.6
 Pharmacists.....................     67.8             62.1            51.8
 Podiatrists.....................      3.9              2.5             4.1
 Registered nurses...............    583.6            443.4           533.7
   Associate and diploma.........    429.2            316.5           351.1
   Baccalaureate.................    127.8            103.8           148.1
   Masters and doctorate.........     26.7             23.0            34.6
 Veterinarians...................     19.9             16.0            18.5
               1987
 Physicians......................      ---              ---             ---
   Federal.......................      ---              ---             ---
   Non-Federal...................    196.8            187.2           217.5
     Doctors of medicine2/.......    181.4            181.2           212.0
     Doctors of osteopathy.......     15.4              6.0             5.5
 Dentists3/......................     60.7             46.8            61.0
 Optometrists....................      ---              ---             ---
 Pharmacists.....................      ---              ---             ---
 Podiatrists.....................      ---              ---             ---
 Registered nurses...............    723.7            557.8           611.4
   Associate and diploma.........    484.9            364.9           368.3
   Baccalaureate.................    197.6            158.9           199.6
   Masters and doctorate.........     40.9             33.8            43.2
 Veterinarians...................      ---              ---             ---
 1/Ratios for physicians and dentists are based on civilian population; ratios
 for all other health occupations are based on resident population.
 2/Excludes physicians not classified according to activity status.
 3/Excludes dentists in military service.
 SOURCES: Division of Health Professions Analysis, Bureau of Health
          Professions: Supply and Characteristics of Selected Health Personnel.
          DHHS Pub. No. (HRA) 81-20. Health Resources Administration.
          Hyattsville, Md., June 1981; Unpublished data; American Medical
          Association: Physician Characteristics and Distribution in the U.S.,
          1981 edition. Chicago 1981; Unpublished data; American Osteopathic
          Association: 1980-81 Yearbook and Directory of Osteopathic
          Physicians. Chicago, 1980; 1987-88 Yearbook and Directory of
          Osteopathic Physicians. Chicago, 1987.
3Full-time equivalent employment in community hospitals:'81,85-87
 Table 88. Full-time equivalent employment in selected occupations
           for community hospitals: United States, 1981 and 1985-87
 (Data are based on reporting by a census of registered hospitals)
                                                 Average annual
                                                 percent change
              Occupation                    1981       1985       1986
 All hospital personnel1/.............   3069955    3024929    3055071
 Administrators and assistant
  administrators......................     26734      30174      32990
 Registered nurses....................    629354     709253     736253
 Licensed practical nurses............    234226     186780     174154
 Ancillary nursing personnel..........    280614     235853     226821
 Medical record administrators and
  technicians.........................     38186      41199      44057
 Licensed pharmacists and pharmacy
  technicians.........................     47053      52973      54679
 Medical technologists and other
  laboratory personnel................    147451     144831     145622
 Dietitians and dietetic technicians..     40192      33305      34241
 Radiologic service personnel.........     90738      91353      94683
 Occupational therapists and
  recreational therapists.............      8481      10030      11210
 Physical therapists and physical
  therapy assistants and aides........     27675      29064      30216
 Speech pathologists and audiologists.      2463       3253       3776
 Respiratory therapists and
  respiratory therapy technicians.....     47312      51056      52751
 Medical social workers...............     13915      15192      16042
 Total trainee personnel2/............     66906      63367      67366
                                                 Average annual
                                                 percent change
              Occupation                    1987    1981-85    1985-87
 All hospital personnel1/.............   3143077       -0.4        1.9
 Administrators and assistant
  administrators......................     32978        3.1        4.5
 Registered nurses....................    758976        3.0        3.4
 Licensed practical nurses............    170433       -5.5       -4.5
 Ancillary nursing personnel..........    234162       -4.3       -0.4
 Medical record administrators and
  technicians.........................     45064        1.9        4.6
 Licensed pharmacists and pharmacy
  technicians.........................     57297        3.0        4.0
 Medical technologists and other
  laboratory personnel................    146183       -0.4        0.5
 Dietitians and dietetic technicians..     34539       -4.6        1.8
 Radiologic service personnel.........     97944        0.2        3.5
 Occupational therapists and
  recreational therapists.............     12331        4.3       10.9
 Physical therapists and physical
  therapy assistants and aides........     31692        1.2        4.4
 Speech pathologists and audiologists.      4035        7.2       11.4
 Respiratory therapists and
  respiratory therapy technicians.....     54103        1.9        2.9
 Medical social workers...............     17747        2.2        8.1
 Total trainee personnel2/............     65284       -1.3        1.5
 1/Includes occupational categories not shown.
 2/This category is primarily composed of medical residents.
 SOURCE: Compiled by the Office of Data Analysis and Management,
         Bureau of Health Professions, from the American Hospital
         Association's 1981, 1985, 1986, and 1987 Annual Survey of
         Hospitals.
3Full-time equivalent patient care staff:mental health org.'76-86
 Table 89. Full-time equivalent patient care staff in mental health organiza-
           tions, according to type of organization and staff discipline:
           United States, selected years 1976-86
 (Data are based on inventories of mental health organizations)
 Organization and discipline          1976        1978     19841/       1986
                                                       Number
 All organizations
 All patient care staff.............288463      292699     313243     346630
   Professional patient care staff..143105      153598     202474     232481
     Psychiatrists.................. 15339       14492      18482      17874
     Psychologists2/................ 15251       16501      21052      20210
     Social workers................. 25887       28125      36397      40951
     Registered nurses.............. 39392       42399      54406      66180
     Other professional staff3/..... 47236       52081      72137      87266
   Other mental health workers......145358      139101     110769     114149
 State and county mental hospitals
 All patient care staff.............141127      131187     117630     119073
   Professional patient care staff.. 46596       45131      51290      54853
     Psychiatrists..................  4333        3712       4108       3762
     Psychologists2/................  3039        3149       3239       3412
     Social workers.................  5948        5924       6175       6238
     Registered nurses.............. 15098       14859      16051      19425
     Other professional staff3/..... 18178       17487      21717      22016
   Other mental health workers...... 94531       86056      66340      64220
 Private psychiatric hospitals
 All patient care staff............. 17196       18728      26359      35480
   Professional patient care staff..  9879       11419      19524      27246
     Psychiatrists..................  1369        1285       1447       1554
     Psychologists2/................   559         590       1461       1557
     Social workers.................   784         920       2179       2893
     Registered nurses..............  3395        3967       6818      10147
     Other professional staff3/.....  3772        4657       7619      11095
   Other mental health workers......  7317        7309       6835       8234
 Non-Federal general hospitals'
  psychiatric services
 All patient care staff............. 33969       34966      59848      61148
   Professional patient care staff.. 21231       22401      46335      50233
     Psychiatrists..................  3933        3583       6679       6009
     Psychologists2/................  1356        1512       3283       2983
     Social workers.................  2515        2552       4898       5634
     Registered nurses..............  9445       10611      20454      23454
     Other professional staff3/.....  3982        4143      11021      12153
   Other mental health workers...... 12738       12565      13513      10915
 Veterans Administration psychiatric
  services
 All patient care staff............. 25226       26282      22948      23559
   Professional patient care staff.. 13129       13954      16265      17782
     Psychiatrists..................  1320        1471       2463       2245
     Psychologists2/................  1134        1255       1247       1439
     Social workers.................  1412        1620       1545       1680
     Registered nurses..............  4503        5326       5699       6761
     Other professional staff3/.....  4760        4282       5311       5657
   Other mental health workers...... 12097       12328       6683       5777
 ::
 Residential treatment centers for
  emotionally disturbed children
 All patient care staff............. 13824       16464      15297      25146
   Professional patient care staff..  8990       10824      10551      17599
     Psychiatrists..................   149         140        240        335
     Psychologists2/................   434         497        820        911
     Social workers.................  1778        2196       2283       4585
     Registered nurses..............   301         324        485        746
     Other professional staff3/.....  6328        7667       6723      11022
   Other mental health workers......  4834        5640       4746       7547
 All other organizations4/
 All patient care staff............. 57121       65072      71161      82224
   Professional patient care staff.. 43280       49869      58509      64768
     Psychiatrists..................  4235        4301       3545       3969
     Psychologists2/................  8729        9498      11002       9908
     Social workers................. 13450       14913      19317      19921
     Registered nurses..............  6650        7312       4899       5647
     Other professional staff3/..... 10216       13845      19746      25323
   Other mental health workers...... 13841       15203      12652      17456
 Organization and discipline          1976        1978     19841/       1986
                                               Percent distribution
 All organizations
 All patient care staff............. 100.0       100.0      100.0      100.0
   Professional patient care staff..  49.6        52.5       64.6       67.1
     Psychiatrists..................   5.3         5.0        5.9        5.2
     Psychologists2/................   5.3         5.6        6.7        5.8
     Social workers.................   9.0         9.6       11.6       11.8
     Registered nurses..............  13.7        14.5       17.4       19.1
     Other professional staff3/.....  16.4        17.8       23.0       25.2
   Other mental health workers......  50.4        47.5       35.4       32.9
 State and county mental hospitals
 All patient care staff............. 100.0       100.0      100.0      100.0
   Professional patient care staff..  33.0        34.4       43.6       46.1
     Psychiatrists..................   3.1         2.8        3.5        3.2
     Psychologists2/................   2.2         2.4        2.8        2.9
     Social workers.................   4.2         4.5        5.2        5.2
     Registered nurses..............  10.7        11.3       13.6       16.3
     Other professional staff3/.....  12.9        13.3       18.5       18.5
   Other mental health workers......  67.0        65.6       56.4       53.9
 Private psychiatric hospitals
 All patient care staff............. 100.0       100.0      100.0      100.0
   Professional patient care staff..  57.4        61.0       74.1       76.8
     Psychiatrists..................   8.0         6.9        5.5        4.4
     Psychologists2/................   3.3         3.2        5.5        4.4
     Social workers.................   4.6         4.9        8.3        8.2
     Registered nurses..............  19.7        21.2       25.9       28.6
     Other professional staff3/.....  21.9        24.9       28.9       31.3
   Other mental health workers......  42.6        39.0       25.9       23.2
 Non-Federal general hospitals'
  psychiatric services
 All patient care staff............. 100.0       100.0      100.0      100.0
   Professional patient care staff..  62.5        64.1       77.4       82.1
     Psychiatrists..................  11.6        10.2       11.2        9.8
     Psychologists2/................   4.0         4.3        5.5        4.9
     Social workers.................   7.4         7.3        8.2        9.2
     Registered nurses..............  27.8        30.3       34.2       38.4
     Other professional staff3/.....  11.7        11.8       18.4       19.9
   Other mental health workers......  37.5        35.9       22.6       17.9
 Veterans Administration psychiatric
  services
 All patient care staff............. 100.0       100.0      100.0      100.0
   Professional patient care staff..  52.0        53.1       70.9       75.5
     Psychiatrists..................   5.2         5.6       10.7        9.5
     Psychologists2/................   4.5         4.8        5.4        6.1
     Social workers.................   5.6         6.2        6.7        7.1
     Registered nurses..............  17.9        20.3       24.8       28.7
     Other professional staff3/.....  18.9        16.3       23.1       24.0
   Other mental health workers.....   48.0        46.9       29.1       24.5
 Residential treatment centers for
  emotionally disturbed children
 All patient care staff............. 100.0       100.0      100.0      100.0
   Professional patient care staff..  65.0        65.7       69.0       70.0
     Psychiatrists..................   1.1         0.9        1.6        1.3
     Psychologists2/................   3.1         3.0        5.4        3.6
     Social workers.................  12.9        13.3       14.9       18.2
     Registered nurses..............   2.2         2.0        3.2        3.0
     Other professional staff3/.....  45.8        46.6       43.9       43.8
   Other mental health workers......  35.0        34.3       31.0       30.0
 All other organizations4/
 All patient care staff............. 100.0       100.0      100.0      100.0
   Professional patient care staff..  75.8        76.6       82.2       78.8
     Psychiatrists..................   7.4         6.6        5.0        4.8
     Psychologists2/................  15.3        14.6       15.5       12.1
     Social workers.................  23.5        22.9       27.1       24.2
     Registered nurses..............  11.6        11.2        6.9        6.9
     Other professional staff3/.....  17.9        21.3       27.7       30.8
   Other mental health workers......  24.2        23.4       17.8       21.2
 1/In 1984, some organizations were reclassified.
 2/During 1976-78, this category included all psychologists with a B.A. degree
 and above. Beginning in 1984, only psychologists with an M.A. degree and above
 are included.
 3/Includes occupational therapists, recreation therapists, vocational
 rehabilitation counselors, and teachers.
 4/Includes freestanding outpatient, partial care, and multiservice organiza-
 tions. In 1976 and 1978, also includes community mental health centers.
 SOURCES: Survey and Reports Branch, Division of Biometry and Applied
          Sciences, National Institute of Mental Health: R. W. Manderscheid
          and S. A. Barrett: Mental Health, United States, 1987. DHHS Pub. No.
          (ADM) 87-1518. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1987; Unpublished
          data.
31st-year enrollment & grads of health profession schools:'50-88
 Table 90. First-year enrollment and graduates of health professions schools
           and number of schools, according to profession: United States,
           selected 1950-88 estimates and 1990 and 2000 projections
 (Data are based on reporting by health professions schools)
   Year   Medicine  Osteopathy  Nursing1/  Dentistry  Optom-  Pharmacy  Chiro-
                                                       etry            practic
 First-year enrollment
 1980.....  17014      1426      105952      6132      1202     8035      ---
 1981.....  17204      1496      110201      6030      1258     7551      ---
 1982.....  17320      1582      115279      5855      1249     6899      ---
 1983.....  17230      1682      120579      5498      1147     6574      ---
 1984.....  17175      1746      123824      5274      1219     6715      ---
 1985.....  16992      1750      118224      5047      1187     6849      ---
 1986.....  16929      1737      100791      4843      1251     7084      ---
 1987.....  16779      1724       90693      4554      1268     7632      ---
 1988.....  16686      1692       94594      4316       ---     7864      ---
 Graduates
 1950.....   5553       373       25790      2565       961      ---      ---
 1960.....   7081       427       29895      3253       364     3497      660
 1970.....   8367       432       43103      3749       445     4758      642
 1975.....  12714       702       73915      4969       806     6712     1093
 1980.....  15135      1059       75523      5256      1073     7278     2049
 1981.....  15667      1151       73985      5550       980     7362     2526
 1982.....  15985      1017       74052      5371      1020     6859     2631
 1983.....  15824      1317       77408      5756      1040     6374     2948
 1984.....  16327      1287       80312      5337      1089     5963      ---
 1985.....  16319      1474       82075      5353      1163     5724      ---
 1986.....  16125      1560       77027      4957      1114     5800      ---
 1987.....  15836      1587       70561      4717      1106     5854      ---
 1988.....  15947      1564       64915      4581       ---      ---      ---
 19902/...  16362      1598       61700      4140      1030     5760     2860
 20002/...  15774      1557       66600      3350      1030     5110     2950
 Schools3/
 1950.....     79         6        1304        42        10      ---       20
 1960.....     86         6        1128        47        10       76       12
 1970.....    103         7        1340        53        11       74       11
 1975.....    114         9        1362        59        12       73       12
 1980.....    126        14        1385        60        15       72       14
 1981.....    126        15        1401        60        16       72       16
 1982.....    127        15        1432        60        16       72       16
 1983.....    127        15        1466        60        16       72       17
 1984.....    127        15        1477        60        16       72       17
 1985.....    127        15        1473        60        16       72       17
 1986.....    127        15        1469        59        16       73       17
 1987.....    127        15        1465        58        16       74      ---
 1988.....    127        15        1442        58        16       74      ---
 1/Registered nurses only.
 2/Projected.
 3/Some nursing schools offer more than 1 type of program. Numbers shown for
 nursing are number of nursing programs.
 NOTE: Some numbers in this table have been revised and differ from previous
 editions of Health, United States.
 SOURCES: Bureau of Health Professions: Seventh Report to the President and
          Congress on the Status of Health Personnel in the United States.
          Health Resources and Services Administration. Forthcoming;
          Health Resources and Services Administration: Unpublished data;
          National League for Nursing: Nursing Student Census, 1988. New
          York, 1989; American Dental Association Council on Dental
          Education: Annual Report on Dental Education 1987-88. Chicago, 1988;
          American Medical Association: Medical education in the United
          States. JAMA. Vol. 260, No. 8. August 26, 1988; American Association
          of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine: Annual Statistical Report 1988.
          Rockville, Md., 1988; American Chiropractic Association:
          Unpublished data.
3Total & 1st-year enrollment minority/women health school:'78,'88
 Table 91. Total and first-year enrollment of minorities and women in
           schools for selected health occupations: United States, academic
           years 1977-78 and 1987-88
                                   All races,                   Black
        Enrollment                 both sexes
        and health
        occupation            1977-78       1987-88      1977-78     1987-881/
    Total enrollment                         Number of students
 Medicine:
   Allopathic...........        60039         65735         6.0           6.0
   Osteopathic..........         3926          6586         1.9           1.9
 Podiatry...............         2388          2790         3.3           8.5
 Dentistry2/............        21510         17632         4.5           5.6
 Optometry..............         4209          4509         1.9           2.6
 Pharmacy2,3/...........        23373         27292         4.2           8.1
 Veterinary medicine....         6918          8558         ---           2.3
 Registered nurses4/....       245390        182947         5.8           7.2
       First-year
       enrollment
 Medicine:
   Allopathic...........        16136         16713         6.7           7.3
   Osteopathic..........         1163          1692         2.2           2.2
 Podiatry...............          665           716         3.8          11.3
 Dentistry2/............         5890          4316         5.0           6.5
 Optometry..............         1140          1234         ---           ---
 Pharmacy2/.............         8235          7407         4.7           6.2
 Veterinary medicine....         1973          2207         ---           2.8
 Registered nurses4/....       110950         90693         7.3          10.9
                                Other minority                  Women
        Enrollment
        and health
        occupation            1977-78     1987-881/      1977-78     1987-881/
    Total enrollment                      Percent of students
 Medicine:
   Allopathic...........          6.1          14.5        23.7          34.3
   Osteopathic..........          2.5           8.1        14.5          28.9
 Podiatry...............          2.8           9.0         9.3          24.4
 Dentistry2/............          5.5          17.7         ---          29.0
 Optometry..............          5.1          12.7         ---          39.1
 Pharmacy2,3/...........          5.2          14.5        38.1          60.0
 Veterinary medicine....          ---           4.1        30.8          55.0
 Registered nurses4/....          2.6           4.2        95.2          95.0
       First-year
       enrollment
 Medicine:
   Allopathic...........          6.6          16.9        25.6          36.5
   Osteopathic..........          3.2          10.4        16.5          29.0
 Podiatry...............          3.3          10.6         9.8          24.2
 Dentistry2/............          5.9          23.5        14.8          32.0
 Optometry..............          ---           ---        19.8          43.8
 Pharmacy2/.............          5.3          12.5        40.5          59.2
 Veterinary medicine....          ---           4.3        35.8          57.3
 Registered nurses4/....          3.0           5.6        93.7          92.8
 1/Total and first-year enrollment percentages for registered nurses are
 based on 1986-87 data.
 2/Excludes Puerto Rican schools.
 3/Pharmacy enrollment data for 1977-78 are for students in the final 3 years
 of pharmacy education. 1987-88 data for all pharmacy students are shown.
 4/Percentages based on schools reporting minority data.
 SOURCES: Association of American Medical Colleges, Section for Student
          Services: Unpublished data; American Association of Colleges of
          Osteopathic Medicine: Annual Statistical Report, 1988. Rockville,
          Md., 1988; National League for Nursing: Nursing Student Census,
          1988. New York, 1989. American Association of Colleges of Podiatric
          Medicine: Podiatric Medical Education in the Eighties. Rockville,
          Md., 1988; National League for Nursing: Nursing Student Census,
          1987. New York, 1988. American Dental Association; American
          Optometric Association; American Association of Colleges of
          Pharmacy; Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges;
          Unpublished data.
3Total & 1st-year enrollment & % women in medical school:72,78,88
 Table 92. Total and first-year enrollment and percent of women in schools of
           medicine, according to race and ethnicity: United States,
           academic years 1971-72, 1977-78, and 1987-88
                                Both sexes                    Women
      Enrollment and
      race/ethnicity     1971-72  1977-78  1987-88   1971-72  1977-78  1987-88
     Total enrollment       Number of students            Percent of students
 All races1/............. 43650    60039    65735      10.9     23.7     34.3
 White...................   ---    51974    51728       ---     22.4     32.7
 Minority................  3072     6728    13487      19.0     33.0     40.3
   Black.................  2055     3587     3968      20.4     38.2     51.8
   Mexican American......   252      831     1144       9.5     22.7     33.1
   Mainland Puerto Rican.    76      261      467      17.1     34.1     37.5
   Other Hispanic........   ---      426     1937       ---     23.2     35.5
   American Indian.......    42      201      233      23.8     27.4     39.9
   Asian.................   647     1422     5738      17.9     29.3     35.8
  First-year enrollment
 All races1/............. 12361    16136    16713      13.7     25.6     36.5
 White...................   ---    13732    12511       ---     24.1     34.7
 Minority................  1280     2002     4043      20.8     35.2     42.1
   Black.................   882     1085     1221      22.7     40.8     54.5
   Mexican American......   118      246      308       8.5     26.8     35.4
   Mainland Puerto Rican.    40       68      116      15.0     33.8     35.3
   Other Hispanic........   ---      157      503       ---     27.4     37.8
   American Indian.......    23       51       68      34.8     29.4     42.6
   Asian.................   217      395     1827      19.4     29.1     36.6
 1/Includes race/ethnicity unspecified.
 SOURCES: Association of American Medical Colleges, Section for Student
          Services, Annual Fall Enrollment Surveys; Unpublished data.
2Facilities
3Short-stay hosp,beds,occupancy rate by type ownership:U.S.'70-86
 Table 93. Short-stay hospitals, beds, and occupancy rates, according
           to type of ownership: United States, selected years 1960-87
 (Data are based on reporting by a census of registered hospitals)

     Type of ownership       1960       1970       1975       1980        1983
         Hospitals                                 Number
       All ownerships.....   5768       6193       6310       6229        6148
 Federal..................    361        334        331        325         305
 Non-Federal..............   5407       5859       5979       5904        5843
   Nonprofit..............   3291       3386       3364       3339        3363
   Proprietary............    856        769        775        730         757
   State-local government.   1260       1704       1840       1835        1723
           Beds
       All ownerships..... 735451     935724    1036025    1080164     1105201
 Federal..................  96394      87492      89049      88144       83837
 Non-Federal.............. 639057     848232     946976     992020     1021364
   Nonprofit.............. 445753     591937     658948     692929      718095
   Proprietary............  37029      52739      73495      87033       94253
   State-local government. 156275     203556     214533     212058      209016
      Occupancy rate                     Percent of beds occupied
       All ownerships.....   75.7       77.9       75.0       75.6        73.8
 Federal..................   82.5       77.5       77.6       77.8        78.4
 Non-Federal..............   74.7       78.0       74.8       75.4        73.4
   Nonprofit..............   76.6       80.1       77.4       78.2        75.8
   Proprietary............   65.4       72.2       65.9       65.2        63.1
   State-local government.   71.6       73.2       69.7       70.7        70.0
     Type of ownership        1984       1985       1986       1987
         Hospitals                            Number
       All ownerships.....    6118       6091       6035       5967
 Federal..................     304        307        307        308
 Non-Federal..............    5814       5784       5728       5659
   Nonprofit..............    3366       3364       3338       3289
   Proprietary............     786        805        834        828
   State-local government.    1662       1615       1556       1542
           Beds
       All ownerships..... 1102166    1087750    1066611    1046013
 Federal..................   82415      84612      85071      84523
 Non-Federal.............. 1019751    1003138     981540     961490
   Nonprofit..............  716869     707806     689685     673308
   Proprietary............   99980     103921     106716     105746
   State-local government.  202902     191411     185139     182436
      Occupancy rate                 Percent of beds occupied
       All ownerships.....    69.5       65.5       64.9       65.5
 Federal..................    76.6       74.3       72.6       71.8
 Non-Federal..............    68.9       64.8       64.2       64.9
   Nonprofit..............    71.4       67.2       66.8       67.6
   Proprietary............    57.0       52.1       50.7       51.1
   State-local government.    65.9       62.8       62.6       64.9
 NOTE: Excludes psychiatric and tuberculosis and other respiratory disease
       hospitals.
