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Scientific Data Documentation

Linked Birth/Infant Death File, 1985

DSN: CC36.NATAL85.LINK
     CC36.NATAL85.DENOM


ABSTRACT

Table of Contents

         Linked Birth/Infant Death (Numerator) File and
                    Birth (Denominator) File

                        Table of Contents

 1.   Introduction, Methodology, and Classification of Data.

 2.   Machine used, file and data characteristics.

 3.   List of data elements and locations.

 4.   Record layout and definition of items and codes.

 5.   County geographic codes available on the public-use file.

 6.   City geographic codes available on the public-use file.

 7.   Titles and codes for the 61 cause-of-death list.

 8.   Documentation tables 1-5.

 9.   Technical Appendix for the 1985 Natality file.

 10.  Technical Appendix for the 1985 Mortality file.

 11.  Technical Appendix for the 1985 Mortality file.

2Symbols Used in Tables
 Symbol    Explanation

    ---    Data not available.

    ...    Category not applicable

      -    Quantity zero

    0.0    Quantity more than 0 but less than 0.05

      *    Figure does not meet standards of reliability or precision

2Introduction
 The Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set consists of two separate data
 files.  The first file includes linked records of live births and infant
 deaths for the 1985 birth cohort -- also referred to as the numerator
 file.  The second file is the live birth file for 1985 -- referred to as
 the denominator file.  The files are offered as a numerator/denominator
 data set to give users the means to compute infant mortality rates.

 The 1985 linked file is comprised of deaths to infants born in 1985 who
 died in 1985 or 1986 before their first birthday.  Infant death records
 were extracted from the 1985 and 1986 National Center for Health
 Statistics (NCHS) mortality statistical files.  Linked birth records were
 extracted from a denominator file that Linked birth records were extracted
 from a denominator file that contained the 1985 NCHS natality statistical
 file and a small number of late-filed birth certificates.  Refer to the
 Methodology section for a more detailed explanation of records added to
 the statistical file.  the denominator file is not identical with the NCHS
 natality statistical file.

 The linked file of live births and infant deaths includes linked records
 for births and deaths that occurred in the United States to U.S. residents
 and to U.S. nonresidents.  Excluded are deaths that occurred outside the
 United States to infants born in the U.S.; deaths that occurred in the
 United States to foreign-born infants; and births and deaths that occurred
 outside the United States to U.S. residents.

 Sources for denominator data and for birth records included in the
 numerator file are described in detail in the 1985 Technical Appendix from
 the Natality Annual Volume; sources for death records included in the
 numerator file are described in detail in the 1985 and 1986 Technical
 Appendices, from the Mortality Annual Volumes.  Copies of these Technical
 Appendices are included in the this tape documentation.

 Because of confidentiality concerns, only those counties of 250,000 or
 more population and only those cities of 250,000 or more population are
 identified in this data set.  The population counts are based on the
 results of the 1980 census.  Users should refer to the geographic code
 outline in this document for the list of available areas and codes.

 In tabulations of linked data and denominator data, events occurring in
 the United States to U.S. nonresidents are included in tabulations that
 are by place of occurrence, and excluded from tabulations by place of
 residence.  For linked data, these exclusions are based on the usual place
 of residence item of the Mother.  This item is contained in both the
 denominator file and the birth section of the numerator (linked) file.
 U.S. nonresidents are identified by a code 4 in location 11 of these
 files.

1METHODOLOGY
 The methodology used to create the national file of linked birth and
 infant death records takes advantage of two existing data sources:

      1.   State linked files for the identification of linked birth and
           infant death certificates; and

      2.   NCHS natality and mortality computerized statistical files, the
           source of computer records for the two linked certificates.

 Virtually all States routinely link infant death certificates to their
 corresponding birth certificates for legal and statistical purposes.  When
 the birth and death of an infant occur in different States, linking the
 two records that are filed in different jurisdictions requires State
 cooperation for the exchange of records.  In accordance with the terms of
 the "Association for Vital Records and Health Statistics Agreement for
 Administering the Vital Records Exchange System," copies of the records
 are exchanged by the State of death and State of birth in order to effect
 a link.  In addition, if a third State is identified as the State of
 residence at the time of birth or death, that State is also sent a copy of
 the appropriate certificate by the State where the birth or death
 occurred.

 The NCHS natality and mortality files, produced annually, include
 statistical data from birth and death certificates that are provided to
 NCHS by States under the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program (VSCP).  The
 data have been coded according to uniform coding specifications, have
 passed rigid quality control standards, have been edited and reviewed, and
 are the basis for official U.S. birth and death statistics.

 To initiate processing, NCHS obtained computerized linked files from
 States that had them and extracted only the birth and death certificate
 numbers for linked records and State and year of occurrence.  The States
 of Alaska, Arizona, Delaware, Indiana, and Nevada provided linkage
 information by posting birth certificate numbers on a computer-generated
 list of infant death certificate numbers that was provided by NCHS.  A
 file that contained only State-provided identifiers for linked
 certificates was then matched to the NCHS mortality and natality
 statistical files.  Individual birth and death records were selected from
 their respective files and linked into a single statistical record,
 thereby establishing a national linked record file.

 After the initial linkage, NCHS returned to the States of death copies or
 computer lists of unlinked infant death certificates for followup linking.
 If the birth occurred in a State different from the State of death, the
 State of birth identified on the death certificate was contacted to obtain
 the linking birth certificate.

 If the linking birth certificate from another State had been renumbered,
 the State of death requested the original certificate number from the
 State of birth.  If the linked birth certificate had been filed after NCHS
 closed its statistical files, States provided NCHS a copy of the
 late-filed birth certificate.  These certificates were coded, keyed,
 processed, added to the denominator file and then linked to the infant
 death record.  Approximately 270 late-filed records were added to the
 denominator.

 The birth record in the denominator file includes an item in tape location
 1 that identifies whether or not the record is linked to an infant death.
 This item is included in the denominator record for users who would want
 to identify individual records for which the infant died in the first year
 of life, or survived.

1DEMOGRAPHIC AND MEDICAL CLASSIFICATION
 The documents listed below described in detail the procedures employed for
 demographic classification on both the birth and death records and medical
 classification on death records.  While not absolutely essential to the
 proper interpretation of the data for a number of general applications,
 these documents should nevertheless be studied carefully prior to any
 detailed analysis of demographic or medical (especially multiple cause)
 data variables.  In particular, there are a number of exceptions to the
 ICD rules in multiple cause-of-death coding which, if not treated
 properly, may result in faulty analysis of the data.

 A.   Manual of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases,
      Injuries, and the Cause-of-Death, Ninth Revision (ICD-9)  Volumes 1
      and 2.

 B.   NCHS Instruction Manual Data Preparation Part 2a, Vital Statistics
      Instructions for Classifying the Underlying Cause-of Death, 1985.

 C.   NCHS Instruction Manual Data Preparation, Part 2b, Vital Statistics,
      Instructions for Classifying Multiple Cause-of-Death, 1985.

 D.   NCHS Instruction Manual Data Preparation, Part 2c, Vital Statistics
      ICD- 9 ACME Decision Tables for Classifying Underlying
      Causes-of-Death, 1985.

 E.   NCHS Instruction Manual Data Preparation, Part 2d, Vital Statistics
      NCHS Procedures for Mortality Medical Data System File Preparation
      and Maintenance, Effective 1979.

 F.   NCHS Instruction Manual Data Tabulation, Part 2f, Vital Statistics
      ICD-9 TRANSAX Disease Reference Tables for Classifying Multiple
      Causes-of- Death, 1982-86.

 G.   NCHS Instruction Manual Data Preparation, Part 3a, Vital Statistics
      Classification and Coding Instructions for Live Birth Records, 1985.

 H.   NCHS Instruction Manual Data Preparation, Part 3a, Vital Statistics
      Classification and Coding Instructions for Live Birth records, 1985.

 I.   NCHS Instruction Manual Tabulation, Part 11, Vital Statistics
      Computer Edits for Mortality Data, Effective, 1979.

 Volumes 1 and 2 of the ICD-9 may be purchased from WHO Publication Center
 USA, 49 Sheridan Avenue, Albany, New York, 12210.  The remaining documents
 may be requested from the Chief, Data Preparation Branch, Division of Data
 Processing, National Center for Health Statistics, P.O. Box 12214,
 Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709.

 In addition, the user should refer to the Technical Appendices of the
 Vital Statistics of the Untied States for information on the source of
 data, coding procedures, quality of the data, etc.  The Technical
 Appendices for natality and mortality are part of this documentation
 package.

1CAUSE-OF-DEATH DATA
 Mortality data are traditionally analyzed and published in terms of
 underlying cause-of-death.  The underlying cause-of-death data are coded
 and classified as described in the 1984 and 1985 Mortality Technical
 Appendices.  NCHS has augmented underlying cause-of-death data with data
 on multiple causes reported on the death certificate.  The linked file
 includes both underlying and multiple causes-of-death data.

 The multiple cause of death codes were developed with two objectives in
 mind.  First, to facilitate etiological studies of the relationships among
 conditions, it was necessary to reflect accurately in coded form each
 condition and its location on the certification in the exact manner given
 by the certifier.  Secondly, coding needed to be carried out in a manner
 by which the underlying cause-of-death could be assigned through computer
 applications.  The approach was to suspend the linkage provisions of the
 ICD for the purpose of condition coding and code each entity with minimum
 regard to other conditions present on the certification.  This general
 approach is hereafter called entity coding.

 Unfortunately, the set of multiple cause codes produced by entity coding
 is not conducive to a third objective -- the generation of person based
 multiple cause statistics.  Person based analysis requires that each
 condition be coded within the context of every other condition on the same
 certificate and modified or linked to such conditions as provided by
 ICD-9.  By definition, the entity data cannot meet this requirement since
 the linkage provisions distort the character and placement of the
 information originally recorded by the certifying physician.

 Since the two objectives are incompatible, NCHS has chosen to create from
 the original set of entity codes a new code set called record axis
 multiple cause data.  Essentially, the axis of classification has been
 converted from an entity basis to a record (or person) basis.  The record
 axis codes are assigned in terms of the set of codes that best describe
 the overall medical certification portion of the death certificate.

 This translation is accomplished by a computer system called TRANSAX
 (TRANSLATION OF AXIS) through selective use of traditional linkage and
 modification rules for mortality coding.  Underlying cause linkages which
 simply prefer one code over another for purposes of underlying cause
 selection are not included.  Each entity code on the record is examined
 and modified or deleted as necessary to create a set of codes which are
 free of contradictions and are the most precise within the constraints of
 contradictions and are the most precise within the constraints of ICD-9
 and medical information on the record.  Repetitive codes are deleted.  the
 process may (1) combine two entity axis categories together to a new
 category thereby eliminating a contradiction or standardizing the data; or
 (2) eliminate one category in favor of another to promote specificity of
 the data or resolve contradictions.  The following examples from ICD-9
 illustrate the effect of this translations.

 Case 1:   When reported o the same record as separate entities, cirrhosis
           of liver and alcoholism are coded to 5715 (cirrhosis of liver
           without mention of alcohol) and 303 (alcohol dependence
           syndrome).  Tabulation of records with 5715 would on the surface
           falsely imply that such records had no mention of alcohol.  A
           preferable codification would be 5712 (alcoholic cirrhosis of
           liver) in lieu of both 5715 and 303.

 Case 2:   If "gastric ulcer" and "bleeding gastric ulcer" are reported on
           a record they are coded to 5319 (gastric ulcer, unspecified as
           acute or chronic, without mention of hemorrhage or perforation)
           and 5314 (gastric ulcer, chronic or unspecified, with
           hemorrhage).  A more concise codification would be to code 5314
           only since the 5314 shows both the gastric ulcer and the
           bleeding.

 A.   Entity Axis Codes

      The original conditions coded for selection of the underlying
      cause-of- death are reformatted and edited prior to creating the
      public-use tape.  The following paragraphs describe the format and
      application of entity axis data.

 FORMAT:  Each entity-axis code is displayed as an overall seven byte code
 with subcomponents as follows:

 1.   Line indicator:          This first byte represents the line of the
                               certificate on which the code appears.  Six
                               lines (1-6) are allowable with the fourth
                               and fifth denoting one or two written in
                               "due to"s beyond the three lines provided in
                               Part I of the U.S.  standard death
                               certificate.  Line "6" represents Part II of
                               the certificate.

 2.   Position indicator:      The next bye indicates the position of the
                               code on the line, i.e., it is the first (1),
                               second (2), third (3),...  eighth (8) code
                               on the line.

 3.   Cause category:          The next four bytes represent the ICD- 9
                               cause code.

 4.   Nature of injury flag:   ICD-9 uses the same series of numbers
                               (800-999) to indicate nature of injury (N
                               codes) and external cause codes (E codes).
                               This flag distinguishes between the two with
                               a one (1) representing nature of injury
                               codes and a zero (0) representing all other
                               cause codes.

 A maximum of 20 of these seven byte codes are captured on a record for
 multiple cause purposes.  this may consist of a maximum of 8 codes on any
 given line with up to 20 codes distributed across three or more lines
 depending on where the subject conditions are located on the certificate.
 Codes may be omitted from one or more lines, e.g., line 1 with one or more
 codes, line 2 with no codes, line 3 with one or more codes.

 In writing out these codes, they are ordered as follows:  line 1 first
 code, line 1 second code, etc. ----- line 2 first code, line 2 second
 code, etc. --- -- line 3 ----- line 4 ----- line 5 ----- line 6.  Any
 space remaining in the field is left blank.  The specifics of locations
 are contained in the record layout given later in this document.

 EDIT:  The original conditions are edited to remove invalid codes,
 reverify the coding of certain rare causes of death, and assure age/cause
 and sex/cause compatibility.  Detailed information relating to the edit
 criteria and the sets of cause codes which are valid to underlying cause
 coding and multiple cause coding are provided in Part 11 of the NCHS Vital
 Statistics Instruction Manual Series.

 ENTITY AXIS APPLICATIONS:  The entity axis multiple cause data is
 appropriate to analyses which require that each condition be coded as a
 stand alone entity without linkage to other conditions and/or require
 information on the placement of such conditions in the certificate.
 Within this framework, the entity data are appropriate to the examination
 of etiological relationships among conditions, accuracy of certification
 reporting, and the validity of traditional assumptions in underlying cause
 selection.  Additionally, the entity data provide in certain categories a
 more detailed code assignment which is linked out in the creation of
 record axis data.  Where such detail is needed for a study, the user
 should selectively employ entity data.  Finally, the researcher may not
 wish to be bound by the assumptions used in the axis translation process
 preferring rather to investigate hypotheses of his own predilection.

 By definition, the main limitation of entity axis data is that an entity
 codes does not necessarily reflect the best code for a condition when
 considered with the context of the medical certification as a whole.  As a
 result certain entity codes can be misleading or even contradict other
 codes in the record.  For example, category 5750 is titled "Acute
 cholecystitis without mention of calculus".  Within the framework of
 entity codes this is interpreted to mean that the codable entity itself
 contained no mention of calculus rather than that calculus was not
 mentioned anywhere on the record.  Tabulation of records with a "5750" as
 a count of persons having acute cholecystitis without mention of calculus
 would therefore be erroneous.  This illustrates the fact that under entity
 coding the ICD-9 titles cannot be taken literally.  the user must study
 the rules for entity coding as they relate to his/her research prior to
 utilization of entity data.  The user is further cautioned that the
 inclusion note sin ICD-9 which relate to modifying and combining
 categories are seldom applicable to entity coding (except where provided
 in Part 2b of the Vital Statistics Instruction Manual Series).

 In tabulating the entity axis data, one may count codes with the resultant
 tabulation of an individual code representing the number of times the
 disease(s) represented by the code appears in the file.  In this kind of
 tabulation of morbid condition prevalence, the counts among categories may
 be added together to produce counts for groups of codes.  Alternatively,
 subject to the limitations given above, one may count persons having
 mention of the disease represented by a code or codes.  In this instance
 it is not correct to add counts for individual codes to create person
 counts for groups of codes.  Since more than one code in the researcher's
 interest may appear together on the certificate, totaling must account for
 higher order interactions among codes.  Up to 20 codes may be assigned on
 a record; therefore, a 20-way interaction is theoretically possible.  All
 totaling must be based on mention of one or more of the categories under
 investigation.

 B.   Record Axis Codes

 The following paragraphs describe the format and application of record-
 axis data.  Part 2f of the Vital Statistics Instruction Manual Series
 describes the TRANSAX process for creating record axis data from entity
 axis data.  FORMAT:  Each record (or person) axis code is displayed in
 five bytes.  Location information is not relevant.  The Code consists of
 the following components:

 1.  Cause category:      The first four bytes represent the ICD-9 cause
                          code.

 2.  Nature of injury flag:The last bye contains a 0 or 1 with the 1
                          indicating that the cause is a nature of injury
                          category.

 Again, a maximum of 20 codes are captured on a record for multiple cause
 purposes.  The codes are written in a 100-byte field in ascending code
 number (5 bytes) order with any unused bytes left blank.

 EDIT:The record axis codes are edited for rare causes and age/cause and
 se/cause compatibility.  Likewise, individual code validity is checked.
 The valid code set for record axis coding is the same as that for entity
 coding.

 RECORD AXIS APPLICATIONS:  The record axis multiple cause data set is the
 basis for NCHS core multiple cause tabulations.  Location of codes is not
 relevant to this data set and condition shave been linked in to the most
 meaningful categories for the certification.  the most immediate
 consequence for the user is that the codes on the record already represent
 mention of a disease assignable to that particular ICD-9 category.  This
 is in contrast to the entity code which is assigned each time such a
 disease is reported on two different lines of the certification.
 Secondly, the linkage implies that within the constraints of ICD-9 the
 most meaningful code has been assigned.  The translation process creates
 for the user a data set which is edited for contradictions, duplicate
 codes, and imprecisions.  In contrast to entity axis data, record axis
 data are classified in a manner comparable to underlying cause of death
 classification thereby facilitating joint analysis of these variables.
 Likewise, they are comparable to general morbidity coding where the
 linkage provisions of ICD-9 are usually utilized.  A potential
 disadvantage of record axis data is that some detail is sacrificed in a
 number of the linkages.

 The user can take the record axis codes as literally represen0000000e
 information conveyed in ICD-9 category titles.  While knowledge of the
 rules for combining  and linking and coding conditions is useful, it is
 not a prerequisite to meaningful analysis of the data as long as one is
 willing to accept the assumptions of the axis translation process.  The
 user is cautioned, however, that due to special rules in mortality coding,
 not all linkage notes in ICD-9 are utilized.  (See part 2f of the Vital
 Statistics Instruction Manual Series).  The user should proceed with
 caution in using record axis data to count conditions as opposed to people
 with conditions since linkages have been invoked and duplicate codes have
 been eliminated.  As with entity data, person based tabulations which
 combine individual cause categories must take into account the possible
 interaction of up to 20 codes on a single certificate.

 In using the NCHS multiple cause data, the user is urged to review the
 information in this document and its references. the instructional
 material does change from year to year and revision to revision.  The user
 is cautioned that coding of specific ICD-9 categories should be checked in
 the appropriate instruction manual.  What may appear on the surface to be
 the correct code by ICD-9 may in fact not be correct as given in the
 instruction manuals.

 If on the surface it is not obvious whether entity axis or record axis
 data should be employed in a given application, detailed examination of
 Part 2f of the Vital Statistics Instruction Manual Series and its
 attachments will probably provide the necessary information to make a
 decision.  It allows the user to determine information to make a decision.
 It allows the user to determine the extent of the trade-offs between the
 two sets of data in terms of specific categories and the assumptions of
 axis translation.  In certain situations, a combination of entity and
 record axis data may be the more appropriate alternative.

1MACHINE/FILE/DATA CHARACTERISTICS
 I.  Denominator File:

      A.  Machine used:        IBM/3091
      B.  Language used:       PB/I
      C.  File Organization:   One file, multiple reels
      D.  Record format:       Blocked, fixed format
      E.  Record count:        3,765,336
      F.  Record length:       91
      G.  Blocksize:           31941
      H.  Recording mode:      IBM/EBCDIC 8-bit code
      I.  Last block:          Numeric/Alphabetic/Blank
      J.  Code scheme:         May be a short block
      K.  Data counts:         a.  By occurrence:       3,765,336
                               b.  By residence:     3,760,833
                               c.  To foreign residents:  4,503


 II.  Numerator File:

      A.  Machine used:        IBM/3091
      B.  Language used:       PB/I
      C.  File Organization:   One file, multiple reels
      D.  Record format:       Blocked, fixed format
      E.  Record count:        39,170
      F.  Record length:       500
      G.  Blocksize:           32000
      H.  Recording mode:      IBM/EBCDIC 8-bit code
      I.  Last block:          Numeric/Alphabetic/Blank
      J.  Code scheme:         May be a short block
      K.  Data counts:         a.  By occurrence:          39,170
                               b.  By residence:        39,145
                               c.  To foreign residents:     25

1LIST OF DATA ELEMENTS AND LOCATIONS
                                    DenominatorNumerator File
      Data Items                    File      Birth     Death

 1.   General
      a.  Match status              1         1         -
      b.  Year of birth             2-5       2-5       -
      c.  Year of death             -         -         194-197
      d.  Record type               10        10        198
      e.  Resident status           11        11        199
      f.  Record weight             91        91        -

 2.   Occurrence
      a.  Region                    12        12        200
      b.  Division                  13        13        201
      c.  Expanded state            15-16     15-16     203-204
      d.  State                     17-18     17-18     205-206
      e.  County                    19-21     19-21     207-209

  3.  Residence
      a.  Region                    22        22        210
      b.  Division                  23        23        211
      c.  Expanded state            25-26     25-26     213-214
      d.  State                     27-28     27-28     215-216
      e.  County                    29-31     29-31     217-219
      f.  City                      32-34     32-34     220-222

 4.   Infant
      a.  Race                      36-37     36-37     -
      b.  Sex                       38        38        -
      c.  Age                       -         -         223-227
      d.  Gestation                 39-42     39-42     -
      e.  Birth weight              43-49     43-49     -
      f.  Plurality                 50        50        -
      g.  Apgar score               51-54     51-54     -

 5.   Mother
      a.  Origin or descent         55-56     55-56     -
      b.  Race                      57        57        -
      c.  Age                       58-61     58-61     -
      d.  Education                 62-64     62-64     -
      e.  Marital status            65        65        -
      f.  State of birth            66-67     66-67     -

 6.   Father
      a.  Origin or descent         68-69     68-69     -
      b.  Race                      70        70        -
      c.  Age                       71-72     71-72     -
      d.  Education                 73-74     73-74     -

 7.   Pregnancy items
      a.  Interval since last live birth75    75        -
      b.  Outcome of last pregnancy 76        76        -
      c.  Interval since last pregnancy77     77        -
      d.  Month prenatal care began 78-80     78-80     -
      e.  Number of prenatal visits 81-82     81-82     -
      f.  Total birth order         83-85     83-85     -
      g.  Live birth order          86-88     86-88     -

 8.   Medical data
      a.  Underlying cause          -         -         231-237
      b.  Multiple conditions       -         -         238-481

 9.   Other items
      a.  Place of delivery         89        89        -
      b.  Attendant at birth        90        90        -
      c.  Hospital and patient status-        -         228
      d.  Autopsy performed         -         -         229
      e.  Place of accident         -         -         230

1DENOMINATOR RECORD AND NATALITY SECTION OF LINKED RECORD
21.  Match Status
 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 1           1   Match Status

                   1    ... Matched Birth/Infant Death Record
                   2    ... Late Filed Matched Birth/Infant Death Record
                   3    ... Surviving Infant record

22-91.  Birth Certificate Data Information
 Residence items in the Denominator Record and in the natality section of
 the Numerator (Linked) Record refer to the usual place of residence of the
 Mother; whereas in the mortality section of the Numerator (Linked) Record,
 these items refer to the residence of the Decedent.

 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 2-5       4     Year of Birth
                   1985 ... Born in 1985

 6-9       4     Reserved positions

 10        1     Record Type
                   1    ... RESIDENTS
                               State and County of Occurrence and Residence
                               are the same.
                   2    ... NONRESIDENTS
                               State and/or County of Occurrence and
                               Residence are different.

 11        1     Resident Status
                   1    ... RESIDENTS
                               State and County of Occurrence and Residence
                               are the same.
                   2    ... INTRASTATE NONRESIDENTS
                               State of Occurrence and Residence are the
                               same, but County is different.
                   3    ... INTERSTATE NONRESIDENTS
                               State of Occurrence and Residence are
                               different, but both are in the U.S.
                   4    ... FOREIGN RESIDENTS
                               State of Occurrence is one of the 50 States
                               or the District of Columbia, but Place of
                               Residence is outside of the U.S.


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 12-21     10    PLACE OF OCCURRENCE

                   Refer to the Geographic Code Outline in this document
                   for a list of areas and codes available o the public-use
                   file.

 12         1    Region of Occurrence

 13-14      2    Division and State Subcode of Occurrence

                   Location 12 is Region.  Location 13 is Division and
                   Location 14 identifies States within that Division.

                   1           ... NORTHEAST
                     1         ...  New England
                        1      ...    Maine
                        2      ...    New Hampshire
                        3      ...    Vermont
                        4      ...    Massachusetts
                        5      ...    Rhode Island
                        6      ...    Connecticut
                     2         ...  Middle Atlantic
                        1      ...    New York
                        2      ...    New Jersey
                        3      ...    Pennsylvania

                   2           ... MIDWEST
                     3         ...  East North Central
                        1      ...    Ohio
                        2      ...    Indiana
                        3      ...    Illinois
                        4      ...    Michigan
                        5      ...    Wisconsin
                     4         ...  West North Central
                        1      ...    Minnesota
                        2      ...    Iowa
                        3      ...    Missouri
                        4      ...    North Dakota
                        5      ...    South Dakota
                        6      ...    Nebraska
                        7      ...    Kansas


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 12         1    Region - Continued

 13-14      2    Division and State Subcode - Continued

                   3           ...SOUTH
                     5         ...  South Atlantic
                        1      ...    Delaware
                        2      ...    Maryland
                        3      ...    District of Columbia
                        4      ...    Virginia
                        5      ...    West Virginia
                        6      ...    North Carolina
                        7      ...    South Carolina
                        8      ...    Georgia
                        9      ...    Florida
                     6         ...  East South Central
                        1      ...    Kentucky
                        2      ...    Tennessee
                        3      ...    Alabama
                        4      ...    Mississippi
                     7         ...  West South Central
                        1      ...    Arkansas
                        2      ...    Louisiana
                        3      ...    Oklahoma
                        4      ...    Texas

                   4           ...WEST
                     8         ...  Mountain
                        1      ...    Montana
                        2      ...    Idaho
                        3      ...    Wyoming
                        4      ...    Colorado
                        5      ...    New Mexico
                        6      ...    Arizona
                        7      ...    Utah
                        8      ...    Nevada
                     9         ...  Pacific
                        1      ...    Washington
                        2      ...    Oregon
                        3      ...    California
                        4      ...    Alaska
                        5      ...    Hawaii


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 15-16      2    Expanded State of Occurrence

                   This item is designed to separately identify New York city
                   records from upstate New York records.

                   01          ... Alabama
                   02          ... Alaska
                   03          ... Arizona
                   04          ... Arkansas
                   05          ... California
                   06          ... Colorado
                   07          ... Connecticut
                   08          ... Delaware
                   09          ... District of Columbia
                   10          ... Florida
                   11          ... Georgia
                   12          ... Hawaii
                   13          ... Idaho
                   14          ... Illinois
                   15          ... Indiana
                   16          ... Iowa
                   17          ... Kansas
                   18          ... Kentucky
                   19          ... Louisiana
                   20          ... Maine
                   21          ... Maryland
                   22          ... Massachusetts
                   23          ... Michigan
                   24          ... Minnesota
                   25          ... Mississippi
                   26          ... Missouri
                   27          ... Montana
                   28          ... Nebraska
                   29          ... Nevada
                   30          ... New Hampshire
                   31          ... New Jersey
                   32          ... New Mexico
                   33          ... New York
                   34          ... New York city
                   35          ... North Carolina
                   36          ... North Dakota
                   37          ... Ohio
                   38          ... Oklahoma
                   39          ... Oregon
                   40          ... Pennsylvania
                   41          ... Rhode Island


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 15-16      2    Expanded State of Occurrence - Continued

                   42          ... South Carolina
                   43          ... South Dakota
                   44          ... Tennessee
                   45          ... Texas
                   46          ... Utah
                   47          ... Vermont
                   48          ... Virginia
                   49          ... Washington
                   50          ... West Virginia
                   51          ... Wisconsin
                   52          ... Wyoming


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 17-18      2    State of Occurrence

                   Late filed birth certificates that were needed to match
                   to an infant death record, have been included in this
                   data set.

                   01          ... Alabama
                   02          ... Alaska
                   03          ... Arizona
                   04          ... Arkansas
                   05          ... California
                   06          ... Colorado
                   07          ... Connecticut
                   08          ... Delaware
                   09          ... District of Columbia
                   10          ... Florida
                   11          ... Georgia
                   12          ... Hawaii
                   13          ... Idaho
                   14          ... Illinois
                   15          ... Indiana
                   16          ... Iowa
                   17          ... Kansas
                   18          ... Kentucky
                   19          ... Louisiana
                   20          ... Maine
                   21          ... Maryland
                   22          ... Massachusetts
                   23          ... Michigan
                   24          ... Minnesota
                   25          ... Mississippi
                   26          ... Missouri
                   27          ... Montana
                   28          ... Nebraska
                   29          ... Nevada
                   30          ... New Hampshire
                   31          ... New Jersey
                   32          ... New Mexico
                   33          ... New York
                   34          ... North Carolina
                   35          ... North Dakota
                   36          ... Ohio
                   37          ... Oklahoma
                   38          ... Oregon
                   39          ... Pennsylvania
                   40          ... Rhode Island


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 17-18      2    State of Occurrence - Continued

                   41          ... South Carolina
                   42          ... South Dakota
                   43          ... Tennessee
                   44          ... Texas
                   45          ... Utah
                   46          ... Vermont
                   47          ... Virginia
                   48          ... Washington
                   49          ... West Virginia
                   50          ... Wisconsin
                   51          ... Wyoming

 19-21      3    County of Occurrence

                   Because of confidentiality concerns, counties with a
                   population less than 250,000 cannot be identified on the
                   public-use file.

                   001-nnn     ... Counties and county equivalents
                                   (independent and coextensive cities) are
                                   numbered alphabetically within each
                                   State.  (Note:  To uniquely identify a
                                   county, both the State and county codes
                                   must be used.)
                   999         ... County with less than 250,000 population


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 22-35     14    PLACE OF RESIDENCE

                   Refer to the Geographic Code Outline in this document
                   for a list of areas and codes available on the
                   public-use file.

 22         1    Region of Occurrence

 23-24      2    Division and State Subcode of Residence

                   Location 22 is Region.  Location 23 is Division and
                   Location 24 identifies States within that Division.

                   000             Foreign Resident

                   1           ... NORTHEAST
                     1         ...  New England
                        1      ...    Maine
                        2      ...    New Hampshire
                        3      ...    Vermont
                        4      ...    Massachusetts
                        5      ...    Rhode Island
                        6      ...    Connecticut
                     2         ...  Middle Atlantic
                        1      ...    New York
                        2      ...    New Jersey
                        3      ...    Pennsylvania

                   2           ... MIDWEST
                     3         ...  East North Central
                        1      ...    Ohio
                        2      ...    Indiana
                        3      ...    Illinois
                        4      ...    Michigan
                        5      ...    Wisconsin
                     4         ...  West North Central
                        1      ...    Minnesota
                        2      ...    Iowa
                        3      ...    Missouri
                        4      ...    North Dakota
                        5      ...    South Dakota
                        6      ...    Nebraska
                        7      ...    Kansas


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 22         1    Region - Continued

 23-24      2    Division and State Subcode - Continued

                   3           ...SOUTH
                     5         ...  South Atlantic
                        1      ...    Delaware
                        2      ...    Maryland
                        3      ...    District of Columbia
                        4      ...    Virginia
                        5      ...    West Virginia
                        6      ...    North Carolina
                        7      ...    South Carolina
                        8      ...    Georgia
                        9      ...    Florida
                     6         ...  East South Central
                        1      ...    Kentucky
                        2      ...    Tennessee
                        3      ...    Alabama
                        4      ...    Mississippi
                     7         ...  West South Central
                        1      ...    Arkansas
                        2      ...    Louisiana
                        3      ...    Oklahoma
                        4      ...    Texas

                   4           ...WEST
                     8         ...  Mountain
                        1      ...    Montana
                        2      ...    Idaho
                        3      ...    Wyoming
                        4      ...    Colorado
                        5      ...    New Mexico
                        6      ...    Arizona
                        7      ...    Utah
                        8      ...    Nevada
                     9         ...  Pacific
                        1      ...    Washington
                        2      ...    Oregon
                        3      ...    California
                        4      ...    Alaska
                        5      ...    Hawaii


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 25-26      2    Expanded State of Residence

                   This item is designed to separately identify New York city
                   records from upstate New York records.

                   01          ... Alabama
                   02          ... Alaska
                   03          ... Arizona
                   04          ... Arkansas
                   05          ... California
                   06          ... Colorado
                   07          ... Connecticut
                   08          ... Delaware
                   09          ... District of Columbia
                   10          ... Florida
                   11          ... Georgia
                   12          ... Hawaii
                   13          ... Idaho
                   14          ... Illinois
                   15          ... Indiana
                   16          ... Iowa
                   17          ... Kansas
                   18          ... Kentucky
                   19          ... Louisiana
                   20          ... Maine
                   21          ... Maryland
                   22          ... Massachusetts
                   23          ... Michigan
                   24          ... Minnesota
                   25          ... Mississippi
                   26          ... Missouri
                   27          ... Montana
                   28          ... Nebraska
                   29          ... Nevada
                   30          ... New Hampshire
                   31          ... New Jersey
                   32          ... New Mexico
                   33          ... New York
                   34          ... New York city
                   35          ... North Carolina
                   36          ... North Dakota
                   37          ... Ohio
                   38          ... Oklahoma
                   39          ... Oregon
                   40          ... Pennsylvania
                   41          ... Rhode Island


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 25-26      2    Expanded State of Residence - Continued

                   42          ... South Carolina
                   43          ... South Dakota
                   44          ... Tennessee
                   45          ... Texas
                   46          ... Utah
                   47          ... Vermont
                   48          ... Virginia
                   49          ... Washington
                   50          ... West Virginia
                   51          ... Wisconsin
                   52          ... Wyoming
                   53-58,60    ... Foreign Residents
                   53          ...  Puerto Rico
                   54          ...  Virgin Island
                   55          ...  Guam
                   56          ...  Canada
                   57          ...  Cuba
                   58          ...  Mexico
                   60          ...  Remainder of the world


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 27-28      2    State of Occurrence

                   01          ... Alabama
                   02          ... Alaska
                   03          ... Arizona
                   04          ... Arkansas
                   05          ... California
                   06          ... Colorado
                   07          ... Connecticut
                   08          ... Delaware
                   09          ... District of Columbia
                   10          ... Florida
                   11          ... Georgia
                   12          ... Hawaii
                   13          ... Idaho
                   14          ... Illinois
                   15          ... Indiana
                   16          ... Iowa
                   17          ... Kansas
                   18          ... Kentucky
                   19          ... Louisiana
                   20          ... Maine
                   21          ... Maryland
                   22          ... Massachusetts
                   23          ... Michigan
                   24          ... Minnesota
                   25          ... Mississippi
                   26          ... Missouri
                   27          ... Montana
                   28          ... Nebraska
                   29          ... Nevada
                   30          ... New Hampshire
                   31          ... New Jersey
                   32          ... New Mexico
                   33          ... New York
                   34          ... North Carolina
                   35          ... North Dakota
                   36          ... Ohio
                   37          ... Oklahoma
                   38          ... Oregon
                   39          ... Pennsylvania
                   40          ... Rhode Island


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 27-28      2    State of Residence - Continued

                   41          ... South Carolina
                   42          ... South Dakota
                   43          ... Tennessee
                   44          ... Texas
                   45          ... Utah
                   46          ... Vermont
                   47          ... Virginia
                   48          ... Washington
                   49          ... West Virginia
                   50          ... Wisconsin
                   51          ... Wyoming
                   52-57,59    ... Foreign Residents
                   52          ...  Puerto Rico
                   53          ...  Virgin Islands
                   54          ...  Guam
                   55          ...  Canada
                   56          ...  Cuba
                   57          ...  Mexico
                   59          ...  Remainder of the world


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 29-31      3    County of Residence

                   Because of confidentiality concerns, counties with a
                   population less than 250,000 cannot be identified on the
                   public-use file.

                   001-nnn     ... Counties and county equivalents
                                   (independent and coextensive cities) are
                                   numbered alphabetically within each
                                   State.  (Note:  To uniquely identify a
                                   county, both the State and county codes
                                   must be used.)
                   999         ... County with less than 250,000 population
                   ZZZ         ... Foreign residents


 32-34      3    City of Residence

                   Because of confidentiality concerns, cities with a
                   population less than 250,000 cannot be identified on the
                   public-use file.

                   001-nnn     ... Cities are numbered alphabetically
                                   within each State.  (Note:  To uniquely
                                   identify a city, both the State and city
                                   codes must be used.)
                   999         ... Entire county, Balance of County, or
                                   city less than 250,000 population
                   ZZZ         ... Foreign residents

 35         1    Reserved position


 36         1    Detail Race of Child

                   1           ... White
                   2           ... Black
                   3           ... American Indian (includes Aleuts and
                                   Eskimos)
                   4           ... Chinese
                   5           ... Japanese
                   6           ... Hawaiian (includes Part-Hawaiian)
                   7           ... Filipino
                   8           ... Other Asian or Pacific Islander
                   0           ... Other races


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 37        1     Race of Child Recode 3

                   1           ... White
                   2           ... Races other than White or Black
                   3           ... Black

 38        1     Sex of Child

                   1           ... Male
                   2           ... Female

 39-40     2     Detail Gestation in Weeks

                   17-52       ... 17th through 52nd week of gestation
                   99          ... Gestation not stated

 41-42     2     Gestation Recode 10

                   01          ... Under 20 weeks
                   02          ... 20 - 27 weeks
                   03          ... 28 - 31 weeks
                   04          ... 32 - 35 weeks
                   05          ... 36 weeks
                   06          ... 37 - 39 weeks
                   07          ... 40 weeks
                   08          ... 41 weeks
                   09          ... 42 weeks and over
                   10          ... Gestation not stated

 43-46     4     Birth weight - Detail in Grams

                   0227-8165   ... Number of grams
                   9999        ... Birth weight not stated


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 47-48     2     Birth weight Recode 14

                   01          ... 499 grams or less
                   02          ... 500 - 749 grams
                   03          ... 750 - 999 grams
                   04          ... 1000 - 1249 grams
                   05          ... 1250 - 1499 grams
                   06          ... 1500 - 1999 grams
                   07          ... 2000 - 2499 grams
                   08          ... 2500 - 2999 grams
                   09          ... 3000 - 3499 grams
                   10          ... 3500 - 3999 grams
                   11          ... 4000 - 4499 grams
                   12          ... 4500 - 4999 grams
                   13          ... 5000 - 8165 grams
                   14          ... Birth weight not stated

 49        1     Birth weight Recode 3

                   1           ... 2499 grams or less
                   2           ... 2500 grams or more
                   3           ... Birth weight not stated

 50        1     Plurality - Detail

                   1           ... Single Birth
                   2           ... Twin
                   3           ... Other Multiple Births

 51-52     2     One Minute Apgar Score

                   00-10       ... A score of 0-10
                   99          ... One minute Apgar score unknown or not
                                   stated

 53-54     2     Five Minute Apgar Score

                   00-10       ... A score of 0-10
                   99          ... Five minute Apgar score unknown or not
                                   stated


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 55-56     2     Origin or Descent of Mother

                   The Technical Appendix contains a table that shows which
                   States report Detail Ethnicity (codes 01-24, 99), which
                   States report Hispanic origin or Descent (codes 00-05,
                   99), and which States do not report either item (code
                   88).

                   00          ... Non - spanish
                   01          ... Mexican
                   02          ... Puerto Rican
                   03          ... Cuban
                   04          ... Central or South American
                   05          ... Other and Unknown Spanish
                   06          ... American
                   07          ... American Indian
                   08          ... British, Scottish, Welsh, Scotch-Irish
                   09          ... Irish
                   10          ... German
                   11          ... French
                   12          ... Norwegian, Swedish, Danish
                   13          ... Polish
                   14          ... Italian
                   15          ... Other North, Central and South American
                   16          ... Other Western European
                   17          ... Other Northern European
                   18          ... Other Eastern European
                   19          ... Other Southern European (excluding Spain)
                   20          ... Southeast Asian and Pacific Islander
                   21          ... South Central Asian
                   22          ... Other Asian
                   23          ... North African
                   24          ... Other African
                   88          ... Origin or descent of Mother not reported
                   99          ... Origin or descent of Mother not
                                   classifiable


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 57        1     Detail Race of Mother

                   1           ... White
                   2           ... Black
                   3           ... American Indian (includes Aleuts and
                                   Eskimos
                   4           ... Chinese
                   5           ... Japanese
                   6           ... Hawaiian (includes Part-Hawaiian)
                   7           ... Filipino
                   8           ... Other Asian or Pacific Islander
                   0           ... Other races
                   9           ... Race of Mother not stated

 58-59     2     Detail Age of Mother

                   10-49       ... Age in single years

 60-61     2     Age of Mother Recode 12

                   01          ... Under 15 years
                   03          ... 15 years
                   04          ... 16 years
                   05          ... 17 years
                   06          ... 18 years
                   07          ... 19 years
                   08          ... 20 - 24 years
                   09          ... 25 - 29 years
                   10          ... 30 - 34 years
                   11          ... 35 - 39 years
                   12          ... 40 - 44 years
                   13          ... 45 - 49 years


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 62 - 63   2     Mother's Education - Detail

                   00          ... No formal education
                   01-08       ... Years of elementary school
                   09          ... 1 year of high school
                   10          ... 2 years of high school
                   11          ... 3 years of high school
                   12          ... 4 years of high school
                   13          ... 1 year of college
                   14          ... 2 years of college
                   15          ... 3 years of college
                   16          ... 4 years of college
                   17          ... 5 or more years of college
                   99          ... Mother's education not stated

 64        1     Mother's Education Recode 6

                   1           ... 0 - 8 years
                   2           ... 9 - 11 years
                   3           ... 12 years
                   4           ... 13 - 15 years
                   5           ... 16 years and over
                   6           ... Mother's education not stated

 65        1     Marital Status

                   1           ... Married
                   2           ... Unmarried


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 66-67      2    Mother's Place of Birth

                   01          ... Alabama
                   02          ... Alaska
                   03          ... Arizona
                   04          ... Arkansas
                   05          ... California
                   06          ... Colorado
                   07          ... Connecticut
                   08          ... Delaware
                   09          ... District of Columbia
                   10          ... Florida
                   11          ... Georgia
                   12          ... Hawaii
                   13          ... Idaho
                   14          ... Illinois
                   15          ... Indiana
                   16          ... Iowa
                   17          ... Kansas
                   18          ... Kentucky
                   19          ... Louisiana
                   20          ... Maine
                   21          ... Maryland
                   22          ... Massachusetts
                   23          ... Michigan
                   24          ... Minnesota
                   25          ... Mississippi
                   26          ... Missouri
                   27          ... Montana
                   28          ... Nebraska
                   29          ... Nevada
                   30          ... New Hampshire
                   31          ... New Jersey
                   32          ... New Mexico
                   33          ... New York
                   34          ... North Carolina
                   35          ... North Dakota
                   36          ... Ohio
                   37          ... Oklahoma
                   38          ... Oregon
                   39          ... Pennsylvania
                   40          ... Rhode Island


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 27-28      2    Mother's Place of Birth - Continued

                   41          ... South Carolina
                   42          ... South Dakota
                   43          ... Tennessee
                   44          ... Texas
                   45          ... Utah
                   46          ... Vermont
                   47          ... Virginia
                   48          ... Washington
                   49          ... West Virginia
                   50          ... Wisconsin
                   51          ... Wyoming
                   52          ... Puerto Rico
                   53          ... Virgin Islands
                   54          ... Guam
                   55          ... Canada
                   56          ... Cuba
                   57          ... Mexico
                   59          ... Remainder of the world
                   99          ... Mother's place of birth not classifiable


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 68-69     2     Origin or Descent of Father

                   The Technical Appendix contains a table that shows which
                   States report Detail Ethnicity (codes 01-24, 99), which
                   States report Hispanic origin or Descent (codes 00-05,
                   99), and which States do not report either item (code
                   88).

                   00          ... Non - spanish
                   01          ... Mexican
                   02          ... Puerto Rican
                   03          ... Cuban
                   04          ... Central or South American
                   05          ... Other and Unknown Spanish
                   06          ... American
                   07          ... American Indian
                   08          ... British, Scottish, Welsh, Scotch-Irish
                   09          ... Irish
                   10          ... German
                   11          ... French
                   12          ... Norwegian, Swedish, Danish
                   13          ... Polish
                   14          ... Italian
                   15          ... Other North, Central and South American
                   16          ... Other Western European
                   17          ... Other Northern European
                   18          ... Other Eastern European
                   19          ... Other Southern European (excluding Spain)
                   20          ... Southeast Asian and Pacific Islander
                   21          ... South Central Asian
                   22          ... Other Asian
                   23          ... North African
                   24          ... Other African
                   88          ... Origin or descent of Father not reported
                   99          ... Origin or descent of Father not
                                   classifiable


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 70        1     Detail Race of Father

                   1           ... White
                   2           ... Black
                   3           ... American Indian (includes Aleuts and
 Eskimos
                   4           ... Chinese
                   5           ... Japanese
                   6           ... Hawaiian (includes Part-Hawaiian)
                   7           ... Filipino
                   8           ... Other Asian or Pacific Islander
                   0           ... Other races
                   9           ... Race of Father not stated

 71-72     2     Detail Age of Father

                   10-98       ... Age in single years
                   99          ... Age of Father not stated

 73-74     2     Father's Education - Detail

                   00          ... No formal education
                   01-08       ... Years of elementary school
                   09          ... 1 year of high school
                   10          ... 2 years of high school
                   11          ... 3 years of high school
                   12          ... 4 years of high school
                   13          ... 1 year of college
                   14          ... 2 years of college
                   15          ... 3 years of college
                   16          ... 4 years of college
                   17          ... 5 or more years of college
                   99          ... Father's education not stated


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 75        1     Interval Since Last Live Birth

                   0           ... Not applicable (no previous live birth)
                   1           ... Zero Months (plural birth)
                   2           ... 1 - 11 months
                   3           ... 12 - 23 months
                   4           ... 24 - 35 months
                   5           ... 36 - 47 months
                   6           ... 48 - 71 months
                   7           ... 72 months and over
                   9           ... Interval since last live birth not stated

 76        1     Outcome of Last Pregnancy

                   0           ... Not applicable (no previous pregnancy)
                   1           ... Last pregnancy was a live birth
                   2           ... Last pregnancy was some other termination
                   3           ... Last pregnancy's outcome is unknown

 77        1     Interval Since Termination of Last Pregnancy

                   0           ... Not applicable (no previous pregnancy)
                   1           ... Zero Months (plural delivery)
                   2           ... 1 - 11 months
                   3           ... 12 - 17 months
                   4           ... 18 - 23 months
                   5           ... 24 - 35 months
                   6           ... 36 - 47 months
                   7           ... 48 - 59 months
                   8           ... 60 months and over
                   9           ... Interval since termination of last
                                   pregnancy not stated


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 78-79     2     Detail Month of Pregnancy Prenatal Care Began

                   01          ... 1st month
                   02          ... 2nd month
                   03          ... 3rd month
                   04          ... 4th month
                   05          ... 5th month
                   06          ... 6th month
                   07          ... 7th month
                   08          ... 8th month
                   09          ... 9th month
                   00          ... No prenatal care
                   99          ... Month of pregnancy prenatal care began
                                   not stated

 80        1     Month of Pregnancy Prenatal Care Began Recode 6

                   1           ... 1st - 2nd month
                   2           ... 3rd month
                   3           ... 4th - 6th month
                   4           ... 7th - 9th month
                   5           ... No prenatal Care
                   6           ... Month of pregnancy prenatal care began
                                   not stated

 81-82     2     Total Number of Prenatal Visits

                   00          ... No prenatal visits
                   01-49       ... Stated number of visits
                   99          ... Number of prenatal visits not stated


 83-84     2     Detail Total Birth Order

                   01-50       ... Total number of live births and other
                                   terminations
                   99          ... Total birth order unknown or not stated


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 85        1     Total Birth Order Recode 9

                   1           ... First Child
                   2           ... Second Child
                   3           ... Third Child
                   4           ... Fourth Child
                   5           ... Fifth Child
                   6           ... Sixth Child
                   7           ... Seventh Child
                   8           ... Eighth Child and over
                   9           ... Total birth order not stated

 86-87     2     Detail Total Birth Order

                   01-50       ... Total number of children ever born alive
                                   to mother
                   99          ... Live birth order unknown or not stated

 88        1     Live Birth Order Recode 9

                   1           ... First Child
                   2           ... Second Child
                   3           ... Third Child
                   4           ... Fourth Child
                   5           ... Fifth Child
                   6           ... Sixth Child
                   7           ... Seventh Child
                   8           ... Eighth Child and over
                   9           ... Total birth order not stated

 89        1     Place of Delivery

                   1           ... Hospital Births
                   2           ... Nonhospital Births
                   3           ... En route or born on arrival (BOA)
                   9           ... Place of delivery not classifiable

 90        1     Attendant at Birth

                   1           ... Physician
                   2           ... Midwife
                   3           ... Attendant specified other than physician
                                   or midwife
                   9           ... Attendant at birth unknown


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 91        1     Record Weight

                   Numerator (Linked) record

                   1           ... All records contain a 1

                   Denominator record
                   Each record contains a record weight that is used to
                   inflate totals to national birth figures.

                   1-2         ... Code range

                 The denominator record ends in Location 91.

292-193.  Numerator (Linked) Record Reserved Positions
 92-193    102   These positions are contained in the Numerator (Linked)
                 Record only and are reserved for possible additional data.

                 If data are added in the future, they will be included in
                 both files.  The record length of the Denominator file
                 would expand, but it is expected that the Numerator record
                 would remain constant.

1MORTALITY SECTION OF THE NUMERATOR (LINKED) RECORD
 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 Locations 194-500 contain data from the Death Certificate

 Residence items in the Denominator Record and in the natality section of
 the Numerator (Linked) Record refer to the usual Place of residence of the
 Mother whereas in the mortality section of the Numerator (Linked) Record,
 there items refer to the residence of the Decedent.


 194-197   4     Year of Death

                 1984          ... Death occurred in 1984
                 1985          ... Death occurred in 1985

 198       1     Record Type

                   1           ... RESIDENTS
                                    State and County of Occurrence and
                                    Residence are the same.
                   2           ... NONRESIDENTS
                                    State and/or County of Occurrence and
                                    Residence are different.

 199       1     Resident Status
                   1           ... RESIDENTS
                                    State and County of Occurrence and
                                    Residence are the same.
                   2           ... INTRASTATE NONRESIDENTS
                                    State of Occurrence and Residence are
                                    the same, but County is different.
                   3           ... INTERSTATE NONRESIDENTS
                                    State of Occurrence and Residence are
                                    different, but both are in the U.S.
                   4           ... FOREIGN RESIDENTS
                                    State of Occurrence is one of the 50
                                    States or the District of Columbia, but
                                    Place of Residence is outside of the
                                    U.S.


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 200-209   10    PLACE OF OCCURRENCE

                   Refer to the Geographic Code Outline in this document
                   for a list of areas and codes available on the
                   public-use file.

 200        1    Region of Occurrence

 201-202    2    Division and State Subcode of Occurrence

                   Location 200 is Region.  Location 201 is Division and
                   Location 202 identifies States within that Division.

                   1           ... NORTHEAST
                     1         ...  New England
                        1      ...    Maine
                        2      ...    New Hampshire
                        3      ...    Vermont
                        4      ...    Massachusetts
                        5      ...    Rhode Island
                        6      ...    Connecticut
                     2         ...  Middle Atlantic
                        1      ...    New York
                        2      ...    New Jersey
                        3      ...    Pennsylvania

                   2           ... MIDWEST
                     3         ...  East North Central
                        1      ...    Ohio
                        2      ...    Indiana
                        3      ...    Illinois
                        4      ...    Michigan
                        5      ...    Wisconsin
                     4         ...  West North Central
                        1      ...    Minnesota
                        2      ...    Iowa
                        3      ...    Missouri
                        4      ...    North Dakota
                        5      ...    South Dakota
                        6      ...    Nebraska
                        7      ...    Kansas


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 200        1    Region - Continued

 201-202    2    Division and State Subcode - Continued

                   3           ...SOUTH
                     5         ...  South Atlantic
                        1      ...    Delaware
                        2      ...    Maryland
                        3      ...    District of Columbia
                        4      ...    Virginia
                        5      ...    West Virginia
                        6      ...    North Carolina
                        7      ...    South Carolina
                        8      ...    Georgia
                        9      ...    Florida
                     6         ...  East South Central
                        1      ...    Kentucky
                        2      ...    Tennessee
                        3      ...    Alabama
                        4      ...    Mississippi
                     7         ...  West South Central
                        1      ...    Arkansas
                        2      ...    Louisiana
                        3      ...    Oklahoma
                        4      ...    Texas

                   4           ...WEST
                     8         ...  Mountain
                        1      ...    Montana
                        2      ...    Idaho
                        3      ...    Wyoming
                        4      ...    Colorado
                        5      ...    New Mexico
                        6      ...    Arizona
                        7      ...    Utah
                        8      ...    Nevada
                     9         ...  Pacific
                        1      ...    Washington
                        2      ...    Oregon
                        3      ...    California
                        4      ...    Alaska
                        5      ...    Hawaii


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 203-204   2     Expanded State of Occurrence

                   This item is designed to separately identify New York city
                   records from upstate New York records.

                   01          ... Alabama
                   02          ... Alaska
                   03          ... Arizona
                   04          ... Arkansas
                   05          ... California
                   06          ... Colorado
                   07          ... Connecticut
                   08          ... Delaware
                   09          ... District of Columbia
                   10          ... Florida
                   11          ... Georgia
                   12          ... Hawaii
                   13          ... Idaho
                   14          ... Illinois
                   15          ... Indiana
                   16          ... Iowa
                   17          ... Kansas
                   18          ... Kentucky
                   19          ... Louisiana
                   20          ... Maine
                   21          ... Maryland
                   22          ... Massachusetts
                   23          ... Michigan
                   24          ... Minnesota
                   25          ... Mississippi
                   26          ... Missouri
                   27          ... Montana
                   28          ... Nebraska
                   29          ... Nevada
                   30          ... New Hampshire
                   31          ... New Jersey
                   32          ... New Mexico
                   33          ... New York
                   34          ... New York city
                   35          ... North Carolina
                   36          ... North Dakota
                   37          ... Ohio
                   38          ... Oklahoma
                   39          ... Oregon
                   40          ... Pennsylvania
                   41          ... Rhode Island


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 203-204    2    Expanded State of Occurrence - Continued

                   42          ... South Carolina
                   43          ... South Dakota
                   44          ... Tennessee
                   45          ... Texas
                   46          ... Utah
                   47          ... Vermont
                   48          ... Virginia
                   49          ... Washington
                   50          ... West Virginia
                   51          ... Wisconsin
                   52          ... Wyoming



 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 205-206    2    State of Occurrence

                   01          ... Alabama
                   02          ... Alaska
                   03          ... Arizona
                   04          ... Arkansas
                   05          ... California
                   06          ... Colorado
                   07          ... Connecticut
                   08          ... Delaware
                   09          ... District of Columbia
                   10          ... Florida
                   11          ... Georgia
                   12          ... Hawaii
                   13          ... Idaho
                   14          ... Illinois
                   15          ... Indiana
                   16          ... Iowa
                   17          ... Kansas
                   18          ... Kentucky
                   19          ... Louisiana
                   20          ... Maine
                   21          ... Maryland
                   22          ... Massachusetts
                   23          ... Michigan
                   24          ... Minnesota
                   25          ... Mississippi
                   26          ... Missouri
                   27          ... Montana
                   28          ... Nebraska
                   29          ... Nevada
                   30          ... New Hampshire
                   31          ... New Jersey
                   32          ... New Mexico
                   33          ... New York
                   34          ... North Carolina
                   35          ... North Dakota
                   36          ... Ohio
                   37          ... Oklahoma
                   38          ... Oregon
                   39          ... Pennsylvania
                   40          ... Rhode Island


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 205-206    2    State of Occurrence - Continued

                   41          ... South Carolina
                   42          ... South Dakota
                   43          ... Tennessee
                   44          ... Texas
                   45          ... Utah
                   46          ... Vermont
                   47          ... Virginia
                   48          ... Washington
                   49          ... West Virginia
                   50          ... Wisconsin
                   51          ... Wyoming

 207-209    3    County of Occurrence

                   Due to confidentiality requirements, counties with a
                   population less than 250,000 cannot be identified on the
                   public-use file.

                   001-nnn     ... Counties and county equivalents
                                   (independent and coextensive cities) are
                                   numbered alphabetically within each
                                   State.  (Note:  To uniquely identify a
                                   county, both the State and county codes
                                   must be used.)
                   999         ... County with less than 250,000 population



 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 210-223   14    PLACE OF RESIDENCE

                   Refer to the Geographic Code Outline in this document
                   for a list of areas and codes available on the
                   public-use file.

 210        1    Region of Residence

 211-212    2    Division and State Subcode of Residence

                   Location 210 is Region.  Location 211 is Division and
                   Location 212 identifies States within that Division.

                   000             Foreign Resident

                   1           ... NORTHEAST
                     1         ...  New England
                        1      ...    Maine
                        2      ...    New Hampshire
                        3      ...    Vermont
                        4      ...    Massachusetts
                        5      ...    Rhode Island
                        6      ...    Connecticut
                     2         ...  Middle Atlantic
                        1      ...    New York
                        2      ...    New Jersey
                        3      ...    Pennsylvania

                   2           ... MIDWEST
                     3         ...  East North Central
                        1      ...    Ohio
                        2      ...    Indiana
                        3      ...    Illinois
                        4      ...    Michigan
                        5      ...    Wisconsin
                     4         ...  West North Central
                        1      ...    Minnesota
                        2      ...    Iowa
                        3      ...    Missouri
                        4      ...    North Dakota
                        5      ...    South Dakota
                        6      ...    Nebraska
                        7      ...    Kansas


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 210        1    Region - Continued

 211-212    2    Division and State Subcode - Continued

                   3           ...SOUTH
                     5         ...  South Atlantic
                        1      ...    Delaware
                        2      ...    Maryland
                        3      ...    District of Columbia
                        4      ...    Virginia
                        5      ...    West Virginia
                        6      ...    North Carolina
                        7      ...    South Carolina
                        8      ...    Georgia
                        9      ...    Florida
                     6         ...  East South Central
                        1      ...    Kentucky
                        2      ...    Tennessee
                        3      ...    Alabama
                        4      ...    Mississippi
                     7         ...  West South Central
                        1      ...    Arkansas
                        2      ...    Louisiana
                        3      ...    Oklahoma
                        4      ...    Texas

                   4           ...WEST
                     8         ...  Mountain
                        1      ...    Montana
                        2      ...    Idaho
                        3      ...    Wyoming
                        4      ...    Colorado
                        5      ...    New Mexico
                        6      ...    Arizona
                        7      ...    Utah
                        8      ...    Nevada
                     9         ...  Pacific
                        1      ...    Washington
                        2      ...    Oregon
                        3      ...    California
                        4      ...    Alaska
                        5      ...    Hawaii


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 213-214    2    Expanded State of Residence

                   This item is designed to separately identify New York city
                   records from upstate New York records.

                   01          ... Alabama
                   02          ... Alaska
                   03          ... Arizona
                   04          ... Arkansas
                   05          ... California
                   06          ... Colorado
                   07          ... Connecticut
                   08          ... Delaware
                   09          ... District of Columbia
                   10          ... Florida
                   11          ... Georgia
                   12          ... Hawaii
                   13          ... Idaho
                   14          ... Illinois
                   15          ... Indiana
                   16          ... Iowa
                   17          ... Kansas
                   18          ... Kentucky
                   19          ... Louisiana
                   20          ... Maine
                   21          ... Maryland
                   22          ... Massachusetts
                   23          ... Michigan
                   24          ... Minnesota
                   25          ... Mississippi
                   26          ... Missouri
                   27          ... Montana
                   28          ... Nebraska
                   29          ... Nevada
                   30          ... New Hampshire
                   31          ... New Jersey
                   32          ... New Mexico
                   33          ... New York
                   34          ... New York city
                   35          ... North Carolina
                   36          ... North Dakota
                   37          ... Ohio
                   38          ... Oklahoma
                   39          ... Oregon
                   40          ... Pennsylvania
                   41          ... Rhode Island


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 213-214    2    Expanded State of Residence - Continued

                   42          ... South Carolina
                   43          ... South Dakota
                   44          ... Tennessee
                   45          ... Texas
                   46          ... Utah
                   47          ... Vermont
                   48          ... Virginia
                   49          ... Washington
                   50          ... West Virginia
                   51          ... Wisconsin
                   52          ... Wyoming
                   53-58,60    ... Foreign Residents
                   53          ...  Puerto Rico
                   54          ...  Virgin Island
                   55          ...  Guam
                   56          ...  Canada
                   57          ...  Cuba
                   58          ...  Mexico
                   60          ...  Remainder of the world


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 215-216    2    State of Occurrence

                   01          ... Alabama
                   02          ... Alaska
                   03          ... Arizona
                   04          ... Arkansas
                   05          ... California
                   06          ... Colorado
                   07          ... Connecticut
                   08          ... Delaware
                   09          ... District of Columbia
                   10          ... Florida
                   11          ... Georgia
                   12          ... Hawaii
                   13          ... Idaho
                   14          ... Illinois
                   15          ... Indiana
                   16          ... Iowa
                   17          ... Kansas
                   18          ... Kentucky
                   19          ... Louisiana
                   20          ... Maine
                   21          ... Maryland
                   22          ... Massachusetts
                   23          ... Michigan
                   24          ... Minnesota
                   25          ... Mississippi
                   26          ... Missouri
                   27          ... Montana
                   28          ... Nebraska
                   29          ... Nevada
                   30          ... New Hampshire
                   31          ... New Jersey
                   32          ... New Mexico
                   33          ... New York
                   34          ... North Carolina
                   35          ... North Dakota
                   36          ... Ohio
                   37          ... Oklahoma
                   38          ... Oregon
                   39          ... Pennsylvania
                   40          ... Rhode Island


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 215-216    2    State of Residence - Continued

                   41          ... South Carolina
                   42          ... South Dakota
                   43          ... Tennessee
                   44          ... Texas
                   45          ... Utah
                   46          ... Vermont
                   47          ... Virginia
                   48          ... Washington
                   49          ... West Virginia
                   50          ... Wisconsin
                   51          ... Wyoming
                   52-57,59    ... Foreign Residents
                   52          ...  Puerto Rico
                   53          ...  Virgin Islands
                   54          ...  Guam
                   55          ...  Canada
                   56          ...  Cuba
                   57          ...  Mexico
                   59          ...  Remainder of the world


 217-219    3    County of Residence

                   Due to confidentiality requirements, counties with a
                   population less than 250,000 cannot be identified on the
                   public-use file.

                   001-nnn     ... Counties and county equivalents
                                   (independent and coextensive cities) are
                                   numbered alphabetically within each
                                   State.  (Note:  To uniquely identify a
                                   county, both the State and county codes
                                   must be used.)
                   999         ... County with less than 250,000 population
                   ZZZ         ... Foreign residents


 220-222    3    City of Residence

                   Due to confidentiality requirements, cities with a
                   population less than 250,000 cannot be identified on the
                   public-use file.

                   001-nnn     ... Cities are numbered alphabetically within
                                   each State.
                                   (Note:  To uniquely identify a city, both
                                   the State and city codes must be used.)
                   999         ... Entire county, Balance of County, or city
                                   less than 250,000 population
                   ZZZ         ... Foreign residents

 223-227   5     AGE

                   Age is as computed using the dates of birth and death.
                   For ages less than 2 days and when age could not be
                   computed, the reported age from the death certificate
                   was used.

 223       1     Infant Age Recode 5

                   1           ... Under 1 hour
                   2           ... 1 - 23 hours
                   3           ... 1 - 6 days
                   4           ... 7 - 27 days (late neonatal)
                   5           ... 28 days and over (post neonatal)


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 224-225   2     Infant Age Recode 76

                   00          ... Less than 1 day
                   01-27       ... 1 - 27 days
                   28          ... 4th week
                   29          ... 5th week
                   30          ... 6th week
                   31-76       ... 7th - 52nd weeks

 226-227   2     Infant Age Recode 38

                   00          ... Less than 1 day
                   01-27       ... 1 - 27 days
                   28          ... 1 month
                   29          ... 2 months
                   30          ... 3 months
                   31          ... 4 months
                   32          ... 5 months
                   33          ... 6 months
                   34          ... 7 months
                   35          ... 8 months
                   36          ... 9 months
                   37          ...10 months
                   38          ...11 months

 228       1     Hospital and Patient Status

                   1           ... Hospital, Clinic or Medical Center -
                                   Inpatient
                   2           ... Hospital, Clinic or Medical Center -
                                   Outpatient or admitted to Emergency
                   3           ... Hospital, Clinic or Medical Center -
                                   Dead on Arrival
                   4           ... Hospital, Clinic or Medical Center -
                                   Patient status unknown
                   5           ... Hospital, Clinic or Medical Center -
                                   Patient status not on certificate
                   6           ... Other institution providing patient care
                   7           ... All other reported entries
                   8           ... Dead on Arrival - Hospital, Clinic or
                                    Medical Center name not given
                   9           ... Hospital and patient status not stated


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 229       1     Autopsy Performed

                   1           ... Yes
                   2           ... No
                   3           ... Autopsy performed not on certificate
                   4           ... Autopsy performed not stated

 230       1     Place of Accident for Causes E850-E929

                   Blank       ... Causes other than E850-E929
                   0           ... Home
                   1           ... Farm
                   2           ... Mine and Quarry
                   3           ... Industrial Place and Premises
                   4           ... Place for Recreation and Sport
                   5           ... Street and Highway
                   6           ... Public Building
                   7           ... Resident Institution
                   8           ... Other Specified Places
                   9           ... Place of accident not specified

 231-237   7     UNDERLYING CAUSE OF DEATH

 231-234   4     ICD Code (9th Revision)

                   See the "International Classification of Diseases", 1975
                   Revision, Volume 1.  For injuries and poisoning, the
                   external cause is coded (E800-E999) rather than the
                   Nature of the Injury (800-999).  These positions do not
                   include the letter E for the external cause of injury.
                   For those causes that do not have a 4th digit, location
                   234 is blank.

 235-237   3     61 Infant Cause Recode

                   A recode of the ICD cause code into 61 groups for NCHS
                   publications.  Further back in this document is a
                   complete list of recodes and the causes included.

                   010-680     ... Code range (not inclusive)


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 238-481   244   MULTIPLE CONDITIONS

                   See the "International Classification of Diseases", 1975
                   Revision, Volume 1.  Both the entity-axis and
                   record-axis conditions are coded according to this
                   revision (9th).

 238-239    2    Number of Entity-Axis Conditions

                   00-20       ... Code range

 240-379   140   ENTITY - AXIS CONDITIONS

                   Space has been provided for a maximum of 20 conditions.
                   Each condition takes 7 positions in the record.  Records
                   that do not have 20 conditions are blank in the unused
                   area.

                   Position 1:  Part/line number on certificate

                     1         ... Part I, Line 1 (a)
                     2         ... Part I, Line 2 (b)
                     3         ... Part I, Line 3 (c)
                     4         ... Part I, Line 4 (d)
                     5         ... Part I, Line 5 (e)
                     6         ... Part II

                   Position 2:  Sequence of condition within part/line

                     1-7       ... Code range

                   Position 3 - 6:  Condition code (ICD 9th Revision)

                   Position 7:  Nature of Injury Flag

                     1         ... Indicates that the code in positions 3-6
                                   is a Nature of Injury code
                     0         ... All other codes


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 240-246   7     1st Condition

 247-253   7     2nd Condition

 254-260   7     3rd Condition

 261-267   7     4th Condition

 268-274   7     5th Condition

 275-281   7     6th Condition

 282-288   7     7th Condition

 289-295   7     8th Condition

 296-302   7     9th Condition

 303-309   7     10th Condition

 310-316   7     11th Condition

 317-323   7     12th Condition

 324-330   7     13th Condition

 331-337   7     14th Condition

 338-344   7     15th Condition

 345-351   7     16th Condition

 352-358   7     17th Condition

 359-365   7     18th Condition

 366-372   7     19th Condition

 373-379   7     20th Condition

 380-381    2    Number of Entity-Axis Conditions

                   00-20       ... Code range


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 382-481   100   RECORD - AXIS CONDITIONS

                   Space has been provided for a maximum of 20 conditions.
                   Each condition takes 5 positions in the record.  Records
                   that do not have 20 conditions are blank in the unused
                   area.

                   Position 1-4:  Condition Code (ICD 9th Revision)
                   Position 5:    Nature of injury Flag
                     1         ... Indicates that the code in positions 1-4
                                   is a Nature of injury code
                     0         ... All other codes

 382-386   5     1st Condition

 387-391   5     2nd Condition

 392-396   5     3rd Condition

 397-401   5     4th Condition

 402-406   5     5th Condition

 407-411   5     6th Condition

 412-416   5     7th Condition

 417-421   5     8th Condition

 422-426   5     9th Condition

 427-431   5     10th Condition

 432-436   5     11th Condition

 437-441   5     12th Condition

 442-446   5     13th Condition

 447-451   5     14th Condition

 452-456   5     15th Condition


 Tape      Field
 Location  Size  Item and Code Outline

 382-481   100   RECORD - AXIS CONDITIONS - Continued

 457-461   5     16th Condition

 462-466   5     17th Condition

 467-471   5     18th Condition

 472-476   5     19th Condition

 477-481   5     20th Condition

 482-500   19    Reserved positions


1GEOGRAPHIC CODE OUTLINE
2Introduction
 The following pages show in detail the geographic codes used by the
 Division of Vital Statistics in the processing of vital event data
 occurring in the United States.  For the linked data set, counties and
 cities with a population of 250,000 or more are identified.  When an event
 occurs to a nonresident of the United States, residence data are coded
 only to the "State" level; several western hemisphere countries or the
 remainder of the world are uniquely identified.  The vital statistics
 codes are effective with the 1982 data year and are based on results of
 the 1980 Census.