 SOURCES: American Hospital Association: Hospitals. JAHA 35(15):396-401 and
          45(15):463-467, Aug. 1961 and Aug. 1971; Hospital Statistics, 1976,
          1981, 1984-87 Editions. Chicago, 1976, 1981, 1984-87. (Copyrights
          1961, 1971, 1976, 1981, 1984-87: Used with the permission of the
          American Hospital Association.)
3Long-term hosp.,beds,occupancy rate by type ownership:U.S.'70-86
 Table 94. Long-term hospitals, beds, and occupancy rates, according to
           type of hospital and ownership: United States, selected
           years 1970-87
 (Data are based on reporting by a census of registered hospitals)
      Type of hospital
        and ownership              1970         1975        1980        1983
          Hospitals                                  Number
 General....................         75           44          17          22
   Federal..................         38           23           9          13
   Non-Federal..............         37           21           8           9
 Psychiatric................        459          419         381         377
   Federal..................         33           26          23          22
   Nonprofit................         56           45          47          50
   Proprietary..............         39           51          57          65
   State-local government...        331          297         254         240
 Tuberculosis and other
  respiratory diseases......        103           34          10           5
 All other..................        200          196         150         124
   Federal..................          1            2           1           2
   Nonprofit................        110           94          66          58
   Proprietary..............          2            9          11          10
   State-local government...         87           91          72          54
            Beds
 General....................      42569        17329        8253       11464
   Federal..................      31403        14406        7205        9978
   Non-Federal..............      11166         2923        1048        1486
 Psychiatric................     551847       344257      218400      183843
   Federal..................      41500        27523       20871       18549
   Nonprofit................       8892         5366        6645        6814
   Proprietary..............       3399         4821        5877        7214
   State-local government...     498056       306547      185007      151266
 Tuberculosis and other
  respiratory diseases......      19937         5699        1500         547
 All other..................      49152        49268       37911       29578
   Federal..................        357          968         357         578
   Nonprofit................      12638        12733       10038        8363
   Proprietary..............        101          879        1356        1213
   State-local government...      36056        34688       26160       19424
       Occupancy rate                      Percent of beds occupied
 General....................       79.2         84.4        83.9        85.3
   Federal..................       80.4         85.2        84.6        85.9
   Non-Federal..............       75.8         80.4        79.0        81.3
 Psychiatric................       84.9         81.3        85.9        87.6
   Federal..................       83.4         88.3        87.9        86.8
   Nonprofit................       85.2         84.8        87.2        87.2
   Proprietary..............       78.4         74.1        76.3        77.3
   State-local government...       85.0         80.8        86.0        88.2
 Tuberculosis and other
  respiratory diseases......       61.9         57.6        66.4        66.4
 All other..................       83.3         82.3        85.9        86.6
   Federal..................       73.4         86.3        65.3        79.4
   Nonprofit................       82.8         83.3        87.3        89.3
   Proprietary..............       87.1         86.0        86.5        92.0
   State-local government...       83.6         81.7        85.6        85.3
      Type of hospital
        and ownership              1984         1985        1986        1987
          Hospitals                                  Number
 General....................         25           23          21          16
   Federal..................         15           14          13          13
   Non-Federal..............         10            9           8           3
 Psychiatric................        382          383         390         391
   Federal..................         19           19          18          18
   Nonprofit................         54           57          55          51
   Proprietary..............         77           81          91          96
   State-local government...        232          226         226         226
 Tuberculosis and other
  respiratory diseases......          5            5           2           3
 All other..................        124          122         129         126
   Federal..................          3            3           4           3
   Nonprofit................         61           59          61          58
   Proprietary..............         10           13          15          17
   State-local government...         50           47          49          48
            Beds
 General....................      13846        12985       11112        9792
   Federal..................      11994        10073        9079        9232
   Non-Federal..............       1852         2912        2033         560
 Psychiatric................     171367       162968      157378      150727
   Federal..................      16205        15739       15167       14585
   Nonprofit................       6941         6708        6668        5994
   Proprietary..............       8458         8832        9270        9786
   State-local government...     139763       131689      126273      120362
 Tuberculosis and other
  respiratory diseases......        664          574         183         339
 All other..................      30124        29519       29614       27541
   Federal..................       1694         1599        1812        1451
   Nonprofit................       9049         9391        9829        8785
   Proprietary..............       1067         1364        1844        1681
   State-local government...      18314        17165       16129       15624
       Occupancy rate                     Percent of beds occupied
 General....................       83.9         80.2        79.1        75.0
   Federal..................       84.1         80.7        77.8        74.7
   Non-Federal..............       83.0         78.6        85.0        80.4
 Psychiatric................       87.6         87.2        87.0        87.9
   Federal..................       86.9         83.5        79.6        83.1
   Nonprofit................       86.8         86.5        85.5        81.7
   Proprietary..............       77.2         77.6        75.8        75.8
   State-local government...       88.4         88.3        88.8        89.8
 Tuberculosis and other
  respiratory diseases......       62.3         64.3        59.6        70.5
 All other..................       88.8         88.7        87.5        87.2
   Federal..................       84.4         81.9        80.1        82.2
   Nonprofit................       90.0         89.9        88.4        87.9
   Proprietary..............       92.1         85.6        82.6        76.3
   State-local government...       88.4         88.9        88.4        88.5
 SOURCES: American Hospital Association: Hospitals. JAHA 45(15):463-467,
          Aug. 1971; Hospital Statistics, 1976, 1981, 1984-88 Editions.
          Chicago, 1976, 1981, 1984-88. (Copyrights 1971, 1976, 1981,
          1984-88: Used with the permission of the American Hospital
          Association.)
3Inpatient & residential treatment beds-mental health org.'70-86
 Table 95. Inpatient and residential treatment beds in mental health organi-
           zations and rate per 100,000 civilian population, according to
           type of organization: United States, selected years 1970-86
 (Data are based on inventories of mental health organizations)
                Organization                  1970         1976        19801/
                                                            Number
 All organizations........................    524878       338963       274713
 State and county mental hospitals........    413066       222202       156482
 Private psychiatric hospitals............     14295        16091        17157
 Non-Federal general hospital psychiatric
  services................................     22394        28706        29384
 Veterans Administration psychiatric
  services3/..............................     50688        35913        33796
 Federally funded community mental health
  centers.................................      8108        17029        16264
 Residential treatment centers for emotionally
  disturbed children......................     15129        18029        20197
 All other4,5/............................      1198          993         1433
                                        Number per 100,000 civilian population
 All organizations........................     263.6        160.3        124.3
 State and county mental hospitals........     207.4        105.1         70.2
 Private psychiatric hospitals............       7.2          7.6          7.7
 Non-Federal general hospital psychiatric
  services................................      11.2         13.6         13.7
 Veterans Administration psychiatric
  services3/..............................      25.5         17.0         15.7
 Federally funded community mental health
  centers.................................       4.1          8.0          7.3
 Residential treatment centers for emotionally
  disturbed children......................       7.6          8.5          9.1
 All other4,5/............................       0.6          0.5          0.6
                Organization                 19822/         1984        1986
                                                           Number
 All organizations........................    247312       262673       267613
 State and county mental hospitals........    140140       130411       119033
 Private psychiatric hospitals............     19011        21474        30201
 Non-Federal general hospital psychiatric
  services................................     36525        46045        45808
 Veterans Administration psychiatric
  services3/..............................     24646        23546        26874
 Federally funded community mental health
  centers.................................       ...          ...          ...
 Residential treatment centers for emotionally
  disturbed children......................     18475        16745        24547
 All other4,5/............................      8515        24452        21150
                                        Number per 100,000 civilian population
 All organizations........................     108.1        112.9        111.7
 State and county mental hospitals........      61.2         56.1         49.7
 Private psychiatric hospitals............       8.3          9.2         12.6
 Non-Federal general hospital psychiatric
  services................................      16.0         19.8         19.1
 Veterans Administration psychiatric
  services3/..............................      10.8         10.1         11.2
 Federally funded community mental health
  centers.................................       ...          ...          ...
 Residential treatment centers for emotionally
  disturbed children......................       8.1          7.2         10.3
 All other4,5/............................       3.7         10.5          8.8
 1/During 1979-80, comparable data were not available for certain organization
 types, and data for either an earlier or later period were substituted.
 2/During 1981-82, some organizations were reclassified and data for some
 organization types were not available, resulting in a particularly large
 increase for the all other category in 1982.
 3/Includes Veterans Administration neuropsychiatric hospitals and Veterans
 Administration general hospitals with separate psychiatric services.
 4/Includes other multiservice mental health organizations with inpatient and
 residential treatment services that are not elsewhere classified.
 5/Beginning in 1983 a definitional change sharply increased the number of
 multiservice mental health organizations. See Appendix I.
 NOTE: Changes in reporting procedures in 1979-80 and 1981-82 affect the
       comparability of data with those from previous years.
 SOURCES: Survey and Reports Branch,Division of Biometry and Applied Sciences,
          National Institute of Mental Health: R. W. Manderscheid and S. A.
          Barrett: Mental Health, United States, 1987. DHHS Pub. No. (ADM)
          87-1518. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1987; Unpublished data.
3Community hosp beds/1000 people &avg ann.% change by state'40-87
 Table 96. Community hospital beds per 1,000 population and average annual
           percent change, according to geographic division and State:
           United States, selected years 1940-87
 (Data are based on reporting by facilities)
                                    Beds per 1,000 civilian population
    Geographic division
         and State          19401/   19501/    19602/    1970     1980    1985

 United States.............   3.2      3.3       3.6     4.3      4.5     4.2
 New England...............   4.4      4.2       3.9     4.1      4.1     4.0
 Maine.....................   3.0      3.2       3.4     4.7      4.7     4.2
 New Hampshire.............   4.2      4.2       4.4     4.0      3.9     3.4
 Vermont...................   3.3      4.0       4.5     4.5      4.4     3.8
 Massachusetts.............   5.1      4.8       4.2     4.4      4.4     4.4
 Rhode Island..............   3.9      3.8       3.7     4.0      3.8     3.6
 Connecticut...............   3.7      3.6       3.4     3.4      3.5     3.3
 Middle Atlantic...........   3.9      3.8       4.0     4.4      4.6     4.4
 New York..................   4.3      4.1       4.3     4.6      4.5     4.4
 New Jersey................   3.5      3.2       3.1     3.6      4.2     3.9
 Pennsylvania..............   3.5      3.8       4.1     4.7      4.8     4.7
 East North Central........   3.2      3.2       3.6     4.4      4.7     4.5
 Ohio......................   2.7      2.9       3.4     4.2      4.7     4.6
 Indiana...................   2.3      2.6       3.1     4.0      4.5     4.2
 Illinois..................   3.4      3.6       4.0     4.7      5.1     4.7
 Michigan..................   4.0      3.3       3.3     4.3      4.4     4.1
 Wisconsin.................   3.4      3.7       4.3     5.2      4.9     4.6
 West North Central........   3.1      3.7       4.3     5.7      5.8     5.4
 Minnesota.................   3.9      4.4       4.8     6.1      5.7     5.2
 Iowa......................   2.7      3.2       3.9     5.6      5.7     5.2
 Missouri..................   2.9      3.3       3.9     5.1      5.7     5.2
 North Dakota..............   3.5      4.3       5.2     6.8      7.4     7.4
 South Dakota..............   2.8      4.4       4.5     5.6      5.5     6.6
 Nebraska..................   3.4      4.2       4.4     6.2      6.0     6.0
 Kansas....................   2.8      3.4       4.2     5.4      5.8     5.2
 South Atlantic............   2.5      2.8       3.3     4.0      4.5     4.1
 Delaware..................   4.4      3.9       3.7     3.7      3.6     3.5
 Maryland..................   3.9      3.6       3.3     3.1      3.6     3.4
 District of Columbia......   5.5      5.5       5.9     7.4      7.3     7.8
 Virginia..................   2.2      2.5       3.0     3.7      4.1     3.8
 West Virginia.............   2.7      3.1       4.1     5.4      5.5     5.1
 North Carolina............   2.2      2.6       3.4     3.8      4.2     3.7
 South Carolina............   1.8      2.4       2.9     3.7      3.9     3.6
 Georgia...................   1.7      2.0       2.8     3.8      4.6     4.3
 Florida...................   2.8      2.9       3.1     4.4      5.1     4.6
 East South Central........   1.7      2.1       3.0     4.4      5.1     5.0
 Kentucky..................   1.8      2.2       3.0     4.0      4.5     4.4
 Tennessee.................   1.9      2.3       3.4     4.7      5.5     5.3
 Alabama...................   1.5      2.0       2.8     4.3      5.1     5.0
 Mississippi...............   1.4      1.7       2.9     4.4      5.3     5.2
 West South Central........   2.1      2.7       3.3     4.3      4.7     4.2
 Arkansas..................   1.4      1.6       2.9     4.2      5.0     4.8
 Louisiana.................   3.1      3.8       3.9     4.2      4.8     4.6
 Oklahoma..................   1.9      2.5       3.2     4.5      4.6     4.1
 Texas.....................   2.0      2.7       3.3     4.3      4.7     4.1
 Mountain..................   3.6      3.8       3.5     4.3      3.8     3.5
 Montana...................   4.9      5.3       5.1     5.8      5.9     5.5
 Idaho.....................   2.6      3.4       3.2     4.0      3.7     3.5
 Wyoming...................   3.5      3.9       4.6     5.5      3.6     4.3
 Colorado..................   3.9      4.2       3.8     4.6      4.2     3.6
 New Mexico................   2.7      2.2       2.9     3.5      3.1     2.9
 Arizona...................   3.4      4.0       3.0     4.1      3.6     3.2
 Utah......................   3.2      2.9       2.8     3.6      3.1     2.7
 Nevada....................   5.0      4.4       3.9     4.2      4.2     3.7
 Pacific...................   4.1      3.2       3.1     3.7      3.5     3.2
 Washington................   3.4      3.6       3.3     3.5      3.1     3.0
 Oregon....................   3.5      3.1       3.5     4.0      3.5     3.2
 California................   4.4      3.3       3.0     3.8      3.6     3.2
 Alaska....................   ...      ...       2.4     2.3      2.7     2.2
 Hawaii....................   ...      ...       3.7     3.4      3.1     2.8
                              Beds per 1,000     Average annual percent change
                               civilian pop.
    Geographic division                        1940-     1960-
         and State            1986     1987    601,2/    702/  1970-80 1980-87

 United States.............   4.1      4.0       0.6     1.8      0.5    -1.7
 New England...............   3.8      3.6      -0.6     0.5      0.0    -1.8
 Maine.....................   4.2      4.0       0.6     3.3      0.0    -2.3
 New Hampshire.............   3.3      3.2       0.2    -0.9     -0.3    -2.8
 Vermont...................   4.0      3.3       1.6     0.0     -0.2    -4.0
 Massachusetts.............   4.3      4.0      -1.0     0.5      0.0    -1.4
 Rhode Island..............   3.5      3.4      -0.3     0.8     -0.5    -1.6
 Connecticut...............   3.1      3.0      -0.4     0.0      0.3    -2.2
 Middle Atlantic...........   4.3      4.2       0.1     1.0      0.4    -1.3
 New York..................   4.3      4.2       0.0     0.7     -0.2    -1.0
 New Jersey................   3.9      3.8      -0.6     1.5      1.6    -1.4
 Pennsylvania..............   4.6      4.4       0.8     1.4      0.2    -1.2
 East North Central........   4.3      4.2       0.6     2.0      0.7    -1.6
 Ohio......................   4.4      4.3       1.2     2.1      1.1    -1.3
 Indiana...................   4.2      4.1       1.5     2.6      1.2    -1.3
 Illinois..................   4.5      4.4       0.8     1.6      0.8    -2.1
 Michigan..................   4.0      3.9      -1.0     2.7      0.2    -1.7
 Wisconsin.................   4.5      4.2       1.2     1.9     -0.6    -2.2
 West North Central........   5.3      5.2       1.6     2.9      0.2    -1.5
 Minnesota.................   5.0      4.8       1.0     2.4     -0.7    -2.4
 Iowa......................   5.2      5.2       1.9     3.7      0.2    -1.3
 Missouri..................   5.1      4.9       1.5     2.7      1.1    -2.1
 North Dakota..............   7.2      7.3       2.0     2.7      0.8    -0.2
 South Dakota..............   6.5      6.3       2.4     2.2     -0.2     2.0
 Nebraska..................   5.9      5.9       1.3     3.5     -0.3    -0.2
 Kansas....................   5.0      4.9       2.0     2.5      0.7    -2.4
 South Atlantic............   4.0      3.9       1.4     1.9      1.2    -2.0
 Delaware..................   3.4      3.1      -0.9     0.0     -0.3    -2.1
 Maryland..................   3.3      3.0      -0.8    -0.6      1.5    -2.6
 District of Columbia......   7.7      7.6       0.4     2.3     -0.1     0.6
 Virginia..................   3.7      3.6       1.6     2.1      1.0    -1.8
 West Virginia.............   5.1      4.8       2.1     2.8      0.2    -1.9
 North Carolina............   3.5      3.4       2.2     1.1      1.0    -3.0
 South Carolina............   3.4      3.4       2.4     2.5      0.5    -1.9
 Georgia...................   4.3      4.3       2.5     3.1      1.9    -1.0
 Florida...................   4.4      4.2       0.5     3.6      1.5    -2.7
 East South Central........   5.0      4.9       2.9     3.9      1.5    -0.6
 Kentucky..................   4.4      4.5       2.6     2.9      1.2     0.0
 Tennessee.................   5.3      5.0       3.0     3.3      1.6    -1.4
 Alabama...................   5.0      4.8       3.2     4.4      1.7    -0.9
 Mississippi...............   5.2      5.3       3.7     4.3      1.9     0.0
 West South Central........   4.0      4.0       2.3     2.7      0.9    -2.3
 Arkansas..................   4.7      4.5       3.7     3.8      1.8    -1.5
 Louisiana.................   4.5      4.5       1.2     0.7      1.3    -0.9
 Oklahoma..................   4.0      4.0       2.6     3.5      0.2    -2.0
 Texas.....................   3.8      3.7       2.5     2.7      0.9    -3.4
 Mountain..................   3.4      3.3      -0.1     2.1     -1.2    -2.0
 Montana...................   5.7      5.6       0.2     1.3      0.2    -0.7
 Idaho.....................   3.3      3.2       1.0     2.3     -0.8    -2.1
 Wyoming...................   4.4      4.6       1.4     1.8     -4.1     3.6
 Colorado..................   3.5      3.3      -0.1     1.9     -0.9    -3.4
 New Mexico................   2.9      2.8       0.4     1.9     -1.2    -1.4
 Arizona...................   3.1      3.0      -0.6     3.2     -1.3    -2.6
 Utah......................   2.7      2.7      -0.7     2.5     -1.5    -2.0
 Nevada....................   3.7      3.5      -1.2     0.7      0.0    -2.6
 Pacific...................   3.1      3.0      -1.4     1.8     -0.6    -2.2
 Washington................   3.0      2.9      -0.1     0.6     -1.2    -0.9
 Oregon....................   3.1      3.0       0.0     1.3     -1.3    -2.2
 California................   3.1      3.0      -1.9     2.4     -0.5    -2.6
 Alaska....................   2.4      2.4       ...    -0.4      1.6    -1.7
 Hawaii....................   2.6      2.5       ...    -0.8     -0.9    -3.0
 1/1940 and 1950 data are estimated based on published figures.
 2/1960 includes hospital units of institutions.
 SOURCES: American Medical Association: Hospital service in the United
          States. JAMA 116(11):1055-1144, 1941, and 146(2): 109-184, 1951.
          (Copyright 1941 and 1951: Used with the permission of the American
          Medical Association.); American Hospital Association: Hospitals.
          JAHA 35(15):383-430, Aug. 1, 1961. (Copyright 1961: Used with the
          permission of the American Hospital Association.); Data computed by
          the Division of Analysis, National Center for Health Statistics
          from data compiled by the Division of Health Care Statistics,
          National Master Facility Inventory and the American Hospital
          Association 1987 annual su72, 304, 460, 640, 970, 1010,
          Population Reports. Series P-25, Nos. 1024, and 1044. Washington.
          U.S. Government Printing Office, 1953, 1965, 1971, 1976, 1980,
          1985, 1986, and 1989.