 To aid the user in interpreting the geographic codes, a brief explanation
 of the codes of the column headings/abbreviations shown on the following
 pages are:

 State:  Each State and the District of Columbia are numbered
 alphabetically.  In addition, several unique codes are used to identify
 nonresidents of the U.S.

 County:  Counties and county equivalents (independent and coextensive
 cities) are numbered alphabetically within each State.

 City:  Cities are numbered alphabetically within each State.

 Name:  Each State, county, and city name is listed along with its
 respective code.  In addition, places used to identify nonresidents of the
 U.S. are also listed along with their codes.

2Listing of Counties Identified in the Linked Data Set
 Vital Statistics Geographic Code Outline Effective With 1982 Data

 State     County    State and County Name

 01                  Alabama
           037          Jefferson
           049          Mobile

 02                  Alaska

 03                  Arizona
           007          Maricopa
           010          Pima

 04                  Arkansas
           060          Pulaski

 05                  California
           001          Alameda
           007          Contra Costa
           010          Fresno
           015          Kern
           019          Los Angeles
           027          Monterey
           030          Orange
           033          Riverside
           034          Sacramento
           036          San Bernardino
           037          San Diego
           038          San Francisco, coext. with San Francisco city
           039          San Joaquin
           041          San Mateo
           042          Santa Barbara
           043          Santa Clara
           049          Sonoma
           050          Stanislaus
           056          Ventura

 06                  Colorado
           003          Arapahoe
           016          Denver, coext. with Denver city
           021          El Paso
           030          Jefferson

 07                  Connecticut
           001          Fairfield
           002          Hartford
           003          New Haven

 State     County    State and County Name

 08                  Delaware
           002          New Castle

 09                  District of Columbia
           001          District of Columbia

 10                  Florida
           005          Brevard
           006          Broward
           013          Dade
           016          Duval
           029          Hillsborough
           048          Orange
           050          Palm Beach
           052          Pinellas
           053          Polk
           064          Volusia

 11                  Georgia
           033          Cobb
           044          De Kalb
           060          Fulton

 12                  Hawaii
           002          Honolulu

 13                  Idaho

 14                  Illinois
           016          Cook
           022          Du Page
           045          Kane
           049          Lake
           082          St. Clair
           099          Will
           101101       Winnebago

 15                  Indiana
           002          Allen
           045          Lake
           049          Marion

 16                  Iowa
           077          Polk

 State     County    State and County Name

 17                  Kansas
           046          Johnson
           087          Sedgwick

 18                  Kentucky
           056          Jefferson

 19                  Louisiana
           009          Caddo
           017          East Baton Rouge
           026          Jefferson
           036          Orleans, coext. with New Orleans city

 20                  Maine

 21                  Maryland
           002          Anne Arundel
           003          Baltimore
           004          Baltimore city
           016          Montgomery
           017          Prince George's

 22                  Massachusetts
           003          Bristol
           005          Essex
           007          Hampden
           009          Middlesex
           011          Norfolk
           012          Plymouth
           013          Suffolk
           014          Worcester

 23                  Michigan
           025          Genesee
           033          Ingham
           041          Kent
           050          Macomb
           063          Oakland
           081          Washtenaw
           082          Wayne

 24                  Minnesota
           027          Hannepin
           062          Ramsey

 State     County    State and County Name

 25                  Mississippi
           025          Hinds

 26                  Missouri
           048          Jackson
           096          St. Louis
           097          St. Louis city

 27                  Montana

 28                  Nebraska
           028          Douglas

 29                  Nevada
           003          Clark

 30                  New Hampshire
           006          Hillsborough

 31                  New Jersey
           002          Bergen
           003          Burlington
           004          Camden
           007          Essex
           009          Hudson
           011          Mercer
           012          Middlesex
           013          Monmouth
           014          Morris
           015          Ocean
           016          Passaic
           020          Union

 32                  New Mexico
           001          Bernalillo

 State     County    State and County Name

 33                  New York
           001          Albany
           014          Erie
           026          Monroe
           028          Nassau
           029          New York city
           031          Oneida
           032          Onondaga
           034          Orange
           040          Rockland
           048          Suffolk
           056          Westchester

 34                  North Carolina
           041          Guilford
           060          Mecklenburg
           092          Wake

 35                  North Dakota

 36                  Ohio
           009          Butler
           018          Cuyahoga
           025          Franklin
           031          Hamilton
           047          Lorain
           048          Lucas
           050          Mahoning
           057          Montgomery
           076          Stark
           077          Summit

 37                  Oklahoma
           055          Oklahoma
           072          Tulsa

 38                  Oregon
           020          Lane
           026          Multnomah

 State     County    State and County Name

 39                  Pennsylvania
           002          Allegheny
           006          Berks
           009          Bucks
           015          Chester
           023          Delaware
           025          Erie
           036          Lancaster
           039          Lehigh
           040          Luzerne
           046          Montgomery
           051          Philadelphia, coext. with Philadelphia city
           065          Westmoreland
           067          York

 40                  Rhode Island
           004          Providence

 41                  South Carolina
           010          Charleston
           023          Greenville
           040          Richland

 42                  South Dakota

 43                  Tennessee
           019          Davidson
           033          Hamilton
           047          Knox
           079          Shelby

 44                  Texas
           015          Bexar
           057          Dallas
           071          El Paso
           101          Harris
           108          Hidalgo
           123          Jefferson
           178          Nueces
           220          Tarrant
           227          Travis

 45                  Utah
           018          Salt Lake

 State     County    State and County Name

 46                  Vermont

 47                  Virginia
           040          Fairfax
           088          Norfolk city
           127          Virginia Beach city

 48                  Washington
           017          King
           027          Pierce
           031          Snohomish
           032          Spokane

 49                  West Virginia

 50                  Wisconsin
           013          Dane
           041          Milwaukee
           068          Waukesha

 51                  Wyoming

2Listing of Cities Identified in the Linked Data Set
 Vital Statistics Geographic Code Outline Effective with 1982 Data

 State     City      State and City Name

 01                  Alabama
           008          Birmingham

 02                  Alaska

 03                  Arizona
           011          Phoenix
           016          Tucson

 04                  Arkansas

 05                  California
           112          Long Beach
           115          Los Angeles
           146          Oakland
           186          Sacramento
           194          San Diego
           197          San Francisco
           200          San Jose

 06                  Colorado
           009          Denver

 07                  Connecticut

 08                  Delaware

 09                  District of Columbia
           001          Washington

 10                  Florida
           033          Jacksonville
           047          Miami
           086          Tampa

 11                  Georgia
           004          Atlanta

 12                  Hawaii
           004          Honolulu

 13                  Idaho

 14                  Illinois
           032          Chicago

 State     City      State and City Name

 15                  Indiana
           002          Allen
           045          Lake
           049          Marion

 16                  Iowa
 17                  Kansas
           033          Wichita

 18                  Kentucky
           016          Louisville

 19                  Louisiana
           024          New Orleans

 20                  Maine

 21                  Maryland
           003          Baltimore

 22                  Massachusetts
           012          Boston

 23                  Michigan
           023          Detroit

 24                  Minnesota
           035          Minneapolis
           055          St. Paul

 25                  Mississippi

 26                  Missouri
           026          Kansas City
           044          St. Louis

 27                  Montana

 28                  Nebraska
           011          Omaha

 29                  Nevada

 30                  New Hampshire

 State     City      State and City Name
 33                  New York
           009          Bronx borough, Bronx county
           010          Buffalo
           043          Brooklyn borough, Kings county
           060          Manhattan borough, New York county
           077          Queens borough, Queens county
           078          Staten Island borough, Richmond county

 34                  North Carolina
           008          Charlotte

 35                  North Dakota

 36                  Ohio
           028          Cincinnati
           030          Cleveland
           032          Columbus
           126          Toledo

 37                  Oklahoma
           023          Oklahoma city
           031          Tulsa

 38                  Oregon
 39                  Pennsylvania
           096          Philadelphia
           098          Pittsburgh

 40                  Rhode Island

 41                  South Carolina

 42                  South Dakota

 43                  Tennessee
           026          Memphis
           030          Nashville

 44                  Texas
           009          Austin
           036          Dallas
           047          El Paso
           052          Fort Worth
           066          Houston
           121          San Antonio

 45                  Utah

 State     City      State and City Name

 46                  Vermont

 47                  Virginia
           021          Norfolk
           032          Virginia Beach

 48                  Washington
           030          Seattle

 49                  West Virginia

 50                  Wisconsin
           032          Milwaukee

 51                  Wyoming

 52        ZZZ       Puerto Rico

 53        ZZZ       Virgin Islands

 54        ZZZ       Guam

 55        ZZZ       Canada

 56        ZZZ       Cuba

 57        ZZZ       Mexico

 59        ZZZ       Remainder of World


2Ninth Revision 61 Causes of Death Adapted for Use by DVS

      ST:  1 = Subtotal Limited:  Sex:  1 = Males:  2 = Females
      Length = of Cause Title       Age:  1 = 5 & Over:  2 = 10-54:
                                      3 = 28 Days & Over

      ***** Cause Subtotals are not Identified in this File *****

   61      S Limited Len-
 Recode    T Sex Age gth Cause Title and ICD-9 Codes Included

  010              039 Certain intestinal infections (008-009)
  020              020 Whooping cough (033)
  030              029 Meningococcal infection (036)
  040         3    016 Septicemia (038)
  050              024 Viral Diseases (045-079)
  060              025 Congenital syphilis (090)
  070              100 Remainder of infectious and parasitic diseases
                           (001-007, 010-032, 034-035, 037, 039-041,
                           080-088, 091-139)
  080              089 Malignant neoplasms, including neoplasms of
                           lymphatic and hematopoietic tissues (140-208)
  090              108 Benign neoplasms, carcinoma in situ, and neoplasms
                           of uncertain behavior and of unspecified
                           nature (210-239)
  100              030 Diseases of thymus gland (254)
  110              023 Cystic fibrosis (277.0)
  120              052 Diseases of blood and blood-forming organs (280-
                           289)
  130              020 Meningitis (320-322)
  140              059 Other diseases of nervous system and sense organs
                           (323-389)
  150              044 Acute upper respiratory infections (460-465)
  160              042 Bronchitis and bronchiolitis (466, 490-491)

  170   1          033 Pneumonia and influenza (480-487)
  180              021   Pneumonia (480-486)
  190              017   Influenza (487)

  200              061 Remainder of diseases of respiratory system (470-
                           478, 492-519)
  210              093 Hernia of abdominal cavity and intestinal
                           obstruction without mention of hernia (550-
 553,                      560)
  220              075 Gastritis, duodenitis, and noninfective enteritis
                           and colitis (535, 555-558)
  230              067 Remainder of diseases of digestive system (520-534,
                           536-543, 562-579)

  240   1          030 Congenital anomalies (740-759)
  250              042   Anencephalus and similar anomalies (740)
  260              020   Spina bifida (741)

   61      S Limited Len-
 Recode    T Sex Age gth Cause Title and ICD-9 Codes Included

  270              034   Congenital hydrocephalus (742.3)
  280              092   Other congenital anomalies of central nervous
                           system and eye (742.0-742.2, 742.4-742.9, 743)
  290              041   Congenital anomalies of hear (745-746)
  300              056   Other congenital anomalies of circulatory system
                           (747)
  310              050   Congenital anomalies of respiratory system (748)
  320              052   Congenital anomalies of digestive system (749-
                           751)
  330              056   Congenital anomalies of genitourinary system
                           (752-753)
  340              058   Congenital anomalies of musculoskeletal system
                           (754-756)
  350              025   Down's syndrome (758.0)
  360              043   Other chromosomal anomalies (758.1-758.9)
  370              062   All other and unspecified congenital anomalies
                           (744, 757, 759)
  380   1          064 Certain conditions originating in the perinatal
                           period (760-779)
  390              091   Newborn affected by maternal conditions which may
                           be unrelated to present pregnancy (760)
  400              063   Newborn affected by maternal complications of
                           pregnancy (761)
  410              074   Newborn affected by complications of placenta,
                           cord, and membranes (762)
  420              069   Newborn affected by other complications of labor
                           and delivery (763)

  430              048   Slow fetal growth and fetal malnutrition (764)
  440              077   Disorders relating to short gestation and
                           unspecified low birthweight (765)
  450              065   Disorders relating to long gestation and high
                           birthweight (766)
  460              020   Birth trauma (767)

  470   1          047   Intrauterine hypoxia and birth asphyxia (768)
  480              051     Fetal distress in liveborn infant (768.2-
                               768.4)
  490              032     Birth asphyxia (768.5-7768.9)

  500              037   Respiratory distress syndrome (769)

   61      S Limited Len-
 Recode    T Sex Age gth Cause Title and ICD-9 Codes Included

  510              047   Other respiratory conditions of newborn (770)
  520              051   Infections specific to the perinatal period (771)
  530              027   Neonatal hemorrhage (772)
  540              094   Hemolytic diseases of newborn, due to
                           isoimmunization, and other perinatal jaundice
                           (773-774)
  550              088   Syndrome of "infant of a diabetic mother" and
                           neonatal diabetes mellitus (775.2-775.9,
                           776.1-779)
  560              040   Hemorrhagic disease of newborn (776.0)
  570              098   All other and ill-defined conditions originating
                           in the perinatal period (775.2-775.9, 776.1-
                           779)

  580   1          053 Symptoms, signs, and ill-defined conditions (780-
                           799)
  590              038   Sudden infant death syndrome (798.0)
  600              075   Symptoms, signs, and all other ill-defined
                           conditions (780 -797, 798.1-799)
  610   1          041 Accidents and adverse effects (E800-E949)
  620              118   Inhalation and ingestion of food or other object
                           causing obstruction of respiratory tract or
                           suffocation (E911-E912)
  630              042   Accidental mechanical suffocation (E913)
  640              067   Other accidental causes and adverse effects
                           (E800-E910, E914-E949)
  650   1          020 Homicide (E960-E969)
  660              047   Child battering and other maltreatment (E967)
  670              038   Other homicide (E960-E966, E968-E969)
  680              027 All other causes (Residual)

1TABLES
21. Live Births & Infant Deaths by State of Occurrence & Residence
 LIVE BIRTHS BY STATE OF OCCURRENCE AND BY STATE RESIDENCE AND
 INFANT DEATHS BY STATE OF OCCURRENCE AND BY STATE OF RESIDENCE:
 1985 BIRTH COHORT
 (RESIDENCE AT BIRTH IS OF THE MOTHER.  RESIDENCE AT DEATH IS OF THE DECEDENT)
 _____________________________________________________________________________
                                |                                            |
                                |                LIVE BIRTHS                 |
                                |____________________________________________|
             AREA               |                        |                   |
                                |                        |                   |
                                |       OCCURRENCE       |     RESIDENCE     |
                                |                        |                   |
 _______________________________|________________________|___________________|

    UNITED STATES . . . . .         3,765,336         3,760,833

 ALABAMA. . . . . . . . . .            58,627            59,739
 ALASKA . . . . . . . . . .            12,659            12,846
 ARIZONA. . . . . . . . . .            59,320            59,348
 ARKANSAS . . . . . . . . .            34,515            35,222
 CALIFORNIA . . . . . . . .           471,209           471,005

 COLORADO . . . . . . . . .            55,440            55,123
 CONNECTICUT. . . . . . . .            43,839            44,010
 DELAWARE . . . . . . . . .             9,882             9,618
 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA . . .            19,938             9,871
 FLORIDA. . . . . . . . . .           163,611           163,816

 GEORGIA. . . . . . . . . .            98,033            96,340
 HAWAII . . . . . . . . . .            18,329            18,307
 IDAHO. . . . . . . . . . .            17,327            17,567
 ILLINOIS . . . . . . . . .           177,447           180,738
 INDIANA. . . . . . . . . .            80,967            80,955

 IOWA . . . . . . . . . . .            41,743            41,221
 KANSAS . . . . . . . . . .            38,500            39,679
 KENTUCKY . . . . . . . . .            51,856            52,885
 LOUISIANA. . . . . . . . .            81,649            81,458
 MAINE. . . . . . . . . . .            16,245            16,904

 MARYLAND . . . . . . . . .            61,539            68,021
 MASSACHUSETTS. . . . . . .            83,367            81,839
 MICHIGAN . . . . . . . . .           136,806           138,068
 MINNESOTA. . . . . . . . .            67,523            67,413
 MISSISSIPPI. . . . . . . .            42,719            43,449
 MISSOURI . . . . . . . . .            78,764            76,982

  ____________________________________________________________________________
 |                                                                |
 |                                INFANT DEATHS                               |
 |____________________________________________________________________________|
 |                                      |                                     |
 |             AT BIRTH                 |               AT DEATH              |
 |______________________________________|_____________________________________|
 |                  |                   |                    |                |
 |   OCCURRENCE     |     RESIDENCE     |     OCCURRENCE     |    RESIDENCE   |
 |__________________|___________________|____________________|________________|


        755                763                   784                765
        136                140                   128                141
        555                569                   558                576
        366                389                   357                396
      4,430              4,427                 4,438              4,414

        527                504                   566                506
        422                428                   409                428
        139                132                   136                137
        371                202                   423                201
      1,833              1,830                 1,838              1,819

      1,236              1,207                 1,221              1,216
        157                156                   152                154
        166                175                   153                179
      2,034              2,104                 2,005              2,100
        824                834                   786                835

        374                383                   347                385
        363                383                   340                378
        523                554                   506                553
        924                912                   907                906
        147                152                   141                154

        603                743                   566                742
        733                726                   785                730
      1,561              1,574                 1,562              1,575
        593                576                   614                574
        554                583                   542                587
        836                777                   911                790


 _____________________________________________________________________________
                                |                                            |
                                |                LIVE BIRTHS                 |
                                |____________________________________________|
             AREA               |                        |                   |
                                |                        |                   |
                                |       OCCURRENCE       |     RESIDENCE     |
                                |                        |                   |
 _______________________________|________________________|___________________|

 MONTANA. . . . . . . . . .            58,627                    59,739
 NEBRASKA . . . . . . . . .            25,884                    25,551
 NEVADA . . . . . . . . . .            15,216                    15,325
 NEW HAMPSHIRE. . . . . . .            15,308                    15,454
 NEW JERSEY . . . . . . . .           102,426                   105,566
 NEW MEXICO . . . . . . . .            27,296                    27,757

 NEW YORK . . . . . . . . .           260,293                   259,470
    UPSTATE . . . . . . . .           142,152                   145,398
    CITY. . . . . . . . . .           118,141                   114,072
 NORTH CAROLINA . . . . . .            89,982                    89,399
 NORTH DAKOTA . . . . . . .            12,734                    11,721

 OHIO . . . . . . . . . . .           161,241                   160,483
 OKLAHOMA . . . . . . . . .            51,876                    53,138
 OREGON . . . . . . . . . .            40,778                    39,486
 PENNSYLVANIA . . . . . . .           161,982                   160,559
 RHODE ISLAND . . . . . . .            13,674                    13,033

 SOUTH CAROLINA . . . . . .            49,510                    51,900
 SOUTH DAKOTA . . . . . . .            12,056                    12,130
 TENNESSEE. . . . . . . . .            71,506                    66,757
 TEXAS. . . . . . . . . . .           312,604                   308,171
 UTAH . . . . . . . . . . .            38,443                    37,451

 VERMONT. . . . . . . . . .             7,825                     8,036
 VIRGINIA . . . . . . . . .            82,952                    86,052
 WASHINGTON . . . . . . . .            69,302                    70,235
 WEST VIRGINIA. . . . . . .            25,259                    24,132
 WISCONSIN. . . . . . . . .            73,302                    73,743
 WYOMING. . . . . . . . . .             8,780                     9,366

 FOREIGN RESIDENTS. . . . .               ...                     4,503

 ____________________________________________________________________________
 |                                                                |
 |                                INFANT DEATHS                               |
 |____________________________________________________________________________|
 |                                      |                                     |
 |             AT BIRTH                 |               AT DEATH              |
 |______________________________________|_____________________________________|
 |                  |                   |                    |                |
 |   OCCURRENCE     |     RESIDENCE     |     OCCURRENCE     |    RESIDENCE   |
 |__________________|___________________|____________________|________________|

        122                 130                  101                130
        265                 253                  281                251
        126                 125                  129                130
        135                 145                  112                144
        978               1,029                  883              1,011
        287                 291                  274                288

      2,724               2,724                2,753              2,718
      1,261               1,306                1,243              1,308
      1,463               1,418                1,510              1,410
      1,048               1,049                1,060              1,044
        116                  98                  117                 99

      1,653               1,634                1,661              1,629
        540                 550                  528                538
        414                 392                  406                394
      1,754               1,726                1,828              1,738
        133                 110                  134                111

        696                 736                  695                737
        110                 120                  106                121
        867                 759                  884                761
      2,864               2,850                2,882              2,852
        364                 350                  387                349

         66                  66                   64                 68
        968                 974                  932                982
        738                 748                  755                746
        278                 267                  288                266
        671                 687                  664                683
         91                 109                   71                108

        ...                  25                  ...                 31

22. Live Births & Infant Deaths/Mort. Rates by Race, Sex, Birth Wt.
 LIVE BIRTHS, INFANT DEATHS, AND INFANT MORTALITY RATES BY RACE OF CHILD,
     SEX, AND BIRTH WEIGHT:  UNITED STATES.  1985 BIRTH COHORT

                 (RATES ARE PER 1000 LIVE BIRTHS)
 ______________________________________________________________________________
                      |          |          |          |          |          |
  RACE OF CHILD AND   |          |  <500    | 500-749  | 750-999  | 1000-1249|
        SEX           |  TOTAL   |  GRAMS   |  GRAMS   |  GRAMS   |   GRAMS  |
 _____________________|__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|

 ALL RACES 1/
    BOTH SEXES
      LIVE BIRTHS....   3,760,833    4,860      8,291    9,452   10,578
      INFANT DEATHS..      39,145    4,341      6,137    3,661    1,964
      INF.MORT.RATE..        10.4    893.2      740.2    387.3    185.7
    MALE
      LIVE BIRTHS....   1,928,138    2,508      4,282    4,968    5,510
      INFANT DEATHS..      22,466    2,233      3,399    2,246    1,233
      INF.MORT.RATE..        11.7    890.4      793.8    452.1    223.8
    FEMALE
      LIVE BIRTHS....   1,832,695    2,352      4,009    4,484    5,068
      INFANT DEATHS..      16,679    2,108      2,738    1,415      731
      INF.MORT.RATE..         9.1    896.3      683.0    315.6    144.2

 WHITE
    BOTH SEXES
      LIVE BIRTHS....   2,991,521    2,747      4,863    5,734    6,755
      INFANT DEATHS..      26,526    2,465      3,683    2,402    1,390
      INF.MORT.RATE..         8.9    897.3      757.4    418.9    205.8
    MALE
      LIVE BIRTHS....   1,536,729    1,430      2,532    3,093    3,552
      INFANT DEATHS..      15,446    1,276      2,064    1,506      861
      INF.MORT.RATE..        10.1    892.3      815.2    486.9    242.4
    FEMALE
      LIVE BIRTHS....   1,454,792    1,317      2,331    2,641    3,203
      INFANT DEATHS..      11,080    1,189      1,619      896      529
      INF.MORT.RATE..         7.6    902.8      694.6    339.3    165.2

 BLACK
    BOTH SEXES
      LIVE BIRTHS....     680,309    1,972      3,197    3,444    3,464
      INFANT DEATHS..      11,140    1,747      2,282    1,146      491
      INF.MORT.RATE..        18.3    885.9      713.8    332.8    141.7
    MALE
      LIVE BIRTHS....     308,643    1,012      1,629    1,728    1,754
      INFANT DEATHS..       6,161      898      1,236      672      316
      INF.MORT.RATE..        20.0    887.4      758.7    388.9    180.2

  ______________________________________________________
 |          |          |          |          |          |
 |          |  <500    | 500-749  | 750-999  | 1000-1249|
 |  TOTAL   |  GRAMS   |  GRAMS   |  GRAMS   |   GRAMS  |
 |__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|



     12,540   48,402     159,588   2,502,342    4,780
      1,316    2,544       3,247      14,807    1,128
      104.9     52.6        20.3         4.2    236.0

      6,510   23,785      72,908   1,805,121    2,546
        818    1,424       1,736       8,744      633
      125.7     59.9        23.8         4.8    248.6

      6,030   24,617      86,680   1,697,221    2,234
        498    1,120       1,511       6,063      495
       82.6     45.5        17.4         3.6    221.6



      8,026   32,057     108,296   2,819,364    3,679
        948    1,807       2,264      10,857      710
      118.1     56.4        20.9         3.9    193.0

      4,259   16,046      58,533   1,454,116    1,938
        586    1,000       1,226       6,536      391
      137.6     62.3        24.6         4.5    201.8

      3,767   16,011      58,533   1,365,248    1,741
        362      807       1,038       4,321      319
       96.1     50.4        17.7         3.2    183.2



      4,099   14,596      44,710     531,968      859
        320      645         845       3,291      373
       78.1     44.2        18.9         6.2    434.2

      2,023    6,861      20,099     273,056      481
        202      361         441       1,819      216
       99.9     52.6        21.9         6.7    449.1


 LIVE BIRTHS, INFANT DEATHS, AND INFANT MORTALITY RATES BY RACE OF CHILD,

     SEX, AND BIRTH WEIGHT:  UNITED STATES.  1985 BIRTH COHORT

                 (RATES ARE PER 1000 LIVE BIRTHS)
 ______________________________________________________________________________
                      |          |          |          |          |          |
  RACE OF CHILD AND   |          |  <500    | 500-749  | 750-999  | 1000-1249|
        SEX           |  TOTAL   |  GRAMS   |  GRAMS   |  GRAMS   |   GRAMS  |
 _____________________|__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|

 ALL RACES 1/

 BLACK - Continued

    FEMALE
      LIVE BIRTHS....  299,666      960       1,568       1,716     1,710
      INFANT DEATHS..    4,979      849       1,046         474       175
      INF.MORT.RATE..    16.6     884.4       667.1       276.2     102.3

 ______________________________________________________________________________

 1/  INCLUDES RACES OTHER THAN WHITE AND BLACK

  ______________________________________________________
 |          |          |          |          |          |
 |          |  <500    | 500-749  | 750-999  | 1000-1249|
 |  TOTAL   |  GRAMS   |  GRAMS   |  GRAMS   |   GRAMS  |
 |__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|


      2,076    7,735      24,611    258,912       378
        118      284         404      1,472       157
       56.8     36.7        16.4        5.7     415.3

23. Live Birth & Infant Death/Mort Rates by Wt,Race,Gestational Age
 LIVE BIRTHS, INFANT DEATHS, AND INFANT MORTALITY RATES BY BIRTH WEIGHT,
 RACE OF CHILD, AND GESTATIONAL AGE:
 UNITED STATES, 1985 BIRTH COHORT

 (RATES ARE PER 1000 LIVE BIRTHS)
 ______________________________________________________________________________
                      |
                      |                   GESTATION
   BIRTH WEIGHT AND   |________________________________________________________
    RACE OF CHILD     |          |  <28     |  28-31   |  32-35   |    36    |
                      |  TOTAL   |  WEEKS   |  WEEKS   |  WEEKS   |   WEEKS  |
 _____________________|__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|_

 ALL RACES 1/

 TOTAL. . . . . .
   LIVE BIRTHS. .      3,760,833    27,658      40,373   168,271    116,806
   INFANT DEATHS.         39,145    11,672       3,561     3,574      1,313
   INF.MORT.RATE.           10.4     422.0        88.2      21.2       11.2

 LESS THAN 2500 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS. .        253,711    20,821      26.674    68,342     23,019
   INFANT DEATHS.         23,210    11,011       3,353     2,608        636
   INF.MORT.RATE.           91.5     528.8       125.7      38.2       27.6

   LESS THAN 500 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS.          4,860     3,652         168        51          8
     INFANT DEATHS         4,341     3,368         145        34          2
     INF.MORT RATE         893.2     922.2       863.1     666.7      250.0

   500-749 GRAMS           8,291     5,825         856       195         44
     LIVE BIRTHS.          6,137     4,519         534       125         23
     INFANT DEATHS         740.2     775.8       623.8     641.0      522.7
     INF.MORT RATE

   750-999 GRAMS           9,452     5,120       2,131       592         81
     LIVE BIRTHS.          3,661     2,195         681       173         21
     INFANT DEATHS         387.3     428.7       319.6     292.2      259.3
     INF.MORT RATE

   1,000-1,249 GRAMS      10,578     2,436       4,651     1,596        158
     LIVE BIRTHS.          1,964       584         758       258         29
     INFANT DEATHS         185.7     239.7       163.0     161.7      183.5
     INF.MORT RATE

   1,250-1,499 GRAMS      12,540     1,098       5,447     3,143        415
     LIVE BIRTHS.          1,316       171         524       291         43
     INFANT DEATHS         104.9     155.7        96.2      92.6      103.6
     INF.MORT RATE

 ________________________________________________________

                    GESTATION
 ________________________________________________________
   37-39   |   40     |   41     | 42 WEEKS |   NOT    |
   WEEKS   |  WEEKS   |  WEEKS   | OR MORE  |   STATED |
 __________|__________|__________|__________|__________|_




 1,400,106  797,930  551,067   513,233  145,389
     7,227    3,085    2,162     2,697    3,854
       5.2      3.9      3.9       5.3     26.5


    65,210   13,835    8,069    10,761   16,980
     1,702      421      314       439    2,726
      26.1     30.4     38.9      40.8    160.5


        77       40       46        33      785
        35       19       22        15      701
     454.5    475.0    478.3     454.5    893.0


       170       69       55        73    1,004
        75       29       23        37      772
     441.2    420.3    418.2     506.8    768.9


       212      100       54        82    1,080
        56       30       13        26      466
     264.2    300.3    240.7     317.1    431.5


       377       81       73       159    1,047
        65        7       13        20      230
     172.4     86.4    178.1     125.8    219.7


       800      166      127       206    1,138
        92       23       22        26      124
     115.0    138.6    173.2     126.2    109.0


 LIVE BIRTHS, INFANT DEATHS, AND INFANT MORTALITY RATES BY BIRTH WEIGHT,
 RACE OF CHILD, AND GESTATIONAL AGE:
 UNITED STATES, 1985 BIRTH COHORT

 (RATES ARE PER 1000 LIVE BIRTHS)
 ______________________________________________________________________________
                      |
                      |                   GESTATION
   BIRTH WEIGHT AND   |________________________________________________________
    RACE OF CHILD     |          |  <28     |  28-31   |  32-35   |    36    |
                      |  TOTAL   |  WEEKS   |  WEEKS   |  WEEKS   |   WEEKS  |
 _____________________|__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|_

 ALL RACES 1/ - Continued

   1,500-1,999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS.        48,402     1,384       9,124     20,461    3,524
     INFANT DEATHS        2,544       116         557        893      170
     INF.MORT RATE         52.6      83.8        61.0       43.6     48.2

   2,000-2,499 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS.       159,588     1,306       4,297     42,304   18,789
     INFANT DEATHS        3,247        58         834        834      348
     INF.MORT RATE         52.6      44.4        19.7       19.7     18.5

 2,500-2,999 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS. .       595,548     1,901       4,879     43,049   40,817
   INFANT DEATHS.         4,553        31          75        489      350
   INF.MORT RATE.           7.6      16.3        15.4       11.4      8.6

 3,000-3,499 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS. .     1,378,114     2,492       5,374     35,574   34,926
   INFANT DEATHS.         5,734        39          51        269      203
   INF.MORT RATE.           4.2      15.7         9.5        7.6      5.8

 3,500-3,999 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS. .     1,110,700     1,388       2,603     16,718   14,019
   INFANT DEATHS.         3,203        29          18         97       72
   INF.MORT RATE.           2.9      20.9         6.9        5.8      5.1

 4,000-4,499 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS. .       345,358       330         582      3,675    3,260
   INFANT DEATHS.           958        20           8         27       19
   INF.MORT RATE.           2.8      60.6        13.7        7.3      5.8

 4,500-4,999 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS. .        64,293        94          90        570      575
   INFANT DEATHS.           240        30           3          7        3
   INF.MORT RATE.           3.7     319.1        33.3       12.3      5.2


 ________________________________________________________

                    GESTATION
 ________________________________________________________
   37-39   |   40     |   41     | 42 WEEKS |   NOT    |
   WEEKS   |  WEEKS   |  WEEKS   | OR MORE  |   STATED |
 __________|__________|__________|__________|__________|_




     7,189    1,313      825     1,223    3,359
       389       79       53        82      205
      54.1     60.2     64.2      67.0     61.0


   56,385    12,066    6,889     8,985    8,567
      990       234      168       233      228
     17.6      19.4     24.4      25.9     26.6


   281,897   90,624   50,705    56,258   25,418
     1,815      614      371       509      299
      6.4       6.8      7.3       9.0     11.8


   585,910  302,123  185,533   175,750   50,432
     2,243    1,074      703       842      310
      3.8       3.6      3.8       4.8      6.1


   366,311  283,922  208,010   180,471   37,258
     1,049      660      530       603      145
      2.9       2.3      2.5       3.3      3.9


    85,262   89,870   79,886    71,181   11,312
       250      214      166       204       50
      2.9       2.4      2.1       2.9      4.4


    12,844   15,313   16,458    16,211    2,138
        48       40       45        47       17
      3.7       2.6      2.7       2.9      8.0


 LIVE BIRTHS, INFANT DEATHS, AND INFANT MORTALITY RATES BY BIRTH WEIGHT,
 RACE OF CHILD, AND GESTATIONAL AGE:
 UNITED STATES, 1985 BIRTH COHORT

 (RATES ARE PER 1000 LIVE BIRTHS)
 ______________________________________________________________________________
                      |
                      |                   GESTATION
   BIRTH WEIGHT AND   |________________________________________________________
    RACE OF CHILD     |          |  <28     |  28-31   |  32-35   |    36    |
                      |  TOTAL   |  WEEKS   |  WEEKS   |  WEEKS   |   WEEKS  |
 _____________________|__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|_

 ALL RACES 1/ - Continued


 5,000 GRAMS OR MORE
   LIVE BIRTHS. .        8,329        64         32        103         92
   INFANT DEATHS.          119        40         10          2          9
   INF.MORT RATE.         14.3     625.0      312.5       19.4       54.3

 NOT STATED
   LIVE BIRTHS. .        4,780       568        139        240         98
   INFANT DEATHS.        1,128       472         43         75         25
   INF.MORT RATE.        236.0     831.0      309.4      312.5      255.1
                     _________________________________________________________