3Occupancy rate community hosp.& avg ann.% change by state'40-87
 Table 97. Occupancy rates in community hospitals and average annual percent
           change, according to geographic division and State: United States,
           selected years 1940-87
 (Data are based on reporting by facilities)
                                             Percent of beds occupied
     Geographic division
          and State        19401/  19602/   1970   1980   1985    1986    1987
 United States............   69.9    74.7   77.3   75.2   65.1    64.5    65.0
 New England..............   72.5    75.2   79.7   80.1   72.8    69.7    71.9
 Maine....................   72.4    73.2   73.0   74.5   66.8    67.0    68.0
 New Hampshire............   65.3    66.5   73.4   73.2   63.4    65.0    64.9
 Vermont..................   68.8    68.5   76.3   73.7   68.0    67.6    67.1
 Massachusetts............   71.8    75.8   80.3   81.7   74.1    68.8    71.0
 Rhode Island.............   77.7    75.7   82.9   85.9   76.2    75.0    80.5
 Connecticut..............   75.9    78.2   82.6   80.4   75.4    73.4    76.4
 Middle Atlantic..........   75.5    78.1   82.4   83.2   77.1    76.8    77.9
 New York.................   78.9    79.4   82.9   85.9   83.9    82.1    83.4
 New Jersey...............   72.4    78.4   82.5   82.8   74.8    74.9    76.8
 Pennsylvania.............   71.3    76.0   81.5   79.5   68.7    70.2    70.7
 East North Central.......   71.0    78.4   79.5   76.9   64.2    62.9    62.9
 Ohio.....................   72.1    81.3   81.8   79.2   63.9    63.8    64.4
 Indiana..................   68.5    79.6   80.3   77.6   61.6    57.8    58.0
 Illinois.................   73.1    76.0   79.3   74.9   64.4    64.1    63.2
 Michigan.................   71.5    80.5   80.6   78.2   67.4    64.3    64.7
 Wisconsin................   65.2    73.9   73.2   73.6   61.8    61.1    61.1
 West North Central.......   65.7    71.8   73.6   71.2   60.3    60.0    60.4
 Minnesota................   71.0    72.3   73.9   73.7   63.8    63.4    63.4
 Iowa.....................   63.6    72.6   71.9   68.7   57.3    58.1    59.4
 Missouri.................   68.6    75.8   79.3   75.1   63.0    62.9    63.0
 North Dakota.............   61.9    71.3   67.1   68.6   61.1    61.2    61.1
 South Dakota.............   59.1    66.0   66.3   60.6   57.5    56.6    57.7
 Nebraska.................   59.0    65.6   69.9   67.4   58.4    56.6    55.7
 Kansas...................   60.4    69.1   71.4   68.8   54.3    54.2    55.3
 South Atlantic...........   66.7    74.8   77.9   75.5   65.5    65.7    66.4
 Delaware.................   59.2    70.2   78.8   81.8   68.0    69.1    74.8
 Maryland.................   74.6    73.9   79.3   84.0   73.5    73.3    77.6
 District of Columbia.....   76.2    80.8   77.7   83.0   75.9    76.6    78.2
 Virginia.................   70.0    78.0   81.1   77.8   67.2    67.6    67.6
 West Virginia............   62.1    74.5   79.3   75.6   60.7    60.2    60.2
 North Carolina...........   64.6    73.9   78.5   77.8   64.9    67.1    69.0
 South Carolina...........   69.1    76.9   76.4   77.0   67.7    69.3    67.5
 Georgia..................   62.7    71.7   76.5   70.4   64.4    63.9    65.7
 Florida..................   57.5    73.9   76.2   71.7   62.5    62.1    61.5
 East South Central.......   62.6    71.8   78.2   74.6   62.7    61.8    60.8
 Kentucky.................   61.6    73.4   79.6   77.4   64.0    63.3    60.2
 Tennessee................   65.5    75.9   78.2   75.9   64.6    63.2    64.3
 Alabama..................   59.0    70.8   80.0   73.3   62.3    61.5    59.3
 Mississippi..............   63.8    62.8   73.6   70.5   58.1    57.7    57.2
 West South Central.......   62.5    68.7   73.2   69.7   56.9    56.3    55.9
 Arkansas.................   55.6    70.0   74.4   69.6   56.0    56.9    58.1
 Louisiana................   75.0    67.9   73.6   69.7   58.6    58.1    55.9
 Oklahoma.................   54.5    71.0   72.5   68.1   56.2    56.3    56.9
 Texas....................   59.6    68.2   73.0   70.1   56.6    55.7    55.3
 ::
 Mountain.................   60.9    69.9   71.2   69.6   58.6    58.3    58.7
 Montana..................   62.8    60.3   65.9   66.1   59.1    58.8    60.1
 Idaho....................   65.4    55.9   66.1   65.2   56.6    56.9    55.0
 Wyoming..................   47.5    61.1   63.1   57.2   52.0    50.7    50.7
 Colorado.................   62.1    80.6   74.0   71.6   59.0    59.3    59.9
 New Mexico...............   47.8    65.1   69.8   66.2   60.0    59.5    60.1
 Arizona..................   61.2    74.2   73.3   74.2   61.5    62.6    61.8
 Utah.....................   65.8    70.0   73.7   70.0   58.7    58.0    57.4
 Nevada...................   67.9    70.7   72.7   68.8   52.6    47.1    52.4
 Pacific..................   69.7    71.4   71.0   69.0   61.6    61.1    63.3
 Washington...............   67.5    63.4   69.7   71.7   58.5    57.6    59.0
 Oregon...................   71.2    65.8   69.3   69.3   55.6    54.9    55.5
 California...............   69.9    74.3   71.3   68.5   62.3    61.9    64.3
 Alaska...................    ...    53.8   59.1   58.3   62.6    55.2    52.6
 Hawaii...................    ...    61.5   75.7   74.7   76.4    74.4    79.9
 1/1940 data are estimated based on published figures.
 2/1960 includes hospital units of institutions.
 SOURCES: American Medical Association: Hospital service in the United States.
          JAMA 116(11):1055-1144, 1941. (Copyright 1941: Used with the
          permission of the American Medical Association.); American Hospital
          Association: Hospitals. JAHA 35(15):383-430, Aug. 1, 1961.(Copyright
          1961: Used with the permission of the American Hospital Associa-
          tion.); Data computed by the Division of Analysis, National Center
          for Health Statistics from data compiled by the Division of Health
          Care Statistics, National Master Facility Inventory and the American
          Hospital Association 1987 annual survey.
3Full-time employees/100 avg daily patients-community hosp.'60-87
 Table 98. Full-time equivalent employees per 100 average daily patients in
           community hospitals and average annual percent change, according
           to geographic division and State: United States, selected years
           1960-87
 (Data are based on reporting by facilities)
                                                               Average annual
                 Employees per 100 average daily patients      percent change
  Geographic division
       and State     19601/  1970  1980  1985  1986  1987   19701/  1980  1987
 United States........ 226   302   394   472   492   511     2.9    2.7    3.8
 New England.......... 249   351   456   532   563   587     3.5    2.7    3.7
 Maine................ 227   289   409   494   504   525     2.4    3.5    3.6
 New Hampshire........ 240   310   400   517   519   539     2.6    2.6    4.4
 Vermont.............. 227   318   348   434   436   522     3.4    0.9    6.0
 Massachusetts........ 252   365   488   547   593   625     3.8    2.9    3.6
 Rhode Island......... 270   383   454   547   566   547     3.6    1.7    2.7
 Connecticut.......... 247   347   440   529   553   568     3.5    2.4    3.7
 Middle Atlantic...... 225   311   383   450   465   488     3.3    2.1    3.5
 New York............. 233   336   396   436   457   481     3.7    1.7    2.8
 New Jersey........... 225   278   332   423   423   438     2.1    1.8    4.0
 Pennsylvania......... 214   287   390   491   503   529     3.0    3.1    4.5
 East North Central... 226   299   396   494   521   546     2.8    2.8    4.7
 Ohio................. 232   302   392   526   543   567     2.7    2.6    5.4
 Indiana.............. 216   280   374   482   525   556     2.6    2.9    5.8
 Illinois............. 226   301   407   492   510   538     2.9    3.1    4.1
 Michigan............. 239   313   417   513   554   569     2.7    2.9    4.5
 Wisconsin............ 199   277   367   405   430   464     3.4    2.9    3.4
 West North Central... 212   273   357   422   438   457     2.6    2.7    3.6
 Minnesota............ 220   273   347   384   395   407     2.2    2.4    2.3
 Iowa................. 208   258   349   427   441   452     2.2    3.1    3.8
 Missouri............. 217   289   385   471   506   535     2.9    2.9    4.8
 North Dakota......... 177   254   295   326   335   342     3.7    1.5    2.1
 South Dakota......... 188   247   352   323   339   364     2.8    3.6    0.5
 Nebraska............. 220   276   326   397   408   424     2.3    1.7    3.8
 Kansas............... 210   270   368   478   463   487     2.5    3.1    4.1
 South Atlantic....... 217   295   379   458   478   491     3.1    2.5    3.8
 Delaware............. 243   328   405   526   556   573     3.0    2.1    5.1
 Maryland............. 237   354   403   473   508   514     4.1    1.3    3.5
 District of Columbia. 240   363   483   599   572   601     4.2    2.9    3.2
 Virginia............. 193   289   369   435   461   475     4.1    2.5    3.7
 West Virginia........ 198   255   351   452   462   481     2.6    3.2    4.6
 North Carolina....... 196   277   363   464   507   502     3.5    2.7    4.7
 South Carolina....... 185   257   356   426   444   466     3.3    3.3    3.9
 Georgia.............. 233   294   396   458   470   476     2.4    3.0    2.7
 Florida.............. 245   295   375   450   462   486     1.9    2.4    3.8
 East South Central... 227   275   348   409   420   448     1.9    2.4    3.7
 Kentucky............. 229   276   332   403   409   451     1.9    1.9    4.5
 Tennessee............ 231   284   359   420   437   456     2.1    2.4    3.5
 Alabama.............. 233   266   357   410   425   458     1.3    3.0    3.6
 Mississippi.......... 207   270   334   392   394   411     2.7    2.1    3.0
 West South Central... 225   297   384   471   498   519     2.8    2.6    4.4
 Arkansas............. 209   274   355   429   440   451     2.7    2.6    3.5
 Louisiana............ 218   292   392   483   493   529     3.0    3.0    4.4
 Oklahoma............. 218   296   404   480   496   503     3.1    3.2    3.2
 Texas................ 232   304   383   473   510   532     2.7    2.3    4.8
 Mountain............. 226   299   413   486   508   536     2.8    3.3    3.8
 Montana.............. 216   247   302   351   350   366     1.4    2.0    2.8
 Idaho................ 255   281   374   427   444   511     1.0    2.9    4.6
 Wyoming.............. 217   251   445   417   423   442     1.5    5.9   -0.1
 Colorado............. 221   306   398   481   517   565     3.3    2.7    5.1
 New Mexico........... 228   314   430   536   531   557     3.3    3.2    3.8
 Arizona.............. 222   327   455   523   547   574     3.9    3.4    3.4
 Utah................. 243   304   460   579   604   615     2.3    4.2    4.2
 Nevada............... 224   284   427   490   530   502     2.4    4.2    2.3
 Pacific.............. 243   327   467   545   564   561     3.0    3.6    2.7
 Washington........... 263   313   428   544   565   585     1.8    3.2    4.6
 Oregon............... 232   303   417   548   597   638     2.7    3.2    6.3
 California........... 241   334   481   550   563   555     3.3    3.7    2.1
 Alaska............... 220   301   454   515   555   546     3.2    4.2    2.7
 Hawaii............... 226   278   401   435   500   475     2.1    3.7    2.4
 1/1960 includes hospital units of institutions, but excludes students,
 interns, and residents.
 SOURCES: American Hospital Association: Hospitals. JAHA 35(15):383-430,
          with the permission of the Aug. 1, 1961. (Copyright 1961: Used
          American Hospital Association.); Data computed by
          the Division of Analysis, National Center for Health Statistics from
          data compiled by the Division of Health Care Statistics, National
          Master Facility Inventory and the American Hospital Association 1987
          annual survey.
3Nursing homes >25 beds,bed rate by geographic div/state:76,82,86
  Table 99. Nursing homes with 25 or more beds, beds, and bed rates, according
            to geographic division and State: United States, 1976,  1982,
            and 1986
  (Data are based on reporting by facilities)
                            Nursing homes                      Beds
   Geographic division
        and State        1976    1982    1986       1976      1982       1986
  United States........14133   14565   16033     1291632    1469357    1615771
  New England.......... 1211    1246    1235       91885     105293     108474
  Maine................  121     155     144        7027       9717       9685
  New Hampshire........   68      70      75        5633       6729       6987
  Vermont..............   53      51      47        3477       3196       3083
  Massachusetts........  645     620     612       47169      50366      51126
  Rhode Island.........   85      95     101        6766       8885       9927
  Connecticut..........  239     255     256       21813      26400      27666
  Middle Atlantic...... 1567    1587    1921      187435     210010     243962
  New York.............  708     732     777       97489     108898     114192
  New Jersey...........  313     332     356       31147      36638      39071
  Pennsylvania.........  546     523     788       58799      64474      90699
  East North Central... 2904    2966    2999      281144     326171     330342
  Ohio.................  750     830     886       60680      74276      82522
  Indiana..............  420     449     449       35799      47196      47257
  Illinois.............  805     809     775       84085      99777      96684
  Michigan.............  508     471     480       53966      55349      53651
  Wisconsin............  421     407     409       46614      49573      50228
  West North Central... 1965    2171    2142      157057     185774     187781
  Minnesota............  385     390     399       38177      42500      44357
  Iowa.................  440     475     440       31785      38150      34942
  Missouri.............  408     530     552       32539      46403      50204
  North Dakota.........   82      80      81        6413       6402       6789
  South Dakota.........  117     116     114        8047       7938       7918
  Nebraska.............  210     225     214       18408      18516      18132
  Kansas...............  323     355     342       21688      25865      25439
  South Atlantic....... 1475    1745    2152      142245     177495     212382
  Delaware.............   22      27      36        2123       2194       3345
  Maryland.............  165     179     200       18559      21164      24402
  District of Columbia.   17      16      19        2604       2556       3029
  Virginia.............  208     267     288       23816      29251      29653
  West Virginia........   73      95     103        4858       7505       8692
  North Carolina.......  276     346     402       20903      28156      34049
  South Carolina.......  102     130     157        8311      11560      14071
  Georgia..............  304     306     298       28732      32194      31738
  Florida..............  308     379     649       32339      42915      63403
  East South Central...  856     865     887       66994      85565      90180
  Kentucky.............  267     276     277       19929      25837      26426
  Tennessee............  258     251     267       19448      26111      28599
  Alabama..............  209     190     203       19207      20490      21736
  Mississippi..........  122     148     140        8410      13127      13419
  West South Central... 1740    1789    1922      157173     177237     189920
  Arkansas.............  208     200     237       19322      19327      21910
  Louisiana............  200     224     276       18969      24836      32747
  Oklahoma.............  341     359     382       25990      28902      30359
  Texas................  991    1006    1027       92892     104172     104904
  Mountain.............  495     529     631       41881      47857      57414
  Montana..............   69      59      57        4725       5120       4804
  Idaho................   54      47      60        4263       4102       5240
  Wyoming..............   22      25      27        1753       2060       2301
  Colorado.............  174     157     183       17792      16848      18402
  New Mexico...........   30      31      56        2489       2351       4915
  Arizona..............   67     109     134        5832       9888      12740
  Utah.................   63      76      84        3707       5025       5995
  Nevada...............   16      25      30        1320       2463       3017
  Pacific.............. 1920    1667    2144      165818     153955     195316
  Washington...........  318     309     328       29415      30017      32021
  Oregon...............  202     177     214       15758      15711      17404
  California........... 1369    1148    1569      118144     105325     143179
  Alaska...............    8      10      10         738       1031       1082
  Hawaii...............   23      23      23        1763       1871       1630
                                                Bed rate1/
   Geographic division
        and State                        1976      1982       1986
  United States................         681.4      603.0      582.2
  New England.................          719.7      643.4      597.2
  Maine.......................          602.9      630.1      561.3
  New Hampshire...............          702.1      636.4      557.4
  Vermont.....................          678.0      501.5      434.1
  Massachusetts...............          744.0      634.2      585.4
  Rhode Island................          682.6      679.6      681.2
  Connecticut.................          738.0      680.7      645.8
  Middle Atlantic.............          554.3      491.9      517.0
  New York....................          587.7      524.7      501.7
  New Jersey..................          511.7      465.5      439.6
  Pennsylvania................          527.9      458.2      583.6
  East North Central..........          786.4      730.3      666.5
  Ohio........................          646.4      636.2      641.8
  Indiana.....................          747.5      807.3      724.0
  Illinois....................          844.8      813.8      713.3
  Michigan....................          782.5      628.4      542.7
  Wisconsin...................          986.5      816.6      745.3
  West North Central..........          772.8      734.6      683.6
  Minnesota...................          862.1      735.5      697.3
  Iowa........................          812.5      790.9      686.1
  Missouri....................          602.4      705.7      692.0
  North Dakota................          901.8      730.2      718.9
  South Dakota................          897.6      706.0      652.9
  Nebraska....................          898.7      726.7      665.4
  Kansas......................          741.6      725.7      655.9
  South Atlantic..............          539.2      485.5      484.1
  Delaware....................          490.5      376.3      485.5
  Maryland....................          685.9      584.4      575.2
  District of Columbia........          440.2      377.0      383.7
  Virginia....................          696.8      652.7      561.8
  West Virginia...............          281.0      356.2      374.6
  North Carolina..............          569.1      560.5      562.5
  South Carolina..............          507.1      515.9      518.1
  Georgia.....................          862.4      742.0      607.5
  Florida.....................          365.0      318.2      382.9
  East South Central..........          579.0      589.1      541.4
  Kentucky....................          646.5      681.5      621.3
  Tennessee...................          556.9      576.2      544.7
  Alabama.....................          646.7      555.6      506.5
  Mississippi.................          415.2      522.2      469.0
  West South Central..........          912.1      802.5      736.3
  Arkansas....................          861.1      689.7      703.2
  Louisiana...................          713.9      748.7      836.4
  Oklahoma....................          877.6      788.6      751.0
  Texas.......................          991.4      846.9      712.7
  Mountain....................          597.9      503.5      506.1
  Montana.....................          584.3      553.3      491.5
  Idaho.......................          598.1      448.6      517.0
  Wyoming.....................          595.2      556.8      550.0
  Colorado....................          873.1      644.3      610.2
  New Mexico..................          360.0      241.5      416.5
  Arizona.....................          402.6      428.9      424.3
  Utah........................          503.3      518.8      511.2
  Nevada......................          481.6      570.5      534.5
  Pacific.....................          670.9      481.0      520.8
  Washington..................          835.1      670.0      623.9
  Oregon......................          660.1      503.9      495.1
  California..................          646.1      445.5      512.7
  Alaska......................         1232.1     1458.3      950.0
  Hawaii......................          384.0      269.4      200.5
  1/Number of beds per 1,000 resident population 85 years of age and over.
  NOTE: The 1982 inventory excluded certain types of nursing homes that the
        1976 and 1986 inventories included (nursing home units of hospitals,
        nursing homes for the blind, etc.). To make the data comparable,
        these types of homes and their beds were subtracted from the 1976
        and 1986 figures.
  SOURCES: Division of Health Care Statistics, National Center for Health
           Statistics: Trends in nursing and related care homes and hospitals,
           United States, selected years 1969-80, by G. W. Strahan. Vital and
           Health Statistics. Series 14, No. 30. DHHS Pub. No. (PHS) 84-1825.
           Public Health Service. Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office,
           Mar. 1984; Nursing and related care homes as reported from the 1982
           National Master Facility Inventory Survey, by D.A. Roper. Vital and
           Health Statistics. Series 14, No. 32. DHHS Pub. No. (PHS) 86-1827.
           Public Health Service. Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office,
           Sept. 1986; data from the National Master Facility Inventory;
           Final data from the 1986 Inventory of Long-term Care Places;
           Resident population computed by the Division of Analysis, National
           Center for Health Statistics from the Compressed Mortality File, a
           county level national mortality and population data base.
1HEALTH CARE EXPENDITURES
2National Health Expenditures
3GNP and national health expenditures: U.S. 1929-87
 Table 100. Gross national product and national health expenditures: United
            States, selected years 1929-87
 (Data are compiled by the Health Care Financing Administration)
                                      National health expenditures
                    Gross
                  national
                   product           Amount        Percent of         Amount
                      in               in      gross national           per
      Year        billions         billions           product         capita

 1929...........    $103.9             $3.6               3.5            $29
 1935...........      72.8              2.9               4.0             23
 1940...........     100.4              4.0               4.0             29
 1950...........     288.3             12.7               4.4             80
 1955...........     405.9             17.7               4.4            101
 1960...........     515.3             26.9               5.2            142
 1965...........     705.1             41.9               5.9            206
 1966...........     772.0             46.3               6.0            224
 1967...........     816.4             51.5               6.3            247
 1968...........     892.6             58.2               6.5            277
 1969...........     963.9             65.6               6.8            309
 1970...........    1015.5             75.0               7.4            349
 1971...........    1102.7             83.5               7.6            385
 1972...........    1212.8             94.0               7.7            429
 1973...........    1359.3            103.4               7.6            468
 1974...........    1472.8            116.1               7.9            521
 1975...........    1598.4            132.7               8.3            591
 1976...........    1782.8            150.8               8.5            665
 1977...........    1990.5            169.9               8.5            743
 1978...........    2249.7            189.7               8.4            822
 1979...........    2508.2            214.7               8.6            921
 1980...........    2731.9            248.1               9.1           1055
 1981...........    3052.6            287.0               9.4           1208
 1982...........    3166.0            323.6              10.2           1348
 1983...........    3405.7            357.2              10.5           1473
 1984...........    3772.2            388.5              10.3           1587
 1985...........    4014.9            419.0              10.4           1696
 1986...........    4240.3            455.7              10.7           1827
 1987...........    4526.7            500.3              11.1           1987
 NOTE: These data reflect Bureau of Economic Analysis, Department of Commerce,
       revisions to the gross national product as of December 1988 and
       Social Security Administration revisions to the population as of
       April 1988.
 SOURCE: Office of National Cost Estimates, Office of the Actuary: National
         health expenditures, 1987. Health Care Financing Review. Vol. 10,
         No. 2. HCFA Pub. No. 03276. Health Care Financing Administration.
         Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office, Feb. 1989.
3Total health costs as % gross domestic product:countries '60-87
 Table 101. Total health expenditures as a percentage of gross domestic
            product: Selected countries, selected years 1960-87
       Country    1960    1965    1970    1975    1980    1985    1986    1987
 Australia....... 4.6     4.9     5.0     5.7     6.5     7.0     7.1     7.1
 Austria......... 4.6     5.0     5.4     7.3     7.9     8.1     8.3     8.4
 Belgium......... 3.4     3.9     4.0     5.8     6.6     7.2     7.2     7.2
 Canada.......... 5.5     6.1     7.2     7.3     7.4     8.4     8.7     8.6
 Denmark......... 3.6     4.8     6.1     6.5     6.8     6.2     6.0     6.0
 Finland......... 3.9     4.9     5.7     6.3     6.5     7.2     7.3     7.4
 France.......... 4.2     5.2     5.8     6.8     7.6     8.6     8.7     8.6
 Germany......... 4.7     5.1     5.5     7.8     7.9     8.2     8.1     8.2
 Greece.......... 3.2     3.6     4.0     4.1     4.3     4.9     5.3     5.3
 Iceland......... 1.2     2.8     4.3     5.9     6.4     7.3     7.7     7.8
 Ireland......... 4.0     4.4     5.6     7.7     8.5     8.0     7.8     7.4
 Italy........... 3.3     4.0     4.8     5.8     6.8     6.7     6.6     6.9
 Japan........... 2.9     4.3     4.4     5.5     6.4     6.6     6.7     6.8
 Netherlands..... 3.9     4.4     6.0     7.7     8.2     8.3     8.3     8.5
 New Zealand..... 4.4     4.5     5.1     6.4     7.2     6.6     6.9     6.9
 Norway.......... 3.3     3.9     5.0     6.7     6.6     6.4     7.1     7.5
 Portugal........ ---     ---     ---     6.4     5.9     7.0     6.6     6.4
 Spain........... 2.3     2.7     4.1     5.1     5.9     6.0     6.1     6.0
 Sweden.......... 4.7     5.6     7.2     8.0     9.5     9.4     9.1     9.0
 Switzerland..... 3.3     3.8     5.2     7.0     7.3     7.7     7.6     7.7
 United Kingdom.. 3.9     4.1     4.5     5.5     5.8     6.0     6.1     6.1
 United States... 5.2     6.0     7.4     8.4     9.2    10.6    10.9    11.2
 NOTES: Gross domestic product differs slightly from gross national product
        shown in the previous table. For definitions, see Appendix II.
        Some numbers in this table have been revised and differ from
        previous editions of Health, United States.
 SOURCES: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development: Measuring
          Health Care 1960-1983, OECD Pub. No. 43239. Paris, France, 1985;
          G. Schieber and J. Poullier: International health care
          expenditure trends: 1987. Health Affairs. Vol. 8, No. 4, Fall 1989.
3National health monies as % gross domestic product:U.S.'50-87
 Table 102. National health expenditures and percent distribution, according
            to type of expenditure: United States, selected years 1950-87
 (Data are compiled by the Health Care Financing Administration)
          Type of expenditure        1950     1960     1965     1970     1975
                                               Amount in billions
 Total..............................$12.7    $26.9    $41.9    $75.0    $132.7
                                                Percent distribution
 All expenditures...................  100      100      100      100       100
 Health services and supplies.......   92       94       92       93        94
 Personal health care...............   86       88       86       87        88
   Hospital care....................   30       34       33       37        40
   Physician services...............   22       21       20       19        19
   Dentist services.................    8        7        7        6         6
   Nursing home care................    2        2        5        6         8
   Other professional services......    3        3        2        2         2
   Drugs and medical sundries.......   14       14       12       11         9
   Eyeglasses and appliances........    4        3        3        3         2
   Other health services............    4        4        3        3         3
 Program administration and net cost
  of health insurance...............    4        4        4        4         3
 Government public health activities    3        2        2        2         2
 Research and construction..........    8        6        8        7         6
 Noncommercial research.............    1        3        4        3         3
 Construction.......................    7        4        5        5         4
          Type of expenditure        1980     1984     1985     1986     1987
                                                  Amount in billions
 Total.............................$248.1   $390.5   $419.0   $455.7    $500.3
                                                Percent distribution
 All expenditures..................   100      100      100      100       100
 Health services and supplies......    95       95       96       96        97
 Personal health care..............    89       87       88       88        88
   Hospital care...................    41       40       40       39        39
   Physician services..............    19       19       19       20        21
   Dentist services................     6        6        6        6         7
   Nursing home care...............     8        8        8        8         8
   Other professional services.....     2        3        3        3         3
   Drugs and medical sundries......     8        7        7        7         7
   Eyeglasses and appliances.......     2        2        2        2         2
   Other health services...........     2        2        2        2         2
 Program administration and net cost
  of health insurance..............     4        6        5        5         5
 Government public health activities    3        3        3        3         3
 Research and construction.........     5        4        4        4         3
 Noncommercial research............     2        2        2        2         2
 Construction......................     3        2        2        2         2
 NOTE: Some numbers in this table have been revised and differ from previous
       editions of Health, United States.
 SOURCE: Office of National Cost Estimates, Office of the Actuary: National
         health expenditures, 1987. Health Care Financing Review. Vol. 10,
         No. 2. HCFA Pub. No. 03276. Health Care Financing Administration.
         Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office, Feb. 1989.
3National health expenditure avg ann.% change by type:U.S.'50-87
 Table 103. National health expenditures average annual percent change,
            according to type of expenditure: United States, selected
            years 1950-87
 (Data are compiled by the Health Care Financing Administration)
                                1950-    1960-    1965-    1970-    1975-
       Type of expenditure        60       65       70       75       80
                                     Average annual percent change
 All expenditures.............   7.8      9.3     12.3     12.1     13.3
 Health services and supplies.   8.0      8.8     12.6     12.3     13.7
 Personal health care.........   8.1      8.7     12.8     12.4     13.4
   Hospital care..............   9.0      9.0     14.9     13.4     14.2
   Physician services.........   7.5      8.3     11.1     11.7     13.4
   Dentist services...........   7.5      7.3     11.1     11.6     13.3
   Nursing home care..........  10.9     31.5     17.8     16.4     15.2
   Other professional services   8.1      3.7      9.1     10.4     16.8
   Drugs and medical sundries.   7.8      7.2      9.1      8.3      9.4
   Eyeglasses and appliances..   4.7      8.6     10.7     10.1      9.9
   Other health services......   7.7      0.7     12.5     12.8      9.5
 Program administration and
  net cost of health insurance   9.1      9.8     10.1      7.2     18.1
 Government public health
  activities..................   1.4     14.5     11.9     17.2     18.2
 Research and construction....   5.9     15.5      9.0      9.2      7.3
 Noncommercial research.......  18.9     18.0      5.4     11.1     10.3
 Construction.................   2.2     13.8     11.4      8.1      5.1
                                1980-    1984-    1985-    1986-
       Type of expenditure        85       85       86       87
                                  Average annual percent change
 All expenditures.............  11.0      7.9      8.7      9.8
 Health services and supplies.  11.3      8.2      8.9     10.0
 Personal health care.........  10.9      8.3      9.0     10.2
   Hospital care..............  10.4      6.8      7.0      9.1
   Physician services.........  11.7      9.3     12.6     12.2
   Dentist services...........  12.0     10.2      9.0     11.1
   Nursing home care..........  11.2      9.6      7.8      8.6
   Other professional services  16.9     14.6     13.4     15.2
   Drugs and medical sundries.   8.7      7.6      9.9      8.9
   Eyeglasses and appliances..   8.9     10.3     11.6      9.3
   Other health services......  10.5      9.3      9.5     12.2
 Program administration and
  net cost of health insurance  19.7      4.1      6.0      8.4
 Government public health
  activities..................  11.5     14.4      9.6      7.0
 Research and construction....   5.5     -1.0      4.9      4.5
 Noncommercial research.......   6.7      9.2     10.4      6.2
 Construction.................   4.4     -8.9     -0.3      2.8
 NOTE: Some numbers in this table have been revised and differ from previous
       editions of Health, United States.
 SOURCE: Office of National Cost Estimates, Office of the Actuary: National
         health expenditures, 1987. Health Care Financing Review. Vol. 10,
         No. 2. HCFA Pub. No. 03276. Health Care Financing Administration.
         Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office, Feb. 1989.
 Table 104. Personal health care expenditures average annual percent change
            and percent distribution of factors affecting growth: United
            States, 1965-87
 (Data are compiled by the Health Care Financing Administration)
                                                  Factors affecting growth
                   Average
                    annual
                   percent           All
     Period         change      factors      Prices   Population   Intensity1/
                                                     Percent distribution
 1965-87.......       12.1          100          60            8            32
 1965-66.......       10.6          100          46           11            43
 1966-67.......       12.2          100          55            9            36
 1967-68.......       13.1          100          45            8            47
 1968-69.......       13.4          100          42            8            50
 1969-70.......       14.5          100          48            8            44
 1970-71.......       10.4          100          67           11            22
 1971-72.......       11.6          100          39            9            52
 1972-73.......       10.5          100          46            8            45
 1973-74.......       13.8          100          68            6            26
 1974-75.......       15.7          100          69            6            26
 1975-76.......       13.4          100          62            7            32
 1976-77.......       12.3          100          64            7            29
 1977-78.......       12.2          100          64            8            28
 1978-79.......       13.3          100          67            8            25
 1979-80.......       15.8          100          73            7            21
 1980-81.......       15.9          100          67            7            26
 1981-82.......       12.5          100          69            9            23
 1982-83.......        9.8          100          66           10            23
 1983-84.......        8.1          100          74           12            14
 1984-85.......        8.3          100          60           12            28
 1985-86.......        9.0          100          53           11            37
 1986-87.......       10.2          100          53            9            38
 1/Represents changes in use and/or kinds of services and supplies.
 NOTE: Some numbers in this table have been revised and differ from previous
       editions of Health, United States.
 SOURCE: Office of National Cost Estimates, Office of the Actuary: National
         health expenditures, 1987. Health Care Financing Review. Vol. 10,
         No. 2. HCFA Pub. No. 03276. Health Care Financing Administration.
         Washington. U.S.  Government Printing Office, Feb. 1989.
 Table 105. Consumer Price Index and average annual percent change for all
            items and selected items: United States, selected years 1950-88
 (Data are based on reporting by samples of providers and other retail
 outlets)
                                            Apparel
                   All     Medical            and                     Personal
         Year     items     care     Food   upkeep    Housing  Energy   care
                                      Consumer Price Index
 1950...........   24.1     15.1     25.4     40.3      ---      ---     26.2
 1955...........   26.8     18.2     27.8     42.9      ---      ---     29.9
 1960...........   29.6     22.3     30.0     45.7      ---     22.4     34.6
 1965...........   31.5     25.2     32.2     47.8      ---     22.9     36.6
 1970...........   38.8     34.0     39.2     59.2     36.4     25.5     43.5
 1975...........   53.8     47.5     59.8     72.5     50.7     42.1     57.9
 1976...........   56.9     52.0     61.6     75.2     53.8     45.1     61.7
 1977...........   60.6     57.0     65.5     78.6     57.4     49.4     65.7
 1978...........   65.2     61.8     72.0     81.4     62.4     52.5     69.9
 1979...........   72.6     67.5     79.9     84.9     70.1     65.7     75.2
 1980...........   82.4     74.9     86.8     90.9     81.1     86.0     81.9
 1981...........   90.9     82.9     93.6     95.3     90.4     97.7     89.1
 1982...........   96.5     92.5     97.4     97.8     96.9     99.2     95.4
 1983...........   99.6    100.6     99.4    100.2     99.5     99.9    100.3
 1984...........  103.9    106.8    103.2    102.1    103.6    100.9    104.3
 1985...........  107.6    113.5    105.6    105.0    107.7    101.6    108.3
 1986...........  109.6    122.0    109.0    105.9    110.9     88.2    111.9
 1987...........  113.6    130.1    113.5    110.6    114.2     88.6    115.1
 1988...........  118.3    138.6    118.2    115.4    118.5     89.3    119.4
                                 Average annual percent change
 1950-55........    2.1      3.8      1.8      1.3      ---      ---      2.7
 1955-60........    2.0      4.1      1.5      1.3      ---      ---      3.0
 1960-65........    1.3      2.5      1.4      0.9      ---      0.4      1.1
 1965-70........    4.3      6.2      4.0      4.4      ---      2.2      3.5
 1970-75........    6.8      6.9      8.8      4.1      6.9     10.5      5.9
 1975-80........    8.9      9.5      7.7      4.6      9.9     15.4      7.2
   1975-76......    5.8      9.5      3.0      3.7      6.1      7.1      6.6
   1976-77......    6.5      9.6      6.3      4.5      6.7      9.5      6.5
   1977-78......    7.6      8.4      9.9      3.6      8.7      6.3      6.4
   1978-79......   11.3      9.2     11.0      4.3     12.3     25.1      7.6
   1979-80......   13.5     11.0      8.6      7.1     15.7     30.9      8.9
 1980-85........    5.5      8.7      4.0      2.9      5.8      3.4      5.7
   1980-81......   10.3     10.7      7.8      4.8     11.5     13.6      8.8
   1981-82......    6.2     11.6      4.1      2.6      7.2      1.5      7.1
   1982-83......    3.2      8.8      2.1      2.5      2.7      0.7      5.1
   1983-84......    4.3      6.2      3.8      1.9      4.1      1.0      4.0
   1984-85......    3.6      6.3      2.3      2.8      4.0      0.7      3.8
 1985-86........    1.9      7.5      3.2      0.9      3.0    -13.2      3.3
 1986-87........    3.6      6.6      4.1      4.4      3.0      0.5      2.9
 1987-88........    4.1      6.5      4.1      4.3      3.8      0.8      3.7
 SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor: Consumer Price
         Index. Various releases.
3Consumer Price Index: all items & medical care components:'50-87
 Table 106. Consumer Price Index for all items and medical care components:
            United States, selected years 1950-88
 (Data are based on reporting by samples of providers and other retail
 outlets)
 Item and
 medical care component               1950     1960     1965     1970     1975
                                                Consumer Price Index
 CPI, all items.....................  24.1     29.6     31.5     38.8     53.8
 Less medical care..................   ---     30.2     32.0     39.2     54.3
 CPI, all services..................  16.9     24.1     26.6     35.0     48.0
 All medical care...................  15.1     22.3     25.2     34.0     47.5
 Medical care services..............  12.8     19.5     22.7     32.3     46.6
   Professional medical services....   ---      ---      ---     37.0     50.8
     Physicians' services...........  15.7     21.9     25.1     34.5     48.1
     Dental services................  21.0     27.0     30.3     39.2     53.2
     Eye care1/.....................   ---      ---      ---      ---      ---
     Services by other medical
      professionals1/...............   ---      ---      ---      ---      ---
     Hospital and related services..   ---      ---      ---      ---      ---
       Hospital rooms...............   4.9      9.3     12.3     23.6     38.3
       Other inpatient services1/...   ---      ---      ---      ---      ---
       Outpatient services1/........   ---     ----      ---      ---      ---
 Medical care commodities...........  39.7     46.9     45.0     46.5     53.3
   Prescription drugs...............  43.4     54.0     47.8     47.4     51.2
   Nonprescription drugs and
    medical supplies1/..............   ---      ---      ---      ---      ---
     Internal and respiratory
      over-the-counter drugs........   ---      ---     39.0     42.3     51.8
     Nonprescription medical
      equipment and supplies........   ---      ---      ---      ---      ---
 Item and
 medical care component               1980     1985     1986     1987     1988
                                                Consumer Price Index
 CPI, all items.....................  82.4    107.6    109.6    113.6    118.3
 Less medical care..................  82.8    107.2    108.8    112.6    117.0
 CPI, all services..................  77.9    109.9    115.4    120.2    125.7
 All medical care...................  74.9    113.5    122.0    130.1    138.6
 Medical care services..............  74.8    113.2    121.9    130.0    138.3
   Professional medical services....  77.9    113.5    120.8    128.8    137.5
     Physicians' services...........  76.5    113.3    121.5    130.4    139.8
     Dental services................  78.9    114.2    120.6    128.8    137.5
     Eye care1/.....................   ---      ---      ---    103.5    108.7
     Services by other medical
      professionals1/...............   ---      ---      ---    102.4    108.3
     Hospital and related services..  69.2    116.1    123.1    131.6    143.9
       Hospital rooms...............  68.0    115.4    122.3    131.1    143.3
       Other inpatient services1/...   ---      ---     ----    103.9    114.0
       Outpatient services1/........   ---      ---      ---    103.3    112.5
 Medical care commodities...........  75.4    115.2    122.8    131.0    139.9
   Prescription drugs...............  72.5    120.1    130.4    140.8    152.0
   Nonprescription drugs and
    medical supplies1/..............   ---      ---      ---    103.1    108.1
     Internal and respiratory
      over-the-counter drugs........  74.9    112.2    117.7    123.9    130.8
     Nonprescription medical
      equipment and supplies........  79.2    109.6    115.0    119.6    123.9
 1/Dec. 1986=100.
 NOTE: 1982-84=100, except where noted.
 SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor: Consumer Price
         Index. Various releases.
3Consumer Price Index: avg ann% change-medical components: '50-87
 Table 107. Consumer Price Index average annual percent change for all items
            and medical care components: United States, selected years 1950-88
 (Data are based on reporting by samples of providers and other retail
 outlets)
 Item and
 medical care component            1950-60  1960-65  1965-70  1970-75  1975-80
                                            Average annual percent change
 CPI, all items....................    2.1      1.3      4.3      6.8      8.9
 Less medical care.................    ---      1.2      4.1      6.7      8.8
 CPI, all services.................    3.6      2.0      5.6      6.5     10.2
 All medical care..................    4.0      2.5      6.2      6.9      9.5
 Medical care services.............    4.3      3.1      7.3      7.6      9.9
   Professional medical services...    ---      ---      ---      6.5      8.9
     Physicians' services..........    3.4      2.8      6.6      6.9      9.7
     Dental services...............    2.5      2.3      5.3      6.3      8.2
     Eye care1/....................    ---      ---      ---      ---      ---
     Services by other medical
      professionals1/..............    ---      ---      ---      ---      ---
     Hospital and related services.    ---      ---      ---      ---      ---
       Hospital rooms..............    6.6      5.8     13.9     10.2     12.2
       Other inpatient services1/..    ---      ---      ---      ---      ---
       Outpatient services1/.......    ---      ---      ---      ---      ---
 Medical care commodities..........    1.7     -0.8      0.7      2.8      7.2
   Prescription drugs..............    2.2     -2.4     -0.2      1.6      7.2
   Nonprescription drugs and
    medical supplies1/.............    ---      ---      ---      ---      ---
     Internal and respiratory
      over-the-counter drugs.......    ---      ---      1.6      4.1      7.7
     Nonprescription medical
      equipment and supplies.......    ---      ---      ---      ---      ---
 Item and
 medical care component              1980-85  1985-86  1986-87  1987-88
                                       Average annual percent change
 CPI, all items....................    5.5      1.9      3.6      4.1
 Less medical care.................    5.3      1.5      3.5      3.9
 CPI, all services.................    7.1      5.0      4.2      4.6
 All medical care..................    8.7      7.5      6.6      6.5
 Medical care services.............    8.6      7.7      6.6      6.4
   Professional medical services...    7.8      6.4      6.6      6.8
     Physicians' services..........    8.2      7.2      7.3      7.2
     Dental services...............    7.7      5.6      6.8      6.8
     Eye care1/....................    ---      ---      ---      5.0
     Services by other medical
      professionals1/..............    ---      ---      ---      5.8
     Hospital and related services.   10.9      6.0      6.9      9.3
       Hospital rooms..............   11.2      6.0      7.2      9.3
       Other inpatient services1/..    ---      ---      ---      9.7
       Outpatient services1/.......    ---      ---      ---      8.9
 Medical care commodities..........    8.8      6.6      6.7      6.8
   Prescription drugs..............   10.6      8.6      8.0      8.0
   Nonprescription drugs and
    medical supplies1/.............    ---      ---      ---      4.8
     Internal and respiratory
      over-the-counter drugs.......    8.4      4.9      5.3      5.6
     Nonprescription medical
      equipment and supplies.......    6.7      4.9      4.0      3.6
 1/Dec. 1986=100.
 NOTE: 1982-84=100, except where noted.
 SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor: Consumer Price
         Index. Various releases.
2Sources and Types of Payment
3Hospital expenses & personnel & avg annual % change:U.S. 1971-87
 Table 108. Hospital expenses and personnel and average annual percent change:
            United States, 1971-87
 (Data are based on reporting by a census of hospitals)
                Adjusted expenses for inpatient care             Personnel2/
                          Per        Per    Employee cost    Number     Number
 Year and      Total   inpatient  inpatient    as percent      in      per 100
  period   in millions    day       stay        of total   thousands  patients
 1971.....  $22,400       $83       $667        63.9          1999        272
 1972.....    25549        95        747        62.6          2056        278
 1973.....    28496       102        794        61.8          2149        280
 1974.....    32751       113        883        60.7          2289        289
 1975.....    39110       133       1025        59.4          2399        298
 1976.....    45402       152       1172        57.9          2483        304
 1977.....    51832       173       1317        57.5          2581        315
 1978.....    58348       194       1470        57.2          2662        323
 1979.....    66184       216       1631        57.0          2762        328
 1980.....    76970       244       1844        56.4          2879        334
 1981.....    90739       284       2168        56.7          3039        347
 1982.....   105094       327       2493        56.7          3110        353
 1983.....   116632       368       2776        56.5          3102        357
 1984.....   123550       410       2984        56.1          3023        367
 1985.....   130700       460       3239        55.2          3003        385
 1986.....   140907       499       3530        53.9          3032        392
 1987.....   152909       537       3849        53.1          3120        400
                               Average annual percent change
 1971-87..     12.8      12.4       11.6         ...           2.8        2.4
 1971-72..     14.1      14.5       12.0         ...           2.9        2.2
 1972-73..     11.5       7.4        6.3         ...           4.5        0.7
 1973-74..     14.9      10.8       11.2         ...           6.5        3.2
 1974-75..     19.4      17.7       16.1         ...           4.8        3.1
 1975-76..     16.1      14.3       14.3         ...           3.5        2.0
 1976-77..     14.2      13.8       12.4         ...           3.9        3.6
 1977-78..     12.6      12.1       11.6         ...           3.1        2.5
 1978-79..     13.4      11.3       11.0         ...           3.8        1.5
 1979-80..     16.3      13.0       13.1         ...           4.2        1.8
 1980-81..     17.9      16.4       17.6         ...           5.6        3.9
 1981-82..     15.8      15.1       15.0         ...           2.3        1.7
 1982-83..     11.0      12.5       11.4         ...          -0.3        1.1
 1983-84..      5.9      11.4        7.5         ...          -2.5        2.8
 1984-85..      5.8      12.2        8.5         ...          -0.7        4.9
 1985-86..      7.8       8.5        9.0         ...           1.0        1.8
 1986-87..      8.5       7.6        9.0         ...           2.9        2.0
 1/Includes employee payroll and benefit costs. Does not include contracted
 labor services.
 2/Full-time equivalent personnel.
 NOTE: Data refer to non-Federal short-term general and other specialty
       hospitals.
 SOURCE: American Hospital Association: Hospital Statistics, 1988 Edition.
         Chicago, 1988. (Copyright 1988: Used with the permission of the
         American Hospital Association.)
3National health costs & avg ann.% change by source funds:'29-87
 Table 109. National health expenditures and average annual percent change,
            according to source of funds: United States, selected years
            1929-87
 (Data are compiled by the Health Care Financing Administration)
                                    Private funds
                All health
              expenditures         Amount in         Amount         Percent
 Year          in billions          billions      per capita1/     of total

 1929             $3.6                $3.2            $25            86.4
 1935              2.9                 2.4             18            80.8
 1940              4.0                 3.2             23            79.7
 1950             12.7                 9.2             58            72.8
 1955             17.7                13.2             75            74.3
 1960             26.9                20.3            107            75.3
 1965             41.9                30.9            152            73.8
 1966             46.3                32.7            159            70.7
 1967             51.5                32.5            156            63.2
 1968             58.2                36.1            172            62.0
 1969             65.6                40.7            191            62.0
 1970             75.0                47.2            220            63.0
 1971             83.5                51.8            239            62.1
 1972             94.0                58.5            267            62.3
 1973            103.4                64.0            290            61.9
 1974            116.1                69.1            310            59.5
 1975            132.7                76.4            340            57.5
 1976            150.8                88.0            388            58.4
 1977            169.9               100.1            438            58.9
 1978            189.7               110.1            477            58.0
 1979            214.7               124.2            533            57.9
 1980            248.1               142.9            608            57.6
 1981            287.0               165.8            698            57.8
 1982            323.6               188.4            785            58.2
 1983            357.2               209.7            865            58.7
 1984            388.5               228.8            935            58.9
 1985            419.0               244.0            987            58.2
 1986            455.7               266.8           1069            58.5
 1987            500.3               293.0           1164            58.6
                                Average annual percent change
 1929-65           7.1                 6.5             5.1          ...
 1965-87          11.9                10.8             9.7          ...
 1929-35          -3.6                -4.6            -5.3          ...
 1935-40           6.3                 6.0             5.0          ...
 1940-50          12.2                11.2             9.7          ...
 1950-55           7.0                 7.4             5.3          ...
 1955-60           8.7                 9.0             7.4          ...
 1960-65           9.3                 8.8             7.3          ...
 1965-70          12.3                 8.8             7.7          ...
 1970-75          12.1                10.1             9.1          ...
 1975-80          13.3                13.4            12.3          ...
 1980-84          11.0                11.3            10.2          ...
   1980           15.7                16.0            14.8          ...
   1981           12.8                13.6            12.5          ...
   1982           10.4                11.3            10.2          ...
   1983            8.8                 9.1             8.1          ...
   1984            7.9                 6.6             5.6          ...
 1985-86           8.7                 9.3             8.3          ...
 1986-87           9.8                 9.8             8.9          ...
                               Public funds
                Amount in            Amount          Percent
 Year           billions          per capita1/      of total

 1929             $0.5                $4              13.6
 1935              0.6                 4              19.2
 1940              0.8                 6              20.3
 1950              3.4                21              27.2
 1955              4.6                26              25.7
 1960              6.6                35              24.7
 1965             11.0                54              26.2
 1966             13.6                66              29.3
 1967             19.0                91              36.8
 1968             22.1               105              38.0
 1969             24.9               117              38.0
 1970             27.8               129              37.0
 1971             31.6               146              37.9
 1972             35.4               162              37.7
 1973             39.4               178              38.1
 1974             47.0               211              40.5
 1975             56.3               251              42.5
 1976             62.8               277              41.6
 1977             69.7               305              41.1
 1978             79.6               345              42.0
 1979             90.5               388              42.1
 1980            105.2               447              42.4
 1981            121.2               510              42.2
 1982            135.3               564              41.8
 1983            147.5               609              41.3
 1984            159.6               652              41.1
 1985            175.0               708              41.8
 1986            188.9               757              41.5
 1987            207.3               824              41.4
                            Annual percent change
 1929-65           9.0                 7.5            ...