 ________________________________________________________

                    GESTATION
 ________________________________________________________
   37-39   |   40     |   41     | 42 WEEKS |   NOT    |
   WEEKS   |  WEEKS   |  WEEKS   | OR MORE  |   STATED |
 __________|__________|__________|__________|__________|_




     1,726    1,732      2,075       2,211        294
        10       13          8          13         18
      5.8       7.5        3.9         5.9       61.2


      946       511        331         390      1,557
      100        49         25          40        289
    116.3      95.9       75.5       102.6      185.6
 ________________________________________________________


 LIVE BIRTHS, INFANT DEATHS, AND INFANT MORTALITY RATES BY BIRTH WEIGHT,
 RACE OF CHILD, AND GESTATIONAL AGE:
 UNITED STATES, 1985 BIRTH COHORT

 (RATES ARE PER 1000 LIVE BIRTHS)
 ______________________________________________________________________________
                      |
                      |                   GESTATION
   BIRTH WEIGHT AND   |________________________________________________________
    RACE OF CHILD     |          |  <28     |  28-31   |  32-35   |    36    |
                      |  TOTAL   |  WEEKS   |  WEEKS   |  WEEKS   |   WEEKS  |
 _____________________|__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|_

    WHITE

 TOTAL. . . . . .
   LIVE BIRTHS. .      2,991,521    15,997   24,808     111,827   83,444
   INFANT DEATHS.         26,526     7,095    2,446       2,525      916
   INF.MORT.RATE.            8.9     443.0     98.6        22.6     11.0

 LESS THAN 2500 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS. .        168,478    12,042   16,897      46,774   15,895
   INFANT DEATHS.         14,959     6,724    2,327       1,871      440
   INF.MORT.RATE.           88.8     558.4    137.7        40.0     27.7

   LESS THAN 500 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS.          2,747     2,087       99          35        4
     INFANT DEATHS         2,465     1,941       88          23        1
     INF.MORT RATE         897.3     930.0    888.9       657.1    250.0

   500-749 GRAMS           4,863     3,413      516         111       25
     LIVE BIRTHS.          3,683     2,719      335          71       14
     INFANT DEATHS         757.4     796.7    649.2       639.6    560.0
     INF.MORT RATE

   750-999 GRAMS           5,734     3,092    1,294         377       42
     LIVE BIRTHS.          2,402     1,440      457         124       12
     INFANT DEATHS         418.9     465.7    353.2       328.9    285.7
     INF.MORT RATE

   1,000-1,249 GRAMS       6,755     1,549    2,992       1,016       98
     LIVE BIRTHS.          1,390       416      554         183       20
     INFANT DEATHS         205.8     268.6    185.2       180.1    204.1
     INF.MORT RATE

   1,250-1,499 GRAMS       8,026       603    3,553       2,023      277
     LIVE BIRTHS.            948       110      385         215       32
     INFANT DEATHS         118.1     182.4    108.4       106.3    115.5
     INF.MORT RATE

 ________________________________________________________

                    GESTATION
 ________________________________________________________
   37-39   |   40     |   41     | 42 WEEKS |   NOT    |
   WEEKS   |  WEEKS   |  WEEKS   | OR MORE  |   STATED |
 __________|__________|__________|__________|__________|_




 1,092,654  661,215    467,404     423,786    110,386
     5,166    2,247      1,645       2,034      2,452
       4.7      3.4        3.5         4.8       22.2


    43,946    9,288      5,484       7,265     10,887
     1,162      266        212         296      1,661
      26.4     28.6       38.7        40.7      152.6


        48       29         27          18        400
        19       10          9           7        367
     395.8    344.8      333.3       388.9      917.5


       104       43         33          43        575
        45       14         12          23        450
     432.7    325.6      363.6       534.9      782.6


       130       57         29          50        663
        37       15          5          14        298
     284.6    263.2      172.4       280.0      449.5


       218       53         52          94        683
        42        6          9          12        148
     192.7    113.2      173.1       127.7      216.7


       505      102         95         119        749
        61       17         21          17         90
     120.8    166.7      221.1       142.9      120.2


 LIVE BIRTHS, INFANT DEATHS, AND INFANT MORTALITY RATES BY BIRTH WEIGHT,
 RACE OF CHILD, AND GESTATIONAL AGE:
 UNITED STATES, 1985 BIRTH COHORT

 (RATES ARE PER 1000 LIVE BIRTHS)
 ______________________________________________________________________________
                      |
                      |                   GESTATION
   BIRTH WEIGHT AND   |________________________________________________________
    RACE OF CHILD     |          |  <28     |  28-319  |  32-35   |    36    |
                      |  TOTAL   |  WEEKS   |  WEEKS   |  WEEKS   |   WEEKS  |
 _____________________|__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|_

    WHITE  - Continued

   1,500-1,999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS.           32,057       648    6,097    2,387    4,816
     INFANT DEATHS           1,807        65      400      119      275
     INF.MORT RATE            56.4     100.3     65.6     49.9     57.1

   2,000-2,499 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS.          108,296       650    2,346   29,455   13,062
     INFANT DEATHS           2,264        33      108      604      242
     INF.MORT RATE            20.9      50.8     46.0     20.5     18.5

 2,500-2,999 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS. .          421,418       966    2,503   28,185   28,834
   INFANT DEATHS.            3,145        20       39      335      241
   INF.MORT RATE.              7.5      20.7     15.6     11.9      8.4

 3,000-3,499 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS. .        1,079,510     1,415    3,087   21,980   25,139
   INFANT DEATHS.            4,171        23       30      176      145
   INF.MORT RATE.              3.9      16.3      9.7      8.0      5.8

 3,500-3,999 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS. .          945,835       917    1,746   11,413   10,412
   INFANT DEATHS.            2,487        19        9       58       52
   INF.MORT RATE.              2.6      20.7      5.2      5.1      5.0

 4,000-4,499 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS. .          307,164       236      400    2,794    2,552
   INFANT DEATHS.              779         9        4       22       13
   INF.MORT RATE.              2.5      38.1     10.0      7.9      5.1

 4,500-4,999 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS. .           58,046        72       72      441      466
   INFANT DEATHS.              193        21        3        5        3
   INF.MORT RATE.              3.3     291.7     41.7     11.3      6.4


 ________________________________________________________

                    GESTATION
 ________________________________________________________
   37-39   |   40     |   41     | 42 WEEKS |   NOT    |
   WEEKS   |  WEEKS   |  WEEKS   | OR MORE  |   STATED |
 __________|__________|__________|__________|__________|_




       4,816      783      538       820    2,211
         275       52       39        53      153
        57.1     66.4     72.5      64.6     69.2


      38,125     8,221    4,710     6,121    5,606
         683       152      117       170      155
        17.9      18.5     24.8      27.8     27.6


     199,881   66,083   37,476    40,261   17,249
       1,217      403      267       356      213
         6.4      6.1      7.1       8.8     12.3


     454,782  243,737  151,737   139,573   38,022
       1,608      822      520       622      225
         3.5      3.4      3.4       4.5      5.9


     306,648  245,672  182,630   155,449   30,948
         799      508      437       493      112
         2.6      2.1      2.4       3.2      3.6


      73,972   80,599   72,685    64,062    9,864
         197      169      147       180       38
         2.7      2.1      2.0       2.8      3.9


      11,224   13,894   15,176    14,810    1,891
          40       32       36        39       14
         3.6      2.3      2.4       2.6      7.4


 LIVE BIRTHS, INFANT DEATHS, AND INFANT MORTALITY RATES BY BIRTH WEIGHT,
 RACE OF CHILD, AND GESTATIONAL AGE:
 UNITED STATES, 1985 BIRTH COHORT

 (RATES ARE PER 1000 LIVE BIRTHS)
 ______________________________________________________________________________
                      |
                      |                   GESTATION
   BIRTH WEIGHT AND   |________________________________________________________
    RACE OF CHILD     |          |  <28     |  28-31   |  32-35   |    36    |
                      |  TOTAL   |  WEEKS   |  WEEKS   |  WEEKS   |   WEEKS  |
 _____________________|__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|_

    WHITE - Continued


 5,000 GRAMS OR MORE
   LIVE BIRTHS. .           7,391        42       22       76    1,452
   INFANT DEATHS.              82        25        6        4        6
   INF.MORT RATE.            11.1     595.2    272.7     52.6      4.1

 NOT STATED
   LIVE BIRTHS. .           3,679       307       81      175       70
   INFANT DEATHS.             710       254       28       56       18
   INF.MORT RATE.           193.0     827.4    345.7    320.0    257.1
                     _________________________________________________________


 ________________________________________________________

                    GESTATION
 ________________________________________________________
   37-39   |   40     |   41     | 42 WEEKS |   NOT    |
   WEEKS   |  WEEKS   |  WEEKS   | OR MORE  |   STATED |
 __________|__________|__________|__________|__________|_



       1,452    1,543    1,900     2,033      258
           6       11        6        12       10
         4.1      7.1      3.2       5.9     38.8


        749       419      278       333    1,267
         83        36       20        36      179
      110.8      85.9     71.9     108.1    141.3

 ________________________________________________________



 LIVE BIRTHS, INFANT DEATHS, AND INFANT MORTALITY RATES BY BIRTH WEIGHT,
 RACE OF CHILD, AND GESTATIONAL AGE:
 UNITED STATES, 1985 BIRTH COHORT

 (RATES ARE PER 1000 LIVE BIRTHS)
 ______________________________________________________________________________
                      |
                      |                   GESTATION
   BIRTH WEIGHT AND   |________________________________________________________
    RACE OF CHILD     |          |  <28     |  28-31   |  32-35   |    36    |
                      |  TOTAL   |  WEEKS   |  WEEKS   |  WEEKS   |   WEEKS  |
 _____________________|__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|_

    BLACK

 TOTAL. . . . . .
   LIVE BIRTHS. .          608,309    10,835   14,056   48,707   28,094
   INFANT DEATHS.           11,140     4,247      985      901      348
   INF.MORT.RATE.             18.3     392.0     70.1     18.5     12.4

 LESS THAN 2500 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS. .           75,482     8,193    8,913   19,070    6,206
   INFANT DEATHS.            7,476     3,977      906      641      175
   INF.MORT.RATE.             99.0     485.4    101.6     33.6     28.2

   LESS THAN 500 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS.            1,972     1,461       67       14        4
     INFANT DEATHS           1,747     1,328       55       11        1
     INF.MORT RATE           885.9     909.0    820.9    785.7    250.0

   500-749 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS.            3,197     2,261      314       79       18
     INFANT DEATHS           2,282     1,678      184       50        8
     INF.MORT RATE           713.8     742.1    586.0    632.9    444.4

   750-999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS.            3,444     1,894      766      200       37
     INFANT DEATHS           1,146       696      195       43        9
     INF.MORT RATE           332.8     367.5    254.6    215.0    243.2

   1,000-1,249 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS.            3,464       820    1,510      528       56
     INFANT DEATHS             491       152      171       64        9
     INF.MORT RATE           141.7     185.4    113.2    121.2    160.7

   1,250-1,499 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS.            4,099       462    1,725    1,002      128
     INFANT DEATHS             320        56      124       62       11
     INF.MORT RATE            78.1     121.2     71.9     61.9     85.9

 ________________________________________________________

                    GESTATION
 ________________________________________________________
   37-39   |   40     |   41     | 42 WEEKS |   NOT    |
   WEEKS   |  WEEKS   |  WEEKS   | OR MORE  |   STATED |
 __________|__________|__________|__________|__________|_




     241,498  104,336   64,105    70,648   26,030
       1,727      702      431       556    1,243
         7.2      6.7      6.7       7.9     47.8


      18,461    4,002    2,248     3,093    5,296
         465      133       96       129      954
        25.2     33.2     42.7      41.7    180.1


          26       11       18        14      357
          15        9       13         7      308
       576.9    818.2    722.2     500.0    862.7


          62       23       20        28      392
          30       15       11        13      293
       483.9    652.2    550.0     464.3    747.4


          76       36       23        29      383
          19       11        8        10      155
       250.0    305.6    347.8     344.8    404.7


         130       26       17        62      315
          16        1        4         8       66
       123.1     38.5    235.3     129.0    209.5


         266       60       27        79      350
          25        5        1         8       28
        94.0     83.3     37.0     101.3     80.0


 LIVE BIRTHS, INFANT DEATHS, AND INFANT MORTALITY RATES BY BIRTH WEIGHT,
 RACE OF CHILD, AND GESTATIONAL AGE:
 UNITED STATES, 1985 BIRTH COHORT

 (RATES ARE PER 1000 LIVE BIRTHS)
 ______________________________________________________________________________
                      |
                      |                   GESTATION
   BIRTH WEIGHT AND   |________________________________________________________
    RACE OF CHILD     |          |  <28     |  28-319  |  32-35   |    36    |
                      |  TOTAL   |  WEEKS   |  WEEKS   |  WEEKS   |   WEEKS  |
 _____________________|__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|_

    BLACK  - Continued

   1,500-1,999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS.           14,596       679    2,730    5,972    1,014
     INFANT DEATHS             645        42      135      215       45
     INF.MORT RATE            44.2      61.9     49.5     36.0     44.4

   2,000-2,499 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS.           44,710       616    1,801   11,275    4,949
     INFANT DEATHS             845        25       42      196       92
     INF.MORT RATE            18.9      40.6     23.3     17.4     18.6

 2,500-2,999 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS. .          143,378       869    2,155   12,875   10,185
   INFANT DEATHS.            1,225        15       34      131       98
   INF.MORT RATE.              8.5      15.3     15.8     10.2      9.6

 3,000-3,499 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS. .          232,934       983    2,022   11,546    8,101
   INFANT DEATHS.            1,293        15       17       77       51
   INF.MORT RATE.              5.6      15.3      8.4      6.7      6.3

 3,500-3,999 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS. .          123,198       428      735    4,377    2,913
   INFANT DEATHS.              560        10        8       30       12
   INF.MORT RATE.              4.5      23.4     10.9      6.9      4.1

 4,000-4,499 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS. .           27,436        81      152      678      564
   INFANT DEATHS.              144        11        4        5        5
   INF.MORT RATE.              5.2     135.8     26.3      7.4      8.9

 4,500-4,999 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS. .            4,374        20       18       86       88
   INFANT DEATHS.               34         9        -        2        -
   INF.MORT RATE.              7.8     450.0        -     23.3        -


 ________________________________________________________

                    GESTATION
 ________________________________________________________
   37-39   |   40     |   41     | 42 WEEKS |   NOT    |
   WEEKS   |  WEEKS   |  WEEKS   | OR MORE  |   STATED |
 __________|__________|__________|__________|__________|_




       2,093      487      251       360    1,010
          99       24       13        28       44
        47.3     49.3     51.8      77.8     43.6


     15,808     3,359    1,892     2,521    2,489
        261        68       46        55       60
       16.5      20.2     24.3      21.8     24.1


     66,476    20,129   10,927    13,479    6,283
        467       185       92       133       75
        7.0       9.2      8.4       9.9     11.9


    101,892    44,437   26,003    29,056    8,894
        527       209      143       180       74
        5.2       4.7      5.5       6.2      8.3


     44,809    28,058   18,778    18,856    4,244
        193       122       72        88       25
        4.3       4.3      3.8       4.7      5.9


      8,328     6,540    5,108     5,056      929
         41        37       15        19        7
        4.9       5.7      2.9       3.8      7.5


      1,204       978      889       941      150
          7         2        7         5        2
        5.8       2.0      7.9       5.3     13.3


 LIVE BIRTHS, INFANT DEATHS, AND INFANT MORTALITY RATES BY BIRTH WEIGHT,
 RACE OF CHILD, AND GESTATIONAL AGE:
 UNITED STATES, 1985 BIRTH COHORT

 (RATES ARE PER 1000 LIVE BIRTHS)
 ______________________________________________________________________________
                      |
                      |                   GESTATION
   BIRTH WEIGHT AND   |________________________________________________________
    RACE OF CHILD     |          |  <28     |  28-31   |  32-35   |    36    |
                      |  TOTAL   |  WEEKS   |  WEEKS   |  WEEKS   |   WEEKS  |
 _____________________|__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|_

    BLACK - Continued


 5,000 GRAMS OR MORE
   LIVE BIRTHS. .             648        22        9       25       14
   INFANT DEATHS.              35        15        4        -        1
   INF.MORT RATE.            54.0     681.8    444.4        -     71.4

 NOT STATED
   LIVE BIRTHS. .             859       239       52       50       23
   INFANT DEATHS.             373       200       12       15        6
   INF.MORT RATE.           434.2     836.8    230.8    300.0    260.9
                     _________________________________________________________

   1/  INCLUDES RACES OTHER THAN WHITE AND BLACK


 ________________________________________________________

                    GESTATION
 ________________________________________________________
   37-39   |   40     |   41     | 42 WEEKS |   NOT    |
   WEEKS   |  WEEKS   |  WEEKS   | OR MORE  |   STATED |
 __________|__________|__________|__________|__________|_




         187       133      112       125       21
           4         2        1         -        8
        21.4      15.0      8.9         -    381.0


         141        59       40        42      213
          23        12        5         2       98
       163.1     203.4    125.0      47.6    460.1
 ________________________________________________________

24. Live Births & Infant Deaths/Mort Rates by Wt,Race,Age at Death
 LIVE BIRTHS, INFANT DEATHS, AND INFANT MORTALITY RATES BY BIRTH WEIGHT,
 RACE OF CHILD, AND AGE AT DEATH UNITED STATES, 1985 BIRTH COHORT

 (INFANT DEATHS ARE UNDER 1 YEAR.  NEONATAL DEATHS ARE UNDER 28 DAYS;
 EARLY NEONATAL, 0-6 DAYS; LATE NEONATAL, 7-27 DAYS;
 AND POSTNEONATAL, 28 DAYS THROUGH 11 MONTHS)

 (RATES ARE PER 1000 LIVE BIRTHS)
 _________________________________________________________________________
                                     |            |           |           |
 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE OF CHILD      |LIVE BIRTHS |  INFANT   |   TOTAL   |
                                     |            |  DEATHS   |  NEONATAL |
 ____________________________________|____________|___________|___________|

            ALL RACES 1/

 TOTAL (ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS)...NUMBER..     3,760,833   39,145   25,573
                               RATE..                   10.4      6.8

 LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS.......NUMBER..       253,711   23,210   18,804
                               RATE..                   91.5     74.1

   LESS THAN 500 GRAMS.......NUMBER..         4,860    4,341    4,311
                               RATE..                  893.2    887.0

   500-749 GRAMS.............NUMBER..         8,291    6,137    5,655
                               RATE..                  740.2    682.1

   750-999 GRAMS.............NUMBER..         9,452    3,661    2,965
                               RATE..                  387.3    313.7

   1,000-1249 GRAMS..........NUMBER..        10,578    1,964    1,489
                               RATE..                  185.7    140.8

   1,250-1,499 GRAMS.........NUMBER..        12,540    1,316      935
                               RATE..                  104.9     74.6

   1,500-1,999 GRAMS.........NUMBER..        48,402    2,544    1,656
                               RATE..                   52.6     34.2

   2,000-2,499 GRAMS.........NUMBER..       159,588    3,247    1,793
                               RATE..                   20.3     11.2

 2,500-2,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..       595,548    4,553    1,870
                               RATE..                    7.6      3.1

 3,000-3,499 GRAMS...........NUMBER..     1,378,114    5,734    2,079
                               RATE..                    4.2      1.5


  ____________________________________
 |            |           |           |
 |   EARLY    |    LATE   |  POST-    |
 |  NEONATAL  |  NEONATAL |  NEONATAL |
 |____________|___________|___________|



      21,317     4,256    13,572
         5.7       1.1       3.6

      16,390     2,414     4,406
        64.6       9.5      17.4

       4,258        53        30
       876.1      10.9       6.2

       5,175       480       482
       624.2      57.9      58.1

       2,454       511       696
       259.6      54.1      73.6

       1,146       343       475
       108.3      32.4      44.9

         735       200       381
        58.6      15.9      30.4

       1,277       379       888
        26.4       7.8      18.3

       1,345       448     1,454
        26.4       2.8       9.1

       1,285       585     2,683
         2.2       1.0       4.5

       1,399       680     3,655
         1.0        .5       2.7


 LIVE BIRTHS, INFANT DEATHS, AND INFANT MORTALITY RATES BY BIRTH WEIGHT,
 RACE OF CHILD, AND AGE AT DEATH UNITED STATES, 1985 BIRTH COHORT

 (INFANT DEATHS ARE UNDER 1 YEAR.  NEONATAL DEATHS ARE UNDER 28 DAYS;
 EARLY NEONATAL, 0-6 DAYS; LATE NEONATAL, 7-27 DAYS;
 AND POSTNEONATAL, 28 DAYS THROUGH 11 MONTHS)

 (RATES ARE PER 1000 LIVE BIRTHS)
 _________________________________________________________________________
                                     |            |           |           |
 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE OF CHILD      |LIVE BIRTHS |  INFANT   |   TOTAL   |
                                     |            |  DEATHS   |  NEONATAL |
 ____________________________________|____________|___________|___________|

            ALL RACES 1/ - Continued

 3,500-3,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..     1,110,700    3,203    1,155
                               RATE..                    2.9      1.0

 4,000-4,499 GRAMS...... ....NUMBER..       345,358      958      382
                               RATE..                    2.8      1.1

 4,500-4,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..        64,293      240      138
                               RATE..                    3.7      2.1

 5,000 GRAMS OR MORE.........NUMBER..         8,329      119       96
                               RATE..                   14.3     11.5

 NOT STATED..................NUMBER..         4,780    1,128    1,049
                               RATE..                  236.0    219.5
                               ________________________________________


  ____________________________________
 |            |           |           |
 |   EARLY    |    LATE   |  POST-    |
 |  NEONATAL  |  NEONATAL |  NEONATAL |
 |____________|___________|___________|



         778       377     2,048
          .7        .3       1.8

         267       115       576
          .8        .3       1.7

         117        21       102
         1.8        .3       1.6

          88         8        23
        10.6       1.0       2.8

         993        56        79
       207.7      11.7      16.5
 _____________________________________


 LIVE BIRTHS, INFANT DEATHS, AND INFANT MORTALITY RATES BY BIRTH WEIGHT,
 RACE OF CHILD, AND AGE AT DEATH UNITED STATES, 1985 BIRTH COHORT

 (INFANT DEATHS ARE UNDER 1 YEAR.  NEONATAL DEATHS ARE UNDER 28 DAYS;
 EARLY NEONATAL, 0-6 DAYS; LATE NEONATAL, 7-27 DAYS;
 AND POSTNEONATAL, 28 DAYS THROUGH 11 MONTHS)

 (RATES ARE PER 1000 LIVE BIRTHS)
 _________________________________________________________________________
                                     |            |           |           |
 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE OF CHILD      |LIVE BIRTHS |  INFANT   |   TOTAL   |
                                     |            |  DEATHS   |  NEONATAL |
 ____________________________________|____________|___________|___________|

            WHITE

 TOTAL (ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS)...NUMBER..     2,991,521   26,526   17,381
                               RATE..                    8.9      5.8

 LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS.......NUMBER..       168,478   14,959   12,368
                               RATE..                   88.8     73.4

   LESS THAN 500 GRAMS.......NUMBER..         2,747    2,465    2,447
                               RATE..                  897.3    890.8

   500-749 GRAMS.............NUMBER..         4,863    3,683    3,456
                               RATE..                  757.4    710.7

   750-999 GRAMS.............NUMBER..         5,734    2,402    2,036
                               RATE..                  418.9    355.1

   1,000-1249 GRAMS..........NUMBER..         6,755    1,390    1,118
                               RATE..                  205.8    165.5

   1,250-1,499 GRAMS.........NUMBER..         8,026      948      710
                               RATE..                  118.1     88.5

   1,500-1,999 GRAMS.........NUMBER..        32,057    1,807    1,257
                               RATE..                   56.4     39.2

   2,000-2,499 GRAMS.........NUMBER..       108,296    2,264    1,344
                               RATE..                   20.9     12.4

 2,500-2,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..       421,418    3,145    1,371
                               RATE..                    7.5      3.3

 3,000-3,499 GRAMS...........NUMBER..     1,079,510    4,171    1,583
                               RATE..                    3.9      1.5


  ____________________________________
 |            |           |           |
 |   EARLY    |    LATE   |  POST-    |
 |  NEONATAL  |  NEONATAL |  NEONATAL |
 |____________|___________|___________|



      14,323     3,058     9,145
         4.8       1.0       3.1

      10,699     1,669     2,591
        63.5       9.9      15.4

       2,414        33        18
       878.8      12.0       6.6

       3,177       279       227
       653.3      57.4      46.7

       1,681       355       366
       293.2      61.9      63.8

         873       245       272
       129.2      36.3      40.3

         550       160       238
        68.5      19.9      29.7

         978       279       550
        30.5       8.7      17.2

       1,026       318       920
         9.5       2.9       8.5

         958       413     1,774
         2.3       1.0       4.2

       1,079       504     2,588
         1.0        .5       2.4


 LIVE BIRTHS, INFANT DEATHS, AND INFANT MORTALITY RATES BY BIRTH WEIGHT,
 RACE OF CHILD, AND AGE ST DEATH UNITED STATES, 1985 BIRTH COHORT

 (INFANT DEATHS ARE UNDER 1 YEAR.  NEONATAL DEATHS ARE UNDER 28 DAYS;
 EARLY NEONATAL, 0-6 DAYS; LATE NEONATAL, 7-27 DAYS;
 AND POSTNEONATAL, 28 DAYS THROUGH 11 MONTHS)

 (RATES ARE PER 1000 LIVE BIRTHS)
 _________________________________________________________________________
                                     |            |           |           |
 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE OF CHILD      |LIVE BIRTHS |  INFANT   |   TOTAL   |
                                     |            |  DEATHS   |  NEONATAL |
 ____________________________________|____________|___________|___________|

       WHITE - Continued

 3,500-3,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..      45,835    2,487      918
                               RATE..                  2.6      1.0

 4,000-4,499 GRAMS...... ....NUMBER..     307,164      779      315
                               RATE..                  2.5      1.0

 4,500-4,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..      58,046      193      104
                               RATE..                  3.3      1.8

 5,000 GRAMS OR MORE.........NUMBER..       7,391       82       65
                               RATE..                 11.1      8.8

 NOT STATED..................NUMBER..       3,679      710      657
                               RATE..                193.0    178.6
                               ________________________________________

  ____________________________________
 |            |           |           |
 |   EARLY    |    LATE   |  POST-    |
 |  NEONATAL  |  NEONATAL |  NEONATAL |
 |____________|___________|___________|



         616       302     2,048
          .7        .3       1.8

         216        99       576
          .7        .3       1.7

          86        18        23
         1.5        .3       2.8

          57        56        79
         7.7      11.7      16.5

         612        45        53
       166.3      12.2      14.4
 _____________________________________


 LIVE BIRTHS, INFANT DEATHS, AND INFANT MORTALITY RATES BY BIRTH WEIGHT,
 RACE OF CHILD, AND AGE AT DEATH UNITED STATES, 1985 BIRTH COHORT

 (INFANT DEATHS ARE UNDER 1 YEAR.  NEONATAL DEATHS ARE UNDER 28 DAYS;
 EARLY NEONATAL, 0-6 DAYS; LATE NEONATAL, 7-27 DAYS;
 AND POSTNEONATAL, 28 DAYS THROUGH 11 MONTHS)

 (RATES ARE PER 1000 LIVE BIRTHS)
 _________________________________________________________________________
                                     |            |           |           |
 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE OF CHILD      |LIVE BIRTHS |  INFANT   |   TOTAL   |
                                     |            |  DEATHS   |  NEONATAL |
 ____________________________________|____________|___________|___________|

            BLACK

 TOTAL (ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS)...NUMBER..     608,309   11,140    7,339
                               RATE..                 18.3     12.1

 LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS.......NUMBER..      75,482    7,476    5,832
                               RATE..                 99.0     77.3

   LESS THAN 500 GRAMS.......NUMBER..       1,972    1,747    1,735
                               RATE..                885.9    879.8

   500-749 GRAMS.............NUMBER..       3,197    2,282    2,039
                               RATE..                713.8    637.8

   750-999 GRAMS.............NUMBER..       3,444    1,146      842
                               RATE..                332.8    244.5

   1,000-1249 GRAMS..........NUMBER..       3,464      491      308
                               RATE..                141.7     88.9

   1,250-1,499 GRAMS.........NUMBER..       4,099      320      190
                               RATE..                 78.1     46.4

   1,500-1,999 GRAMS.........NUMBER..      14,596      645      341
                               RATE..                 44.2     23.4

   2,000-2,499 GRAMS.........NUMBER..      44,710      845      377
                               RATE..                 18.9      8.4

 2,500-2,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..     143,378    1,225      438
                               RATE..                  8.5      3.1

 3,000-3,499 GRAMS...........NUMBER..     232,934    1,293      414
                               RATE..                  5.6      1.8

  ____________________________________
 |            |           |           |
 |   EARLY    |    LATE   |  POST-    |
 |  NEONATAL  |  NEONATAL |  NEONATAL |
 |____________|___________|___________|



       6,294     1,045     3,801
        10.3       1.7       6.2

       5,172       660     1,644
        68.5       8.7      21.8

       1,718        17        12
       871.2       8.6       6.1

       1,856       183       243
       580.5      57.2      76.0

         698       144       304
       202.7      41.8      88.3

         221        87       183
        63.8      25.1      52.8

         156        34       130
        38.1       8.3      31.7

         255        86       304
        17.5       5.9      20.8

         268       109       468
         6.0       2.4      10.5

         286       152       787
         2.0       1.1       5.5

         260       154       879
         1.1        .7       3.8


 LIVE BIRTHS, INFANT DEATHS, AND INFANT MORTALITY RATES BY BIRTH WEIGHT,
 RACE OF CHILD, AND AGE ST DEATH UNITED STATES, 1985 BIRTH COHORT

 (INFANT DEATHS ARE UNDER 1 YEAR.  NEONATAL DEATHS ARE UNDER 28 DAYS;
 EARLY NEONATAL, 0-6 DAYS; LATE NEONATAL, 7-27 DAYS;
 AND POSTNEONATAL, 28 DAYS THROUGH 11 MONTHS)

 (RATES ARE PER 1000 LIVE BIRTHS)
 _________________________________________________________________________
                                     |            |           |           |
 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE OF CHILD      |LIVE BIRTHS |  INFANT   |   TOTAL   |
                                     |            |  DEATHS   |  NEONATAL |
 ____________________________________|____________|___________|___________|

       BLACK - Continued

 3,500-3,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..    123,198      560      185
                               RATE..                 4.5      1.5

 4,000-4,499 GRAMS...... ....NUMBER..     27,436      144       62
                               RATE..                 5.2      2.3

 4,500-4,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..      4,374       34       26
                               RATE..                 7.8      5.9

 5,000 GRAMS OR MORE.........NUMBER..        648       35       30
                               RATE..                54.0     46.3

 NOT STATED..................NUMBER..        859      373      352
                               RATE..               434.2    409.8
 ____________________________________________________________________________

      1/  INCLUDES RACES OTHER THAN WHITE AND BLACK

  ____________________________________
 |            |           |           |
 |   EARLY    |    LATE   |  POST-    |
 |  NEONATAL  |  NEONATAL |  NEONATAL |
 |____________|___________|___________|



         129        56       375
         1.0        .5       3.0

          50        12        82
         1.8        .4       3.0

          23         3         8
         5.3        .7       1.8

          30         -         5
        46.3         -       7.7

         344         8        21
       400.5       9.3      24.4
 _____________________________________

25. Live Births & Infant Deaths/Mort. Rates for 10 Leading Causes
 LIVE BIRTHS, BY BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE OF CHILD AND INFANT DEATHS AND, INFANT
  MORTALITY RATES BY AGE AT DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT, AND RACE OF CHILD FOR
 10 LEADING CAUSES OF INFANT DEATH:  UNITED STATES, 1985 BIRTH COHORT

 (INFANT DEATHS ARE UNDER 1 YEAR.  NEONATAL DEATHS ARE UNDER 28 DAYS; EARLY
 NEONATAL, 0-6 DAYS; LATE NEONATAL, 7-27 DAYS; AND POSTNEONATAL, 28 DAYS
 THROUGH 11 MONTHS) (RATES ARE PER 100,000 LIVE BIRTHS)
 ___________________________________________________________________________
                                                  |            |           |
 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT, AND RACE OF CHILD  |   LIVE     |  INFANT   |
                                                  |  BIRTHS    |  DEATHS   |
 _________________________________________________|____________|___________|

         ALL RACES 1/ ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS

  ..ALL CAUSES...........................NUMBER..    3,760,833   39,145
                                           RATE..               1,040.9

  1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES (740-759).......NUMBER..                 8,405
                                           RATE..                 223.5

  2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROM (798.0)..NUMBER..                 5,242
                                           RATE..                 139.4

  3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS YSNDROM (769)...NUMBER..                 3,633
                                           RATE..                  96.6

  4 PREMATURITY (765)....................NUMBER..                 3,189
                                           RATE..                  84.8

  5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS (761).........NUMBER..                 1,309
                                           RATE..                  34.8

  6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...........NUMBER..                 1,123
                                           RATE..                  29.9

  7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)................NUMBER..                   867
                                           RATE..                  23.1

  8 INFECTIONS (771).....................NUMBER..                   927
                                           RATE..                  24.6

  9 COMPLICATIONS OF PLACENTA,ETC. (762).NUMBER..                   875
                                           RATE..                  23.3

 10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZ (480-487).....NUMBER..                   677
                                           RATE..                  18.0

 ...ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..........NUMBER..                 1,829
                                           RATE..                  48.6

  __________________________________________________
 |             |            |           |           |
 |    TOTAL    |   EARLY    |    LATE   |  POST-    |
 |   NEONATAL  | NEONATAL   |  NEONATAL |  NEONATAL |
 |_____________|____________|___________|___________|



        25,573     21,317     4,256     13,572
         680.0      566.8     113.2      360.9

         6,276      5,075     1,201      2,129
         166.9      134.9      31.9       56.6

           354         38       316      4,888
           9.4        1.0       8.4      130.0

         3,372      2,788       584        261
          89.7       74.1      15.5        6.9

         3,155      3,124        31         34
          83.9       83.1        .8         .9

         1,296      1,286        10         13
          34.5       34.2        .3         .3

         1,052        897       155         71
          28.0       23.9       4.1        1.9

            75         30        45        792
           2.0         .8       1.2       21.1

           885        560       325         42
          23.5       14.9       8.6        1.1

           866        844        22          9
          23.0       22.4        .6         .2

           151         73        78        526
           4.0        1.9       2.1       14.0

           657        407       250      1,172
          17.5       10.8       6.6       31.2


 LIVE BIRTHS, BY BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE OF CHILD AND INFANT DEATHS AND, INFANT
 MORTALITY RATES BY AGE AT DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT, AND RACE OF CHILD FOR
 10 LEADING CAUSES OF INFANT DEATH:  UNITED STATES, 1985 BIRTH COHORT

 (INFANT DEATHS ARE UNDER 1 YEAR.  NEONATAL DEATHS ARE UNDER 28 DAYS; EARLY
 NEONATAL, 0-6 DAYS; LATE NEONATAL, 7-27 DAYS; AND POSTNEONATAL, 28 DAYS
 THROUGH 11 MONTHS) (RATES ARE PER 100,000 LIVE BIRTHS)
 ___________________________________________________________________________
                                                  |            |           |
 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT, AND RACE OF CHILD  |   LIVE     |  INFANT   |
                                                  |  BIRTHS    |  DEATHS   |
 _________________________________________________|____________|___________|