 1965-87          14.3                13.2            ...
 1929-35           2.2                 0.0            ...
 1935-40           7.6                 8.4            ...
 1940-50          15.5                13.3            ...
 1950-55           5.8                 4.4            ...
 1955-60           7.8                 6.1            ...
 1960-65          10.6                 9.1            ...
 1965-70          20.4                19.0            ...
 1970-75          15.2                14.2            ...
 1975-80          13.3                12.2            ...
 1980-84          10.7                 9.6            ...
   1980           15.2                14.1            ...
   1981           11.6                10.6            ...
   1982            9.1                 8.0            ...
   1983            8.2                 7.1            ...
   1984            9.6                 8.6            ...
 1985-86           7.9                 6.9            ...
 1986-87           9.8                 8.9            ...
 1/Reflects May 1988 revisions to the social security area population
 estimates.
 NOTE: Some numbers in this table have been revised and differ from previous
       editions of Health, United States.
 SOURCE: Office of National Cost Estimates, Office of the Actuary: National
         health expenditures, 1987. Health Care Financing Review. Vol. 10,
         No. 2. HCFA Pub. No. 03276. Health Care Financing Administration.
         Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office, Feb. 1989.
3Personal health care expenditures & % distribution:U.S. '29-87
 Table 110. Personal health care expenditures and percent distribution,
            according to source of funds: United States, selected years
            1929-87
 (Data are compiled by the Health Care Financing Administration)
                                                                  Government
                                                        Philan-
          Total                               Private   thropy
           in        Per     All     Direct    health    and
 Year  billions1/ capita  sources  payment  insurance  industry  Total Federal
                                                          Percent distribution
 1929...   $3.2      $26    100.0   2/88.4     (3/)      2.6      9.0      2.7
 1935...    2.7       21    100.0   2/82.4     (3/)      2.8     14.7      3.4
 1940...    3.5       26    100.0   2/81.3     (3/)      2.6     16.1      4.1
 1950...   10.9       70    100.0     65.5      9.1      2.9     22.4     10.4
 1955...   15.7       93    100.0     58.1     16.1      2.8     23.0     10.5
 1960...   23.7      129    100.0     54.9     21.1      2.3     21.8      9.3
 1965...   35.9      176    100.0     51.6     24.2      2.2     22.0     10.1
 1970...   65.4      304    100.0     40.5     23.4      1.7     34.3     22.2
 1971...   72.2      332    100.0     38.9     23.8      1.8     35.5     23.2
 1972...   80.5      367    100.0     38.0     23.6      2.5     35.8     23.5
 1973...   89.0      403    100.0     37.4     24.0      2.5     36.1     23.7
 1974...  101.3      454    100.0     35.7     24.8      1.5     38.0     25.4
 1975...  117.1      521    100.0     32.5     26.7      1.3     39.5     26.8
 1976...  132.8      586    100.0     31.6     28.3      1.4     38.7     27.2
 1977...  149.1      652    100.0     31.1     28.8      1.3     38.7     27.4
 1978...  167.4      725    100.0     30.3     29.3      1.2     39.2     27.7
 1979...  189.7      814    100.0     29.4     30.0      1.2     39.3     28.1
 1980...  219.7      934    100.0     28.7     30.7      1.2     39.4     28.4
 1981...  254.7     1072    100.0     28.5     30.8      1.3     39.5     29.1
 1982...  286.5     1194    100.0     27.8     31.4      1.2     39.6     29.3
 1983...  314.7     1298    100.0     28.2     31.1      1.3     39.4     29.5
 1984...  340.1     1389    100.0     28.1     31.0      1.2     39.7     29.7
 1985...  368.3     1490    100.0     28.2     30.4      1.2     40.2     30.2
 1986...  401.6     1610    100.0     28.0     31.0      1.2     39.7     30.0
 1987...  442.6     1758    100.0     27.8     31.4      1.2     39.6     29.6
 1/Includes all expenditures for health services and supplies other than
 expenses for prepayment and administration and government public  health
 activities.
 2/Includes any insurance benefits and expenses for prepayment (insurance
 premiums less insurance benefits).
 3/Figures are not separable from direct payment.
 NOTE: Some numbers in this table have been revised and differ from previous
       editions of Health, United States.
 SOURCE: Office of National Cost Estimates, Office of the Actuary: National
         health expenditures, 1987. Health Care Financing Review. Vol. 10.
         No. 2. HCFA Pub. No. 03276. Health Care Financing Administration.
         Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office, Feb. 1989.
3Costs on hosp. care,nursing home care,physician services: '29-87
 Table 111. Expenditures on hospital care, nursing home care, and physician
            services and percent distribution, according to source of funds:
            United States, selected years, 1965-87
 (Data are compiled by the Health Care Financing Administration)
                                                          Government
                  Total                Private
 Service and        in      Direct     health
     year      billions    payment   insurance    Total1/  Medicaid   Medicare
 Hospital care                                      Percent distribution
 1965.........  $14.0       16.8        41.1        39.9       ...        ...
 1970.........   28.0       11.4        34.6        52.4       8.0       18.2
 1975.........   52.4        7.9        35.9        55.1       9.1       21.9
 1980.........  101.6        7.8        38.1        53.1       9.4       25.5
 1983.........  146.8        9.0        37.4        52.3       8.8       27.6
 1984.........  156.1        9.0        36.2        53.7       8.9       28.5
 1985.........  166.7        9.2        35.3        54.3       9.0       28.9
 1986.........  178.4        9.4        36.1        53.4       8.9       28.2
 1987.........  194.7        9.5        36.9        52.5       9.1       27.4
   Nursing home care
 1965.........    2.1       64.5         0.1        34.3       ...        ...
 1970.........    4.7       50.3         0.4        48.6      30.3        5.6
 1975.........   10.1       42.7         0.7        56.0      47.9        2.9
 1980.........   20.4       43.6         0.9        54.9      48.0        1.9
 1983.........   29.4       48.0         0.9        50.4      44.4        1.8
 1984.........   31.6       49.0         0.9        49.4      43.7        1.7
 1985.........   34.7       49.7         0.9        48.7      43.4        1.6
 1986.........   37.4       50.3         0.9        48.1      42.8        1.5
 1987.........   40.6       49.3         0.9        49.1      43.9        1.4
   Physician services
 1965.........    8.5       61.6        31.4         6.9       ...        ...
 1970.........   14.3       45.4        33.6        20.9       4.8       11.3
 1975.........   24.9       34.1        39.5        26.3       7.5       13.5
 1980.........   46.8       30.4        42.6        26.9       5.2       16.9
 1983.........   68.4       28.3        43.2        28.4       4.3       19.6
 1984.........   74.4       26.8        44.7        28.4       4.2       19.5
 1985.........   81.4       26.6        43.7        29.7       4.3       20.5
 1986.........   91.6       25.9        43.9        30.2       4.3       21.1
 1987.........  102.7       25.6        43.4        30.9       4.3       21.7
 1/Includes other government expenditures for these health care services, for
 example, care funded by the Veterans Administration and State and local
 expenditures on public health.
 NOTES: Philanthropy and industry, which together accounted for 1.2 percent of
        personal health care expenditures in 1987, have been omitted from
        the sources of funds. Some numbers in this table have been revised and
        differ from previous editions of Health, United States.
 SOURCE: Office of National Cost Estimates, Office of the Actuary: National
         health expenditures, 1987. Health Care Financing Review. Vol. 10,
         No. 2. HCFA Pub. No. 03276. Health Care Financing Administration.
         Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office, Feb. 1989.
3Nursing home avg monthly charge per resident by facility:'77,85
 Table 112. Nursing home average monthly charges per resident and
            percent of residents, according to primary source of
            payment and selected facility characteristics: United
            States, 1977 and 1985
 (Data are based on a sample of nursing homes)

                             Own income or
                             family support      Medicare          Medicaid
          Facility
       characteristic        1977    1985      1977     1985     1977    1985
                                          Average monthly charge1/
 All facilities............  $690  $1,450    $1,167   $2,141     $720  $1,504
          Ownership
 Proprietary...............   686    1444      1048     2058      677    1363
 Nonprofit and government..   698    1462      1325   *2,456      825    1851
        Certification
 Skilled nursing facility..   866    1797      1136     2315      955    2000
 Skilled nursing and
  intermediate facility....   800    1643      1195     2156      739    1509
 Intermediate facility.....   567    1222       ...      ...      563    1150
 Not certified.............   447     999       ...      ...      ...     ...
          Bed size
 Less than 50 beds.........   516     886      *869   *1,348      663    1335
 50-99 beds................   686    1388    *1,141     1760      634    1323
 100-199 beds..............   721    1567      1242     2192      691    1413
 200 beds or more..........   823    1701    *1,179     2767      925    1919
      Geographic region
 Northeast.................   909    1645      1369     2109      975    2035
 Midwest...................   652    1398    *1,160     2745      639    1382
 South.....................   585    1359    *1,096     2033      619    1200
 West......................   663    1498      *868     1838      663    1501
                                            Percent of residents
 All facilities............  38.4    41.6       2.0      1.4     47.8    50.4
          Ownership
 Proprietary...............  37.5    40.1       1.7      1.6     49.6    52.1
 Nonprofit and government..  40.4    44.9       2.7     *0.9     43.8    46.6
        Certification
 Skilled nursing facility..  41.5    39.1       4.6      2.6     41.4    53.7
 Skilled nursing and
  intermediate facility....  31.6    36.8       2.6      1.9     58.3    57.8
 Intermediate facility.....  36.3    41.4       ...      ...     55.3    55.9
 Not certified.............  64.2    65.5       ...      ...      ...     ...
          Bed size
 Less than 50 beds.........  49.6    53.1      *1.8     *1.2     32.7    33.8
 50-99 beds................  39.5    49.5      *1.2     *1.3     46.5    42.9
 100-199 beds..............  38.4    39.6       2.6      1.5     50.4    55.2
 200 beds or more..........  28.6    30.1       2.3     *1.5     55.5    57.7
      Geographic region
 Northeast.................  34.6    34.8       3.3      1.7     53.3    52.9
 Midwest...................  44.5    49.1       1.5     *0.8     42.1    45.9
 South.....................  32.2    39.4      *1.4     *1.2     52.5    53.8
 West......................  41.3    40.4       2.5     *2.7     44.7    49.2
                               Public
                             assistance          All other
                               welfare            sources
          Facility
       characteristic        1977    1985      1977     1985
                                Average monthly charge1/
 All facilities............  $508    $863      $440   $1,099
          Ownership
 Proprietary...............   501     763       562     1174
 Nonprofit and government..   534    1237       324     1029
        Certification
 Skilled nursing facility..   575  *1,338       606     1589
 Skilled nursing and
  intermediate facility....   623    1215       630     1702
 Intermediate facility.....   479     900      *456     1460
 Not certified.............   401     664      *155      464
          Bed size
 Less than 50 beds.........   394    *835      *295     *749
 50-99 beds................   493     774       468     1116
 100-199 beds..............   573     855       551     1504
 200 beds or more..........   602    1071       370     *866
      Geographic region
 Northeast.................  *511     738       395     1244
 Midwest...................   537    1241       524     1416
 South.....................   452     727       342     1057
 West......................   564     837      *499     *843
                                   Percent of residents
 All facilities............   6.4     3.4       5.3      3.2
          Ownership
 Proprietary...............   7.3     3.9       3.8      2.3
 Nonprofit and government..   4.4     2.3       8.6      5.3
        Certification
 Skilled nursing facility..   7.7     2.1       4.8      2.4
 Skilled nursing and
  intermediate facility....   3.2     1.3       4.1      2.2
 Intermediate facility.....   5.3    *1.5       3.1     *1.1
 Not certified.............  19.0    18.0      16.7     12.9
          Bed size
 Less than 50 beds.........  10.5    11.2       5.4     *0.6
 50-99 beds................   8.1     3.9       4.7      2.5
 100-199 beds..............   4.6     1.6       4.0      2.1
 200 beds or more..........   4.6     3.0       9.1      7.7
      Geographic region
 Northeast.................   3.8     7.1       5.1      3.5
 Midwest...................   6.5     2.5       5.4      1.6
 South.....................   8.2     2.5       5.7      3.1
 West......................   6.7    *1.2       4.8      6.6
 1/Includes life-care residents and no-charge residents.
 *Relative standard error greater than 30 percent.
 SOURCES: National Center for Health Statistics: The National Nursing Home
          Survey, 1977 summary for the United States, by J. F. Van Norstrand,
          A. Zappolo, E. Hing, et al. Vital and Health Statistics. Series 13,
          No. 43. DHEW Pub. No. (PHS) 79-1794. Public Health Service.
          Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office, July 1979; and The
          National Nursing Home Survey: 1985 summary for the United States, by
          E. Hing, E. Sekscenski, and G. Strahan. Vital and Health Statistics.
          Series 13, No. 97. DHHS Pub. No. (PHS) 89-1758. Public Health
          Service. Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1989.
3Nursing home avg monthly charge-facility/resident char:64,70s,85
 Table 113. Nursing home average monthly charges per resident and percent of
            residents, according to selected facility and resident character-
            istics: United States, 1964, 1973-74, 1977, and 1985
 (Data are based on reporting by a sample of nursing homes)
                                            Average monthly charge1/
       Facility and resident
          characteristic           1964       1973-742/       1977        1985
      Facility characteristic
 All facilities..................  $186         $479         $689       $1,456
 Ownership:
 Proprietary.....................   205          489          670         1379
 Nonprofit and government........   145          456          732         1624
 Certification:3/
 Skilled nursing facility........   ...          566          880         1905
 Skilled nursing and intermediate
  facility.......................   ...          514          762         1571
 Intermediate facility...........   ...          376          556         1179
 Not certified...................   ...          329          390          875
 Bed size:
 Less than 50 beds...............   ---          397          546         1036
 50-90 beds......................   ---          448          643         1335
 100-199 beds....................   ---          502          706         1478
 200 beds or more................   ---          576          837         1759
 Geographic region:
 Northeast.......................   213          651          918         1781
 Midwest.........................   171          433          640         1399
 South...........................   161          410          585         1256
 West............................   204          454          653         1458
      Resident characteristic
 All residents...................   186          479          689         1456
 Age:
 Under 65 years..................   155          434          585         1379
 65-74 years.....................   184          473          669         1372
 75-84 years.....................   191          488          710         1468
 85 years and over...............   194          485          719         1497
 Sex:
 Male............................   171          466          652         1438
 Female..........................   194          484          705         1463
                                             Average monthly charge1/
      Facility and resident
          characteristic           1964      1973-742/       1977         1985
      Facility characteristic
 All facilities.................. 100.0        100.0        100.0        100.0
 Ownership:
 Proprietary.....................  60.2         69.8         68.2         68.7
 Nonprofit and government........  39.8         30.2         31.8         31.3
 Certification:3/
 Skilled nursing facility........   ...         39.8         20.7         18.5
 Skilled nursing and intermediate
  facility.......................   ...         24.5         40.5         45.2
 Intermediate facility...........   ...         22.4         28.3         24.9
 Not certified...................   ...         13.3         10.6         11.4
 Bed size:
 Less than 50 beds...............   ---         15.2         12.9          8.9
 50-90 beds......................   ---         34.1         30.5         27.6
 100-199 beds....................   ---         35.6         38.8         43.2
 200 beds or more................   ---         15.1         17.9         20.2
 Geographic region:
 Northeast.......................  28.6         22.0         22.4         23.6
 Midwest.........................  36.6         34.6         34.5         32.5
 South...........................  18.1         26.0         27.2         29.4
 West............................  16.7         17.4         15.9         14.5
      Resident characteristic
 All residents................... 100.0        100.0        100.0        100.0
 Age:
 Under 65 years..................  12.0         10.6         13.6         11.6
 65-74 years.....................  18.9         15.0         16.2         14.2
 75-84 years.....................  41.7         35.5         35.7         34.1
 85 years and over...............  27.5         38.8         34.5         40.0
 Sex:
 Male............................  35.0         29.1         28.8         28.4
 Female..........................  65.0         70.9         71.2         71.6
 1/Includes life-care residents and no-charge residents.
 2/Data exclude residents of personal care homes.
 3/Medicare extended care facilities and Medicaid skilled nursing homes from
 the 1973-74 survey were considered to be equivalent to Medicare or Medicaid
 skilled nursing facilities in 1977 and 1985 for the purposes of this
 comparison.
 SOURCES: National Center for Health Statistics: Charges for care and
          sources of payment for residents in nursing homes, United States,
          June-August 1969, by J. F. Van Nostrand and J. F. Sutton. Vital and
          Health Statistics. Series 12, No. 21. DHEW Pub. No. (HRA) 74-1706.
          Public Health Service. Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office,
          July 1973; Charges for care and sources of payment for residents
          in nursing homes, United States, National Nursing Home Survey, Aug.
          1973-Apr. 1974, by E. Hing. Vital and Health Statistics. Series 13,
          No. 32. DHEW Pub. No. (PHS) 78-1783. Public Health Service.
          Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office. Nov. 1977; The National
          Nursing Home Survey: 1977 summary for the United States, by J. F.
          Van Nostrand,A. Zappolo,E. Hing, et al. Vital and Health Statistics.
          Series 13, No. 43. DHEW Pub. No. (PHS) 79-1794. Public Health
          Service. Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office, July 1979; and
          The National Nursing Home Survey: 1985 summary for the United
          States, by E. Hing, E. Sekscenski, and G. Strahan. Vital and Health
          Statistics. Series 13, No. 97. DHHS Pub. No. (PHS) 89-1758. Public
          Health Service. Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office,
          Jan. 1989.
3National funding for health research & ann.% change:U.S.'60-88
 Table 114. National funding for health research and development
            and average annual percent change, according to source of
            funds: United States, selected years 1961-88
 (Data are based on multiple sources)
                                              Source of funds
                                             State                  Private
                         All                   and                  nonprofit
   Year and period    funding   Federal      local   Industry1/   organizations
                                        Amount in millions
 1960...............     $886      $448        $46         $253           $139
 1965...............     1890      1174         90          450            176
 1970...............     2847      1667        170          795            215
 1971...............     3168      1877        198          860            233
 1972...............     3536      2147        228          934            227
 1973...............     3750      2225        245         1048            232
 1974...............     4443      2754        254         1183            252
 1975...............     4701      2832        286         1319            264
 1976...............     5107      3059        312         1469            267
 1977...............     5568      3396        338         1614            220
 19782/.............     6262      3811        416         1800            236
 19792/.............     7133      4321        465         2093            254
 19802/.............     7935      4723        480         2459            274
 19812/.............     8703      4848        564         2998            292
 19822/.............     9483      4970        634         3561            318
 19832/.............    10634      5399        712         4145            377
 19842/.............    12014      6087        793         4643            491
 19852/.............    13408      6791        874         5244            500
 19862/.............    14801      6895       1026         6166            714
 19872/.............    16827      7827       1146         7130            725
 19883/.............    18729      8454       1272         8260            744
                                     Average annual percent change
 1960-88............     11.5      11.1       12.6         13.3            6.2
 1960-65............     16.4      21.2       14.4         12.2            4.8
 1965-70............      8.5       7.3       13.6         12.1            4.1
 1970-75............     10.6      11.2       11.0         10.7            4.2
   1970-71..........     11.3      12.6       16.5          8.2            8.4
   1971-72..........     11.6      14.4       15.2          8.6           -2.6
   1972-73..........      6.1       3.6        7.5         12.2            2.2
   1973-74..........     18.5      23.8        3.7         12.9            8.6
   1974-75..........      5.8       2.8       12.6         11.5            4.8
 1975-80............     11.0      10.8       10.9         13.3            0.7
   1975-76..........      8.6       8.0        9.1         11.4            1.1
   1976-77..........      9.0      11.0        8.3          9.9          -17.6
   1977-78..........     12.5      12.2       23.1         11.5            7.3
   1978-79..........     13.9      13.4       11.8         16.3            7.6
   1979-80..........     11.2       9.3        3.2         17.5            7.9
 1980-85............     11.1       7.5       12.7         16.4           12.8
   1980-81..........      9.7       2.6       17.5         21.9            6.6
   1981-82..........      9.0       2.5       12.4         18.8            8.9
   1982-83..........     12.1       8.6       12.3         16.4           18.6
   1983-84..........     13.0      12.7       11.4         12.0           30.2
   1984-85..........     11.6      11.6       10.2         12.9            1.8
 1985-86............     10.4       1.5       17.4         17.6           42.8
 1986-87............     13.7      13.5       11.7         15.6            1.5
 1987-88............     11.3       8.0       11.0         15.8            2.6
 1/Includes expenditures for drug research. These expenditures are included
 in the "drugs and sundries" component of the Health Care Financing
 Administration's National Health Expenditure Series, not under "research."
 2/Revised figures.
 3/Projected.
 SOURCES: National Institutes of Health: NIH Data Book, 1989. Public
          Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,
          NIH Pub. No. 90-1261, Dec. 1989; National Institutes of Health,
          Office of Science Policy and Legislation: Selected data.

3Federal funding for health research & %  distribution: FY '70-88
 Table 115. Federal funding for health research and development and percent
            distribution, according to agency: United States, selected fiscal
            years 1970-88
 (Data are compiled from Federal Government sources)
                  Agency                 19701/  19751/   1980    1983    1984
                                                   Amount in millions
 Total..................................$1,667  $2,832  $4,723  $5,399  $6,087
                                                   Percent distribution
 All Federal agencies................... 100.0   100.0   100.0   100.0   100.0
  Department of Health and Human Services 70.6    77.6    78.2    80.0    78.9
    National Institutes of Health........ 52.4    66.4    67.4    70.2    69.9
    Centers for Disease Control..........  ---     1.5     1.8     1.4     0.7
    Other Public Health Service.......... 16.2     8.3     7.9     7.5     7.5
    Other Department of Health and Human
     Services............................  2.0     1.3     1.1     0.8     0.7
  Other agencies......................... 29.4    22.4    21.8    20.0    21.1
    Department of Agriculture............  3.0     2.2     3.1     2.7     2.4
    Department of Defense................  7.5     4.1     4.5     5.7     6.8
    Department of Education3/............  ...     ...     0.7     0.5     0.7
    Department of Energy4/...............  6.3     5.8     4.5     3.1     3.0
    Department of the Interior...........  0.7     0.3     0.5     0.4     0.4
    Environmental Protection Agency......  ...     1.3     1.7     0.7     0.7
    International Development Cooperation
     Agency5/............................  0.6     0.2     0.3     0.6     0.3
    National Aeronautics and Space
     Administration......................  5.2     2.6     1.5     1.4     1.8
    National Science Foundation..........  1.7     1.6     1.6     1.4     1.4
    Veterans Administration..............  3.5     3.3     2.8     3.0     3.1
    All other departments and agencies...  0.9     1.0     0.4     0.4     0.3
                  Agency                  1985    1986   19872/  19882/
                                              Amount in millions
 Total...................................$6,791  $6,895  $7,827  $8,454
                                             Percent distribution
 All Federal agencies.................... 100.0   100.0   100.0   100.0
  Department of Health and Human Services  79.7    81.1    83.5    83.9
    National Institutes of Health........  71.1    72.6    74.8    74.4
    Centers for Disease Control..........   0.7     0.8     0.8     1.0
    Other Public Health Service..........   7.3     7.3     7.9     8.1
    Other Department of Health and Human
     Services............................   0.6     0.5     0.4     0.4
  Other agencies.........................  20.3    18.9    16.5    16.1
    Department of Agriculture............   2.1     1.1     1.3     1.8
    Department of Defense................   6.5     7.2     5.2     5.1
    Department of Education3/............   0.6     0.6     0.4     0.4
    Department of Energy4/...............   2.6     2.4     2.3     2.4
    Department of the Interior...........   0.4     0.4     0.4     0.4
    Environmental Protection Agency......   0.8     0.5     0.6     0.3
    International Development Cooperation
     Agency5/............................   0.6     0.4     0.4     0.3
    National Aeronautics and Space
     Administration......................   1.7     1.9     1.7     1.6
    National Science Foundation..........   1.3     1.2     1.1     1.0
    Veterans Administration..............   3.3     2.7     2.7     2.5
    All other departments and agencies...   0.4     0.4     0.4     0.3
 1/Data for fiscal year ending June 30; all other data for fiscal year ending
 September 30.
 2/Estimates.
 3/Office of Handicapped Research, formerly included in other Department of
 Health and Human Services.
 4/Includes Atomic Energy Commission and Energy Research and Development
 Administration.
 5/Includes Department of State and Agency for International Development.
 SOURCES: National Institutes of Health: NIH Data Book, 1989. Public Health
          Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NIH Pub. No.
          90-1261, Dec. 1989; Office of Science Policy and Legislation,
          National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service: Selected data.
3Federal spending for  HIV-related  activities by agency: FY '82-
 Table 116. Federal spending for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related
            activities according to agency and type of activity:United States,
            fiscal years 1982-88
    Agency and type of activity      1982  1983  1984  1985  1986  1987   1988
               Agency                                  Amount in millions
 All Federal spending..............   $6   $44  $104  $207  $509  $899  $1,548
   Department of Health and Human
    Services, total................    6    39    97   197   407   769    1408
   Public Health Service, total....    6    29    61   109   234   502     957
   National Institutes of Health...    3    22    44    64   135   261     468
   Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental
    Health Administration..........    -     1     3     3    12    48     112
   Centers for Disease Control.....    2     6    14    33    62   136     305
   Food and Drug Administration....    -     -     1     9    10    16      30
   Health Resources and Services
    Administration.................    -     -     -     -    15    12      37
   Office of the Assistant
    Secretary for Health...........    -     -     -     -     -    30       4
   Health Care Financing
    Administration.................    -    10    30    75   140   215     360
   Social Security Administration..    -     -     6    13    33    51      88
   Other Department of Health and
    Human Services Agencies........    -     -     -     -     -     -       3
   Department of Veterans Affairs..    -     5     6    10    23    54      83
   Department of Defense...........    -     -     -     -    79    74      52
   Other departments...............    -     -     -     -     1     2       5
              Activity
 Research..........................    3    22    59    86   204   345     626
   Public Health Service...........    3    22    57    83   164   317     607
   Department of Veterans Affairs..    -     -     2     3     3     6       8
   Department of Defense...........    -     -     -     -    38    22      12
   Other...........................    -     -     -     -     -     1       1
 Education and prevention..........    2     7     4    25    73   172     354
   Public Health Service...........    2     7     4    25    55   145     321
   Department of Defense...........    -     -     -     -    18    25      26
   Other...........................    -     -     -     -     -     2       8
 Medical care......................    -    15    35    83   199   331     480
   Department of Veterans Affairs..    -     5     5     8    20    47      74
   Public Health Service...........    -     -     -     -    16    41      29
   Department of Defense...........    -     -     -     -    23    27      15
   Other...........................    -     -     -     -     1     1       1
   Health Care Financing
    Administration:
     Medicaid (Federal share)......    -    10    30    70   130   200     330
     Medicare......................    -     -     -     5    10    15      30
 Cash assistance...................    -     -     6    13    33    51      88
   Social Security Administration:
     Disability Insurance..........    -     -     5    10    25    40      70
     Supplemental Security Income..    -     -     1     3     8    11      18
 NOTES: In 1988 total expenditures on HIV-related activities were estimated
        at $4.4 billion. This total includes,for example, expenditures covered
        by private health insurance, out-of-pocket costs to patients, and the
        States' share of Medicaid, public hospital, and other local
        expenditures.
 SOURCE: W. Winkenwerder, A.R. Kessler, and R.M. Stolec: Federal spending for
         illness caused by the human immunodeficiency virus. The New England
         Journal of Medicine. Vol. 320, No. 24, June 15, 1989.
3Public health expenditures by state health agencies:'76-87
 Table 117. Public health expenditures by State and territorial health
            agencies, according to source of funds and program area: United
            States, selected fiscal years 1976-87
    Funds and program area      1976      1978      1980      1982      1983
                                              Amount in millions
       Total..................$2,539.8  $3,256.2  $4,450.8  $5,144.5  $5,610.3
        Source of funds
 Federal grants and contracts.   796.9    1133.2    1573.1    1777.8    2001.2
   Department of Agriculture..   153.7     350.8     678.4     916.3    1060.8
   Other......................   643.2     782.3     894.7     861.4     940.4
 State........................  1485.7    1802.1    2513.3    2922.9    3108.0
 Local........................    96.1      87.0     114.0     122.9     125.0
 Fees, reimbursements, and
 other........................   161.2     233.8     250.3     321.0     376.1
         Program area
 WIC1/........................   137.7     337.2     660.7     889.7    1049.5
 Noninstitutional personal
  health other than WIC2/.....  1079.0    1356.1    1698.2    1904.9    2079.3
 State health agency-operated
  institutions................   531.1     641.1     819.3     949.6     967.5
 Environmental health.........   199.2     237.0     298.0     354.6     363.7
 Health resources.............   208.2     297.2     356.5     360.2     550.1
 Laboratory...................   104.1     131.1     161.1     181.6     191.6
 Other3/......................   280.6     256.3     457.0     503.9     408.7
                                              Percent distribution
       Total..................   100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0
        Source of funds
 Federal grants and contracts.    31.4      34.8      35.3      34.6      35.7
   Department of Agriculture..     6.1      10.8      15.2      17.8      18.9
   Other......................    25.3      24.0      20.1      16.7      16.8
 State........................    58.5      55.3      56.5      56.8      55.4
 Local........................     3.8       2.7       2.6       2.4       2.2
 Fees, reimbursements, and
 other........................     6.3       7.2       5.6       6.2       6.7
         Program area
 WIC1/........................     5.4      10.4      14.8      17.3      18.7
 Noninstitutional personal
  health other than WIC2/.....    42.5      41.6      38.2      37.0      37.1
 State health agency-operated
  institutions................    20.9      19.7      18.4      18.5      17.2
 Environmental health.........     7.8       7.3       6.7       6.9       6.5
 Health resources.............     8.2       9.1       8.0       7.0       9.8
 Laboratory...................     4.1       4.0       3.6       3.5       3.4
 Other3/......................    11.0       7.9      10.3       9.8       7.3
    Funds and program area       1984      1985      1986      1987
                                         Amount in millions
       Total.................. $6,241.9  $6,949.5  $7,491.0  $8,127.6
        Source of funds
 Federal grants and contracts.   2344.0    2555.7    2699.6    2821.7
   Department of Agriculture..   1306.7    1455.1    1551.2    1651.6
   Other......................   1037.3    1100.7    1148.4    1170.1
 State........................   3352.2    3809.6    4123.7    4562.1
 Local........................    150.5     149.2     147.9     139.7
 Fees, reimbursements, and        395.3     435.0     519.7     604.1
 other..........................
         Program area
 WIC1/........................   1268.6    1431.1    1534.1    1622.1
 Noninstitutional personal
  health other than WIC2/.....   2379.7    2521.4    2776.9    3129.5
 State health agency-operated
  institutions................    978.7    1153.4    1235.8    1226.7
 Environmental health.........    414.8     467.0     479.8     528.2
 Health resources.............    562.8     626.7     650.9     709.4
 Laboratory...................    214.1     229.2     237.9     264.7
 Other3/......................    423.2     520.8     575.6     646.9
                                         Percent distribution
       Total..................    100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0
        Source of funds
 Federal grants and contracts.     37.6      36.8      36.0      34.7
   Department of Agriculture..     20.9      20.9      20.7      20.3
   Other......................     16.6      15.8      15.3      14.4
 State........................     53.7      54.8      55.0      56.1
 Local........................      2.4       2.1       2.0       1.7
 Fees, reimbursements, and          6.3       6.3       6.9       7.4
 other..........................
         Program area
 WIC1/........................     20.3      20.6      20.5      20.0
 Noninstitutional personal
  health other than WIC2/.....     38.1      36.3      37.1      38.5
 State health agency-operated
  institutions................     15.7      16.6      16.5      15.1
 Environmental health.........      6.6       6.7       6.4       6.5
 Health resources.............      9.0       9.0       8.7       8.7
 Laboratory...................      3.4       3.3       3.2       3.3
 Other3/......................      6.8       7.5       7.7       8.0
 1/Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children.
 2/Includes funds for maternal and child health services other than WIC,
 handicapped children's services, communicable disease control, dental
 health, chronic disease control, mental health, alcohol and drug abuse, and
 supporting personal health programs.
 3/Funds for general administration and funds to local health departments
 not allocated to program areas.
 NOTE: Data are reported for 55 health agencies in 50 States, the District
       of Columbia, and 4 territories (Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam,
       and the Virgin Islands).
 SOURCES: Public Health Foundation: Public Health Agencies 1987: Expenditures
          and Sources of Funds. Washington. 1987; Unpublished data.
3Personal health care per capital costs & avg ann.% change:'66-82
 Table 118. Personal health care per capita expenditures and average annual
 geographic division and State: United States, selected years 1966-82
 (Data are compiled by the Health Care Financing Administration)
    Geographic division
         and State                1966        1969        1972        1976
                                              Amount per capita
 United States.............       $201        $280        $381        $605
 New England...............        234         328         441         686
 Maine.....................        173         242         328         542
 New Hampshire.............        188         245         330         507
 Vermont...................        197         274         352         531
 Massachusetts.............        253         360         489         760
 Rhode Island..............        231         315         413         672
 Connecticut...............        236         330         438         675
 Middle Atlantic...........        227         319         425         662
 New York..................        258         366         488         745
 New Jersey................        192         264         355         578
 Pennsylvania..............        201         279         372         590
 East North Central........        203         278         378         610
 Ohio......................        195         264         361         597
 Indiana...................        182         252         337         542
 Illinois..................        220         300         407         634
 Michigan..................        211         286         388         635
 Wisconsin.................        192         269         373         610
 West North Central........        200         273         369         597
 Minnesota.................        216         287         389         602
 Iowa......................        197         265         351         563
 Missouri..................        198         273         365         627
 North Dakota..............        197         273         367         676
 South Dakota..............        181         241         327         522
 Nebraska..................        195         268         371         598
 Kansas....................        195         270         379         568
 South Atlantic............        169         242         342         551
 Delaware..................        209         286         381         599
 Maryland..................        190         273         390         609
 District of Columbia......        430         667         958        1349
 Virginia..................        151         213         301         493
 West Virginia.............        161         227         313         508
 North Carolina............        143         204         282         461
 South Carolina............        125         182         251         423
 Georgia...................        150         217         319         515
 Florida...................        184         264         377         623
 East South Central........        148         211         294         483
 Kentucky..................        155         218         286         444
 Tennessee.................        166         232         324         531
 Alabama...................        145         210         300         501
 Mississippi...............        115         163         242         425
 West South Central........        170         242         331         533
 Arkansas..................        142         198         284         470
 Louisiana.................        156         226         322         511
 Oklahoma..................        183         263         351         539
 Texas.....................        177         249         338         549
 Mountain..................        189         259         346         541
 Montana...................        175         236         325         510
 Idaho.....................        153         210         292         455
 Wyoming...................        200         268         327         451
 Colorado..................        233         311         396         605
 New Mexico................        157         214         282         458
 Arizona...................        190         271         376         582
 Utah......................        158         211         286         458
 Nevada....................        196         282         389         658
 Pacific...................        234         328         440         691
 Washington................        219         297         390         584
 Oregon....................        197         274         364         587
 California................        242         340         460         727
 Alaska....................        227         289         340         560
 Hawaii....................        208         300         401         598
                                                          Average annual
                                                          percent change
    Geographic division
         and State                1980        1982     1966-80     1980-82
                                              Amount per capita
 United States.............       $958      $1,220        11.8        12.8
 New England...............       1058        1356        11.4        13.2
 Maine.....................        870        1091        12.2        12.0
 New Hampshire.............        759         986        10.5        14.0
 Vermont...................        778         978        10.3        12.1
 Massachusetts.............       1175        1508        11.6        13.3
 Rhode Island..............       1062        1351        11.5        12.8
 Connecticut...............       1046        1348        11.2        13.5
 Middle Atlantic...........       1017        1310        11.3        13.5
 New York..................       1107        1417        11.0        13.1
 New Jersey................        877        1115        11.5        12.8
 Pennsylvania..............        972        1273        11.9        14.4
 East North Central........        978        1249        11.9        13.0
 Ohio......................        958        1247        12.0        14.1
 Indiana...................        861        1101        11.7        13.1
 Illinois..................       1033        1308        11.7        12.5
 Michigan..................       1014        1281        11.9        12.4
 Wisconsin.................        952        1219        12.1        13.2
 West North Central........        973        1241        12.0        12.9
 Minnesota.................        976        1229        11.4        12.2
 Iowa......................        935        1176        11.8        12.1
 Missouri..................        997        1285        12.2        13.5
 North Dakota..............       1034        1325        12.6        13.2
 South Dakota..............        887        1154        12.0        14.1
 Nebraska..................        948        1216        12.0        13.3
 Kansas....................        988        1271        12.3        13.4
 South Atlantic............        879        1115        12.5        12.6
 Delaware..................        912        1153        11.1        12.4
 Maryland..................        957        1232        12.2        13.5
 District of Columbia......       2198        2838        12.4        13.6
 Virginia..................        811        1054        12.8        14.0
 West Virginia.............        808        1057        12.2        14.4
 North Carolina............        737         931        12.4        12.4
 South Carolina............        686         857        12.9        11.8
 Georgia...................        843        1048        13.1        11.5
 Florida...................        975        1228        12.6        12.2
 East South Central........        798        1025        12.8        13.3
 Kentucky..................        739         957        11.8        13.8
 Tennessee.................        874        1144        12.6        14.4
 Alabama...................        809        1033        13.1        13.0
 Mississippi...............        730         897        14.1        10.8
 West South Central........        859        1096        12.3        13.0
 Arkansas..................        766         994        12.8        13.9
 Louisiana.................        857        1106        12.9        13.6
 Oklahoma..................        852        1086        11.6        12.9
 Texas.....................        876        1110        12.1        12.6
 Mountain..................        849        1070        11.3        12.3
 Montana...................        801        1036        11.5        13.7
 Idaho.....................        695         868        11.4        11.8
 Wyoming...................        710         873         9.5        10.9
 Colorado..................        942        1209        10.5        13.3
 New Mexico................        722         904        11.5        11.9
 Arizona...................        882        1112        11.6        12.3
 Utah......................        714         896        11.4        12.0
 Nevada....................       1163        1380        13.6         8.9
 Pacific...................       1093        1380        11.6        12.4
 Washington................        915        1165        10.8        12.8
 Oregon....................        912        1165        11.6        13.0
 California................       1152        1451        11.8        12.2
 Alaska....................        961        1187        10.9        11.1
 Hawaii....................        932        1228        11.3        14.8
 NOTE: Per capita spending estimates are the expenditure level of
       services rendered in a geographic area per resident population.
       Per capita figures cannot be interpreted directly as spending per
       resident unless substantially all of  the services provided in a
       State are consumed by residents of that State. U.S. estimates do
       not include services provided in U.S. territories or possessions,
       services rendered by U.S. taxpayers while living abroad, and
       services furnished to U.S. personnel living abroad or on military
       vessels.
 SOURCE: Office of the Actuary: Personal health care expenditures by
         State, selected years 1966-1982, by K. R. Levit. Health Care
         Financing Review. HCFA Pub. No. 03199. Health Care Financing
         Administration. Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office,
         Summer 1985.
3Hospital care per capita costs & avg ann.% change by state'66-82
 Table 119. Hospital care per capita expenditures and average annual percent
            change, according to geographic division and State: United States,
            selected years 1966-82
 (Data are compiled by the Health Care Financing Administration)
                                                                Average annual
                                                                percent change
  Geographic division
       and State      1966   1969   1972   1976   1980   1982  1966-80 1980-82
                                           Amount per capita
 United States........$80    $119   $166   $276   $441   $577     13.0    14.4
 New England..........101     151    207    335    515    669     12.3    14.0
 Maine................ 74     107    138    246    411    517     13.0    12.2
 New Hampshire........ 73      98    134    213    334    458     11.5    17.1
 Vermont.............. 86     126    162    242    338    443     10.3    14.5
 Massachusetts........116     178    247    400    624    810     12.8    13.9
 Rhode Island.........101     148    196    328    492    623     12.0    12.5
 Connecticut.......... 91     133    185    296    444    578     12.0    14.1
 Middle Atlantic...... 94     144    200    328    495    641     12.6    13.8
 New York.............110     171    236    377    540    679     12.0    12.1
 New Jersey........... 71     103    145    254    371    498     12.5    15.9
 Pennsylvania......... 82     127    178    300    505    675     13.9    15.6
 East North Central... 81     117    167    286    465    615     13.3    15.0
 Ohio................. 74     107    154    273    446    599     13.7    15.9
 Indiana.............. 63      95    134    235    383    512     13.8    15.6
 Illinois............. 90     132    195    323    539    700     13.6    14.0
 Michigan............. 90     123    170    295    477    628     12.7    14.7
 Wisconsin............ 76     117    163    268    401    539     12.6    15.9
 West North Central... 79     117    158    270    451    592     13.3    14.6
 Minnesota............ 89     122    168    272    425    540     11.8    12.7
 Iowa................. 69     103    139    238    404    536     13.5    15.2
 Missouri............. 81     123    164    295    510    679     14.0    15.4
 North Dakota......... 83     121    156    283    479    624     13.3    14.1
 South Dakota......... 75     101    133    234    398    530     12.7    15.4
 Nebraska............. 75     115    157    259    429    568     13.3    15.1
 Kansas............... 76     116    160    269    451    593     13.6    14.7
 South Atlantic....... 68     103    151    252    411    539     13.7    14.5
 Delaware............. 91     131    174    291    437    552     11.9    12.4
 Maryland............. 84     122    185    287    464    606     13.0    14.3
 District of Columbia.192     334    564    903   1516   2021     15.9    15.5
 Virginia............. 63      92    132    218    372    506     13.5    16.6
 West Virginia........ 70     107    152    264    424    564     13.7    15.3
 North Carolina....... 57      85    121    201    324    428     13.2    14.9
 South Carolina....... 51      79    107    188    303    397     13.6    14.5
 Georgia.............. 56      86    135    228    386    492     14.8    12.9
 Florida.............. 66     103    151    268    434    569     14.4    14.5
 East South Central... 60      91    131    226    383    507     14.2    15.1
 Kentucky............. 60      91    121    202    326    433     12.9    15.2
 Tennessee............ 67     102    149    252    430    578     14.2    15.9
 Alabama.............. 61      92    134    238    408    541     14.5    15.2
 Mississippi.......... 48      73    111    198    343    431     15.1    12.1
 West South Central... 66      97    135    229    380    500     13.3    14.7
 Arkansas............. 56      77    114    197    324    443     13.4    16.9
 Louisiana............ 63      94    145    239    412    549     14.4    15.4
 Oklahoma............. 63     102    132    224    378    498     13.7    14.8
 Texas................ 69     101    137    233    379    495     12.9    14.3
 Mountain............. 76     109    145    234    377    483     12.1    13.2
 Montana.............. 67      95    122    193    336    445     12.2    15.1
 Idaho................ 50      75    104    162    254    335     12.3    14.8
 Wyoming.............. 85     116    123    188    313    398      9.8    12.8
 Colorado.............100     136    171    274    422    557     10.8    14.9
 New Mexico........... 69      96    122    222    348    449     12.3    13.6
 Arizona.............. 78     119    169    256    396    498     12.3    12.1
 Utah................. 58      81    114    188    307    399     12.6    14.0
 Nevada............... 68     108    151    273    540    630     16.0     8.0
 Pacific.............. 85     123    169    280    445    583     12.6    14.5
 Washington........... 72     102    133    223    337    434     11.7    13.5
 Oregon............... 66      96    127    219    347    468     12.6    16.1
 California........... 88     129    180    298    479    626     12.9    14.3
 Alaska...............149     173    164    255    446    552      8.1    11.3
 Hawaii............... 79     115    146    222    352    479     11.3    16.7
 NOTE: Per capita spending estimates are the expenditure level of services
       rendered in a geographic area per resident population. Per capita
       figures cannot be interpreted directly as spending per resident unless
       substantially all of the services provided in a State are consumed by
       residents of that State.
 SOURCE: Office of the Actuary: Personal health care expenditures by State,
         selected years 1966-1982, by K. R. Levit. Health Care Financing
         Review. HCFA Pub. No. 03199. Health Care Financing Administration.
         Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office, Summer 1985.
3Nursing home care per capita costs & ann.% change by state'66-82
 Table 120. Nursing home care per capita expenditures and average annual
            percent change, according to geographic division and State:
            United States, selected years 1966-82
 (Data are compiled by the Health Care Financing Administration)
                                                                Average annual
                                                                percent change
  Geographic division
       and State     1966   1969   1972   1976   1980   1982  1966-80  1980-82
                                           Amount per capita
 United States....... $12    $19    $31    $52    $90   $114    15.5     12.5
 New England.........  20     28     47     85    145    186    15.2     13.3
 Maine...............  15     23     40     70    134    176    16.9     14.6
 New Hampshire.......  16     20     35     43     71     90    11.2     12.6
 Vermont.............  19     27     39     75    121    149    14.1     11.0
 Massachusetts.......  22     32     52     94    152    192    14.8     12.4
 Rhode Island........  15     21     34     78    169    214    18.9     12.5
 Connecticut.........  19     29     49     90    156    206    16.2     14.9
 Middle Atlantic.....  14     21     36     66    108    145    15.7     15.9
 New York............  16     26     46     85    135    184    16.5     16.7
 New Jersey..........  10     15     24     45     77     97    15.7     12.2
 Pennsylvania........  12     18     28     48     88    116    15.3     14.8
 East North Central..  12     19     31     54     97    125    16.1     13.5
 Ohio................  12     18     27     53     99    143    16.3     20.2
 Indiana.............  12     20     33     57    102    129    16.5     12.5
 Illinois............  13     20     33     52     90    109    14.8     10.1
 Michigan............  10     17     27     48     86    106    16.6     11.0
 Wisconsin...........  14     22     39     71    120    150    16.6     11.8
 West North Central..  18     28     44     69    131    172    15.2     14.6
 Minnesota...........  22     33     57     91    175    235    16.0     15.9
 Iowa................  22     36     51     81    143    168    14.3      8.4
 Missouri............  12     19     29     47     95    139    15.9     21.0
 North Dakota........  19     33     47     60    112    154    13.5     17.3
 South Dakota........  18     30     49     69    132    165    15.3     11.8
 Nebraska............  17     27     42     68    112    140    14.4     11.8
 Kansas..............  18     26     42     65    130    163    15.2     12.0
 South Atlantic......   8     12     20     33     59     77    15.3     14.2
 Delaware............   8     12     20     42     67     86    16.4     13.3
 Maryland............   9     17     24     46     75    102    16.4     16.6
 District of Columbia   6     10     18     22     43     55    15.1     13.1
 Virginia............   6      9     16     30     63     85    18.3     16.2
 West Virginia.......   3      5     12     20     41     62    20.5     23.0
 North Carolina......   6     11     16     30     58     75    17.6     13.7
 South Carolina......   6      9     16     28     62     76    18.2     10.7
 Georgia.............   8     13     23     37     67     79    16.4      8.6
 Florida.............  11     15     25     31     48     65    11.1     16.4
 East South Central..   7     11     20     35     67     86    17.5     13.3
 Kentucky............   9     14     23     40     81    104    17.0     13.3
 Tennessee...........   6     10     17     28     56     76    17.3     16.5
 Alabama.............   8     14     22     40     62     79    15.8     12.9
 Mississippi.........   4      7     15     30     71     90    22.8     12.6
 West South Central..  12     19     31     48     79     94    14.4      9.1
 Arkansas............  13     21     34     50     95    112    15.3      8.6
 Louisiana...........   8     13     22     38     68     89    16.5     14.4
 Oklahoma............  19     31     47     58     91    111    11.8     10.4
 Texas...............  11     18     30     48     78     88    15.0      6.2
 Mountain............  10     15     23     35     59     74    13.5     12.0
 Montana.............  12     17     33     43     66     92    12.9     18.1
 Idaho...............  12     17     26     45     69     84    13.3     10.3
 Wyoming.............   6     12     23     24     38     49    14.1     13.6
 Colorado............  15     21     33     54     86    104    13.3     10.0
 New Mexico..........   5      9     15     16     34     49    14.7     20.0
 Arizona.............   8     13     17     22     41     53    12.4     13.7
 Utah................   9     12     17     30     55     63    13.8      7.0
 Nevada..............   7     10     20     29     60     82    16.6     16.9
 Pacific.............  12     18     31     48     82     97    14.7      8.8
 Washington..........  16     21     43     61    109    137    14.7     12.1
 Oregon..............  17     24     37     57     94    113    13.0      9.6
 California..........  11     18     30     47     78     91    15.0      8.0
 Alaska..............   1      2      9     17     14     26    20.7     36.3
 Hawaii..............   6     10     18     28     36     63    13.7     32.3
 NOTE: Per capita spending estimates are the expenditure level of services
       rendered in a geographic area per resident population. Per capita
       figures cannot be interpreted directly as spending per resident unless
       substantially all of the services provided in a State are consumed
       by residents of that State.