         ALL RACES 1/ LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS

  ..ALL CAUSES...........................NUMBER..     253,711   23,210
                                           RATE..              9,148.2

  1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES (740-759).......NUMBER..                3,917
                                           RATE..              1,565.2

  2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROM (798.0)..NUMBER..                  996
                                           RATE..                392.6

  3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS YSNDROM (769)...NUMBER..                3,408
                                           RATE..              1,343.3

  4 PREMATURITY (765)....................NUMBER..                2,873
                                           RATE..              1,132.4

  5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS (761).........NUMBER..                1,170
                                           RATE..                461.2

  6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...........NUMBER..                  596
                                           RATE..                234.9

  7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)................NUMBER..                  160
                                           RATE..                 63.1

  8 INFECTIONS (771).....................NUMBER..                  625
                                           RATE..                246.3

  9 COMPLICATIONS OF PLACENTA,ETC. (762).NUMBER..                  673
                                           RATE..                265.3

 10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZ (480-487).....NUMBER..                  243
                                           RATE..                 95.8

 ...ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..........NUMBER..                  806
                                           RATE..                317.7

  __________________________________________________
 |             |            |           |           |
 |    TOTAL    |   EARLY    |    LATE   |  POST-    |
 |   NEONATAL  | NEONATAL   |  NEONATAL |  NEONATAL |
 |_____________|____________|___________|___________|



         18,804     16,390       2,414     4,406
        7,411.6    6,460.1       951.5   1,736.6

          3,242      2,770         472       729
        1,277.8    1,091.8       186.0     287.3

             49          5          44       947
           19.3        2.0        17.3     373.3

          3,166      2,662         544       242
        1,247.9    1,033.5       214.4      95.4

          2,845      2,817          28        28
        1,121.4    1,110.3        11.0      11.0

          1,162      1,156           6         8
          458.0      455.6         2.4       3.2

            575        520          55        21
          226.6      205.0        21.7       8.3

             28         19           9       132
           11.0        7.5         3.5      52.0

            595        375         220        30
          234.5      147.8        86.7      11.8

            670        659          11         3
          264.1      259.7         4.3       1.2

             65         39          26       178
           25.6       15.4        10.2      70.2

            344        219         125       462
          135.6       86.3        49.3     182.1


 LIVE BIRTHS, BY BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE OF CHILD AND INFANT DEATHS AND, INFANT
 MORTALITY RATES BY AGE AT DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT, AND RACE OF CHILD FOR
 10 LEADING CAUSES OF INFANT DEATH:  UNITED STATES, 1985 BIRTH COHORT

 (INFANT DEATHS ARE UNDER 1 YEAR.  NEONATAL DEATHS ARE UNDER 28 DAYS; EARLY
 NEONATAL, 0-6 DAYS; LATE NEONATAL, 7-27 DAYS; AND POSTNEONATAL, 28 DAYS
 THROUGH 11 MONTHS) (RATES ARE PER 100,000 LIVE BIRTHS)
 ___________________________________________________________________________
                                                  |            |           |
 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT, AND RACE OF CHILD  |   LIVE     |  INFANT   |
                                                  |  BIRTHS    |  DEATHS   |
 _________________________________________________|____________|___________|

         ALL RACES 1/ LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS OR MORE

  ..ALL CAUSES...........................NUMBER..   3,502,342   14,807
                                           RATE..                422.8

  1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES (740-759).......NUMBER..                4,213
                                           RATE..                120.3

  2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROM (798.0)..NUMBER..                4,239
                                           RATE..                121.0

  3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS YSNDROM (769)...NUMBER..                  152
                                           RATE..                  4.3

  4 PREMATURITY (765)....................NUMBER..                   89
                                           RATE..                  2.5

  5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS (761).........NUMBER..                   39
                                           RATE..                  1.1

  6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...........NUMBER..                  454
                                           RATE..                 13.0

  7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)................NUMBER..                  705
                                           RATE..                 20.1

  8 INFECTIONS (771).....................NUMBER..                  292
                                           RATE..                  8.3

  9 COMPLICATIONS OF PLACENTA,ETC. (762).NUMBER..                  139
                                           RATE..                  4.0

 10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZ (480-487).....NUMBER..                  429
                                           RATE..                 12.2

 ...ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..........NUMBER..                  995
                                           RATE..                 28.4

  __________________________________________________
 |             |            |           |           |
 |    TOTAL    |   EARLY    |    LATE   |  POST-    |
 |   NEONATAL  | NEONATAL   |  NEONATAL |  NEONATAL |
 |_____________|____________|___________|___________|



       5,704      3,934       1,786      9,097
       163.3      163.3        51.0      259.5

       2,830      2,115         715      1,383
       80.8        60.4        20.4       39.5

        305          33         272      3,934
        8.7         8.0         7.8      112.3

        135         106          29         17
        3.9         3.0          .8         .5

         84          81           3          5
        2.4         2.3          .1         .1

         35          31           4          4
        1.0          .9          .1         .1

        411         317          94         43
       11.7         9.1         2.7        1.2

         46          10          36        659
        1.3          .3         1.0       18.8

        281         178         103         11
        8.0         5.1         2.9         .3

        133         122          11          6
         3.8        3.5          .3         .2

         86          34          52        343
        2.5         1.0         1.5        9.8

        298         176         122        697
        8.5         5.0         3.5       19.9


 LIVE BIRTHS, BY BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE OF CHILD AND INFANT DEATHS AND, INFANT
 MORTALITY RATES BY AGE AT DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT, AND RACE OF CHILD FOR
 10 LEADING CAUSES OF INFANT DEATH:  UNITED STATES, 1985 BIRTH COHORT

 (INFANT DEATHS ARE UNDER 1 YEAR.  NEONATAL DEATHS ARE UNDER 28 DAYS; EARLY
 NEONATAL, 0-6 DAYS; LATE NEONATAL, 7-27 DAYS; AND POSTNEONATAL, 28 DAYS
 THROUGH 11 MONTHS) (RATES ARE PER 100,000 LIVE BIRTHS)
 ___________________________________________________________________________
                                                  |            |           |
 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT, AND RACE OF CHILD  |   LIVE     |  INFANT   |
                                                  |  BIRTHS    |  DEATHS   |
 _________________________________________________|____________|___________|

         ALL RACES 1/ NOT STATED BIRTH WEIGHT

  ..ALL CAUSES...........................NUMBER..       4,780    1,128
                                           RATE..             23,598.3

  1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES (740-759).......NUMBER..                  221
                                           RATE..              4,723.4

  2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROM (798.0)..NUMBER..                    7
                                           RATE..                146.4

  3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS YSNDROM (769)...NUMBER..                   73
                                           RATE..              1,527.2

  4 PREMATURITY (765)....................NUMBER..                  227
                                           RATE..              4,749.0

  5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS (761).........NUMBER..                  100
                                           RATE..              2,092.1

  6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...........NUMBER..                   73
                                           RATE..              1,527.2

  7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)................NUMBER..                    2
                                           RATE..                 41.8

  8 INFECTIONS (771).....................NUMBER..                   10
                                           RATE..                209.2

  9 COMPLICATIONS OF PLACENTA,ETC. (762).NUMBER..                   63
                                           RATE..              1,318.0

 10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZ (480-487).....NUMBER..                    5
                                           RATE..               1104.6

 ...ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..........NUMBER..                   28
                                           RATE..                585.8

  __________________________________________________
 |             |            |           |           |
 |    TOTAL    |   EARLY    |    LATE   |  POST-    |
 |   NEONATAL  | NEONATAL   |  NEONATAL |  NEONATAL |
 |_____________|____________|___________|___________|



       1,049           993          56         79
    21,945.6      20,774.1     1,171.5    1,652.7

         204           190          14         17
     4,267.8       3,974.9       292.9      355.6

           -             -           -          7
           -             -           -      146.4

          71            60          11          2
     1,485.4       1,255.2       230.1       41.8

         226           226           -          1
     4,728.0       4,728.0           -       20.9

          99            99           -          1
     2,071.1       2,071.1           -       20.9

          66            66           6          7
     1,308.8       1,255.2       125.5      146.4

           1             1           -          1
        20.9          20.9           -       20.9

           9             7           2          1
       188.3         146.4        41.8       20.9

          63            63           -          -
      1,318.0      1,318.0           -          -

           -             -           -          5
           -             -           -      104.6

          15            12           3         13
       313.8         251.0        62.8      272.0


 LIVE BIRTHS, BY BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE OF CHILD AND INFANT DEATHS AND, INFANT
 MORTALITY RATES BY AGE AT DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT, AND RACE OF CHILD FOR
 10 LEADING CAUSES OF INFANT DEATH:  UNITED STATES, 1985 BIRTH COHORT

 (INFANT DEATHS ARE UNDER 1 YEAR.  NEONATAL DEATHS ARE UNDER 28 DAYS; EARLY
 NEONATAL, 0-6 DAYS; LATE NEONATAL, 7-27 DAYS; AND POSTNEONATAL, 28 DAYS
 THROUGH 11 MONTHS) (RATES ARE PER 100,000 LIVE BIRTHS)
 ___________________________________________________________________________
                                                  |            |           |
 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT, AND RACE OF CHILD  |   LIVE     |  INFANT   |
                                                  |  BIRTHS    |  DEATHS   |
 _________________________________________________|____________|___________|

         WHITE  -   ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS

  ..ALL CAUSES...........................NUMBER..   2,991,521   26,526
                                           RATE..                886.7

  1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES (740-759).......NUMBER..                6,598
                                           RATE..                220.6

  2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROM (798.0)..NUMBER..                3,632
                                           RATE..                121.4

  3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS YSNDROM (769)...NUMBER..                2,593
                                           RATE..                 86.7

  4 PREMATURITY (765)....................NUMBER..                1,769
                                           RATE..                 59.1

  5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS (761).........NUMBER..                  891
                                           RATE..                 29.8

  6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...........NUMBER..                  734
                                           RATE..                 24.5

  7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)................NUMBER..                  569
                                           RATE..                 19.0

  8 INFECTIONS (771).....................NUMBER..                  616
                                           RATE..                 20.6

  9 COMPLICATIONS OF PLACENTA,ETC. (762).NUMBER..                  624
                                           RATE..                 20.9

 10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZ (480-487).....NUMBER..                  422
                                           RATE..                 14.1

 ...ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..........NUMBER..                1,214
                                           RATE..                 40.6

  __________________________________________________
 |             |            |           |           |
 |    TOTAL    |   EARLY    |    LATE   |  POST-    |
 |   NEONATAL  | NEONATAL   |  NEONATAL |  NEONATAL |
 |_____________|____________|___________|___________|



      17,381     14,323       3,058      9,145
       581.0      478.8       102.2      305.7

       4,985      4,034         951      1,613
      166.6       134.8        31.8       53.9

        234          23         211      3,398
        7.8          .8         7.1      113.6

      2,418       1,968         450        175
       80.8        65.8        15.0        5.8

      1,750       1,728          22         19
       58.5        57.8          .7         .6

        885         878           7          6
       29.6        29.3          .2         .2

        685         571         114         49
       22.9        19.1         3.8        1.6

         52          20          32        517
        1.7          .7         1.1       17.3

        592         389         203         24
       19.8        13.0         6.8         .8

        617         604          13          7
        20.6       20.2          .4         .2

        102          49          53        320
        3.4         1.6         1.8       10.7

        469         301         168        745
       15.7        10.1         5.6       24.9


 LIVE BIRTHS, BY BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE OF CHILD AND INFANT DEATHS AND, INFANT
 MORTALITY RATES BY AGE AT DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT, AND RACE OF CHILD FOR
 10 LEADING CAUSES OF INFANT DEATH:  UNITED STATES, 1985 BIRTH COHORT

 (INFANT DEATHS ARE UNDER 1 YEAR.  NEONATAL DEATHS ARE UNDER 28 DAYS; EARLY
 NEONATAL, 0-6 DAYS; LATE NEONATAL, 7-27 DAYS; AND POSTNEONATAL, 28 DAYS
 THROUGH 11 MONTHS) (RATES ARE PER 100,000 LIVE BIRTHS)
 ___________________________________________________________________________
                                                  |            |           |
 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT, AND RACE OF CHILD  |   LIVE     |  INFANT   |
                                                  |  BIRTHS    |  DEATHS   |
 _________________________________________________|____________|___________|

         WHITE  -   LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS

  ..ALL CAUSES...........................NUMBER..     168,478   14,959
                                           RATE..              8,878.9

  1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES (740-759).......NUMBER..                3,070
                                           RATE..              1,822.2

  2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROM (798.0)..NUMBER..                  579
                                           RATE..                343.7

  3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS YSNDROM (769)...NUMBER..                2,424
                                           RATE..              1,438.8

  4 PREMATURITY (765)....................NUMBER..                1,600
                                           RATE..                949.7

  5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS (761).........NUMBER..                  799
                                           RATE..                474.3

  6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...........NUMBER..                  342
                                           RATE..                203.0

  7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)................NUMBER..                   78
                                           RATE..                 46.3

  8 INFECTIONS (771).....................NUMBER..                  396
                                           RATE..                235.0

  9 COMPLICATIONS OF PLACENTA,ETC. (762).NUMBER..                  473
                                           RATE..                280.7

 10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZ (480-487).....NUMBER..                  129
                                           RATE..                 76.6

 ...ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..........NUMBER..                  491
                                           RATE..                291.4


  __________________________________________________
 |             |            |           |           |
 |    TOTAL    |   EARLY    |    LATE   |  POST-    |
 |   NEONATAL  | NEONATAL   |  NEONATAL |  NEONATAL |
 |_____________|____________|___________|___________|



      12,368        10,699       1,669        2,591
     7,341.0       6,350.4       990.6      1,537.9

       2,558         2,194         364          512
    1,518.3        1,302.2       216.1        303.9

         24              3          21          555
       14.2            1.8        12.5        329.4

      2,262          1,848         414          162
    1,342.6        1,096.9       245.7         96.2

      1,585          1,566          19           15
      940.8          929.5        11.3          8.9

        795            791           4            4
      471.9          469.5         2.4          2.4

        331            297          34           11
      196.5          176.3        20.2          6.5

         19             11           8           59
       11.3            6.5         4.7         35.0

        379            247         132           17
      225.0          146.6        78.3         10.1

        472            467           5            1
       280.2         277.2         3.0           .6

         36             21          15           93
       21.4           12.5         8.9         55.2

        229            156          73          262
      135.9           92.6        43.3        155.5


 LIVE BIRTHS, BY BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE OF CHILD AND INFANT DEATHS AND, INFANT
 MORTALITY RATES BY AGE AT DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT, AND RACE OF CHILD FOR
 10 LEADING CAUSES OF INFANT DEATH:  UNITED STATES, 1985 BIRTH COHORT

 (INFANT DEATHS ARE UNDER 1 YEAR.  NEONATAL DEATHS ARE UNDER 28 DAYS; EARLY
 NEONATAL, 0-6 DAYS; LATE NEONATAL, 7-27 DAYS; AND POSTNEONATAL, 28 DAYS
 THROUGH 11 MONTHS) (RATES ARE PER 100,000 LIVE BIRTHS)
 ___________________________________________________________________________
                                                  |            |           |
 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT, AND RACE OF CHILD  |   LIVE     |  INFANT   |
                                                  |  BIRTHS    |  DEATHS   |
 _________________________________________________|____________|___________|

         WHITE  -   2,500 GRAMS OR MORE

  ..ALL CAUSES...........................NUMBER..   2,819,364   10,857
                                           RATE..                385.1

  1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES (740-759).......NUMBER..                3,354
                                           RATE..                119.0

  2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROM (798.0)..NUMBER..                3,046
                                           RATE..                108.0

  3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS YSNDROM (769)...NUMBER..                  124
                                           RATE..                  4.4

  4 PREMATURITY (765)....................NUMBER..                   55
                                           RATE..                  2.0

  5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS (761).........NUMBER..                   26
                                           RATE..                   .9

  6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...........NUMBER..                  336
                                           RATE..                 11.9

  7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)................NUMBER..                  489
                                           RATE..                 17.3

  8 INFECTIONS (771).....................NUMBER..                  216
                                           RATE..                  7.7

  9 COMPLICATIONS OF PLACENTA,ETC. (762).NUMBER..                  108
                                           RATE..                  3.8

 10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZ (480-487).....NUMBER..                  291
                                   RATE..                         10.3

 ...ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..........NUMBER..                  704
                                   RATE..                         25.0

  __________________________________________________
 |             |            |           |           |
 |    TOTAL    |   EARLY    |    LATE   |  POST-    |
 |   NEONATAL  | NEONATAL   |  NEONATAL |  NEONATAL |
 |_____________|____________|___________|___________|



       4,356      3,012       1,344      6,501
       154.5      106.8        47.7      230.6

       2,264      1,687         577      1,090
       80.3        59.8        20.5       38.7

        210          20         190      2,836
        7.4          .7         6.7      100.6

        113          87          26         11
        4.0         3.1          .9         .4

         51          48           3          4
        1.8         1.7          .1         .1

         24          21           3          2
         .9          .7          .1         .1

        304         229          75         32
       10.8         8.1         2.7        1.1

         32           8          24        457
        1.1          .3          .9       16.2

        210         140          70          6
        7.4         5.0         2.5         .2

        102          94           8          6
         3.6        3.3          .3         .2

         66          28          38        225
        2.3         1.0         1.3        8.0

        230         137          93        474
        8.2         4.9         3.3       16.8


 LIVE BIRTHS, BY BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE OF CHILD AND INFANT DEATHS AND, INFANT
 MORTALITY RATES BY AGE AT DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT, AND RACE OF CHILD FOR
 10 LEADING CAUSES OF INFANT DEATH:  UNITED STATES, 1985 BIRTH COHORT

 (INFANT DEATHS ARE UNDER 1 YEAR.  NEONATAL DEATHS ARE UNDER 28 DAYS; EARLY
 NEONATAL, 0-6 DAYS; LATE NEONATAL, 7-27 DAYS; AND POSTNEONATAL, 28 DAYS
 THROUGH 11 MONTHS) (RATES ARE PER 100,000 LIVE BIRTHS)
 ___________________________________________________________________________
                                                  |            |           |
 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT, AND RACE OF CHILD  |   LIVE     |  INFANT   |
                                                  |  BIRTHS    |  DEATHS   |
 _________________________________________________|____________|___________|

         WHITE  -   NOT STATED BIRTH WEIGHT

  ..ALL CAUSES...........................NUMBER..       3,679      710
                                           RATE..             19,298.7

  1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES (740-759).......NUMBER..                  174
                                           RATE..              4,729.5

  2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROM (798.0)..NUMBER..                    7
                                           RATE..                190.3

  3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS YSNDROM (769)...NUMBER..                   45
                                           RATE..              1,223.2

  4 PREMATURITY (765)....................NUMBER..                  114
                                           RATE..              3,098.7

  5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS (761).........NUMBER..                   66
                                           RATE..              1,794.0

  6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...........NUMBER..                   56
                                           RATE..              1,522.2

  7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)................NUMBER..                    2
                                           RATE..                 54.4

  8 INFECTIONS (771).....................NUMBER..                    4
                                           RATE..                108.7

  9 COMPLICATIONS OF PLACENTA,ETC. (762).NUMBER..                   43
                                           RATE..              1,168.8

 10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZ (480-487).....NUMBER..                    2
                                           RATE..                 54.4

 ...ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..........NUMBER..                   19
                                           RATE..                516.4

  __________________________________________________
 |             |            |           |           |
 |    TOTAL    |   EARLY    |    LATE   |  POST-    |
 |   NEONATAL  | NEONATAL   |  NEONATAL |  NEONATAL |
 |_____________|____________|___________|___________|



         657           612          45         53
    17,858.1      16,635.0     1,223.2    1,440.6

         163           153          10         11
     4,430.6       4,158.7       271.8      299.0

           -             -           -          7
           -             -           -      190.3

          43            33          10          2
     1,168.8         897.0       271.8       54.4

         114           114           -          -
     3,098.7       3,098.7           -          -

          66            66           -          -
     1,794.0       1,794.0           -          -

          50            45           5          6
     1,359.1       1,223.2       135.9      163.1

           1             1           -          1
        27.2          27.2           -       27.2

           3             2           1          1
        81.5          54.4        27.2       27.2

          43            43           -          -
     1,168.8       1,168.8           -          -

           -             -           -          2
           -             -           -       54.4

          10             8           2          9
       271.8         217.5        54.4      244.6


 LIVE BIRTHS, BY BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE OF CHILD AND INFANT DEATHS AND, INFANT
 MORTALITY RATES BY AGE AT DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT, AND RACE OF CHILD FOR
 10 LEADING CAUSES OF INFANT DEATH:  UNITED STATES, 1985 BIRTH COHORT

 (INFANT DEATHS ARE UNDER 1 YEAR.  NEONATAL DEATHS ARE UNDER 28 DAYS; EARLY
 NEONATAL, 0-6 DAYS; LATE NEONATAL, 7-27 DAYS; AND POSTNEONATAL, 28 DAYS
 THROUGH 11 MONTHS) (RATES ARE PER 100,000 LIVE BIRTHS)
 ___________________________________________________________________________
                                                  |            |           |
 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT, AND RACE OF CHILD  |   LIVE     |  INFANT   |
                                                  |  BIRTHS    |  DEATHS   |
 _________________________________________________|____________|___________|

         BLACK  -  ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS

  ..ALL CAUSES...........................NUMBER..     608,309   11,140
                                           RATE..              1,831.8

  1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES (740-759).......NUMBER..                1,475
                                           RATE..                242.5

  2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROM (798.0)..NUMBER..                1,357
                                           RATE..                223.1

  3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS YSNDROM (769)...NUMBER..                  927
                                           RATE..                152.4

  4 PREMATURITY (765)....................NUMBER..                1,336
                                           RATE..                219.6

  5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS (761).........NUMBER..                  388
                                           RATE..                 63.8

  6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...........NUMBER..                  358
                                           RATE..                 58.9

  7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)................NUMBER..                  250
                                           RATE..                 41.1

  8 INFECTIONS (771).....................NUMBER..                  287
                                           RATE..                 47.2

  9 COMPLICATIONS OF PLACENTA,ETC. (762).NUMBER..                  225
                                           RATE..                 37.8

 10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZ (480-487).....NUMBER..                  228
                                           RATE..                 37.5

 ...ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..........NUMBER..                  526
                                           RATE..                 86.5

  __________________________________________________
 |             |            |           |           |
 |    TOTAL    |   EARLY    |    LATE   |  POST-    |
 |   NEONATAL  | NEONATAL   |  NEONATAL |  NEONATAL |
 |_____________|____________|___________|___________|



       7,339         6,294       1,045      3,801
     1,206.5       1,034.7       171.8      624.8

       1,043           841         202        432
      171.5          138.3        33.2       71.0

        106             11          95      1,251
       17.4            1.8        15.6      205.7

        853            747         106         74
      140.2          122.8        17.4       12.2

      1,321          1,313           8         15
      217.2          215.8         1.3        2.5

        382            379           3          6
       62.8           62.3          .5        1.0

        337            304          33         21
       55.4           50.0         5.4        3.5

         19              8          11        231
        3.1            1.3         1.8       38.0

        270            159         111         17
       44.4           26.1        18.2        2.8

        223            216           7          2
        36.7          35.5         1.2         .3

         43             22          21        185
        7.1            3.6         3.5       30.4

        155             89          66        371
       25.5           14.6        10.8       61.0


 LIVE BIRTHS, BY BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE OF CHILD AND INFANT DEATHS AND, INFANT
 MORTALITY RATES BY AGE AT DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT, AND RACE OF CHILD FOR
 10 LEADING CAUSES OF INFANT DEATH:  UNITED STATES, 1985 BIRTH COHORT

 (INFANT DEATHS ARE UNDER 1 YEAR.  NEONATAL DEATHS ARE UNDER 28 DAYS; EARLY
 NEONATAL, 0-6 DAYS; LATE NEONATAL, 7-27 DAYS; AND POSTNEONATAL, 28 DAYS
 THROUGH 11 MONTHS) (RATES ARE PER 100,000 LIVE BIRTHS)
 ___________________________________________________________________________
                                                  |            |           |
 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT, AND RACE OF CHILD  |   LIVE     |  INFANT   |
                                                  |  BIRTHS    |  DEATHS   |
 _________________________________________________|____________|___________|

         BLACK  -  LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS

  ..ALL CAUSES...........................NUMBER..      75,482    7,476
                                           RATE..              9,904.3

  1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES (740-759).......NUMBER..                  745
                                           RATE..                987.0

  2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROM (798.0)..NUMBER..                  379
                                           RATE..                502.1

  3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS YSNDROM (769)...NUMBER..                  875
                                           RATE..              1,159.2

  4 PREMATURITY (765)....................NUMBER..                1,195
                                           RATE..              1,583.2

  5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS (761).........NUMBER..                  346
                                           RATE..                458.4

  6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...........NUMBER..                  244
                                           RATE..                323.3

  7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)................NUMBER..                   74
                                           RATE..                 98.0

  8 INFECTIONS (771).....................NUMBER..                  211
                                           RATE..                279.5

  9 COMPLICATIONS OF PLACENTA,ETC. (762).NUMBER..                  180
                                           RATE..                238.5

 10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZ (480-487).....NUMBER..                  105
                                           RATE..                139.1

 ...ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..........NUMBER..                  281
                                           RATE..                372.3

  __________________________________________________
 |             |            |           |           |
 |    TOTAL    |   EARLY    |    LATE   |  POST-    |
 |   NEONATAL  | NEONATAL   |  NEONATAL |  NEONATAL |
 |_____________|____________|___________|___________|



       5,832         5,172         660      1,644
     7,726.3       6,852.0       874.4    2,178.0

         555           466          89        190
      735.3          617.4       117.9      251.7

         22              1          21        357
       29.1            1.3        27.8      473.0

        806            703         103         69
    1,067.8          931.3       136.5       91.4

      1,182          1,174           8         13
    1,565.9        1,555.3        10.6       17.2

        342            340           2          4
      453.1          450.4         2.6        5.3

        234            215          19         10
      310.0          284.8        25.2       13.2

          8              7           1         66
       10.6            9.3         1.3       87.4

        199            118          81         12
      263.6          156.3       107.3       15.9

        178            173           5          2
       235.8         229.2         6.6        2.6

         26             17           9         79
       34.4           22.5        11.9      104.7

         99             55          44        182
      131.2           72.9        58.3      241.1


 LIVE BIRTHS, BY BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE OF CHILD AND INFANT DEATHS AND, INFANT
  MORTALITY RATES BY AGE AT DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT, AND RACE OF CHILD FOR
 10 LEADING CAUSES OF INFANT DEATH:  UNITED STATES, 1985 BIRTH COHORT

 (INFANT DEATHS ARE UNDER 1 YEAR.  NEONATAL DEATHS ARE UNDER 28 DAYS; EARLY
 NEONATAL, 0-6 DAYS; LATE NEONATAL, 7-27 DAYS; AND POSTNEONATAL, 28 DAYS
 THROUGH 11 MONTHS) (RATES ARE PER 100,000 LIVE BIRTHS)
 ___________________________________________________________________________
                                                  |            |           |
 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT, AND RACE OF CHILD  |   LIVE     |  INFANT   |
                                                  |  BIRTHS    |  DEATHS   |
 _________________________________________________|____________|___________|

         BLACK  -  2,500 GRAMS OR MORE

  ..ALL CAUSES...........................NUMBER..     531,968    3,291
                                           RATE..                618.6

  1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES (740-759).......NUMBER..                  700
                                           RATE..                131.6

  2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROM (798.0)..NUMBER..                  978
                                           RATE..                183.8

  3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS YSNDROM (769)...NUMBER..                   25
                                           RATE..                  4.7

  4 PREMATURITY (765)....................NUMBER..                   33
                                           RATE..                  6.2

  5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS (761).........NUMBER..                   10
                                           RATE..                  1.9

  6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...........NUMBER..                   99
                                           RATE..                 18.6

  7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)................NUMBER..                  176
                                           RATE..                 33.1

  8 INFECTIONS (771).....................NUMBER..                   70
                                           RATE..                 13.2

  9 COMPLICATIONS OF PLACENTA,ETC. (762).NUMBER..                   27
                                           RATE..                  5.1

 10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZ (480-487).....NUMBER..                  120
                                           RATE..                 22.6

 ...ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..........NUMBER..                  236
                                           RATE..                 44.4

  __________________________________________________
 |             |            |           |           |
 |    TOTAL    |   EARLY    |    LATE   |  POST-    |
 |   NEONATAL  | NEONATAL   |  NEONATAL |  NEONATAL |
 |_____________|____________|___________|___________|



       1,555           778         377      2,136
       217.1         146.2        70.9      401.5

         462           351         111        238
        86.8          66.0        20.9       44.7

          84            10          74        894
        15.8           1.9        13.9      168.1

          20            18           2          5
         3.8           3.4          .4         .9

          32            32           -          1
         6.0           6.0           -         .2

           9             8           1          1
         1.7           1.5          .2         .2

          89            75          14         10
        16.7          14.1         2.6        1.9

          11             1          10        165
         2.1            .2         1.9       31.0

          65            36          29          5
        12.2           6.8         5.5         .9

          27            25           2          -
         5.1           4.7          .4          -

          17             5          12        103
         3.2            .9         2.3       19.4

          51            30          21        185
         9.6           5.6         3.9       34.8


 LIVE BIRTHS, BY BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE OF CHILD AND INFANT DEATHS AND, INFANT
  MORTALITY RATES BY AGE AT DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT, AND RACE OF CHILD FOR
 10 LEADING CAUSES OF INFANT DEATH:  UNITED STATES, 1985 BIRTH COHORT

 (INFANT DEATHS ARE UNDER 1 YEAR.  NEONATAL DEATHS ARE UNDER 28 DAYS; EARLY
 NEONATAL, 0-6 DAYS; LATE NEONATAL, 7-27 DAYS; AND POSTNEONATAL, 28 DAYS
 THROUGH 11 MONTHS) (RATES ARE PER 100,000 LIVE BIRTHS)
 ___________________________________________________________________________
                                                  |            |           |
 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT, AND RACE OF CHILD  |   LIVE     |  INFANT   |
                                                  |  BIRTHS    |  DEATHS   |
 _________________________________________________|____________|___________|
         BLACK  -  NOT STATED BIRTH WEIGHT

  ..ALL CAUSES...........................NUMBER..         859      373
                                           RATE..             43,422.6

  1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES (740-759).......NUMBER..                   30
                                           RATE..              3,492.4

  2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROM (798.0)..NUMBER..                    -
                                           RATE..                    -

  3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS YSNDROM (769)...NUMBER..                   27
                                           RATE..              3,143.2

  4 PREMATURITY (765)....................NUMBER..                  108
                                           RATE..             12,572.8

  5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS (761).........NUMBER..                   32
                                           RATE..              3,725.3

  6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...........NUMBER..                   15
                                           RATE..              1,746.2

  7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)................NUMBER..                    -
                                           RATE..                    -

  8 INFECTIONS (771).....................NUMBER..                    6
                                           RATE..                698.5

  9 COMPLICATIONS OF PLACENTA,ETC. (762).NUMBER..                   18
                                           RATE..              2,095.5

 10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZ (480-487).....NUMBER..                    3
                                           RATE..                349.2

 ...ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..........NUMBER..                    9
                                           RATE..              1,047.7
 1/ INCLUDES RACES OTHER THAN WHITE AND BLACK

  __________________________________________________
 |             |            |           |           |
 |    TOTAL    |   EARLY    |    LATE   |  POST-    |
 |   NEONATAL  | NEONATAL   |  NEONATAL |  NEONATAL |
 |_____________|____________|___________|___________|



         352           344           8         21
    40,977.9      40,046.6       931.3    2,444.7

          26            24           2          4
     3,026.8       2,793.9       232.8      465.7

           -             -           -          -
           -             -           -          -

          27            26           1          -
     3,143.2       3,026.8       116.4          -

         107           107           -          1
    12,456.3      12,456.3           -      116.4

          31            31           -          1
     3,608.8       3,608.8           -      116.4

          14            14           -          1
     1,629.8       1,629.8           -      116.4

           -             -           -          -
           -             -           -          -

           6             5           1          -
       698.5         582.1       116.4          -

          18            18           -          -
     2,095.5       2,095.5           -          -

           -             -           -          3
           -             -           -      349.2

           5             4           1          4
       582.1         465.7       116.4      465.7

1TECHNICAL APPENDIX (LIVE BIRTH)
2Definition of Live Birth
     Every product of conception that gives a sign of life after birth,
 regardless of the length of the pregnancy, is considered a live birth.
 This concept is included in the definition set forth by the World Health
 Organization (1950, pp. 16-17) as follows:

 Live birth is the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a
 product of conception, irrespective of the duration of pregnancy, which,
 after such separation, breathes or shows any other evidence of life, such
 as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite
 movement of voluntary muscles, whether or not the umbilical cord has been
 cut or the placenta is attached; each product of such a birth is
 considered liveborn.

     This definition distinguishes in precise terms a live birth from a
 fetal death ( see section on fetal deaths in the Technical Appendix of
 Volume II of this report).  In the interest of comparable natality
 statistics, both the Statistical Commission of the United Nations and the
 National Center of Health Statistics have adopted this definition
 (National Office of Vital Statistics, 1950, p. 6; Statistical Office of
 the United Nations, 1953, p. 6).

2History of Birth-Registration Area
     The national birth-registration area was proposed in 1850 and
 established in 1915.  By 1933 all 48 States and the District of Columbia
 were participating in the registration system.  The organized territories
 of Hawaii and Alaska were admitted in 1929 and 1950, respectively; data
 from these areas were prepared separately until they became States-Alaska
 in 1959 and Hawaii in 1960.  At present the birth-registration system of
 the United States covers the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the
 independent registration area of New York City, Puerto Rico, the U.S.
 Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Trust Territory of the
 Pacific Islands,  However, in the statistical tabulations, "United States"
 refers only to the aggregate of the 50 States (including New York City)
 and the District of Columbia.  Tabulations for Puerto Rico, the Virgin
 Islands, and Guam are shown separately in section 3 of this volume.
     The original birth-registration area of 1915 consisted of 10 States
 and the District of Columbia.  The growth of this area is indicated in
 table 4-1.  This table also presents for each year through 1932 the
 estimated midyear population of the United States and of those States
 included in the registration system.
     Because of the growth of the area for which data have been collected
 and tabulated, a national series of geographically comparable data before
 1933 can be obtained only by estimation.  Annual estimates of births have
 been prepared by P. K. Whelpton (National Office of Vital Statistics,
 1954) for the period 1909-34 (table 1-1).  These estimates include
 adjustment both for underregistration and for States that were not part of
 the birth-registration area before 1933.