 SOURCE: Office of the Actuary: Personal health care expenditures by State,
         selected years 1966-1982, by K. R. Levit. Health Care Financing
         Review. HCFA Pub. No. 03199. Health Care Financing Administration.
         Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office, Summer 1985.
2Health Care Coverage and Major Federal Programs
3Health care coverage age <65 by type of coverage: U.S. '80,82,86
 Table 121. Health care coverage for persons under 65 years of age, according
            to type of coverage and selected characteristics: United States,
            1980, 1982, and 1986
 (Data are based on household interviews of a sample of the civilian
 noninstitutionalized population)
                    Private insurance        Medicaid1/        Not covered2/
 Characteristic   1980   1982   1986   1980   1982   1986   1980   1982   1986
                                      Percent of population
 Total3,4/........78.8   77.3   75.9    5.9    5.6    5.9   12.5   14.7   15.3
        Age
 Under 15 years...74.7   72.7   71.4   10.2    9.8   10.4   12.8   15.8   16.1
   Under 5 years..70.3   69.7   68.0   12.0   11.4   12.0   15.2   17.0   17.5
   5-14 years.....76.7   74.2   73.1    9.4    8.9    9.5   11.7   15.2   15.3
 15-44 years......79.3   77.6   75.8    4.2    4.1    4.1   14.2   16.5   17.4
 45-64 years......83.6   83.1   82.4    3.1    2.7    3.0    8.6    9.7   10.3
       Sex3/
 Male.............79.5   78.0   76.4    4.7    4.5    4.8   12.7   14.8   15.8
 Female...........78.2   76.7   75.4    7.1    6.6    6.8   12.2   14.5   14.9
       Race3/
 White............81.9   80.4   79.1    3.9    3.6    4.0   11.4   13.5   14.0
 Black............60.1   59.6   57.0   17.9   17.2   17.4   19.0   21.2   22.6
 Family income3,5/
 Less than
   $10,000........38.6   38.3   31.3   27.6   24.9   28.4   31.0   35.0   37.0
 $10,000-$14,999..61.1   67.6   58.1    9.2    4.4    8.8   25.9   24.7   31.3
 $15,000-$19,999..79.0   81.3   72.6    3.0    2.0   *2.7   15.0   14.2   21.2
 $20,000-$34,999..90.2   91.8   88.3    1.1    0.7   *1.0    6.2    5.7    8.4
 $35,000 or more..93.7   93.8   93.7    0.6    0.5   *0.4    3.9    4.1    3.9
     Geographic
      region3/
 Northeast........81.7   80.5   81.6    7.0    6.9    5.9   10.3   11.0   10.7
 Midwest..........83.8   82.0   79.7    5.8    5.8    7.6    9.0   10.9   10.9
 South............75.6   74.3   71.6    4.8    4.6    5.1   15.0   17.5   19.2
 West.............74.3   72.4   72.9    6.5    5.8    5.1   15.3   19.1   18.8
    Location of
    residence3/
 Within MSA.......79.7   78.0   76.8    6.2    6.0    5.7   11.3   13.6   14.5
 Outside MSA......77.0   75.9   72.7    5.2    4.7    6.2   14.8   17.0   18.2
 1/Includes persons receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children or
 Supplemental Security Income or those with current Medicaid cards.
 2/Includes persons not covered by private insurance, Medicaid, Medicare,
 and military plans.
 3/Age adjusted.
 4/Includes all other races not shown separately and unknown family income.
 5/Family income categories for 1982 and 1986. Income categories in 1980 are
 less than $7,000; $7,000-$9,999; $10,000-$14,999; $15,000-$24,999; $25,000 or
 more.
 *Relative standard error greater than 30 percent.
 NOTES: Denominators include persons with unknown health insurance(1.7 percent
        in 1986). Percents do not add to 100 because the percent with other
        types of health insurance (e.g., Medicare,military) and unknown health
        insurance are not shown, because persons with both private insurance
        and Medicaid appear in both columns.
 SOURCE: Division of Health Interview Statistics, National Center for Health
         Statistics: Data from the National Health Interview Survey.
3Health care coverage age >65 by type of coverage: U.S. '80,82,86
 Table 122. Health care coverage for persons 65 years of age and over,
            according to type of coverage and selected characteristics: United
            States, 1980, 1982, and 1986
 (Data are based on household interviews of a sample of the civilian
 noninstitutionalized population)
                   Medicare and private     Medicare and
                        insurance            Medicaid1/          Medicare2/
 Characteristic   1980   1982   1986   1980   1982   1986   1980   1982   1986
                                       Percent of population
 Total3,4/.........64.4   65.5   71.6   8.1    6.1    5.8   22.7   23.1   17.9
         Age
 65-74 years.......67.0   68.2   73.5   6.8    4.8    4.9   20.6   20.5   15.7
 75 years and over.59.9   60.6   68.2  10.3    8.3    7.3   26.4   27.7   21.7
  75-84 years......61.9   62.7   70.4   9.7    8.1    7.0   24.8   26.0   19.8
  85 years and over51.2   51.3   58.7  12.7    9.3    8.8   33.0   34.9   29.6
        Sex3/
 Male..............65.6   66.2   72.8   5.7    4.3    3.7   23.1   23.4   18.4
 Female............63.6   65.0   70.8   9.6    7.3    7.3   22.4   23.0   17.5
        Race3/
 White.............68.3   68.9   75.4   6.6    4.8    4.5   21.0   21.6   16.1
 Black.............26.5   33.0   34.2  23.3   18.2   19.7   40.6   38.5   34.9
  Family income3,5/
 Less than $10,000.53.4   55.6   54.7  15.7   11.7   14.4   28.2   28.9   27.1
 $10,000-$14,999...72.9   76.3   78.0   4.8    3.3   *3.9   19.1   17.3   15.5
 $15,000-$19,999...74.1   74.1   82.8   3.9    1.8   *2.0   18.3   17.8   11.5
 $20,000-$34,999...74.4   74.6   82.0   2.5   *1.2   *2.2   16.8   17.9   10.0
 $35,000 or more...71.9   73.7   77.5   2.2   *1.3   *1.4   18.3   16.0   13.9
      Geographic
       region3/
 Northeast.........67.4   66.6   74.1   5.6    4.1    4.1   22.3   23.3   17.0
 Midwest...........71.2   71.3   77.7   4.9    3.1    3.8   19.9   21.2   14.5
 South.............58.9   60.2   65.3  10.8    9.2    8.0   25.6   25.4   21.0
 West..............60.7   65.3   70.6  10.9    7.2    6.6   21.7   21.5   18.2
     Location of
     residence3/
 Within MSA........64.2   66.1   71.7   7.5    5.0    5.2   23.0   22.8   17.8
 Outside MSA.......64.9   64.3   71.2   9.2    7.8    7.2   22.2   23.7   18.1
 1/Includes persons receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children or
 Supplemental Security Income or those with current Medicaid cards.
 2/Includes persons not covered by private insurance or Medicaid.
 3/Age adjusted.
 4/Includes all other races not shown separately and unknown family income.
 5/Family income categories for 1982 and 1986. Income categories in 1980 are
 less than $7,000; $7,000-$9,999; $10,000-$14,999; $15,000-$24,999; $25,000 or
 more.
 *Relative standard error greater than 30 percent.
 NOTES: Persons with Medicare, private insurance, and Medicaid appear in both
        columns. Denominators include persons with unknown health insurance
        (0.8 percent in 1986). In 1986, 5.0 percent of all persons 65 years of
        age and over had no Medicare but only 0.6 percent were without health
        insurance.
 SOURCE: Division of Health Interview Statistics, National Center for
         Health Statistics: Data from the National Health Interview Survey.
3HMO and enrollment by model type, geo div,Fed program: '76-89
 Table 123. Health maintenance organizations and enrollment, according to
            model type, geographic region, and Federal program: United
            States, selected years 1976-89
  Plans and enrollment         1976      1978      1980       1982        1984
           Plans                                  Number
 All plans................      174       202       235        264         304
 Model type:2/
   Individual practice
    association3/.........       41        70        97         97         125
   Group..................      122       129       138        167         179
 Geographic region:
   Northeast..............       29        49        55         59          67
   Midwest................       52        57        72         87         105
   South..................       23        33        45         52          67
   West...................       70        63        63         66          65
       Enrollment4/                    Number of persons in thousands
 Total....................     5987      7450      9078      10807       15101
 Model type:2/
   Individual practice
    association3/.........      390      1051      1694       1471        2929
   Group..................     5562      6376      7384       9336       12172
 Federal program:5/
   Medicaid...............      ---       230       265        197         349
   Medicare...............      ---       376       391        431         671
                                         Number per 1,000 population
 Geographic region:
   Northeast..............     19.9      24.9      31.4       39.0        57.8
   Midwest................     15.2      18.7      28.1       37.2        61.6
   South..................      4.3       6.2       8.3       11.1        20.4
   West...................     96.9     113.3     121.8      128.7       148.0
  Plans and enrollment       19851/      1986      1987       1989
           Plans                             Number
 All plans................      478       623       647        604
 Model type:2/
   Individual practice
    association3/.........      244       384       409        385
   Group..................      234       239       238        219
 Geographic region:
   Northeast..............       81       105       114        118
   Midwest................      157       202       203        183
   South..................      141       188       194        172
   West...................       99       128       136        131
       Enrollment4/              Number of persons in thousands
 Total....................    21005     25725     29232      31883
 Model type:2/
   Individual practice
    association3/.........     6379      9932     12014      13542
   Group..................    14625     15793     17217      18342
 Federal program:5/
   Medicaid...............      561       802       811        ---
   Medicare...............     1064      1490      1674       1561
                                   Number per 1,000 population
 Geographic region:
   Northeast..............     79.4     100.5     117.0      137.7
   Midwest................     96.8     116.4     130.5      129.2
   South..................     37.5      54.4      64.2       70.5
   West...................    172.5     190.4     205.6      225.5
 1/Increases partly due to changes in reporting methods (see Appendix I).
 2/11 HMO's with 35,000 enrollment did not report model type in 1976.
 3 HMO's with 23,000 enrollment did not report model type in 1978.
 3/An individual practice association is a health maintenance
 organization that contracts with an association of physicians from
 various settings (a mixture of solo and group practices) to provide
 health services.
 4/Enrollment in hybrid and open-ended HMO plans, amounting to nearly 1.5
 million on Jan. 1, 1989, is not included in this table.
 5/Federal program enrollment in HMO's refers to enrollment by Medicaid or
 Medicare beneficiaries, where the Medicaid or Medicare program contracts
 directly with the HMO to pay the appropriate annual premium.
 NOTES: Data as of June 30 each year, except August in 1978, December 31
        in 1985-87, and January 1 in 1989. HMO's in Guam are not included.
 SOURCES: Office of Health Maintenance Organizations: Summary of the
          National HMO census of prepaid plans-June 1976, National HMO
          census of prepaid plans 1978, and National HMO Census 1980.
          Public Health Service. Washington. U.S. Government Printing
          Office. DHHS Pub. No. (PHS) 80-50159; InterStudy: National
          HMO Census: Annual Report on the Growth of HMO's in the U.S.,
          1982-1985 Editions; The InterStudy Edge, Spring
          1987, Spring 1988, 1989, vol. 2; Unpublished data; 1986 December
          Update of Medicare Enrollment in HMO's. 1988 January Update
          of Medicare Enrollment in HMO's. Excelsior, Minnesota (Copyrights
          HMO's. Excelsior, Minnesota (Copyrights 1983, 1984, 1985,
          1986, 1987, 1988, 1989: Used with the permission of InterStudy);
          Regional populations obtained from U.S. Bureau of the Census,
3Medicare enrollees & expenditures & % dist. by service: '67-88
 Table 124. Medicare enrollees and expenditures and percent distribution,
            according to type of service: United States, selected years
            1967-88
 (Data are compiled by the Health Care Financing Administration)
          Type of service             1967        1970        1975        1980
            Enrollees2/                          Number in millions
 Total3/..........................    19.5        20.5        25.0        28.5
   Hospital insurance (HI)........    19.5        20.4        24.6        28.1
   Supplementary medical
    insurance (SMI)...............    17.9        19.6        23.9        27.4
           Expenditures                          Amount in millions
 Total............................  $4,737      $7,493     $16,316     $36,822
 Total hospital insurance (HI)4/..    3430        5281       11581       25577
   Inpatient hospital.............    3034        4827       10877       24082
   Skilled nursing facility.......     282         246         278         401
   Home health agency.............      29          51         160         568
   Hospice........................     ...         ...         ...         ...
   Administrative expenses5/......      77         157         266         512
 Total supplementary medical
  insurance (SMI).................    1307        2212        4735       11245
   Physician......................    1128        1790        3415        8188
   Outpatient hospital............      26         117         652        1935
   Home health agency.............      17          31          87         195
   Group practice prepayment......      19          26          80         203
   Independent laboratory.........       7          11          39         114
   Administrative expenses........     110         237         462         610
                                       Percent distribution of expenditures
 Total hospital insurance (HI)4/..   100.0       100.0       100.0       100.0
   Inpatient hospital.............    88.5        91.4        93.9        94.2
   Skilled nursing facility.......     8.2         4.7         2.4         1.6
   Home health agency.............     0.8         1.0         1.4         2.2
   Hospice........................     ...         ...         ...         ...
   Administrative expenses5/......     2.2         3.0         2.3         2.0
 Total supplementary medical
  insurance (SMI).................   100.0       100.0       100.0       100.0
   Physician......................    86.3        80.9        72.1        72.8
   Outpatient hospital............     2.0         5.3        13.8        17.2
   Home health agency.............     1.3         1.4         1.8         1.7
   Group practice prepayment......     1.5         1.2         1.7         1.8
   Independent laboratory.........     0.5         0.5         0.8         1.0
   Administrative expenses........     8.4        10.7         9.8         5.4
          Type of service             1985        1986        1987      19881/
            Enrollees2/                          Number in millions
 Total3/..........................    31.1        31.7        32.4        33.0
   Hospital insurance (HI)........    30.6        31.2        31.8         ---
   Supplementary medical
    insurance (SMI)...............    30.0        30.6        31.2         ---
           Expenditures                          Amount in millions
 Total............................  72,294     $77,721     $82,030     $88,560
 Total hospital insurance (HI)4/..   48414       50422       50289       53331
   Inpatient hospital.............   44698       46746       46446       49265
   Skilled nursing facility.......     578         587         631         666
   Home health agency.............    2148        2230        2195        2320
   Hospice........................      20          42          70          98
   Administrative expenses5/......     834         664         793         815
 Total supplementary medical
  insurance (SMI).................   23880       27299       31741       35229
   Physician......................   17311       19212       22618       24338
   Outpatient hospital............    4304        5144        5903        6545
   Home health agency.............      54          45          53          52
   Group practice prepayment......     720        1113        1361        2019
   Independent laboratory.........     558         725         885        1015
   Administrative expenses........     933        1060         921        1260
                                        Percent distribution of expenditures
 Total hospital insurance (HI)4/..   100.0       100.0       100.0       100.0
   Inpatient hospital.............    92.3        92.7        92.4        92.4
   Skilled nursing facility.......     1.2         1.2         1.3         1.2
   Home health agency.............     4.4         4.4         4.4         4.4
   Hospice........................     0.0         0.1         0.1         0.2
   Administrative expenses5/......     1.7         1.3         1.6         1.5
 Total supplementary medical
  insurance (SMI).................   100.0       100.0       100.0       100.0
   Physician......................    72.5        70.4        71.3        69.1
   Outpatient hospital............    18.0        18.8        18.6        18.6
   Home health agency.............     0.2         0.2         0.2         0.1
   Group practice prepayment......     3.0         4.1         4.3         5.7
   Independent laboratory.........     2.3         2.7         2.8         2.9
   Administrative expenses........     3.9         3.9         2.9         3.6
 1/Preliminary figures.
 2/Includes the U.S. population residing in the United States, Puerto Rico,
 Virgin Islands, Guam, other outlying areas, and foreign countries, and
 residence unknown.
 3/Number enrolled in the hospital insurance and/or supplementary medical
 insurance programs on July 1.
 4/Includes coverage for outpatient hospital diagnostic service under HI
 terminated after Mar. 31, 1968, and Medicaid and Maternal and Child Health
 Professional Standard Review Organization activity through 1981, Peer Review
 Organization activity after 1983; is counted as an inpatient hospital benefit
 in other actuarial tables presenting benefit payments by type of benefit.
 5/Includes costs of experiments and demonstration projects.
 NOTE: Distribution of benefits by type is estimated and subject to change.
 SOURCE: Office of Medicare Cost Estimates, Office of the Actuary. Health Care
         Financing Administration. Washington. Feb. 1989.
3Medicare enrollment, # served & payments for age>65:'67,77,86
 Table 125. Medicare enrollment, persons served, and payments for Medicare
            enrollees 65 years of age and over, according to selected
            characteristics: United States and other areas: 1967, 1977,
            and 1986
 (Data are compiled by the Health Care Financing Administration)
                                 Enrollment               Persons served per
                                in millions1/              1,000 enrollees2/
   Characteristic        1967       1977      1986      1967    1977     1986
 Total..............     19.5       23.8      28.8       367     570      732
         Age
 65-66 years........      2.8        3.3       3.9       300     533      652
 67-68 years........      2.6        3.2       3.5       326     511      656
 69-70 years........      2.4        2.9       3.3       339     531      689
 71-72 years........      2.3        2.6       3.1       351     555      719
 73-74 years........      2.1        2.3       2.8       369     576      735
 75-79 years........      3.9        4.5       5.6       398     597      768
 80-84 years........      2.2        3.0       3.6       430     623      808
 85 years and over..      1.3        2.1       2.9       465     652      827
         Sex
 Male...............      8.3        9.6      11.5       357     546      691
 Female.............     11.3       14.2      17.3       373     586      759
       Race4/
 White..............     17.4       21.1      25.2       375     576      738
 Other..............      1.5        2.1       2.7       260     514      683
 Geographic region5/
 Northeast..........      5.1        5.7       6.5       385     613      775
 Midwest............      5.6        6.3       7.3       352     541      729
 South..............      5.6        7.5       9.4       351     556      736
 West...............      2.9        3.8       5.0       455     632      727
                                 Payments per                Payments per
                                person served3/               enrollee3/
   Characteristic        1967       1977      1986      1967    1977     1986
 Total..............     $592     $1,332    $2,870      $217    $759   $2,100
         Age
 65-66 years........      496       1075      2118       149     573     1381
 67-68 years........      521       1173      2441       170     599     1601
 69-70 years........      530       1211      2579       180     643     1777
 71-72 years........      560       1228      2777       197     681     1997
 73-74 years........      574       1319      2910       212     759     2140
 75-79 years........      624       1430      3100       248     853     2380
 80-84 years........      693       1549      3310       298     965     2674
 85 years and over..      740       1636      3477       345    1068     2875
         Sex
 Male...............      647       1505      3272       231     821     2261
 Female.............      554       1223      2626       207     717     1992
       Race4/
 White..............      593       1328      2842       222     765     2097
 Other..............      557       1404      3185       145     722     2174
 Geographic region5/
 Northeast..........      604       1426      2933       233     874     2274
 Midwest............      599       1401      2894       211     757     2110
 South..............      528       1198      2744       186     666     2018
 West...............      620       1341      3051       282     848     2218
 1/Includes fee-for-service and Health Maintenance Organization (HMO)
 enrollees and is as of July 1 each year.
 2/Excludes HMO enrollees.
 3/Excludes amounts for HMO services.
 4/Excludes persons of unknown race.
 5/Includes the resident population of the United States but not residence
 unknown.
 NOTES: Data includes the United States, residence unknown, Puerto Rico,
        Virgin Islands, Guam, other outlying areas and foreign countries.
        Some numbers in this table have been revised and differ from
        previous editions of Health, United States.
 SOURCE: Bureau of Data Management and Strategy, Health Care Financing
         Administration: Unpublished data.