2Sources of Data
3Natality Statistics
     Beginning in 1985 natality statistics for all States and the District
 of Columbia are based on information from the total file of records for
 these areas.  The information is received on computer data tapes coded by
 the States and provided to the National Center for Health Statistics
 (NCHS) through the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program.  NCHS receives
 these tapes from the registration offices of the States, the District of
 Columbia, and New York City.  Data for Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands,
 and Guam for 1985 are also based on information from the total file of
 records.  Information from the Virgin Islands and Guam is received on
 microfilm copies of original birth certificates; information from Puerto
 Rico is received on computer tapes through the Vital Statistics
 Cooperative Program.
     Birth statistics presented in this report for years before 1951 and
 for 1955 are based on the total file of birth records.  Statistics for
 1951-54, 1956-66, and 1968-71 are based on 50-percent samples with the
 exception of data for Guam and the Virgin Islands, which are based on all
 records filed.  During the processing of the 1967 data, the sampling rate
 was reduced from 50 percent to 20 percent.  For details of this procedure
 and its consequences for the 1967 data, see Vital Statistics of the United
 States, 1967, Volume I, pages 3-9 to 3-11.  From 1972 to 1984, statistics
 are based on all records filed in the States submitting computer tapes and
 on a 50-percent sample of records in all other States.  For Puerto Rico
 beginning in 1977, statistics are based on all records filed.
     Information for years prior to 1970 for Puerto Rico, the Virgin
 Islands, and Guam is published in the annual vital statistics reports of
 the Department of Health of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the
 Department of Public Health of the Virgin Islands, the Department of
 Public Health and Social Services of the Government of Guam, and in
 selected Vital Statistics of the United States annual reports.
     U.S. natality data are limited to births occurring within the United
 States, including those occurring to U.S. residents and nonresidents.
 Births to nonresidents of the United States have been excluded from all
 tabulations by place of residence beginning in 1970.  (See "Classification
 by occurrence and residence" for further discussion.)  Births occurring to
 U.S. citizens outside the United States are not included in any
 tabulations in this report.  Similarly the data for Puerto Rico, the
 Virgin Islands, and Guam are limited to births registered in these areas.

3Standard Certificate of Live Birth
     The U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth, issued by the Public
 Health Service, has served for many years as the principal means of
 attaining uniformity in the content of the documents used to collect
 information on births in the United States.  It has been modified in each
 State to the extent required by the particular State's needs or by special
 provisions of the State's vital statistics law.  However, most State
 certificates conform closely in content to the standard certificate.
     The first standard certificate of birth was developed in 1900.  Since
 then it has been revised periodically by the national vital statistics
 agency through consultation with State health officers and registrars;
 Federal agencies concerned with vital statistics; national, State, and
 county medical societies; and others working in the fields of public
 health, social welfare, demography, and insurance.  This procedure has
 assured careful evaluation of each item for its current and future
 usefulness for legal, medical, demographic, and research purposes.  New
 items have been added when necessary, and old items have been modified to
 ensure better reporting or, in some cases, dropped when their usefulness
 appeared to be limited.
     1978 revision-Effective January 1, 1978, a revised U.S. Standard
 Certificate of Live Birth (figure 4-A) replaced the 1968 revision.
 Changes on the 1978 standard certificate included a new item on 1- and
 5-minute Apgar scores, the deletion of the item on birth injuries, and
 revisions of the items on legitimacy status and previous pregnancies.
     The item on legitimacy status was changed to real "Is mother married?"
 This is now a factual piece of information about the mother rather than an
 attribute ascribed to the child, and the person completing the record does
 not have the responsibility for making what may be a legal determination.
     The item on previous deliveries was changed to pregnancy history and
 expanded to include two categories of fetal loss, before and after 20
 completed weeks of gestation.  This changes provides information on two
 groups that are of interest in medical research and emphasizes the fact
 that all previous fetal losses should be included, both spontaneous and
 induced, regardless of length of gestation.  For further discussion see
 individual sections for each item.

2Classification of Data
3General Information
     One of the principal values of vital statistics data is realized
 through the presentation of rates that are computed by relating the vital
 events of a class to the population of a similarly defined class.  Vital
 statistics and population statistics must therefore be classified
 according to similarly defined systems and tabulated in comparable groups.
 Even when the variables common to both, such as geographic area, age,
 race, and sex, have been similarly classified and tabulated, differences
 between the enumeration method of obtaining population data and the
 registration method of obtaining vital statistics data may result in
 significant discrepancies.
     The general rules used to classify geographic and personal items for
 live births are set forth in "Vital Statistics Classification and Coding
 Instructions for Live Birth Records, 1985," NCHS Instruction Manual, Part
 3a.  The classification of certain important items is discussed in the
 following pages.

3Classification by Occurrence and Residence
     All but three tabulations for States and other areas within the United
 States are by place of mother's residence.  These three tabulations (1-49,
 1- 50, and 2-1) show births by place of occurrence.  Births to U.S.
 residents occurring outside this country are not reallocated to the United
 States.  In tabulations by place of residence, births occurring within the
 United States to U.S. citizens and to resident aliens are allocated to the
 usual place of residence of the mother in the United States as reported on
 the birth certificate.  Beginning in 1970, births to nonresidents of the
 United States occurring in the United States have been excluded from these
 tabulations.  From 1966 to 1969, births occurring in the United States to
 mothers who were nonresidents of the United States were considered as
 birth to residents of the exact place of occurrence; in 1964 and 1965 all
 such births were allocated to "balance of county" of occurrence even if
 the birth had occurred in a city.
     The change in coding beginning in 1970 to exclude births to
 nonresidents of the United States from residence data significantly
 affects the comparability of data with years before 1970 only for Texas.
 In 1985 births to residents of Mexico constituted 84.4 percent of the
 4,503 nonresident births in the United States.  No evaluation of the
 effect of the change in procedure between 1965 and 1966 has been made.
     For the total United States the tabulations by place of residence and
 by place of occurrence are not identical.  Births to nonresidents of the
 United States are included in data by place of occurrence but excluded
 from data by place of residence, as previously indicated.
     Residence error-A nationwide test of birth-registration completeness
 in 1950 provided measures of residence error for natality statistics.
 According to this test, errors in residence reporting for the country as a
 whole tend to overstate the number of births to residents of urban areas
 and to understate the number of births to residents of other areas.  This
 tendency has assumed special importance because of a concomitant
 development-the increased utilization of hospitals in cities by residents
 of nearby places-with the result that a number of births are erroneously
 reported as having occurred to residents of urban areas.  Another factor
 that contributes to this overstatement of urban births is the customary
 procedure of using "city" addresses for persons living outside the city
 limits.
     Incomplete residence-Beginning in 1973 where only the State of
 residence is reported with no city or county specified, and the State
 named is different from the State of occurrence, the birth has been
 allocated to the largest city of the State of residence.  Before 1973 such
 births were allocated to the exact place of occurrence.

3Geographic Classification
     The rules followed in the classification of geographic areas for live
 births are contained in the instruction manual mentioned previously.  The
 geographic code structure for 1985 is given in another manual, "Vital
 Records Geographic Classification, 1982."
     United States-In the statistical tabulations, "United States" refers
 only to the aggregate of the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
 Alaska has been included in the U.S. tabulations since 1959 and Hawaii
 since 1960.
     Standard metropolitan statistical areas-The standard metropolitan
 statistical areas (SMSA's) used in this report are those established by
 the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (1981 a, pp. 1-20) from final
 1980 census population counts and used by the U.S. Bureau of the Census
 except in the New England States.
     Except in the New England States, an SMSA is a county or a group of
 contiguous counties containing either a city of 50,000 inhabitants or more
 or an urbanized area of 50,000 with a total metropolitan population of at
 least 100,000.  In addition to the county or counties containing such a
 city or urbanized area, contiguous counties are included in an SMSA if,
 according to specified criteria, they are essentially metropolitan in
 character and are socially and economically integrated with the central
 city or urbanized area (U.S. Office of Management and Budget, 1981b. p.
 420).
     In the New England States the U. S. Office of Management and Budget
 uses towns and cities rather than counties as geographic components of
 SMSA's.  The National Center for Health Statistics cannot, however, use
 the SMSA classification for these States because its data are not coded to
 identify all towns.  Instead, the New England County Metropolitan Areas
 (NECMA's) are used.  These areas are established by the U.S. Office of
 Management and Budget (1975, pp. 89-90; 1981b, p. 420) are made up o;f
 county units.
     Metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties-Independent cities and
 counties included in SMSA's or NECMA's are included in data for
 metropolitan counties; all other counties are classified as
 nonmetropolitan.
     Population-size groups-Beginning in 1982 vital statistics data for
 cities and certain other urban places have been classified according to
 the population enumerated in the 1980 Census of Population.  Data are
 available for individual cities and other urban places of 10,000 or more
 population.  Data for the remaining areas not separately identified are
 shown in the tables under the heading "Balance of area" or "Balance of
 county."  Classification of areas for the years 1970-81 was determined by
 the population enumerated in the 1970 Census of Population.  As a result
 of changes in the enumerated population between 1970 and 1980, some urban
 places identified in previous reports are no longer included, and a number
 of other urban places have been added.
     Urban places other than incorporated cities for which vital statistics
 data are shown in this report include the following;

 .   Each town in New England, New York, and Wisconsin and each township in
     Michigan, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania that had no incorporated
     municipality as a subdivision and had either 25,000 inhabitants or
     more or a population of 10,000 to 25,000 and a density of 1,000
     persons or more per square mile.
 .   Each county in States other than those indicated above that had no
     incorporated municipality within its boundary and had a density of
     1,000 persons or more per square mile.  (Arlington County, Virginia,
     is the only county classified as urban under this rule.)
 .   Each place in Hawaii with 10,000 or more population, as there are no
     incorporated cities in the State.

3Race or National Origin
     The race or national origin shown in a tabulation is that of the
 newborn child.  Classification of the child's race or national origin for
 statistical purposes is based on the race or national origin of the
 parents.  The categories are "White," "Black," "American Indian,"
 "Chinese," "Japanese," "Hawaiian," "Filipino," "Other Asian or Pacific
 Islander," and "Other."  Before 1978 the category "Other Asian or Pacific
 Islander" was not identified separately but included with "Other" races.
 The separation of this category allows identification of the category
 "Asian or Pacific Islander" by combining the new category "Other Asian or
 Pacific Islander" with Chinese, Japanese, Hawaiian, and Filipino.
     If the parents are of different races or national origins, the
 following rules are used to assign race or national origin to the newborn
 child.  When only one parent is white, the child is assigned the other
 parent's race or national origin.  When neither parent is white, the child
 is assigned the father's race or national origin with one exception; if
 the mother is Hawaiian or part-Hawaiian, the child is assigned to
 Hawaiian.  If race is missing for one parent, the child is assigned the
 race of the parent for whom race is given.  When information on race is
 missing for both parents, the race of the child is considered not stated
 and the birth is allocated according to rules discussed in the section
 "Race or national origin not stated."
     White-The category "White" comprises births reported as white, and
 births where race is reported as Hispanic.  Before 1964, all births for
 which race or national origin was not stated were classified as white.
 Beginning in 1964 changes in the procedures for allocating race when race
 or national origin is not stated have changed the composition of this
 category.  (See discussion on "Race or national origin not stated.")
     All other-The category "All Other" comprises black, American Indian,
 Chinese, Japanese, Hawaiian and part-Hawaiian, Filipino, other Asian or
 Pacific Islander including Asian Indian, and "Other."  Aleuts and Eskimos
 are included in "American Indian."
      If the race or national origin of an Asian parent is ill-defined or
 not clearly identifiable with one of the categories used in the
 classification (for example, if "Oriental" is entered), an attempt is made
 to determine the specific race from the entry for place of birth.  If the
 birthplace is China, Japan, or the Philippines, the parent's race is
 assigned to that category.  When race cannot be determined from the
 birthplace, it is assigned to the category "Other Asian or Pacific
 Islander."
      Race or national origin not stated-The race of a child is considered
 not stated in those cases in which information for both parents is
 missing.  Before 1964 all such cases were tabulated as white.  From 1964
 through 1968 the race of the child was allocated by the computer as
 follows.  If the race on the preceding record were white the assignment
 was to white; otherwise the assignment was to black.  Beginning in 1969
 the race of the child has been allocated electronically according to the
 specific race of the child on the preceding record.  Consequently, some of
 the not-stated frequencies that had previously been assigned to the black
 category may now be assigned to one of the other race or national origin
 categories.
     Nearly all statistics by race or national origin for the United States
 as a whole in 1962 and 1963 are affected by a lack of information for New
 Jersey, which did not report parents' race in those years.  Birth rates by
 race for those years are computed on a population base that excludes New
 Jersey.  (For the method of estimating the U.S. population by age, sex,
 and race excluding New Jersey in 1962 and 1963, see Vital Statistics of
 the United States, 1963, Volume I, page 4-8).  Estimates of births to
 unmarried mothers by race for the United States, which include special
 estimates for New Jersey for 1962 and 1963, have been prepared and are
 shown in table 1-31.
     Interracial parentage-Because of interracial parentage, the number of
 births for each racial or national origin group classified according to
 the child's race by the preceding rules differs from the number of births
 classified according to the mother's race.  For white and black births,
 the differences are relatively small.  In 1985 there were 1.6 percent more
 white mothers than there were births classified as white and 4.3 percent
 fewer black mothers than births classified as black.  The number of
 mothers of other racial and national origin groups was considerably lower
 than the number of births classified according to the child's race:
 American Indian, 20.2 percent; Chinese, 7.9 percent; Japanese, 17.9
 percent; Hawaiian, 31.3 percent; Filipino, 6.6 percent; Other Asian and
 Pacific Islander, 7.0 percent; and Other, 19.8 percent.

3Age of Mother
     The birth certificate asks for "Age (at time of this birth)."  The age
 of the mother is edited for upper and lower limits.  When mothers are
 reported to be under 10 years of age or 50 years and over, the age of the
 mother is considered not stated and is assigned as described below.
     Age-specific birth rates shown in this report are based on populations
 of women by age, which are prepared by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.  In
 census years the decennial census counts are used.  In intercensal years,
 estimates of the population of women by age are published by the U.S.
 Bureau of the Census in Current Population Reports.
     The 1980 Census of Population derived age in completed years as of
 April 1, 1980, from the responses to questions on age at last birthday and
 month and year of birth, with the latter given preference.  In the 1960
 and the 1970 Census of Population, age was also derived from month and
 year of birth.  "Age in completed years" was asked in censuses before
 1960.  This was nearly the equivalent of the birth certificate question,
 which the 1950 test of matched birth and census records confirms by
 showing a high degree of consistency in the reporting of age in these two
 sources (National Vital Statistics Division, 1962).
     Median age of mother-Median age is the value that divides an age
 distribution into two equal parts, one-half of the values being less and
 one- half being greater.  Median ages of mothers for 1960 to the present
 have been computed from birth rates for 5-year age groups rather than from
 birth frequencies.  This method eliminates the effects of changes in the
 age composition of the childbearing population over time.  Changes in the
 median ages from year to year can thus be attributed solely to changes in
 the age- specific birth rates.
     Not stated age of mother-Beginning in 1964 birth records with age of
 mother not stated have been allocated according to the age appearing on
 the record previously processed for a mother of identical race and having
 the same total-birth order (total of fetal deaths and live births).  In
 1963 birth records with age not stated were allocated according to the age
 appearing on the record previously processed for a mother of identical
 race and parity (number of live births).  For 1960-62, not stated and
 unknown ages were distributed in proportion to the known ages for each
 racial group.  Before 1960 this was done for age-specific birth rates but
 not for the birth frequency tables, which showed a separate category for
 age not stated.

3Age of Father
     Age of father is coded as stated on the birth certificate.  If the age
 is under 10 years, it is considered not stated and grouped with those
 cases for which age is not stated on the certificate.  Information on
 father's age is often missing on birth certificates of children born to
 unwed mothers, greatly inflating the number of "not stated" in all
 tabulations by age of father.  In computing birth rates by age of father,
 births tabulated as age of father not stated are distributed in the same
 proportions as births with known age within each 5-year age classification
 of the mother.  This procedure is done separately by race.  The resulting
 distributions are summed to form a composite frequency distribution which
 is the basis for computing birth rates by age of father.  This procedure
 avoids the distortion in rates that would result if the relationship
 between age of mother and age of father were disregarded.

3Live-Birth Order and Parity
     Birth order and parity classifications shown in this volume refer to
 the total number of live births the mother has had including the 1985
 birth.  Fetal deaths are excluded.
     Birth order indicates what number the present birth represents; for
 example, a baby born to a mother who has had two previous live births
 (even if one or both are not now living) has a birth order of three.
     Parity indicates how many live births a mother has had.  Before
 delivery a mother having her first baby has a parity of zero and a mother
 having her third baby has a parity of two.  After delivery the mother of a
 baby who is a first live birth has a parity of one and the mother of a
 baby who is a third live birth has a parity of three.
     Birth order and parity are determined from two items on the birth
 certificate, "Live births-now living" and "Live births-now dead."
     Not stated birth order-Before 1969 if both of these items were blank,
 the birth was considered a first birth.  Beginning in 1969, births for
 which the pregnancy history items were not completed have been tabulated
 as birth order not stated.  As a result of this revised procedure, 22,686
 births in 1969 that would have been assigned to the "First birth order"
 category under the old rules were assigned to the "Not stated" category.
     All births tabulated in the "Not stated birth order" category are
 excluded from the computation of percents.  In computing birth rates by
 live- birth order, births tabulated as birth order not stated are
 distributed in the same proportion as births of known live-birth order.

3Dates of Last Live Birth and Last Fetal Death
     Date of last live birth and date of last fetal death were added to the
 U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth in 1968 for the purpose of
 providing information on child spacing and pregnancy intervals.
 Tabulations of these items were presented for the first time in 1969.  In
 1978 the item "Date of last fetal death" was reworded to "Date of last
 other termination" to ensure inclusion of both spontaneous fetal deaths
 and induced terminations of pregnancy.  In 1985 this information was
 obtained from all States except Texas.
     Intervals since last live birth and last other termination-These data
 are computed from the date of birth, date of last live birth, and date of
 last other termination.  The interval since last live birth is the
 difference between the date of last live birth and the date of present
 birth; the interval since last other termination is the difference between
 the date of last other termination and the date of present birth.  For an
 interval to be computed, both the month and year of the last live birth or
 the last other termination must be valid.  These intervals are computed
 only for events to mothers who have had at least one previous delivery.
     Births for which the interval since last live birth or last other
 termination is not stated are excluded from the computation of percents
 and means.
     Interval since last pregnancy and outcome of last pregnancy-These data
 are derived from the computed intervals since the last live birth and the
 last other termination.
     Before 1982, the outcome of the last pregnancy was considered not
 stated if the interval since either the last live birth or the last fetal
 death was not computed because only the year of the event was recorded.
 Beginning in 1982, the outcome of the last pregnancy has been derived for
 such records if the year of the last live birth and the year of the last
 fetal death were not the same.  The effect of this revised procedure is to
 reduce substantially the number of records with outcome of last pregnancy
 not stated.
     In addition, for such records, the interval since the termination of
 the last pregnancy is determined if both the month and year were reported
 for the event immediately preceding the current live birth.  Before 1982,
 the interval since the termination of the last pregnancy was considered
 not stated for such births.
     Births for which the interval since last pregnancy is not stated are
 excluded from the computation of percents and means.
     Zero interval-An interval of zero months since the last live birth or
 fetal death indicates the second born of a set of twins, the second or
 third born of a set of triplets, and so forth.  Births with an interval of
 zero months are excluded from the computation of mean intervals.

3Educational Attainment
     Data on the educational attainment of both parents were collected
 beginning in 1968 and tabulated for publication in 1969 for the first
 time.  In 1985, data on education were obtained from 47 States and the
 District of Columbia, as indicated in table A.
     The educational attainment of either parent is defined as "the number
 of years of school completed."  Only those years completed in "regular"
 schools, that is, a formal educational system of public schools or the
 equivalent in accredited private or parochial schools, are counted.
 Business or trade schools, such as beauty and barber schools, are not
 considered "regular" schools for the purposes of this item.  No attempt
 has been made to convert years of school completed in foreign school
 systems, ungraded school systems, and so forth, to equivalent grades in
 the American school system.  Such entries are included in the category
 "Not stated."
     Persons who have completed only a partial year in high school or
 college are tabulated as having completed the highest preceding grade.
 For those certificates on which a specific degree is stated, years of
 school completed is coded to the level at which the degree is most
 commonly attained; for example, persons reporting B.A., A.B., or B.S.
 degrees are considered to have completed 16 years of school.
     Education not stated-The category "Not stated" includes all records in
 reporting areas for which there is not information on years of school
 completed as well as all records for which the information provided is not


 Table A.  Areas reporting selected items on the live-birth certificate:
                         Each State, 1985

                       |             | Dates of    |            |            |
                       |             | last live   |            |            |
                       | Educational | birth and   | Number of  | Marital    |
                       | attainment  |   last      | prenatal   | status     |
                       | of parents  |   other     |  visits    |of mother   |
                       |             |termination  |            |            |
                       |             |             |            |            |
 Alabama               |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 Alaska                |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 Arizona               |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 Arkansas              |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 California            |             |      X      |            |            |
 Colorado              |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 Connecticut           |      X      |      X      |     X      |            |
 Delaware              |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 District of Columbia  |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 Florida               |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 Georgia               |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 Hawaii                |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 Idaho                 |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 Illinois              |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 Indiana               |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 Iowa                  |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 Kansas                |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 Kentucky              |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 Louisiana             |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 Maine                 |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 Maryland              |      X      |      X      |     X      |            |
 Massachusetts         |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 Michigan              |      X      |      X      |     X      |            |
 Minnesota             |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 Mississippi           |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 Missouri              |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 Montana               |      X      |      X      |     X      |            |
 Nebraska              |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 Nevada                |      X      |      X      |     X      |            |
 New Hampshire         |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 New Jersey            |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 New Mexico            |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 New York              |      X      |      X      |     X      |            |
 North Carolina        |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 North Dakota          |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 Ohio                  |      X      |      X      |     X      |            |
 Oklahoma              |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 Oregon                |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 Pennsylvania          |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 Rhode Island          |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 South Carolina        |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 South Dakota          |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 Tennessee             |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 Texas                 |             |             |     X      |            |
 Utah                  |             |      X      |            |            |
 Vermont               |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 Virginia              |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 Washington            |             |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 West Virginia         |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 Wisconsin             |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |
 Wyoming               |      X      |      X      |     X      |      X     |


   1New York City only.
   2Excludes New York City.


 Table A.  Areas reporting selected items on the live-birth certificate:
                         Each State, 1985

                       |             |             |            |            |
                       |             |             |            |            |
                       |  1-minute   |  5-minute   |            |            |
                       |    Apgar    |    Apgar    |   Ethnic   |  Hispanic  |
                       |    score    |    score    |   origin   |   origin   |
                       |             |             |            |            |
                       |             |             |            |            |
 Alabama               |      X      |      X      |            |            |
 Alaska                |      X      |      X      |            |            |
 Arizona               |      X      |      X      |            |      X     |
 Arkansas              |      X      |      X      |            |      X     |
 California            |             |             |            |      X     |
 Colorado              |      X      |      X      |     X      |            |
 Connecticut           |      X      |      X      |            |            |
 Delaware              |             |             |            |            |
 District of Columbia  |      X      |      X      |            |      X     |
 Florida               |      X      |      X      |     X      |            |
 Georgia               |      X      |      X      |     X      |            |
 Hawaii                |      X      |      X      |            |      X     |
 Idaho                 |      X      |      X      |            |            |
 Illinois              |      X      |      X      |     X      |            |
 Indiana               |      X      |      X      |            |      X     |
 Iowa                  |      X      |      X      |            |            |
 Kansas                |      X      |      X      |     X      |            |
 Kentucky              |      X      |      X      |            |            |
 Louisiana             |      X      |      X      |            |            |
 Maine                 |      X      |      X      |     X      |            |
 Maryland              |      X      |      X      |            |            |
 Massachusetts         |      X      |      X      |            |            |
 Michigan              |      X      |      X      |            |            |
 Minnesota             |      X      |      X      |            |            |
 Mississippi           |      X      |      X      |     X      |            |
 Missouri              |      X      |      X      |            |            |
 Montana               |      X      |      X      |            |            |
 Nebraska              |      X      |      X      |     X      |            |
 Nevada                |      X      |      X      |     X      |            |
 New Hampshire         |      X      |      X      |            |            |
 New Jersey            |      X      |      X      |     X      |            |
 New Mexico            |      X      |      X      |            |      X     |
 New York              |      X      |      X      |    1X      |     2X     |
 North Carolina        |      X      |      X      |            |            |
 North Dakota          |      X      |      X      |     X      |            |
 Ohio                  |      X      |      X      |     X      |            |
 Oklahoma              |             |             |            |            |
 Oregon                |      X      |      X      |            |            |
 Pennsylvania          |      X      |      X      |            |            |
 Rhode Island          |      X      |      X      |            |            |
 South Carolina        |      X      |      X      |            |            |
 South Dakota          |      X      |      X      |            |            |
 Tennessee             |      X      |      X      |     X      |            |
 Texas                 |             |             |            |      X     |
 Utah                  |      X      |      X      |            |      X     |
 Vermont               |      X      |      X      |            |            |
 Virginia              |      X      |      X      |            |            |
 Washington            |      X      |      X      |            |            |
 West Virginia         |      X      |      X      |            |            |
 Wisconsin             |      X      |      X      |            |            |
 Wyoming               |      X      |      X      |     X      |            |


   1New York City only.
   2Excludes New York City.


 compatible with coding specifications.
     Births tabulated as education not stated are excluded from the
 computations of percents.

3Marital Status
     Beginning with 1980 data, national estimates of births to unmarried
 women have been derived from two sources.  For 41 States and the District
 of Columbia, marital status of the mother was reported directly on the
 birth certificate in 1985 (see table A); for the remaining 9 States that
 lack this item, marital status was inferred from a comparison of the
 child's and parents' surnames.  This procedure represents a substantial
 departure from the previous method used to prepare national estimates,
 which assumed that the incidence of births to unmarried women in States
 with no direct question on marital status was the same as the incidence in
 reporting States in the same geographic division.  Ratios of births to
 unmarried women were computed by race for the reporting States in each
 geographic division, applied to all births in the division, and then
 summed to obtain national estimates by race.  The figures by race were
 summed to yield the totals for the United States.
     The new method attempts to use related information on the birth
 certificate to improve the quality of national data on this topic, as well
 as to provide data for the individual nonreporting States.  Beginning in
 1980, a birth in a nonreporting State has been classified as occurring to
 a married woman if the parents' surnames are the same or if the child's
 and father's surnames are the same and the mother's current surname cannot
 be obtained from the informant item of the birth certificate.  A birth is
 classified as occurring to an unmarried woman if the father's name is
 missing, if the parents' surnames are different, or if the father's and
 child's surnames are different and the mother's current surname is
 missing.
     Because of the substantial increase in all measures of nonmarital
 childbearing in 1985, an intensive evaluation of the national data was
 made.  There has been continuing concern that the new method,
 incorporating data based on a comparison of surnames, might overstate the
 number of births to unmarried women, particularly among women who retained
 their maiden surname as their legal surname after marriage.  The
 evaluation included comparisons of trends in all measures of births to
 unmarried mothers between 1980, when the new method was first put into
 use, and 1985.  Trends in States with a marital status item on the birth
 certificate were compared with trends in those States providing
 inferential data based on a comparison of surnames.  Comparisons were made
 for white and black births separately and by age of mother.  The results
 were remarkably similar for both data sets.  Nonmarital births increased
 at virtually the same rate in each set of States.  The findings were
 similar for white and black women and for the various age-of-mother
 groups.
     No adjustments are made during the data processing for errors in the
 reporting of marital status on the birth records of the 41 reporting
 States and the District of Columbia because the extent of this reporting
 problem is unknown.  When marital status is not stated on the birth
 certificate of a reporting area, the mother is considered married.
     When out-of-wedlock births are reported as second or higher order
 births, it is not known whether the mother's previous deliveries occurred
 out of wedlock, because her marital status at the time of these earlier
 births is not available from the birth record.
     Rates for 1940 and 1950 are based on decennial census counts.  In this
 volume, rates for 1955-85 are based on a smoothed series of population
 estimates (NCHS, 1980).  Because of sampling error, the original U.S.
 Bureau of the Census population estimates fluctuate erratically from year
 to year; therefore, they have been smoothed so that the rates do not show
 similar variations.  The rates shown in this volume differ from those
 published in issues of Vital Statistics of the United States before 1969,
 which were based on the original estimates provided annually by the U. S.
 Bureau of the Census.  Birth rates by marital status for 1971-79 have been
 revised and differ from rates published before 1980 in issues of Vital
 Statistics of the United States (see "Computation of Rates and Other
 Measures").

3Place of Delivery and Attendant at Birth
     Births occurring in hospitals, institutions, clinics, centers, or
 homes are included in the category "In hospital."  In this context the
 word "homes" does not refer to the mother's residence but to an
 institution such as a home for unwed mothers.  Beginning in 1975, the
 attendant at birth and place of delivery items have been coded
 independently, primarily to permit the identification of the person in
 attendance at hospital deliveries.  Tables 1- 37 and 1-38 of this report
 present this more detailed information for the years 1975-85.
     Data shown in this volume for the "In hospital" category for the years
 1975-85 include all births in clinics or maternity centers, regardless of
 the attendant.  Data for 1975-77 published before 1980 included clinic and
 center births in the category "In hospital" only when the attendant was a
 physician.  Data shown for 1975-77 in tables 1-37 and 1-38 therefore
 differ from data published before 1980.  As a result of this change, for
 1975 an additional 12,352 births are now classified as occurring in
 hospitals, raising the percent of births occurring in hospitals from 98.7
 to 99.1.  Similarly, for 1976 the number of births occurring in hospitals
 is increased by 14,133 and the percent in hospital raised from 98.6 to
 99.1; for 1977, the increase is 15,937 and the percent in hospitals raised
 from 98.5 to 99.0.  For 1974 and earlier, the "In hospital" category
 includes all births in hospitals or institutions and births in clinics,
 centers, or maternity homes only when attended by physicians.
     For births occurring outside of hospitals, separate classifications
 are shown for physicians, midwives, and "Other" attendants.  The
 "Out-of-hospital" category also includes births for which no information
 is reported on place of birth.  Before 1975, the category "In hospital"
 included births for which the stated place of birth was a "doctor's
 office" and delivery was by a physician.  Beginning in 1975, births that
 were delivered by physician in a "doctor's office" have been tabulated as
 "Not in hospital" and included with births delivered by physicians in this
 category.  Although the actual number of such births is unknown, the
 effect of the change is minimal.  In 1974, 0.3 percent of all births were
 delivered by physicians outside of hospitals; in 1975 this proportion was
 0.4 percent.
     Babies born on the way to or on arrival at the hospital are classified
 as having been born in the hospital.  This may account for some of the
 hospital births not delivered by physicians or midwives.
     The percent distributions by attendant at birth for 1975-81 shown in
 table 1-38 have been revised to exclude births for which the attendant was
 unspecified.  In recent years, the number of births with unspecified
 attendant has fluctuated substantially.  Excluding these births from the
 percent distributions allows for a more meaningful year-to-year comparison
 in the proportion of births for each specified attendant.

3Birth Weight
     Birth weight is reported in some areas in pounds and ounces rather
 than in grams.  However, the metric system has been used in tabulating and
 presenting the statistics to facilitate comparison with data published by
 other groups.
     The categories for birth weight were changed in 1979 to be consistent
 with the recommendations in the Ninth Revision of the International
 Classification of Diseases (ICD-9).  The revised categories in gram
 intervals and their equivalents in pounds and ounces are as follows:

     Less than 500 grams = 1 lb  1 oz or less
     500  -  999   grams = 1 lb  2 oz- 2 lb  3 oz
     1,000 - 1,499 grams = 2 lb  4 oz- 3 lb  4 oz
     1,500 - 1,999 grams = 3 lb  5 oz- 4 lb  6 oz
     2,000 - 2,499 grams = 4 lb  7 oz- 5 lb  8 oz
     2,500 - 2,999 grams = 5 lb  9 oz- 6 lb  9 oz
     3,000 - 3,499 grams = 6 lb 10 oz- 7 lb 11 oz
     3,500 - 3,999 grams = 7 lb 12 oz- 8 lb 13 oz
     4,000 - 4,499 grams = 8 lb 14 oz- 9 lb 14 oz
     4,500 - 4,999 grams = 9 lb 15 oz-11 lb  0 oz
     5,000 grams or more =11 lb  1 oz or more

     The ICD-9 defines low birth weight as less than 2,500 grams.  This is
 a shift of 1 gram from the previous criterion of 2,500 grams or less,
 which was recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 1935 and
 adopted by the World Health Organization in the Sixth Revision of the
 International Lists of Diseases and Causes of Death (1948).
     After data classified by pounds and ounces are converted to grams,
 median wights are computed and rounded before publication.  To establish
 the continuity of class intervals needed to convert pounds and ounces to
 grams, the end points of these intervals are assumed to be half an ounce
 less at the lower end and half an ounce more at the upper end.  For
 example, 2 lb 4 oz - 3 lb 4 oz is interpreted as 2 lb 3 1/2 oz - 3 lb 4
 1/2 oz.
     Births for which birth weight is not reported are excluded from the
 computation of percents and medians.

3Period of Gestation
     The period of gestation is defined as beginning with the first day of
 the last normal menstrual period (LMP) and ending with the day of the
 birth.  The LMP is used as the initial date as it can be more accurately
 determined than the date of conception, which usually occurs 2 weeks after
 the LMP.
     Births occurring before 37 weeks of gestation are considered to be
 "preterm" or "premature" for purposes of classification.  At 37-41 weeks
 gestation, births are considered to be "term," and at 42 weeks and over,
 "post term."  These distinctions are according to the ICD-9 definitions.
     Before 1981, the period of gestation was computed only when there was
 a valid month, day, and year of LMP.  However, length of gestation could
 not be determined from a substantial number of live birth certificates
 each year because the day of LMP was missing.  Beginning in 1981 weeks of
 gestation have been imputed for records with missing day of LMP when there
 is a valid month and year.  Each such record is assigned the gestational
 period in weeks of the preceding record that has a complete LMP date with
 the same computed months of gestation and the same 500-gram birth weight
 interval.  The effect of the imputation procedure is to increase slightly
 the proportion of premature births and to lower the proportion of births
 at 39, 40, 41, and 42 weeks of gestation.  A more complete discussion of
 this procedure and its implications is presented in a previous report
 (NCHS, 1982).
     The calculated period of gestation in completed weeks is edited for
 upper and lower limits.  If the interval between date of last normal
 menstrual period and date of birth is 16 weeks or less, or 53 weeks or
 more, the period of gestation is considered not stated.
     Because of post-conception bleeding or menstrual irregularities, the
 presumed date of LMP may be in error.  In these instances the computed
 gestational period may be longer or shorter than the true gestational
 period, but the extent of such errors is unknown.

3Month of Pregnancy Prenatal Care Began
     For those records in which the name of the month is entered for this
 item, instead of first, second, third, and so forth, the month of
 pregnancy in which prenatal care began is determined from the month named
 and the month last normal menses began.  For these births, if the item
 "Date last normal menses began" is not on the certificate or is not
 stated, the month of pregnancy in which prenatal care began is tabulated
 as not stated.

3Number of Prenatal Visits
     Tabulations of the number of prenatal visits were presented for the
 first time in 1972.  In 1985 these data were collected from the birth
 certificates of all States except California.

3Apgar Score
     One- and 5-minute Apgar scores were added to the U.S. Standard
 Certificate of Live Birth in 1978 to evaluate the condition of the newborn
 infant at 1 and 5 minutes after birth.  The Apgar score is a useful
 measure of the need for resuscitation and a predictor of the infant's
 chances of surviving the first year of life.  It is a summary measure of
 the infant's condition based on heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle
 tone, reflex irritability, and color.  Each of these factors is given a
 score of 0, 1, or 2; the sum of these 5 values is the Apgar score, which
 ranges from 1 to 10.  A score of 10 is optimum, and a low score raises
 some doubts about the survival and subsequent health of the infant.  In
 1985 the 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores were included on the birth
 certificates of 46 States and the District of Columbia.  See table A for a
 listing of reporting areas.

3Hispanic Parentage
     Concurrent with the 1978 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of
 Live Birth, NCHS recommended that States add items to identify the
 Hispanic or ethnic origin of the newborn's parents.  Two formats were
 used: An open-ended item to obtain the specific origin or descent of each
 parent, for example, Italian, Mexican, or English; and an item directed
 toward the Hispanic population, requesting only the specific Hispanic
 origin (Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, and so forth).  In 1985 items
 requesting Hispanic or ethnic origin were included on the birth
 certificates of 23 States (see table A).

2Quality of Data
3General Information
     Although vital statistics data are useful for a variety of
 administrative and scientific purposes, they cannot be correctly
 interpreted unless various qualifying factors and methods of
 classification are taken into account.  The factors to be considered
 depend on the specific purposes for which the data are to be used.  It is
 not feasible to discuss all the pertinent factors in the use of vital
 statistics tabulations, but some of the more important ones should be
 mentioned.
     Most of the factors limiting the use of data arise from imperfections
 in the original records or from the impracticability of tabulating these
 data in very detailed categories.  These limitations should not be
 ignored, but their existence does not vitiate the value of the data for
 most general purposes.

3Completeness of Registration
     An estimated 99.3 percent of all births occurring in the United States
 in 1985 were registered; for white births registration was 99.4 percent
 complete and for all other births, 98.6 percent complete.  These estimates
 are based on the results of the 1964-68 test of birth-registration
 completeness according to place of delivery (in or out of hospital) and
 race and on the 1985 proportions of births in these categories.  The
 primary purpose of the test was to obtain current measures of registration
 completeness for births in and out of hospital by race on a national
 basis.  Data for States were not available as they had been from the
 previous birth-registration tests in 1940 and 1950.  A detailed discussion
 of the method and results of the 1964-68 birth-registration test is
 available (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1973).
     The 1964-68 test has provided an opportunity to revise the estimates
 of birth-registration completeness for the years since the previous test
 in 1950 to reflect the improvement in registration.  This has been done
 using registration completeness figures from the two tests by place of
 delivery and race.  Estimates of registration completeness for four groups
 (based on place of delivery and race) for 1951-65 were computed by
 interpolation between the test results.  (It was assumed that the data
 from the more recent test are for 1966, the midpoint of the test period).
 The results of the 1964-68 test are assumed to prevail for 1966 and later
 years.  These estimates were used with the proportions of births
 registered in these categories to obtain revised numbers of births
 adjusted for underregistration for each year.  The overall percent of
 birth-registration completeness by race was then computed.  The figures
 for 1951-68 shown in table 1-21 differ slightly from those shown in annual
 reports for years prior to 1969.
      Data adjusted for underregistration for 1951-59 shown in tables 1-1,
 1-3, 1-4, 1-6, and 1-8 have been revised to be consistent with the 1964-68
 test results and differ slightly from data shown in annual reports for
 years before 1969.  For these years the published number of births and
 birth rates for both racial groups have been revised slightly downward
 because the 1964-68 test indicated that previous adjustments to registered
 births were slightly inflated.  Because registration completeness figures
 by age of mother and by live-birth order are not available from the
 1964-68 test, it must be assumed that the relationships among these
 variables have not changed since 1950.
      Discontinuation of adjustment for underregistration, 1960-Adjustment
 for underregistration of births was discontinued in 1960, when birth
 registration for the United States was estimated to be 99.1 percent
 complete.  This removed a bias introduced into age-specific rates when
 adjusted births classified by age were used.  Age-specific rates are
 calculated by dividing the number of births to an age group of mothers by
 the population of women tin that age group.  Tests have shown that
 population figures are likely to be understated through census
 undercounts; these errors compensate for underenumeration, biasing the
 age-specific rates more than when uncorrected birth and population data
 are used.  (For further details see Vital Statistics of the United States,
 1963, Volume I, page 4-11).
      The age-specific rates used in the cohort fertility tables (tables
 1-12 through 1-19) are an exception to the above statement.  These rates
 are computed from births corrected for underregistration and population
 estimates adjusted for underenumeration and misstatement of age.  Adjusted
 births and population estimates are used for the cohort rates because they
 are an integral part of a series of rates estimated with a consistent
 methodology.  It was considered desirable to maintain consistency with
 respect to the cohort rates, even though it means that they will not be
 precisely comparable with other rates shown for 5-year age groups.

3Quality Control Procedures
     States in the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program are required to
 have an error rate of less than 2.0 percent for each item for 3
 consecutive data months during the initial qualifying period.  Once a
 State is qualified, NCHS monitors the quality of data received through
 independent verification of a sample of records to ensure that the item
 error rate is not more than approximately 4 percent.  In addition, there
 is verification at the State level before NCHS is sent the data.
     After completion of coding, counts of the taped records are balanced
 against control totals for each shipment of records from a registration
 area.  Impossible codes are eliminated during the editing processes on the
 computer and corrected on the basis of reference to the source record or
 adjusted by arbitrary code assignment.  All subsequent operations involved
 in tabulation and table preparation are verified during the computer
 processing or by statistical clerks.

3Small Frequencies
      The numbers of births reported for an area represent complete counts.
 As such, they are not subject to sampling error, although they are subject
 to errors in the registration process.  However, when the figures are used
 for analytical purposes, such as the comparison of rates over a time
 period or for different areas, the number of events that actually occurred
 may be considered as one of a large series of possible results that could
 have arisen under the same circumstances.  The probable range of values
 may be estimated from the actual figures according to certain statistical
 assumptions.
     In general, distributions of vital events may be assumed to follow the
 binomial distribution.  Estimates of standard errors and tests of
 significance under this assumption are described in most standard
 statistics texts.  When the number of events is large, the standard error,
 expressed as a percent of the number or rate, is usually small.
     When the number of events is small (perhaps less than 100) and the
 probability of such an event is small, considerable caution must be
 observed in interpreting the conditions described by the figures.  Events
 of rare nature may be assumed to follow a Poison probability distribution.
 For this distribution, a simple approximation may be used to estimate the
 error as follows:

     If N is the number of births and R is the corresponding rate, the
 chances are 19 in 20 that

     1.  The "true" number of events lies between

          N - 2 N and N + 2 N


     2.  The "true" rate lies between

                R            R
          R - 2 --- and R + 2 ---
                N           N


 If the rate R corresponding to N events is compared with the rate S
 corresponding to M events, the difference between the two rates may be
 regarded as statistically significant if it exceeds


               2 R2  +  S2
                 N       M

     For example, suppose that the observed birth rate for area A was 15.0
 per 1,000 population and that this rate was based on 50 recorded births.
 Given prevailing conditions, the chances are 19 in 20 that the "true" or
 underlying birth rate for that area lies between 10.8 and 19.2 per 1,000
 population.  Let it be further supposed that the birth rate for area A of
 15.0 per 1,000 population is being compared with a rate of 20.0 per 1,000
 population for area B, which is based on 40 recorded births.  Although the
 difference between the rates for the two areas is 5.0, this difference is
 less than twice the standard error of the difference


               2 (15.0)2 + (20.0)2
                   50      40


 of the two rates that is computed to be 7.6.  From this, it is concluded
 that the difference between the rates for the two areas is not
 statistically significant.

2Computation of Rates and Other Measures
3Population Bases
     The rates shown in this report were computed on the basis of
 population statistics prepared by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.  Rates
 for 1940, 1950, 1960, 1970, and 1980 are based on the population
 enumerated as of April 1 in the censuses of those years.  Rates for all
 other years are based on the estimated midyear (July 1) population for the
 respective years.  Birth rates for the United States, individual States,
 and SMSA's are based on the total resident populations of the respective
 areas.  Except as noted these populations exclude the Armed Forces abroad
 but include the Armed Forces stationed in each area.
     The resident population of the birth-and death-registration States for
 1900-1932 and for the United States for 1900-1985 is shown in table 4-1.
 In addition, the population including Armed Forces abroad is shown for the
 United States.  Table B shows the sources for these populations.
     Population estimates for 1981-85-The population of the United States
 by age, race and sex for 1985 is shown in table 4-2.  The population for
 each State is shown in table 4-3 and the monthly population figures were
 published in Current Population Reports, Series P-25, Number 1000.
 Comparable data for 1981, 1982, 1983, and 1984 were shown in tables 4-2
 and 4-3 of Vital

 Table B.  Sources for resident population and population including Armed
 Forces abroad:  Birth- and death- registration States, 1900-1932, and
 United States, 1900-1985

     Year                                    Source

 1985-----------------U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population
                    Reports, Series P-25, No. 1000, Feb. 1987.
 1984-----------------U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population
                    Reports, Series P-25, No. 985, Apr. 1986.
 1983-----------------U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population
                    Reports, Series P-25, No. 965, Mar. 1985.
 1982-----------------U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population
                    Reports, Series P-25, No. 949, May 1984
 1981-----------------U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population
                    Reports, Series P-25, No. 929, May 1983
 1980-----------------U.S. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Census of Population:
                    1980, Number of Inhabitants, PC80-1-A1, United States
                    Summary, 1983.
 1971-79--------------U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population
                    Reports, Series P-25, No. 917, July 1982.
 1970-----------------U.S. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Census of Population:
                    1970, Number of Inhabitants, Final Report PC(1)-A1.
                    United States Summary, 1971.
 1961-69--------------U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population
                    Reports, Series P-25, No. 519, April 1974
 1960-----------------U.S. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Census of Population:
                    1960, Number of Inhabitants, PC80-1-A1, United States
                    Summary, 1964.
 1951-59--------------U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population
                    Reports, Series P-25, No. 310, June 30, 1965.
 1940-50--------------U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population
                    Reports, Series P-25, No. 499, May 1973.
 1930-39--------------U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population
                    Reports, Series P-25, No. 499, May 1973, and National
                    Office of Vital Statistics, Vital Statistics Rates in
                    the United State, 1900-1940, 1947.
 1920-29--------------National Office of Vital Statistic, Vital Statistics
                    Rates in the United States, 1900-1940, 1947.
 1917-19--------------Same as for 1930-39
 1900-1916------------Same as for 1920-29


 Statistics of the United States, Volume I, for those years and in Current
 Population Reports, Series P-25, Numbers 931, 949, 961, and 980.
 Population data by race are consistent with the modified 1980 populations
 by race.
     Populations for 1980-The population of the United States by age, race,
 and sex, and the population for each State are shown in tables 4-2 and 4-3
 of Vital Statistics of the United States, 1980, Volume I.  The figures by
 race have been modified as described below.  Monthly population figures
 were published in Current Population Reports, Series P-25, Number 899.
     The racial counts in the 1980 census are affected by changes in racial
 reporting practices, particularly by the Hispanic population, and in
 coding and classifying racial groups in the 1980 census.  One particular
 change has created a major inconsistency between the 1980 census data and
 historical data series, including censuses and vital statistics.  About 40
 percent of the Hispanic population counted in 1980, over 5.8 million
 persons, did not mark one of the specified races listed on the census
 questionnaire but instead marked the "Other" category.  In the 1980
 census, coding procedures were modified for persons who marked "Other"
 race and wrote in a national origin designation of a Latin American
 country or a specific Hispanic origin group in response to the racial
 question.  These persons remained in the "Other" racial category in 1980
 census data, in previous censuses and in vital statistics such responses
 were almost always coded into the "White" category.
     In order to maintain comparability, the "Other" racial category in the
 1980 census was reallocated to be consistent with previous procedures.
 Persons who marked the "Other" racial category and reported any Spanish
 origin on the Spanish origin question (5,840,648 persons) were distributed
 to white and black races in proportion to the distribution of persons of
 Hispanic origin who reported their race to be white or black.  This was
 done for each age-sex group.
     As a result of this procedure, 5,705,155 persons were added to the
 white population and 135,493 persons to the black population.  Persons who
 marked the "Other" racial category and reported that they were not of
 Spanish origin (916,338 persons) were distributed as follows: 20 percent
 in each age-sex group were added to the "Asian and Pacific Islander"
 category (183,268 persons), and 80 percent were added to the "White"
 category (733,070 persons).  The count of American Indians, Eskimos, and
 Aleuts was not affected by these procedures.  Unpublished tabulations of
 these modified census counts were obtained from the U.S. Bureau of the
 Census and used to compute the 1980 rates for this report, except for
 tables 1-12 through 1-19.
     Population estimates for 1971-79-Birth rates for 1971-79 (except those
 for cohorts of women in tables 1-12 through 1-19) have been revised, based
 on revised population estimates that are consistent with the 1980 census
 levels.  The 1980 census counted approximately 5.5 million more persons
 than had earlier been estimated for April 1, 1980 (U.S. Bureau of the
 Census, 1982).  The revised estimates for the United States by age, race,
 and sex were published by the U.S. Bureau of the Census in Current
 Population Reports, Series P-25, Number 917.  Population estimates by
 month are based on data published in Current Population Reports, Series
 P-25, Number 899.  Unpublished revised estimates for States were obtained
 from the U.S. Bureau of the Census.
     Population estimates for 1961-69-Birth rates in this volume for
 1961-69 (except for those shown in tables 1-4 and 1-5) are based on
 revised estimates of the population and thus may differ slightly from
 rates published before 1976.  The revised estimates used in computing
 these rates were published in Current Population Reports, Series P-25,
 Number 519.  The rates shown in tables 1-4 and 1-5 for 1961-64 are based
 on revised estimates of the population published in Current Population
 Reports, Series P-25, Numbers 321 and 324 and may differ slightly from
 rates published in those years.
     Population estimates for 1951-59-Final intercensal estimates of the
 population by age, race, and sex and total population by State for 1951-59
 are shown in tables 4-4 and 4-5 of Vital Statistics of the United States,
 1966, Volume I.  Beginning with 1963 these final estimates have been used
 to compute birth rates for 1951-59 in all issues of Vital Statistics of
 the United States.

3Net Census Undercounts and Overcounts
     The U.S. Bureau of the Census has conducted extensive research to
 evaluate the coverage of the U.S. population (including undercount and
 overcount and misstatement of age, race, and sex) in the last four
 decennial censuses-1950, 1960, 1970, and 1980.  These studies provide
 estimates of the national population that was not enumerated or
 overenumerated in the respective censuses, by age, race, and sex (U.S.
 Bureau of the Census, 1974, 1977, and 1986).  The report for 1980 (U.S.
 Bureau of the Census, 1986) includes estimates of net underenumeration and
 overenumeration for age, sex, and racial subgroups of the national
 population, modified for race consistency with previous population counts
 as described in the section "Populations for 1980."
     These studies indicate that there is differential coverage in the
 censuses among the population subgroups; that is, some age, race, and sex
 groups are more completely enumerated than others.  To the extent that
 these estimates of overcounts or undercounts are valid, that they are
 substantial, and that they vary among subgroups and geographic areas,
 census miscounts can have consequences for vital statistics measures (U.S.
 Bureau of the Census, 1974).  However, the effects of undercounts in the
 census are reduced to the extent that there is underregistration of
 births.  If these two factors are of equal magnitude, rates based on the
 unadjusted populations are more accurate than those based on adjusted
 populations because the births have not been adjusted for
 underregistration.
     The impact of net census miscounts on vital statistics measures
 includes the effects on levels of the rates and effects on differentials
 among groups.
     If adjustments were made for persons who were not counted in the
 census of population, the size of the denominators would generally
 increase and the rates would be smaller than without an adjustment.
 Adjusted rates for 1980 can be computed by multiplying the reported rates
 by ratios of the 1980 census-level population adjusted for the estimated
 net census miscounts, which are shown in table C.  A ratio of less than
 1.0 indicates a net census undercount and would result in a corresponding
 decrease in the rate.  A ratio in excess of 1.0 indicates a net census
 overcount and would result in a corresponding increase in the rate.
      Enumeration of white females in the childbearing ages was at least 99
 percent complete for all ages.  Among women of races other than white, the
 undercount ranges up to 4 percent.  Generally, females in the childbearing
 ages were more completely enumerated than males for similar race-age
 groups.
      If vital statistics measures were calculated with adjustments for net
 census miscounts for each of these subgroups the resulting rates would
 have been differentially changed from their original levels; that is,
 rates for those groups with the greatest estimated overcounts or
 undercounts would show the greatest relative changes due to these
 adjustments.  Thus the racial differential in fertility between the white
 and the all other population can be affected by such adjustments.

3Cohort Fertility Tables
     The various fertility measures shown for cohorts of women in tables
 1-12 through 1-19 are computed from births adjusted for underregistration
 and population estimates corrected for underenumeration and misstatement
 of age.  The data shown in this volume are not consistent with data
 published in annual reports before 1974.  These data use revised
 population estimates prepared by the U.S. Bureau of the Census and have
 been expanded to include data for the two major racial groups.  Heuser
 (NCHS, 1976) has prepared a detailed description of the methods used in
 deriving these measures as well as more detailed data for earlier years.

3Age-Sex-Adjusted Birth Rates
     The age-sex-adjusted birth rates shown in table 1-3 are computed by
 the direct method.  The age distribution of women aged 10-49 years as
 enumerated in 1940 and the total population of the United States for that
 year are used as the standard populations.  The birth rates by age of
 mother and race that are used to compute these adjusted rates are shown in
 table 1-6.  The age-sex- adjusted birth rates show differences in the
 level of fertility independent of differences in the age and sex
 composition of the population.  It is important not to confuse these
 adjusted rates with the crude rates shown in other tables.

3Total Fertility Rate
     The total fertility rate is the sum of the birth rates by age of
 mother (in 5-year age groups) multiplied by 5.  It is an age-adjusted rate
 because it is based on the assumption that there are the same number of
 women in each age group.  In table 1-6 the rate of 1,843 in 1985, for
 example, means that if a hypothetical group of 1,000 women were to have
 the same birth rates in each age group that were observed in the actual
 childbearing population in 1985, they would have a total of 1,843 children
 by the time they reached the end of the reproductive period (taken here as
 age 50), assuming that all of the women survived to that age.

3Intrinsic Vital Rates
     The intrinsic vital rates shown in table 1-5 are calculated from a
 stable population.  A stable population is that hypothetical population,
 closed to external migration, which would become fixed in age-sex
 structure after repeated applications of a constant set of age-sex
 specific birth and death rates.  For the mathematical derivation of
 intrinsic vital rates, see Vital Statistics of the United States, 1962,
 Volume I, pages 4-13 and 4-14.  The technique of calculating intrinsic
 vital rates is described by Barclay (1958, pp. 216-222).

3Parity Distribution
      The percent distribution of women by parity (number of children ever
 born alive to mother) shown in tables 1-13 and 1-17 is derived from
 cumulative birth rates by order of birth, which are shown in tables 1-15
 and 1-19.  The percent of zero-parity women is found by subtracting the
 cumulative first birth rate from 1,000 and dividing by 10.  The
 proportions of women at parities one through six are found from the
 following formula:

 Percent at N parity = (cum. rate, order N) - (cum. rate, order N + 1)
                                     10

      The percent of women at seventh and higher parities is found by
 dividing the cumulative rate for seventh-order births by 10.

3Seasonal Adjustment of Rates
      The seasonally adjusted birth and fertility rates shown in table 1-23
 are computed from the X-11 variant of Census Method II (U.S. Bureau of the
 Census, 1965).  This method of seasonal adjustment used since 1964 differs
 slightly from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Seasonal Factor Method,
 which was used for Vital Statistics of the United States, 1964.  The
 fundamental technique is the same in that it is an adaptation of the
 ratio-to-moving- average method.  Before 1964 the method of seasonal
 adjustment was based on the X-9 variant and other variants of Census
 Method II.  A comparison of the Census Method II with the BLS Seasonal
 Factor Method shows the differences in the seasonal patterns of births to
 be negligible.

3Computation of Percents, Medians, and Means
      Percent distributions, medians, and means are computed using only
 events for which the characteristic is reported.  The "Not stated"
 category is subtracted from the total before computation of these
 measures.

2Symbols Used in Tables

     Data not available _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _   _ _ _
     Category not applicable_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _   . . .
     Quantity zero_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _   _
     Quantity more than zero but less than 0.05 _ _ _   0.0
     Figure does not meet standards of reliability
     or precision _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _   *

2References
     Barclay, G. W. 1958.  Techniques of Population Analysis.  New York:
 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

     National Center for Health Statistics, R. Heuser, 1976, Fertility
 Tables for Birth Cohorts by Color: United States, 1917-73.  DHEW Pub. No.
 (HRA) 76- 1152.  Health Resources Administration.  Washington: U.S.
 Government Printing Office.

     National Center for Health Statistics, S. J. Ventura, 1980.  Trends
 and differentials in births to unmarried women, United States, 1970-76.
 Vital and Health Statistics.  Series 21, No. 36.  DHHS Pub. No. (PHS)
 80-1914.  Public Health Service.  Washington: U.S. Government Printing
 Office.

     National Center for Health Statistics, S. Taffel, D. Johnson, and R.
 Heuser, 1982.  A method of imputing length of gestation on birth
 certificates.  Vital and Health Statistics.  Series 2, No. 93.  DHHS Pub.
 No. (PHS) 82-1367.  Public Health Service.  Washington: U.S. Government
 Printing Office.

     National Office of Vital Statistics.  1950.  International
 Recommendations on Definitions of Live Birth and Fetal Deaths.  PHS Pub.
 No.  39. Public Health Service.  Washington: U.S. Government Printing
 Office.

     National Office of Vital Statistics.  1954.  Births and birth rates in
 the entire United States, 1909 to 1948.  Vital Statistics-Special Reports,
 Vol. 33.  No. 8, 1950.  Public Health Service. Washington: U.S. Government
 Printing Office.

     National Vital Statistics Division, J. Schachter, 1962.  Matched
 record comparison of birth certificate and census information in the
 United States, 1950.  Vital Statistics-Special Reports.  Vol. 47, No. 12.
 Public Health Service. Washington, D.C.

     Statistical Office of the United Nations, 1953.  Principles for a
 Vital Statistics System: Recommendations for the Improvement and
 Standardization of Vital Statistics.  Doc. ST/STAT/SERM/19.  New York:
 United Nations.

     U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1967.  The X-11 Variant of the Census
 Method II Seasonal Adjustment Program.  Technical Paper No. 15, 1967
 revision.  Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office.

     U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1973.  Test of Birth-registration
 completeness, 1964 to 1968.  1970 Census of Population and Housing.
 Evaluation and Research Program.  PHC(E)-2.  Washington: U.S. Government
 Printing Office.

     U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1974.  Estimates of coverage of the
 population by sex, race, and age-demographic analysis.  1970 Census of
 Population and Housing.  Evaluation and Research Program.  PHC(E)-4.
 Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office.

     U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1977.  Developmental estimates of the
 coverage of the population of States in the 1970 census-demographic
 analysis.  Current Population Reports.  Series P-23, No. 65.  Washington:
 U.S. Government Printing Office.

     U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1982.  Coverage of the national population
 in the 1980 census by age, sex, and race.  Preliminary estimates by
 demographic analysis.  Current Population Reports.  Series P-23, No. 115.
 Washington:  U.S. Government Printing Office.

     U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1986.  Estimates of the population of the
 United States, by age, sex, and race: 1980 to 1985.  Current Population
 Reports.  Series P-25, No. 985.  Washington: U.S. Government Printing
 Office.

     U.S. Office of Management and Budget, 1975.  Standard Metropolitan
 Statistical Areas, rev. ed. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office.

     U.S. Office of Management and Budget, 1981a.  Standard metropolitan
 statistical areas and standard consolidated areas.  Statistical Reporter.
 pp.  1-20.  Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office.

     U.S. Office of Management and Budget, 1981b.  36 new standard
 metropolitan statistical areas.  Statistical Reporter.  Washington: U.S.
 Government Printing Office.

     World Health Organization, 1950.  Official Records, No. 28 (WHA 3.6),
 Third World Health Assembly.  Geneva: World Health Organization.

1TECHNICAL APPENDIX (DEATH AND FETAL DEATH)
2Sources of Data
3Death and Fetal-Death Statistics
      Mortality statistics for 1986 are, as for all previous years except
 1972, based on information from records of all deaths occurring in the
 United States.  Fetal-death statistics for every year are based on all
 reports of fetal death received by the National Center for Health
 Statistics (NCHS).
      The death-registration system and the fetal-death reporting system of
 the United States encompass the 50 States, the District of Columbia, New
 York City (which is independent of New York State for the purpose of death
 registration), Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and
 the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.  In the statistical
 tabulations of this publication, United States refers only to the
 aggregate of the 50 States (including New York City) and the District of
 Columbia.  Tabulations for Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands are
 shown separately in this volume.  No data have ever been included for
 American Samoa or the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.
      The Virgin Islands was admitted to the "registration area" for deaths
 in 1924: Puerto Rico, in 1932: and Guam, in 1970.  Tabulations of death
 statistics for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands were regularly shown in
 the annual volumes of Vital Statistics of the United States from the year
 of their admission through 1971 except for the years 1967 through 1969,
 and tabulations for Guam were included for 1970 and 1971.  Death
 statistics for Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Guam were not included
 in the 1972 volume but have been included in section 8 of the volumes for
 each of the years 1973-78 and in section 9 beginning with 1979.
 Information for 1972 for these three areas was published in the respective
 annual vital statistics reports of the Department of Health of the
 Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Department of Health of the Virgin
 Islands, and the Department of Public Health and Social Services of the
 Government of Guam.
      Procedures used by NCHS to collect death statistics have changed over
 the years.  Before 1971, tabulations of deaths and fetal deaths were based
 solely on information obtained by NCHS from copies of the original
 certificates.  The information from these copies was edited, coded, and
 tabulated.   For 1960- 70, all mortality information taken from these
 records was transferred by NCHS to magnetic tape for computer processing.
      Beginning with 1971, an increasing number of States have provided
 NCHS with computer tapes of data coded according to NCHS specifications
 and provided to NCHS through the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program.
 The year in which State-coded demographic data were first transmitted on
 computer tape to NCHS is shown below for each of the States, New York
 City, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia, all of which now furnish
 demographic or non-medical data on tape.


 1971                                    1977

      Florida                                 Alaska
                                              Idaho
 1972                                         Massachusetts
                                              New York City
      Maine                                   Ohio
      Missouri                                Puerto Rico
      New Hampshire
      Rhode Island                       1978
      Vermont
                                              Indiana
 1973                                         Utah
                                              Washington
      Colorado
      Michigan                           1979
      New York (except
       New York City)                         Connecticut
                                              Hawaii
 1974                                         Mississippi
                                              New Jersey
      Illinois                                Pennsylvania
      Iowa                                    Wyoming
      Kansas
      Montana                            1980
      Nebraska
      Oregon                                  Arkansas
      South Carolina                          New Mexico
                                              South Dakota
 1975
                                         1982
      Louisiana
      Maryland                                North Dakota
      North Carolina
      Oklahoma                           1985
      Tennessee
      Virginia                                Arizona
      Wisconsin                               California
                                              Delaware
 1976                                         Georgia
                                              District of
      Alabama                                    Columbia
      Kentucky
      Minnesota
      Nevada
      Texas
      West Virginia


      For the Virgin Islands and Guam mortality statistics for 1986 are
 based on information obtained directly by NCHS from copies of the original
 certificates received from the registration offices.
      In 1974, States began coding medical (cause-of-death) data on
 computer tapes according to NCHS specifications.  The year in which
 State-coded medical data were first transmitted to NCHS is shown below for
 the 22 States now furnishing such data.

 1974                                    1981

      Iowa                                    Maine
      Michigan
                                         1983
 1975
                                              Minnesota
      Louisiana
      Nebraska                           1984
      North Carolina
      Virginia                                Maryland
      Wisconsin                               New York State (except
                                                 New York City)
 1980                                         Vermont

      Colorado                           1986
      Kansas
      Massachusetts                           California
      Mississippi                             Florida
      New Hampshire                           Texas
      Pennsylvania
      South Carolina


      For 1986 and previous years except 1972, NCHS coded the medical
 information from copies of the original certificates received from the
 registration offices for all deaths occurring in those States that were
 not furnishing NCHS with medical data coded according to NCHS
 specifications.  For 1981 and 1982, it was necessary to change these
 procedures because of a backlog in coding and processing that resulted
 from personnel and budgetary restrictions.  To produce the mortality files
 on a timely basis with reduced resources, NCHS used State-coded underlying
 cause-of-death information supplied by 19 States for 50 percent of the
 records; for the other 50 percent of the records for these States as well
 as for 100 percent of the records for the remaining 21 registration areas,
 NCHS coded the medical information.
      Mortality statistics for 1972 were based on information obtained from
 a 50-percent sample of death records instead of from all records as in
 other years.  The sample resulted from personnel and budgetary
 restrictions.  Sampling variation associated with the 50-percent sample is
 described below in the section "Estimates of errors arising from
 50-percent sample for 1972."
      Fetal-death data are obtained directly from copies of original
 reports of fetal deaths received by NCHS, except New York State (excluding
 New York City), which submitted State-coded data in 1986.  Fetal-death
 data are not published by NCHS for the Virgin Islands and Guam.

2Standard Certificates and Reports
      The U.S. Standard Certificate of Death and the U.S. Standard Report
 of Fetal Death, issued by the Public Health Service, have served for many
 years as the principal means of attaining uniformity in the content of
 documents used to collect information on these events.  They have been
 modified in each State to the extent required by the particular needs of
 the State or by special provisions of the State vital statistics law.
 However, the certificates or reports of most States conform closely in
 content and arrangement to the standards.
      The first issue of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Death appeared in
 1900.  Since then, it has been revised periodically by the national vital
 statistics agency through consultation with State health officers and
 registrars; Federal agencies concerned with vital statistics; national,
 State, and county medical societies; and others working in such fields as
 public health, social welfare, demography, and insurance.  This revision
 procedure has assured careful evaluation of each item in terms of its
 current and future usefulness for legal, medical and health, demographic,
 and research purposes.  New items have been added when necessary, and old
 items have been modified to ensure better reporting, or in some cases have
 been dropped when their usefulness appeared to be limited.
      New revisions of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Death and the U.S.
 Standard Report of Fetal Death were recommended for State use beginning
 January 1, 1978.  The U.S. Standard Certificate of Death and the U.S.
 Standard Report of Fetal Death are shown in figures 7-A and 7-B.  The
 certificate of death shown in figure 7-A is for use by a physician, a
 medical examiner, or a coroner.  Two other forms of the U.S. Standard
 Certificate of Death are available; they are similar to the one shown
 except that the section on certification is designed for the physician's
 signature on one, and for the medical examiner's or coroner's signature on
 the other.
      Among the changes in the new revision were the additions of (1) an
 item asking "If Hosp. or Inst. Indicate DOA, OP/Emer. Rm., Inpatient" and
 (2) an item "Was Decedent Ever in U.S. Armed Forces?"  The latter item was
 previously on the certificate but was deleted during 1968 through 1977.
 An item on whether autopsy findings were considered for determining cause
 of death was dropped.

2History
      The first death statistics published by the Federal Government
 concerned events in 1850 and were based on statistics collected during the
 decennial census of that year.  In 1880 a national "registration area" was
 created for deaths.  Originally consisting of two States (Massachusetts
 and New Jersey), the District of Columbia, and several large cities having
 efficient systems for death registrations, the death-registration area
 continued to expand until 1933, when it included the entire United States
 for the first time.  Tables that show data for death-registration States
 include the District of Columbia for all years; registration cities in
 nonregistration States are not included.  For more details on the history
 of the death-registration area, see the Technical Appendix in Vital
 Statistics of the United States, 1979, Volume II, Mortality, Part A,
 Section 7, pages 3-4, and the section "History and Organization of the
 Vital Statistics System," chapter 1, Vital Statistics of the United
 States, 1950, Volume I, pages 2-19.
      Statistics on fetal deaths were first published for the
 birth-registration area in 1918, and then every year beginning with 1922.

2Classification of Data
3General Information
      The principal value of vital statistics data is realized through the
 presentation of rates, which are computed by relating the vital events of
 a class to the population of a similarly defined class.  Vital statistics
 and population statistics must therefore be classified according to
 similarly defined systems and tabulated in comparable groups.  Even when
 the variables common to both, such as geographic area, age, sex, and race,
 have been similarly classified and tabulated, differences between the
 enumeration method of obtaining population data and the registration
 method of obtaining vital statistics data may result in significant
 discrepancies.
      The general rules used in the classification of geographic and
 personal items for deaths and fetal deaths for 1986 are set forth in two
 instruction manuals (NCHS, 1986a, 1986b).
      A discussion of the classification of certain important items is
 presented below.

2Classification by Occurrence and Residence
      Tabulations for the United States and specific geographic areas in
 this volume are by place of residence unless stated as by place of
 occurrence.  Before 1970, resident mortality statistics for the United
 States included all deaths occurring in the United States, with deaths of
 "nonresidents of the United States" assigned to place of death.  "Deaths
 of nonresidents of the United States" refers to deaths that occur in the
 United States of nonresident aliens, nationals residing abroad, and
 residents of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and other territories
 of the United States.  Beginning with 1970, deaths of nonresidents of the
 United States are not included in tables by place of residence.
      Tables by place of occurrence, on the other hand, include deaths of
 both residents and nonresidents of the United States.  Consequently, for
 each year beginning with 1970, the total number of deaths in the United
 States by place of occurrence was somewhat greater than the total by place
 of residence.  For 1986 this difference amounted to 3,023 deaths.
 Mortality statistics by place of occurrence are shown in tables 1-10,
 1-18, 1-19, 1-28, 1-29, 3-1, 3-8, 8-1, and 8-7.
      Before 1970, except for 1964 and 1965, deaths of nonresidents of the
 United States occurring in the United States were treated as deaths of
 residents of the exact place of occurrence, which in most instances was an
 urban area.  In 1964 and 1965, deaths of nonresidents of the United States
 occurring in the United States were allocated as deaths of residents of
 the balance of the county in which they occurred.
      Residence error-Results of a 1960 study showed that the
 classification of residence information on the death certificates
 corresponded closely to the residence classification of the census records
 for the decedents whose records were matched (NCHS, 1969).
      A comparison of the results of this study of deaths with those of a
 previous matched record study of births (National Vital Statistics
 Division, 1962) showed that the quality of residence data had considerably
 improved between 1950 and 1960.  Both studies found that events in urban
 areas were overstated by the NCHS classification in comparison with the
 U.S. Bureau of the Census classification.  The magnitude of the difference
 was substantially less for deaths in 1960 than it was for births in 1950.
      The improvement is attributed to an item added in 1956 to the U.S.
 Standard Certificates of Birth and of Death, asking if residence was
 inside or outside city limits.  This new item aided in properly allocating
 the residence of persons living near cities but outside the corporate
 limits.