3Rates non-Fed hosp utilization&age/disabled Medicare payment'80s
 Table 126. Selected rates of non-Federal short-stay hospital utilization and
            benefit payments for aged and disabled Medicare enrollees,
            according to geographic division: United States, 1980, 1984,
            and 1987
 (Data are compiled by the Health Care Financing Administration)

                           Discharges from           Average length of stay in
                         short-stay hospitals           short-stay hospitals
 Geographic division    1980      1984      1987      1980      1984      1987
                         Number per 1,000 hospital       Number of days per
                            insurance enrollees          hospital discharge
 United States.......    372       371       324      10.6       8.9       9.0
 New England..........   333       343       299      12.1      10.4      10.5
 Middle Atlantic......   329       348       318      13.4      11.8      11.4
 East North Central...   373       367       327      11.2       9.0       8.8
 West North Central...   426       400       324       9.9       7.9       8.0
 South Atlantic.......   372       375       320      10.3       8.6       9.2
 East South Central...   436       450       410       9.6       8.1       8.2
 West South Central...   433       436       355       9.1       7.7       8.0
 Mountain.............   360       333       298       8.7       7.3       7.1
 Pacific..............   338       326       288       8.7       7.3       7.5
                                             Benefit payments
                         Average total charges in
                          short-stay hospitals1/         Hospital insurance2/
                        1980      1984      1987      1980      1984      1987
                              Amount per day            Amount per enrollee
 United States........  $296      $552      $763      $909    $1,466    $1,587
 New England..........   295       496       659       978      1543      1497
 Middle Atlantic......   304       502       642       965      1596      1649
 East North Central...   298       560       769      1008      1542      1753
 West North Central...   246       506       724       888      1387      1461
 South Atlantic.......   277       538       749       818      1346      1414
 East South Central...   249       491       709       754      1296      1621
 West South Central...   259       516       773       798      1434      1546
 Mountain.............   310       623       899       782      1269      1478
 Pacific..............   424       819      1119      1003      1551      1657
                           Average days of care in
                             short-stay hospitals
  Geographic division       1980      1984      1987
                          Number per 1,000 hospital
                              insurance enrollees
 United States........      4016      3297      2902
 New England..........      4130      3562      3130
 Middle Atlantic......      4528      4099      3607
 East North Central...      4243      3288      2882
 West North Central...      4371      3176      2603
 South Atlantic.......      3880      3205      2928
 East South Central...      4260      3649      3358
 West South Central...      4025      3364      2856
 Mountain.............      3243      2432      2128
 Pacific..............      2988      2389      2161
                                 Benefit payments
                                   Supplementary
                                 medical insurance
                            1980      1984      1987
 United States........      $390      $672      $996
 New England..........       402       672      1165
 Middle Atlantic......       428       763      1075
 East North Central...       370       636       991
 West North Central...       304       477       735
 South Atlantic.......       384       663       954
 East South Central...       281       479       786
 West South Central...       352       652       960
 Mountain.............       368       625       931
 Pacific..............       509       863      1199
 1/Includes charges for Medicare covered and noncovered services and days.
 2/Benefit payments represent cash-flow disbursements from the Medicare
 Hospital Insurance and Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Funds for all
 types of covered services and include retroactive adjustments for nonbilling
 reimbursement such as Prospective Payment System passthroughs (capital,
 direct medical education, kidney acquisitions, and bad debts by Medicare
 patients), indirect medical education, lump sum interim payments, and
 audited fiscal year cost adjustments. Approximately 90 percent of
 total benefit payments are for short-stay hospital services.
 SOURCE: Health Care Financing Administration: Unpublished data.
3Medicaid recipient & medical vendor payment by eligibility'72-88
 Table 127. Medicaid recipients and medical vendor payments, according to
            basis of eligibility: United States, selected years 1972-88
 (Data are compiled by the Health Care Financing Administration)
      Basis of eligibility        19721/       19751/       19802/      19842/
           Recipients                          Number in millions
 All recipients................    17.6         22.0         21.6        21.6
                                              Percent distribution
 Total.........................   100.0        100.0          ...         ...
 Aged3/........................    18.8         16.4         15.9        15.0
 Blind and disabled............     9.8         11.2         13.5        13.5
 Adults in AFDC4/ families.....    17.8         20.6         22.6        25.9
 Children in AFDC4/ families...    44.5         43.6         43.2        44.8
 Other Title XIX5/.............     9.0          8.2          6.9         5.5
        Vendor payments                        Amount in billions
 All payments..................    $6.3        $12.2        $23.3       $33.9
                                              Percent distribution
 Total.........................   100.0        100.0        100.0       100.0
 Aged3/........................    30.6         35.6         37.5        37.8
 Blind and disabled............    22.2         25.7         32.7        35.3
 Adults in AFDC4/ families.....    15.3         16.8         13.9        13.0
 Children in AFDC4/ families...    18.1         17.9         13.4        11.7
 Other Title XIX5/.............    13.9          4.0          2.6         2.1
 Vendor payments per recipient                       Amount
 All recipients................    $358         $556       $1,079      $1,569
 Aged3/........................     580         1206         2540        3958
 Blind and disabled............     807         1276         2618        4112
 Adults in AFDC4/ families.....     307          455          662         789
 Children in AFDC4/ families...     145          228          335         411
 Other Title XIX5/.............     555          273          398         590
      Basis of eligibilit         19852/       19862/       19872/      19882/
           Recipients                           Number in millions
 All recipients................    21.8         22.5         23.1        22.9
                                               Percent distribution
 Total.........................    ...          ...          ...         ...
 Aged3/........................    14.0         13.9         14.1        13.8
 Blind and disabled............    13.8         14.2         14.6        15.2
 Adults in AFDC4/ families.....    25.3         25.1         24.2        24.0
 Children in AFDC4/ families...    44.7         44.4         44.0        43.8
 Other Title XIX5/.............     5.6          6.0          6.1         5.9
        Vendor payments                        Amount in billions
 All payments..................   $37.5        $41.0        $45.0       $48.7
                                              Percent distribution
 Total.........................   100.0        100.0        100.0       100.0
 Aged3/........................    37.6         36.8         35.6        35.2
 Blind and disabled............    35.9         36.4         37.3        38.2
 Adults in AFDC4/ families.....    12.7         11.9         12.4        12.1
 Children in AFDC4/ families...    11.8         12.5         12.2        12.0
 Other Title XIX5/.............     2.1          2.4          2.4         2.5
 Vendor payments per recipient                      Amount
 All recipients................  $1,719       $1,821       $1,949      $2,126
 Aged3/........................    4605         4808         4974        5426
 Blind and disabled............    4459         4686         4974        5332
 Adults in AFDC4/ families.....     860          864          999        1069
 Children in AFDC4/ families...     452          512          542         583
 Other Title XIX5/.............     657          720          763         892
 1/Data for fiscal year ending June 30.
 2/Data for fiscal year ending September 30. Recipients included in more
 than 1 category.
 3/65 years and over.
 4/Aid to Families with Dependent Children.
 5/Includes some participants in Supplemental Security Income program and
 other people deemed medically needy in participating States.
 SOURCE: Bureau of Data Management and Strategy, Health Care Financing
         Administration: Unpublished data.
3Medicaid recipient &medical vendor payment by type service'72-88
 Table 128. Medicaid recipients and medical vendor payments, according to type
            of service: United States, selected fiscal years 1972-88
 (Data are compiled by the Health Care Financing Administration)
          Type of service         19721/      19751/       19802/       19842/
            Recipients                           Number in millions
 All recipients................... 17.6        22.0         21.6         21.6
                                              Percent of recipients3/
 Inpatient services:
   General hospitals.............. 16.1        15.6         17.0         16.0
   Mental hospitals...............  0.2         0.3          0.3          0.2
 Skilled nursing facility
  services........................  3.1         2.9          2.8          2.6
 Intermediate care facility
  services:
   Mentally retarded..............  ---         0.3          0.6          0.7
   All other......................  ---         3.1          3.7          3.7
 Physician services............... 69.8        69.1         63.7         65.7
 Dental services.................. 13.6        17.9         21.5         22.9
 Other practitioner services......  9.1        12.1         15.0         15.5
 Outpatient hospital services..... 29.6        33.8         44.9         46.4
 Clinic services..................  2.8         4.9          7.1          9.4
 Laboratory and radiological
  services........................ 20.0        21.5         14.9         22.3
 Home health services.............  0.6         1.6          1.8          2.0
 Prescribed drugs................. 63.3        64.3         63.4         64.5
 Family planning services.........  ...         5.5          5.2          7.3
 Early and periodic screening.....  ...         ...          ...          8.6
 Rural health clinic services.....  ...         ...          ...          0.4
 Other care....................... 14.4        13.2         11.9         11.7
          Vendor payments                      Amount in billions
 All payments..................... $6.3       $12.2        $23.3        $33.9
                                              Percent distribution
 Total............................100.0       100.0        100.0        100.0
 Inpatient services:
   General hospitals.............. 40.6        27.6         27.5         26.1
   Mental hospitals...............  1.8         3.3          3.3          3.1
 Skilled nursing facility
  services........................ 23.3        19.9         15.8         14.2
 Intermediate care facility
  services:
   Mentally retarded..............  ---         3.1          8.5         12.6
   All other......................  ---        15.4         18.0         17.2
 Physician services............... 12.6        10.0          8.0          6.6
 Dental services..................  2.7         2.8          2.0          1.4
 Other practitioner services......  0.9         1.0          0.8          0.7
 Outpatient hospital services.....  5.8         3.0          4.7          4.9
 Clinic services..................  0.7         3.2          1.4          1.8
 Laboratory and radiological
  services........................  1.3         1.0          0.5          0.6
 Home health services.............  0.4         0.6          1.4          2.3
 Prescribed drugs.................  8.1         6.7          5.7          5.8
 Family planning services.........  ...         0.5          0.3          0.5
 Early and periodic screening.....  ...         ...          ...          0.2
 Rural health clinic services.....  ...         ...          ...          0.0
 Other care.......................  1.8         1.9          1.9          2.2
   Vendor payments per recipient                     Amount
 Total payment per recipient...... $358        $556       $1,079       $1,569
 Inpatient services:
   General hospitals..............  903         983         1742         2552
   Mental hospitals............... 2825        6045        11742        29771
 Skilled nursing facility
  services........................ 2665        3863         6081         8605
 Intermediate care facility
  services:
   Mentally retarded..............  ---        5507        16438        30184
   All other......................  ---        2764         5326         7315
 Physician services...............   65          81          136          156
 Dental services..................   71          86           99           95
 Other practitioner services......   37          48           61           69
 Outpatient hospital services.....   70          50          113          164
 Clinic services..................   82         358          209          292
 Laboratory and radiological
  services........................   23          27           38           43
 Home health services.............  229         204          847         1767
 Prescribed drugs.................   46          58           96          141
 Family planning services.........  ...          55           72          104
 Early and periodic screening.....  ...         ...          ...           42
 Rural health clinic services.....  ...         ...          ...           75
 Other care.......................   44          80          172          298
          Type of service         19852/      19862/       19872/       19882/
            Recipients                          Number in millions
 All recipients................... 21.8        22.5         23.1         22.9
                                             Percent of recipients3/
 Inpatient services:
   General hospitals.............. 15.7        15.7         16.3         16.7
   Mental hospitals...............  0.3         0.2          0.2          0.3
 Skilled nursing facility
  services........................  2.5         2.5          2.5          2.5
 Intermediate care facility
  services:
   Mentally retarded..............  0.7         0.6          0.6          0.6
   All other......................  3.8         3.7          3.7          3.8
 Physician services............... 66.0        66.2         66.5         66.6
 Dental services.................. 21.4        22.9         22.2         22.1
 Other practitioner services...... 15.4        15.3         15.3         15.2
 Outpatient hospital services..... 46.2        47.5         47.5         46.0
 Clinic services..................  9.7         9.0          9.4          9.8
 Laboratory and radiological
  services........................ 29.1        31.6         32.9         33.1
 Home health services.............  2.5         2.6          2.6          2.5
 Prescribed drugs................. 63.8        65.3         65.3         66.9
 Family planning services.........  7.5         7.7          7.1          6.7
 Early and periodic screening.....  8.7         9.5          9.7         10.0
 Rural health clinic services.....  0.4         0.5          0.6          0.6
 Other care....................... 15.5        14.7         15.6         18.2
          Vendor payments                      Amount in billions
 All payments.....................$37.5       $41.0        $45.1        $48.7
                                              Percent distribution
 Total............................100.0       100.0        100.0        100.0
 Inpatient services:
   General hospitals.............. 25.2        25.3         25.1         24.8
   Mental hospitals...............  3.2         2.7          3.1          2.8
 Skilled nursing facility
  services........................ 13.5        13.8         13.2         13.0
 Intermediate care facility
  services:
   Mentally retarded.............. 12.6        12.4         12.4         12.4
   All other...................... 17.4        16.5         16.2         16.3
 Physician services...............  6.3         6.2          6.2          6.1
 Dental services..................  1.2         1.3          1.2          1.2
 Other practitioner services......  0.7         0.6          0.6          0.6
 Outpatient hospital services.....  4.8         4.8          4.9          5.0
 Clinic services..................  1.9         2.0          2.1          2.3
 Laboratory and radiological
  services........................  0.9         1.0          1.1          1.1
 Home health services.............  3.0         3.3          3.8          4.1
 Prescribed drugs.................  6.2         6.6          6.6          6.8
 Family planning services.........  0.5         0.6          0.5          0.4
 Early and periodic screening.....  0.2         0.2          0.3          0.3
 Rural health clinic services.....  0.0         0.0          0.0          0.0
 Other care.......................  2.5         2.7          2.7          2.9
   Vendor payments per recipient                    Amount
 Total payment per recipient.....$1,719      $1,821       $1,949       $2,126
 Inpatient services:
   General hospitals.............. 2753        2924         3000         3151
   Mental hospitals...............19867       21000        24719        22917
 Skilled nursing facility
  services........................ 9274        9912        10432        10974
 Intermediate care facility
  services:
   Mentally retarded..............32102       34979        37523        41531
   All other...................... 7882        8180         8575         9149
 Physician services...............  163         171          181          193
 Dental services..................   98         103          105          114
 Other practitioner services......   75          73           74           82
 Outpatient hospital services.....  178         185          203          229
 Clinic services..................  337         398          441          490
 Laboratory and radiological
  services........................   53          60           63           72
 Home health services............. 2093        2280         2775         3541
 Prescribed drugs.................  166         183          198          215
 Family planning services.........  119         130          138          135
 Early and periodic screening.....   45          48           51           54
 Rural health clinic services.....   81          93          101          107
 Other care.......................  274         331          340          343
 1/Data for fiscal year ending June 30.
 2/Data for fiscal year ending September 30.
 3/Recipients included in more than 1 category.
 SOURCE: Bureau of Data Management and Strategy, Health Care Financing
         Administration: Unpublished data.
3Veterans medical care costs & % distribution--type service'65-88
 Table 129. Veterans medical care expenditures and percent distribution,
            according to type of service: United States, selected fiscal
            years 1965-88
 (Data are compiled from Veterans Administration sources)
          Type of service            19651/    19701/    19751/       1980
          Patients treated                    Number in thousands
 Inpatient hospital..............       730       787      1065       1235
 Outpatient care.................      5987      7312     13799      18206
 Veterans Administration nursing
  homes and domiciliaries........       ---        34        30         28
 Community nursing homes.........       ---        15        24         28
 All other3/.....................       ---        43        53         57
            Expenditures                      Amount in millions
 All expenditures4/..............    $1,150    $1,689    $3,328     $5,981
                                             Percent distribution
 All services....................     100.0     100.0     100.0      100.0
 Inpatient hospital..............      81.9      71.3      66.4       64.3
 Outpatient care.................      12.0      14.0      17.8       19.1
 Veterans Administration nursing
  homes and domiciliaries........       2.9       4.3       4.8        5.1
 Community nursing homes.........       0.0       1.2       1.4        2.0
 All other3/.....................       3.2       9.1       9.6        9.6
          Type of service              1985      1986    19872/       1988
          Patients treated                     Number in thousands
 Inpatient hospital..............      1306      1328      1077       1086
 Outpatient care.................     19586     20188     21890      23232
 Veterans Administration nursing
  homes and domiciliaries........        34        37        40         44
 Community nursing homes.........        39        41        42         42
 All other3/.....................        56        56        52         52
            Expenditures                      Amount in millions
 All expenditures4/..............    $8,936    $9,275    $9,673    $10,230
                                             Percent distribution
 All services....................     100.0     100.0     100.0      100.1
 Inpatient hospital..............      60.3      57.2      55.5       53.9
 Outpatient care.................      18.9      20.7      21.5       22.7
 Veterans Administration nursing
  homes and domiciliaries........       5.4       5.9       6.2        6.5
 Community nursing homes.........       3.0       3.3       3.4        3.5
 All other3/.....................      12.4      12.9      13.4       13.4
 1/Data for fiscal year ending June 30; all other data for fiscal year
 ending September 30.
 2/Reflects reclassification of 1-day dialysis treatment of ambulatory
 patients as an outpatient procedure rather than a 1-day hospital
 admission.
 3/Includes miscellaneous benefits and services, contract hospitals,
 education and training, subsidies to State veterans hospitals, nursing
 homes, and domiciliaries, and the Civilian Health and Medical Program
 of the Veterans Administration.
 4/Medical care expenditures exclude construction, medical
 administration, and miscellaneous operating expenses.
 SOURCE: Budget Office, Veterans Administration: Unpublished data.
3Mental health costs,% dist., & per capita costs by org.: '69-86
 Table 130. Mental health expenditures, percent distribution, and per capita
            expenditures, according to type of mental health organization:
            United States, selected years 1969-86
 (Data are based on inventories of mental health organizations)
          Type of organization              1969          1975          1979
                                                   Amount in thousands
 All organizations..................... $3,292,563    $6,564,312    $8,763,795
 State and county mental hospitals.....    1814101       3185049       3756754
 Private psychiatric hospitals.........     220026        466720        743037
 Non-Federal general hospitals with
  separate psychiatric services........     298000        621284        722868
 Veterans Administration medical
  centers1/............................     450000        699027        848469
 Federally funded community mental
  health centers.......................     143491        775580       1480890
 Residential treatment centers for
  emotionally disturbed children.......     122711        278950        436246
 Freestanding psychiatric
  outpatient clinics...................     185517        421557        588690
 All other organizations2/.............      58717        116145        186841
                                                  Percent distribution
 All organizations.....................      100.0         100.0         100.0
 State and county mental hospitals.....       55.1          48.5          42.9
 Private psychiatric hospitals.........        6.7           7.1           8.5
 Non-Federal general hospitals with
  separate psychiatric services........        9.0           9.5           8.2
 Veterans Administration medical
  centers1/............................       13.7          10.6           9.7
 Federally funded community mental
  health centers.......................        4.4          11.8          16.9
 Residential treatment centers for
  emotionally disturbed children.......        3.7           4.3           5.0
 Freestanding psychiatric
  outpatient clinics...................        5.6           6.4           6.7
 All other organizations2/.............        1.8           1.8           2.1
                                                      Amount per capita3/
 All organizations.....................        $17           $31           $40
 State and county mental hospitals.....          9            15            17
 Private psychiatric hospitals.........          1             2             3
 Non-Federal general hospitals with
  separate psychiatric services........          2             3             3
 Veterans Administration medical
  centers1/............................          2             3             4
 Federally funded community mental
  health centers.......................          1             4             7
 Residential treatment centers for
  emotionally disturbed children.......          1             1             2
 Freestanding psychiatric
  outpatient clinics...................          1             2             3
 All other organizations2/.............          0             1             1
          Type of organization               1983          1986
                                           Amount in thousands
 All organizations..................... $14,431,943   $18,457,741
 State and county mental hospitals.....     5491473       6325844
 Private psychiatric hospitals.........     1711907       2629009
 Non-Federal general hospitals with
  separate psychiatric services........     2175657       2877739
 Veterans Administration medical
  centers1/............................     1316127       1337943
 Federally funded community mental
  health centers.......................           -             -
 Residential treatment centers for
  emotionally disturbed children.......      572983        977616
 Freestanding psychiatric
  outpatient clinics...................      430025        518069
 All other organizations2/.............     2733771       3791521
                                             Percent distribution
 All organizations.....................       100.0         100.0
 State and county mental hospitals.....        38.0          34.4
 Private psychiatric hospitals.........        11.9          14.2
 Non-Federal general hospitals with
  separate psychiatric services........        15.1          15.6
 Veterans Administration medical
  centers1/............................         9.1           7.2
 Federally funded community mental
  health centers.......................           -             -
 Residential treatment centers for
  emotionally disturbed children.......         4.0           5.3
 Freestanding psychiatric
  outpatient clinics...................         3.0           2.8
 All other organizations2/.............        18.9          20.5
                                               Amount per capita3/
 All organizations.....................         $62           $77
 State and county mental hospitals.....          24            26
 Private psychiatric hospitals.........           7            11
 Non-Federal general hospitals with
  separate psychiatric services........           9            12
 Veterans Administration medical
  centers1/............................           6             6
 Federally funded community mental
  health centers.......................           -             -
 Residential treatment centers for
  emotionally disturbed children.......           2             4
 Freestanding psychiatric
  outpatient clinics...................           2             2
 All other organizations2/.............          12            16
 1/Includes Veterans Administration neuropsychiatric hospitals, general
 hospital psychiatric services, and psychiatric outpatient clinics.
 2/Includes freestanding psychiatric partial care organizations
 and multiservice mental health organizations. Multiservice mental health
 organizations were redefined in 1984; see Appendix I.
 3/Civilian population.
 NOTE: Changes in reporting procedures in 1983 affect the comparability of
       data with those from previous years.
 SOURCES: Survey and Reports Branch,Division of Biometry and Applied Sciences,
          National Institute of Mental Health: R. W. Manderscheid and S. A.
          Mental Health: R. W. Manderscheid and S. A. Barrett: Mental
          Health, United States, 1987. DHHS Pub. No. (ADM) 87-1518. U.S.
3State mental health agency per capita cost for services:81,83,85
 Table 131. State mental health agency per capita expenditures for mental
            health services, and average annual percent change, according
            to State: United States, fiscal years 1981, 1983, and 1985
                                                                Average annual
                                                                percent change
            State               1981       1983       1985          1981-85
                                                             Amount per capita
 United States.............      $27        $31        $35            6.8
 Alabama...................       20         24         28            8.7
 Alaska....................       38         41         45            4.3
 Arizona...................       10         10         12            4.8
 Arkansas..................       17         20         24            9.1
 California................       28         29         34            4.2
 Colorado..................       24         25         28            3.9
 Connecticut...............       32         39         44            8.5
 Delaware..................       44         51         46            0.9
 District of Columbia......      ---         23         28            ---
 Florida...................       20         23         26            6.4
 Georgia...................       25         26         23           -1.8
 Hawaii....................       19         22         23            4.7
 Idaho.....................       13         15         15            2.9
 Illinois..................       18         21         24            7.4
 Indiana...................       19         23         27            9.9
 Iowa......................        8         10         11            7.4
 Kansas....................       17         22         27           11.3
 Kentucky..................       15         17         19            6.1
 Louisiana.................       19         23         26            8.0
 Maine.....................       25         32         36            9.5
 Maryland..................       33         37         40            4.9
 Massachusetts.............       32         36         46            9.7
 Michigan..................       32         39         49           10.8
 Minnesota1/...............       17         30         32           17.3
 Mississippi...............       14         16         24           14.8
 Missouri..................       24         25         28            4.1
 Montana...................       24         28         29            4.5
 Nebraska..................       16         19         21            6.6
 Nevada....................       22         25         26            4.4
 New Hampshire.............       35         39         42            4.9
 New Jersey................       26         31         36            7.9
 New Mexico................       24         25         25            0.9
 New York..................       67         74         90            7.8
 North Carolina............       24         29         38           12.2
 North Dakota..............       38         42         36           -1.5
 Ohio......................       25         28         30            5.3
 Oklahoma..................       22         33         31            8.8
 Oregon....................       20         21         25            5.0
 Pennsylvania..............       41         47         52            6.6
 Rhode Island..............       36         32         35           -0.7
 South Carolina............       31         33         33            1.4
 South Dakota..............       17         21         22            6.2
 Tennessee.................       18         20         23            6.3
 Texas.....................       13         16         17            7.3
 Utah......................       13         16         17            6.8
 Vermont...................       32         40         44            8.3
 Virginia..................       23         29         32            9.1
 Washington................       18         24         30           13.4
 West Virginia.............       20         20         22            2.5
 Wisconsin.................       22         27         28            5.5
 Wyoming...................       23         28         31            7.2
 1/1981 data not comparable with 1983 and 1985 data.
 SOURCE: National Institute of Mental Health: R. W. Manderscheid and
         S. A. Barrett: Mental Health, United States, 1987. DHHS Pub. No.
         (ADM) 87-1518. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1987.



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