3Geographic Classification
      The rules followed in the classification of geographic areas for
 deaths and fetal deaths are contained in the two instruction manuals
 referred to previously (NCHS, 1986a, 1986b).
      The geographic codes assigned by the National Center for Health
 Statistics during data reduction of source information on birth, death,
 and fetal-death records are given in another instruction manual (NCHS,
 1985).  Beginning with 1982 data, the geographic codes were modified to
 reflect results of the 1980 census.  For 1970-81, codes area based on
 results of the 1970 census.
      Standard metropolitan statistical areas-The standard metropolitan
 statistical areas (SMSA's) used in this volume are those established by
 the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (1981a, pp. 1-20) from final 1980
 census population counts and used by the U.S. Bureau of the Census, except
 in the New England States.
      Except in the New England States, an SMSA is a county or a group of
 contiguous counties containing a city of 50,000 inhabitants or more or an
 urbanized area of 50,000 with a total metropolitan population of at least
 100,000.  In addition to the county or counties containing such a city or
 urbanized area, contiguous counties are included in an SMSA if, according
 to specified criteria, they are essentially metropolitan in character and
 are socially and economically integrated with the central city or
 urbanized area (U.S. Office of Management and Budget, 1981b, p. 420).
      In the New England States the U.S. Office of Management and Budget
 uses towns and cities rather than counties as geographic components of
 SMSA's.  The National Center for Health Statistics cannot, however, use
 the SMSA classification for these States because its data are not coded to
 identify all towns.  Instead, NCHS uses New England County Metropolitan
 Areas (NECMA's).  Made up of county units, these areas are established by
 the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (1975, pp. 89-90; 1981b, p. 420).
      Metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties-Independent cities and
 counties included in SMSA's or in NECMA's are included in data for
 metropolitan counties, all other counties are classified as
 nonmetropolitan.
      Population-size groups-Vital statistics data for cities and certain
 other urban places in 1986 are classified according to the population
 enumerated in the 1980 Census of Population.  Data are available for
 individual cities and other urban places of 10,000 or more population.
 Data for the remaining areas not separately identified are shown in the
 tables under the heading "balance of area" or "balance of county."  For
 the years 1970-81, classification of areas was determined by the
 population enumerated in the 1970 Census of Population.  Beginning with
 1982 data, as a result of changes in the enumerated population between
 1970 and 1980, some urban places identified in previous reports are no
 longer included, and a number of other urban places have been added.
     Urban places other than incorporated cities for which vital statistics
 data are shown in this volume included the following:

 Each town in New England, New York, and Wisconsin and each township in
 Michigan, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania that had no incorporated
 municipality as a subdivision and had either 25,000 inhabitants or more or
 a population of 10,000 to 25,000 and a density of 1,000 persons or more
 per square mile.

 Each county in States other than those indicated above that had no
 incorporated municipality within its boundary and had a density of 1,000
 persons or more per square mile.  (Arlington County, Virginia is the only
 county classified as urban under this rule.)

 Each place in Hawaii with 10,000 or more population, as there are no
 incorporated cities in the State.

      Before 1964, places were classified as "urban" or "rural."  The
 Technical Appendixes for earlier years discuss the previous classification
 system.

3State or Country of Birth
      Mortality statistics by State or country of birth (table 1-32) became
 available beginning with 1979.  State or country of birth of a decedent is
 assigned to 1 of the 50 States or the District of Columbia; or to Puerto
 Rico, the Virgin Islands, or Guam-if specified on the death certificate.
 The place of birth is also tabulated for Canada, Cuba, Mexico, and for the
 Remainder of the World.  Deaths for which information on State or country
 of birth was unknown, not stated, or not classifiable accounted for a
 small proportion of all deaths in 1986, about 0.5 percent.
      Early mortality reports published by the U.S. Bureau of the Census
 contained tables showing nativity of parents as well as nativity of
 decedent.  Publication of these tables was discontinued in 1933.
 Mortality data showing nativity of decedent were again published in annual
 reports for 1939-41 and for 1950.

3Age
      The age recorded on the death record is the age at last birthday.
 With respect to the computation of death rates, the age classification
 used by the U.S. Bureau of the Census is also based on the age of the
 person in completed years.

3Race
 For vital statistics in the United States in 1986, deaths are classified
 by race-white, black, Indian, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Other Asian or
 Pacific Islander, and Other.  Mortality data for Filipino and Other Asian
 or Pacific Islander were shown for the first time in 1979.
      The white category includes, in addition to persons reported as
 white, those reported as Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, and all other
 Caucasians.  The Indian category includes American, Alaskan, Canadian,
 Eskimo, and Aleut.  If the racial entry on the death certificate indicates
 a mixture of Hawaiian and any other race, the entry is coded to Hawaiian.
 If the race is given as a mixture of white and any other race, the entry
 is coded to the appropriate other race.  If a mixture of races other than
 white is given (except Hawaiian), the entry is coded to the first race
 listed.  This procedure for coding the first race listed has been in use
 since 1969.  Before 1969, if the entry for race was a mixture of black and
 any other race except Hawaiian, the entry was coded to black.
      Most of the tables in this volume, however, do not show data for this
 detailed classification by race.  In about half of all the tables the
 divisions are white, all other (including black), and black separately.
 In other tables by race, where the main purpose is to isolate the major
 groups, the classifications are simply white and all other.
      Race not stated-For 1986 the number of death records for which race
 was unknown, not stated, or not classifiable was 4,583 or 0.2 percent of
 the total deaths.  Death records with race entry not stated are assigned
 to a racial designation as follows: If the preceding record is coded
 white, the code assignment is made to white; if the code is other than
 white, the assignment is made to black.  Before 1964 all records with race
 not stated were assigned to white except records of residents of New
 Jersey for 1962-64.
      New Jersey, 1962-64-New Jersey omitted the race item from its
 certificates of live birth, death, and fetal death in use in the beginning
 of 1962.  The item was restored during the latter part of 1962.  However,
 the certificate revision without the race item was used for most of 1962
 as well as 1963.  Therefore figures by race for 1962 and 1963 exclude New
 Jersey.  For 1964, 6.8 percent of the death records in use for residents
 of New Jersey did not contain the race item.
      Adjustments made in vital statistics to take into account the
 omission of the race item in New Jersey for part of the certificates filed
 during 1962 through 1964 are described in the Technical Appendix of Vital
 Statistics of the United States for each of those data years.

3Hispanic Origin
      Mortality statistics for the Hispanic-origin population were
 published in 1984 for the first time.  They are based on information for
 those States and the District of Columbia that included items on the death
 certificate to identify Hispanic or ethnic origin of decedents.  Data were
 obtained from the District of Columbia and the following 22 States:
 Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Georgia, Hawaii, Illinois,
 Indiana, Kansas, Maine, Mississippi, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New
 Mexico, New York (including New York City), North Dakota, Ohio, Tennessee,
 Texas, Utah, and Wyoming.  Generally, the reporting States used items
 similar to one of two basic formats recommended by NCHS.  The first format
 is open-ended to obtain the specific origin or descent of the decedent
 (for example, Italian, Mexican, Puerto Rican, English, and Cuban).  The
 second format is directed specifically toward the Hispanic population and
 asks whether the decedent is of Spanish origin.  If so, the specific
 origin-for example, Mexican, Puerto Rican, or Cuban-is to be indicated.
      For 1986, mortality data in tables 1-33 and 2-18 are based on deaths
 to residents of all 22 reporting States and the District of Columbia.  In
 tables 1-34, 2-19, 2-20, and 2-21 mortality data for the Hispanic-origin
 population are based on deaths to residents of 18 reporting States and the
 District of Columbia whose data were at least 90 percent complete on a
 place-of- occurrence basis and considered to be sufficiently comparable to
 be used for analysis.  The 18 States are as follows: Arizona, Arkansas,
 California, Colorado, Georgia, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas,
 Mississippi, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York (including New York City),
 North Dakota, Ohio, Texas, Utah, and Wyoming.  Excluded from these tables
 are data for New Mexico because the format for the Hispanic item on the
 New Mexico death certificate departs sufficiently from that of other areas
 to result in noncomparable data.  In addition, in tables 1-33 and 1-34 for
 New Mexico, no deaths are shown for the category "not stated" origin.
 Because of the way in which the item on the death certificate for New
 Mexico is worded, it was not possible to determine whether a black entry
 represented a response of "non-Hispanic origin" or of "unknown origin."
 Accordingly, black entries were coded to "non-Hispanic."  Data for the
 other three States-Maine, Nevada, and Tennessee-are excluded from tables
 1-34, 2-19, 2-20, and 2-21 because of the large proportion of deaths (in
 excess of 10 percent) occurring in these States for which Hispanic origin
 was not stated or was unknown.
      In 1980, the 18 reporting States and the District of Columbia
 accounted for about 80 percent of the Hispanic population in the United
 States, including about 89 percent of the Mexican population, 78 percent
 of the Puerto Rican population, 34 percent of the Cuban population, and 68
 percent of the "Other Hispanic" population (U.S. Bureau of the Census,
 1982a).  Accordingly, caution should be exercised in generalizing
 mortality patterns from the reporting area to the Hispanic-origin
 population (especially Cubans) of the entire United States.  For
 qualifications regarding infant mortality of the Hispanic-origin
 population, see "Infant deaths."

3Marital Status
      Mortality statistics by marital status (table 1-31) were published in
 1979 for the first time since 1961.  (Previously they had been published
 in the annual volumes for the years 1949-51 and 1959-61.)  Several reports
 analyzing mortality by marital status have been published, including the
 special study based on 1959-61 special study.
      Mortality statistics by marital status are tabulated separately for
 never married, married, widowed, and divorced.  Certificates in which the
 marriage is specified as being annulled are classified as never married.
 Where marital status is specified as separated or common-law marriage, it
 is classified as married.  Of the 2,049,203 resident deaths 15 years of
 age and over in 1986, 10,171 certificates (0.5 percent) had marital status
 not stated.
3Place of Death and Status of Decedent
      Mortality statistics by place of death were published in 1979 for the
 first time since 1958 (tables 1-28 and 1-29).  In addition, mortality data
 were also available for the first time in 1979 for the status of decedent
 when death occurred in a hospital or medical center (table 1-28).  These
 data were obtained from the following two items that appear on the U.S.
 Standard Certificate of Death:


 Item 7c. Hospital or Other Institution-Name (If not in either, give street
 and number) Item 7d. If Hosp. or Inst. Indicate DOA, OP/Emer. Rm.,
 Inpatient (Specify)


      All of the States and the District of Columbia have item 7c (or its
 equivalent) on the death certificate.  For all States and the District of
 Columbia in the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program, NCHS accepts the
 State definition, classification, or codes for hospitals medical centers,
 or other institutions.
      Table 1-28 shows mortality data for the total of the following 43
 States (including New York City) that have item 7d or its equivalent on
 their death certificates:

      Alaska                             Nevada
      Arizona                            New Hampshire
      Arkansas                           New Jersey
      Colorado                           New Mexico
      Connecticut                        New York
      Florida                            North Carolina
      Georgia                            North Dakota
      Hawaii                             Ohio
      Idaho                              Oregon
      Illinois                           Pennsylvania
      Indiana                            Rhode Island
      Iowa                               South Carolina
      Kansas                             South Dakota
      Kentucky                           Tennessee
      Louisiana                          Utah
      Maine                              Vermont
      Michigan                           Virginia
      Mississippi                        Washington
      Missouri                           West Virginia
      Montana                            Wisconsin
      Nebraska                           Wyoming


      Effective with data for 1980, the coding of place of death and status
 of decedent was changed.  A new coding category was added: "Dead on
 arrival- hospital, clinic, medical center name not given."  Deaths coded
 to this category are tabulated in table 1-28 as "Dead on arrival" and in
 table 1-29 as


 "Not in hospital or medical center."  Had the 1979 coding categories been
 used, these deaths would have been tabulated as "Place unknown."

3Mortality by Month and Date of Death
      Deaths by month have been regularly tabulated and published in the
 annual volume for each year beginning with data year 1900.  For 1986,
 deaths by month are shown in tables 1-19, 1-20, 1-23, 2-12, 2-13, 2-14,
 and 3-9.
      Date of death was first published for data year 1972.  In addition,
 unpublished data for selected causes by date of death for 1962 are
 available from NCHS.
      Numbers of deaths by date of death in this volume are shown in table
 1-30 for the total number of deaths and for the number of deaths for the
 following three causes, for which the greatest interest in date of
 occurrence of death has been expressed: Motor vehicle accidents, Suicide,
 and Homicide and legal intervention.
      These data show the frequency distribution of deaths for the selected
 causes by day of week.  They also make it possible to identify holidays
 with peak numbers of deaths from specified causes.

3Report of Autopsy
      Before 1972, the last year for which autopsy data were tabulated was
 1958.  Beginning in 1972, all registration areas requested information on
 the death certificate as to whether autopsies were performed.  For 1986,
 autopsies were reported on 257,890 death certificates, 12.2 percent of the
 total (table 1-27).
      Information as to whether the autopsy findings were used in
 determining the cause of death was tabulated for 1972-73 for all but nine
 registration areas and from 1974-77 for all but eight registration areas.
 The item "autopsy findings used" was deleted from the 1978 U.S. Standard
 Certificate of Death.
      For eight of the cause-of-death categories shown in table 1-27,
 autopsies were reported as performed for 50 percent or more of all deaths
 (Whooping cough; Meningococcal infection; Pregnancy with abortive outcome;
 Other complications of pregnancy; childbirth, and the puerperium; Motor
 vehicle accidents; Suicide; Homicide and legal intervention; and All other
 external causes).  There were three other categories for which 40 percent
 or more of the death certificates reported autopsies.  Autopsies were
 reported for only 7.8 percent of the Major cardiovascular diseases.

3Cause of Death
      Cause-of-death classification-Since 1949, cause-of-death statistics
 have been based on the underlying cause of death, which is defined as "(a)
 the disease or injury which initiated the train of events leading directly
 to death, or (b) the circumstances of the accident or violence which
 produced the fatal injury" (World Health Organization, 1977).
      For each death the underlying cause is selected from an array of
 conditions reported in the medical certification section on the death
 certificate.  This section provides a format for entering the causes of
 death in a sequential order.  These conditions are translated into medical
 codes through use of the classification structure and the selection and
 modification rules contained in the applicable revision of the
 International Classification of Diseases (ICD) published by the World
 Health Organization (WHO).  Selection rules provide guidance for
 systematically identifying the underlying cause of death.  Modification
 rules are intended to improve the usefulness of mortality statistics by
 giving preference to certain classification categories over others and/or
 to consolidate two or more conditions on the certificate into a single
 classification category.
      As a statistical datum, the underlying cause of death is a simple,
 one- dimensional statistic; it is conceptually easy to understand and a
 well- accepted measure of mortality.  It identifies the initiating cause
 of death and is therefore most useful to public health officials in
 developing measures to prevent the start of the chain of events leading to
 death.  The rules for selecting the underlying cause of death are included
 with the ICD as a means of standardizing classification, which contributes
 toward comparability and uniformity in mortality medical statistics among
 countries.
      Beginning with data year 1979, the cause-of-death statistics
 published by the National Center for Health Statistics have been
 classified according to the Ninth Revision of the International
 Classification of Diseases (ICD-9) (World Health Organization, 1977).  In
 addition to specifying that the classification be used,, WHO also
 recommends how the data should be tabulated in order to promote
 international comparability.  The recommended system for tabulating data
 in the Ninth Revision allows countries to construct their own mortality
 and morbidity tabulation lists from the rubrics of the WHO Basic
 Tabulation List as long as rubrics from the WHO mortality an morbidity
 lists, respectively, are included.  This tabulation system for the Ninth
 Revision is more flexible than that of the Eighth Revision in which
 specific lists were recommended for tabulating mortality and morbidity
 data.
      The Basic Tabulation List (BTL) recommended under the Ninth Revision
 consists of 57 two-digit rubrics that add to the "all causes" total.
 Within each two-digit rubric, up to 9 three-digit rubrics numbered from 0
 to 8 are identified, but these do not add to the total of the two-digit
 rubric.  The two-digit rubrics of the BTL 01 through 46 provide for the
 tabulation of nonviolent deaths to ICD categories 001-799.  Rubrics
 relating to chapter 17 (nature-of-injury causes 47 through 56) are not
 used by NCHS for selecting underlying cause of death; rather, preference
 is given to rubrics E47 through E56.  The 57th two-digit rubric V0 is the
 Supplementary Classification of Factors Influencing Health Status and
 Contact with Health Services and is not appropriate for the tabulation of
 mortality data.  The WHO Mortality List, a subset of the titles contained
 in the BLT, consists of 50 rubrics which are a minimum for the national
 display of mortality data.
      Five lists of causes have been developed for tabulation and
 publication of mortality data in this volume: The Each-Cause List, List of
 282 Selected Causes of Death, List of 72 Selected Causes of Death, List of
 61 Selected Causes of Infant Death, and List of 34 Selected Causes of
 Death.  These lists were designed to be as comparable as possible with the
 NCHS lists more recently in use under the Eighth Revision.  However,
 complete comparability could not always be achieved.
      The Each-Cause List is made up of each three-digit category of the
 WHO Detailed List to which deaths may be validly assigned and most
 four-digit subcategories.  The list is used for tabulation for the entire
 United States.  The published Each-Cause table does not show the
 four-digit subcategories provided for Motor vehicle accidents (E810-E825);
 however, these subcategories, which identify persons injured, are shown in
 the accident tables of this report (section 5).  Special fifth-digit
 subcategories are also used in the accident tables to identify place of
 accident when deaths from nontransport accidents are shown.  These are not
 shown in the Each-Cause table.
      The List of 282 Selected Causes of Death is constructed form BTL
 rubrics 01-46 and E47-E56.  Each of the 56 BTL two-digit titles can be
 obtained either directly or by combining titles in the List.  The
 three-digit level of the BTL is modified more extensively.  Where more
 detail was desired, categories not shown in the three-digit rubrics were
 added to the List of 282 Selected Causes of Death.  Where less detail was
 needed, the three-digit rubrics were combined.  Moreover, each of the 50
 rubrics of the WHO Mortality List can be obtained form the List of 282
 Selected Causes of Death.
      The List of 72 Selected Causes of Death was constructed by combining
 titles in the List of 282 Selected Causes of Death.  It is used in tables
 published for the United States and each States, and for standard
 metropolitan statistical areas.
      The List of 61 Selected Causes of Infant Death shows more detailed
 titles for Congenital anomalies and Certain conditions originating in the
 perinatal period than any other list except the Each-Cause List.
      The List of 34 Selected causes of Death was created by combining
 titles in the List of 72 Selected Causes.  A table using this list is
 published for detailed geographic areas.
      Effect of list revisions-The International Lists or adaptations of
 them, in use in this country since 1900, have been revised approximately
 every 10 years so that the disease classification may be consistent with
 advances in medical science and with changes in diagnostic practice.  Each
 revision of the International Lists has produced some break in
 comparability of cause-of- death statistics.  Cause-of-death statistics
 beginning with 1979 are classified by NCHS according to the ICD-9 (World
 Health Organization, 1977).  For a discussion of each of the
 classifications used with death statistics since 1900, see the Technical
 Appendix in Vital Statistics of the United States, 1979, Volume II,
 Mortality, Part A, section 7, pages 9-14.
      A dual coding study was undertaken between the Ninth and the Eighth
 Revisions to measure the extent of discontinuity in cause-of-death
 statistics resulting from introducing the new Revision.  An initial study
 for the List of 72 Selected Causes of Death and the List of 10 Selected
 Causes of Infant Death has been published (NCHS, 1980).  The List of 10
 Selected Causes of Infant Death is a basic NCHS tabulation list but is not
 used in this volume.  Comparability studies were also undertaken between
 the Eighth and Seventh, Seventh and Sixth, and Sixth and Fifth Revisions.
 For additional information about these studies, again see the 1979
 Technical Appendix.
      Significant coding changes during the Ninth Revision-Since the
 implementation of ICD-9 in the United States, effective with mortality
 data for 1979, several coding changes have been introduced.  The more
 important changes will be discussed below.  In early 1983, a change was
 made in the coding of Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and Human
 immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, which affected data from 1981
 onward.  Also effective with data year 1981 was a coding change for
 poliomyelitis.  For data year 1982, a changes was made in the definition
 of child (which affects the classification of deaths to a number of
 categories, including Child battering and other maltreatment), and in
 guidelines for coding deaths to the category Child battering and other
 maltreatment (ICD No. E 967).  During the calendar year 1985 detailed
 instructions for coding motor vehicle accidents involving all-terrain
 vehicles (ATV's) were implemented to ensure consistency in coding these
 accidents.  Detailed discussion of these changes may be found in the
 Technical Appendix for previous volumes.
      Coding in 1986-The rules and instructions used in coding the 1986
 mortality medical data remained essentially the same as those used for the
 1985 data.  Notable changes include classifying "primary" and "invasive"
 tumors, unspecified, as "malignant" beginning 1986.  Previously, these
 neoplasms had been classified to Neoplasms of unspecified nature (ICD-0
 No.  239).
      Medical certification-The use of a standard classification list,
 although essential for State, regional, and international comparison, does
 not assure strict comparability of the tabulated figures.  A high degree
 of comparability between areas could be attained only if all records of
 cause of death were reported with equal accuracy and completeness.  The
 medical certification of cause of death can be made only be a qualified
 person, usually a physician, a medical examiner, or a coroner.  Therefore,
 the reliability and accuracy of cause-of-death statistics are, to a large
 extent, governed by the ability of the certifier to make the proper
 diagnosis and by the care with which he or she records this information on
 the death certificate.
      A number of studies have been undertaken on the quality of medical
 certification on the death certificate.  In general, these have been for
 relatively small samples and for limited geographic areas.  A
 bibliography, prepared by NCHS (1982), covering 128 references over a
 period of 23 years indicates that no definitive conclusions have been
 reached about the quality of medical certification on the death
 certificate.  No country has a well- defined program for systematically
 assessing the quality of medical certifications reported on death
 certificates or for measuring the error effects on the levels and trends
 of cause-of-death statistics.
      One index of the quality of reporting causes of death is the
 proportion of death certificates coded to the Ninth Revision Chapter XVI
 Symptoms, signs, and ill-defined conditions (ICD-9 Nos. 780-799).
 Although there are cases for which it is not possible to determine the
 cause of death, this proportion indicates the care and consideration given
 to the certification by the medical certifier.  It may also be used as a
 rough measure of the specificity of the medical diagnoses made by the
 certifier in various areas.  In 1986, 1.5 percent of all reported deaths
 in the United States were assigned to ill- defined or unknown causes.
 However, this percentage varied among the States, from 0.3 percent to 4.0
 percent.
      Automated selection of underlying cause of death-Beginning with data
 year 1968, NCHS began using a computer system for assigning the underlying
 cause of death.  It has been used every year since to select the
 underlying cause of death.  The system is called "Automated Classification
 of Medical Entities" (ACME).
      The ACME system applies the same rules for selecting the underlying
 cause as applied manually by a nosologist; however, under this system, the
 computer consistently applies the same criteria, thus eliminating
 intercoder variation in this step of the process.
      The ACME computer program requires the coding of all conditions shown
 on the medical certification.  These codes are matched automatically
 against decision tables that consistently select the underlying cause of
 death for each record according to the international rules.  The decision
 tables provide the comprehensive relationships between the conditions
 classified by ICD when applying the rules of selection and modification.
      The decision tables were developed by NCHS staff on the basis of
 their experience in coding underlying causes of death under the earlier
 manual coding system and as a result of periodic independent validations.
 These tables are periodically updated to reflect additional new
 information on the relationship among medical conditions.  For 1986, the
 content of these tables was identical to that in the 1985 tables.  Coding
 procedures for selecting the underlying cause of death by the ACME
 computer program, as well as the ACME decision tables, are documented in
 NCHS instruction manuals (NCHS, 1986c, 1986d, 1986e).
      Cause-of-death ranking-Cause-of-death ranking (except for infants) is
 based on the List of 72 Selected Causes of Death.  Cause-of-death ranking
 for infants is based on the List of 61 Selected Causes of Infant Death.
 The group titles Major cardiovascular diseases and Symptoms, signs, and
 ill-defined conditions are not ranked from the List of 72 Selected Causes;
 and Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period and Symptoms,
 signs, and ill- defined conditions are not ranked from the List of 61
 Selected Causes of Infant Death.  In addition, category titles that begin
 with the words "Other" or "All other" are not ranked to determine the
 leading causes of death.  When one of the titles that represents a
 subtotal is ranked (such as Tuberculosis), its component parts (in this
 case, Tuberculosis of respiratory system and Other tuberculosis) are not
 ranked.

3Maternal Deaths
      Maternal deaths are those for which the certifying physician has
 designated a maternal condition as the underlying cause of death.
 Maternal conditions are those assigned to Complications of pregnancy,
 childbirth, and the puerperium (ICD-9 Nos. 630-676).  In the Ninth
 Revision, the World Health Organization (1977, p. 764) for the first time
 defined a maternal death as follows:

 A maternal death is defined as the death of a woman while pregnant or
 within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration
 and the site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by
 the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental
 causes.

      Under the Eighth Revision, maternal deaths were assigned to category
 title "Complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium" (ICDA-8
 Nos. 630-678).  Although WHO did not define maternal mortality, there was
 an NCHS classification rule that limited a maternal death to a death
 within a year after termination of pregnancy from any "maternal cause,"
 that is, any cause within the range of ICDA-8 Nos. 630-678.  This rule
 applied only if a duration of time for the condition was given.  If no
 duration was specified and the underlying cause of death was a maternal
 condition, then the duration was assumed to be within a year and the death
 was coded by NCHS as a maternal death.  The change from an under-1-year
 limitation on duration used in the Eighth Revision to an under-42-days
 limitation used in the Ninth Revision is not expected to have much effect
 on the comparability of maternal mortality statistics.  However,
 comparability is affected by the following classification change.  Under
 the Ninth Revision, maternal causes have been expanded to include Indirect
 obstetric causes (ICD-9 Nos. 647;-648).  These causes include Infective
 and parasitic conditions as well as other current conditions in the mother
 that are classifiable elsewhere but which complicate pregnancy,
 childbirth, and the puerperium, such as Syphilis, Tuberculosis, Diabetes
 mellitus, Drug dependence, and Congenital cardiovascular disorders.
      Maternal mortality rates are computed on the basis of the number of
 live births.  The maternal mortality rate indicates the likelihood that a
 pregnant woman will die from maternal causes.  The number of live births
 used in the denominator is an approximation of the population of pregnant
 women who are at risk of a maternal death.

3Infant Deaths
      Age-An infant death is defined as a death under 1 year of age.  The
 term excludes fetal deaths.  Infant deaths are usually divided into two
 categories according to age, neonatal and postneonatal.  Neonatal deaths
 are those that occur during the first 27 days of life, and postneonatal
 deaths are those that occur between 28 days and 1 year of age.  It has
 generally been believed that different factors influencing the child's
 survival predominate in these two periods: Factors associated with
 prenatal development, heredity, and the birth process were considered
 dominant in the neonatal period; and environmental factors, such as
 nutrition, hygiene, and accidents, were considered more important in the
 postneonatal period.  Recently, however, the distinction between these two
 periods has blurred due in part to advances in neonatology, which have
 enabled more very small, premature infants to survive the neonatal period.
      Rates-Infant mortality rates shown in section 2 and section 8 are the
 most commonly used index for measuring the risk of dying during the first
 year of life, they are calculated by dividing the number of infant deaths
 in a calendar year by the number of live births registered for the same
 period and are presented as rates per 1,000 or per 100,000 live births.
 Infant mortality rates use the number of live births in the denominator to
 approximate the population at risk of dying before the first birthday.
 This measure is an approximation of the risk of dying in infancy because
 some of the live births will not have been exposed to a full year's risk
 of dying and some of the infants that die during a year will have been
 born in the previous year.  The error introduced in the infant mortality
 rate by this inexactness is usually small, especially when the birth rate
 is relatively constant from year to year (Guralnick and Winter, 1965;
 NCHS, 1968a).  Other sources of error in the infant mortality rate have
 been attributed to differences in applying the definitions for infant
 death and fetal death when registering the event (McCarthy, et al, 1980;
 National Office of Vital Statistics, 1947).
      In contrast to infant mortality rates based on live births, infant
 death rates shown in section 1 are based on the estimated population under
 1 year of age.  Infant death rates, which appear in tabulations of
 age-specific death rates, are calculated by dividing the number of infant
 deaths in a calendar year by the estimated midyear population of persons
 under 1 year of age and are presented as rates per 100,000 population in
 this age group.  Patterns and trends in the infant death rate may differ
 somewhat from those of the more commonly used "infant mortality rate"
 mainly because of differences in the nature of the denominator and in the
 time reference period.  Whereas the population denominator for the infant
 death rate is estimated using data on births, infant deaths, and migration
 for the 12-month period of July through June, the denominator for the
 infant mortality rate is a count of births occurring during the 12 months
 of January through December.  The difference in the time reference period
 can result in different trends between the two indices during periods when
 birth rates are markedly moving up or down.
      In addition, the infant death rate is also subject to greater
 imprecision than is the infant mortality rate because of problems of
 enumerating and estimating the population under 1 year of age (National
 Office of Vital Statistics, 1947).
      Race-Infant mortality rates for specified races other than white or
 black may be underestimated, based on results of studies in which race on
 the birth and death certificates for the same infant were compared (Frost
 and Shy, 1980).  The figures should be interpreted with caution because of
 possible inconsistencies in reporting of race between the numerator and
 denominator of the rates.  This reflects differences in the nature of
 reporting and processing race on these two vital records.  On the birth
 certificate, race of parents is reported by the mother at the time of
 delivery.  On the death certificate, race of the deceased infant is
 reported by the funeral director based on observation or on information
 supplied by an informant, such as a parent.  With respect to processing,
 race of infant at birth is coded using coding rules that take account of
 the race of each parent (see the Technical Appendix in Vital Statistics of
 the United States, 1986, Volume I, Natality, section entitled "Race or
 national origin").  For infant deaths, the race of child is coded directly
 from the race reported on the death certificate.
      Hispanic origin-Infant mortality rates for the Hispanic-origin
 population are based on numbers of resident infant deaths reported to be
 of Hispanic origin (see section "Hispanic origin") and number of resident
 live births by Hispanic origin of mother for the 18 reporting States and
 the District of Columbia.  In computing infant mortality rates, deaths and
 live births of unknown origin are not distributed among the specified
 Hispanic and non- Hispanic groups.  Because for 1986 the percent of infant
 deaths of unknown origin was 8.1 percent and the percent of live births of
 unknown origin was 3.1 percent, infant mortality rates by specified
 Hispanic origin and race for non-Hispanic origin may be somewhat
 underestimated.
      Small numbers of infant deaths for specific Hispanic-origin groups
 can result in infant mortality rates subject to relatively large random
 variation (see section "Random variation in numbers of deaths, death
 rates, and mortality rates and ratios").
      Tabulation list-Causes of death for infants are tabulated according
 to a list of causes that is different from the list of causes for the
 population of all ages, except for the Each Cause List.  (See section
 "Cause-of-death classification").

3Fetal Deaths
      In May 1950 the World Health Organization recommended the following
 definition of fetal death be adopted for international us (National Office
 of Vital Statistics, 1950):

 Death prior to the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a
 product of conception, irrespective of the duration of pregnancy; the
 death is indicated by the fact that after such separation, the fetus does
 not breathe or show any other evidence of life such as beating of the
 heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movement of voluntary
 muscles.

      The term "fetal death" was defined on an all-inclusive basis to end
 confusion arising from use of such terms as stillbirth, abortion, and
 miscarriage.
      Shortly thereafter, this definition of fetal death was adopted by the
 National Center for Health Statistics as the nationally recommended
 standard.  Currently all registration areas except Puerto Rico have
 definitions similar to the standard definition.  Puerto Rico has no formal
 definition.  (For definitions used by the States and other registration
 areas, see NCHS (1981).)
      As another step toward increasing the comparability of data on fetal
 deaths for different countries, the World Health Organization recommended
 that for statistical purposes fetal deaths be classified as early,
 intermediate, and late.  These groups are defined as follows:

      Less than 20 completed weeks of gestation
      (early fetal deaths).....................    Group I

      20 completed weeks of gestation but less
      than 28 (intermediate fetal deaths).....     Group II

      28 completed weeks of gestation and over
      (late fetal deaths).....................     Group III

      Gestation period not classifiable in
      groups I, II, and III....................    Group IV

 Note that in table 3-13, group IV consists of fetal deaths with gestation
 not stated but presumed to be 20 weeks or more gestation.
      Until 1939 the nationally recommended procedure for registration of a
 fetal death required the filing of both a live-birth and a death
 certificate.  In 1939 a separate Standard Certificate of Stillbirth (fetal
 death) was created to replace the former procedure.  This was revised in
 1949, 1955, 1956, and 1968.  In 1978 the Standard Certificate of Fetal
 Death was replaced by the Standard Report of Fetal Death (figure 7-B).
      The 1977 revision of the Model State Vital Statistics Act and Model
 State Vital Statistics Regulations (NCHS, 1978) recommended that
 spontaneous fetal deaths of 20 weeks or more gestation, or a weight of 350
 grams or more, and all induced terminations of pregnancy regardless of
 gestational age be reported and further that they be reported on separate
 forms.  These forms are to be considered legally required statistical
 reports rather than legal documents.
      Beginning with 1970 fetal deaths, procedures were implemented that
 attempted to separate reports of spontaneous fetal deaths from those of
 induced terminations of pregnancy.  These procedures were implemented
 because the health implications are different for spontaneous fetal deaths
 and induced terminations of pregnancy.  These procedures are still in use.
      Comparability and completeness of data-Registration area requirements
 for reporting fetal deaths vary.  Most of these areas require reporting
 fetal deaths of gestations of 20 weeks or more.  Table A shows the minimum
 period of gestation required by each State for fetal-death reporting.
 There is substantial evidence that not all fetal deaths for which
 reporting is required are reported (Gred, Pauli, and Kirby, 1987).
      For registration areas not requiring the reporting of fetal deaths of
 all periods of gestation, underreporting is more likely to occur in the
 earlier gestational periods.  This is illustrated by the fact that for
 most areas requiring reporting of fetal deaths of 20 weeks or more, the
 total number reported for 20-23 weeks is lower than the numbers reported
 for 24-27 and 28- 31 weeks.  For areas requiring the reporting of all
 fetal deaths, however, the opposite is generally true.
      To maximize the comparability of data by year and by State, most of
 the tables in section 3 are based on fetal deaths occurring at gestations
 of 20 weeks or more.  These tables also include fetal deaths of not stated
 gestation for those States requiring reporting at 20 weeks or more only.
 Beginning with 1969, fetal deaths of not stated gestation were excluded
 for States requiring reporting of all products of conception except for
 those with a stated birth weight of 500 grams or more.  In 1986 this rule
 was applied to the following States: Colorado, Georgia, Hawaii, New York
 (including New York City), Rhode Island, and Virginia.  Each year there
 are some exceptions to this procedure.
      The data in table 3-3 include only fetal deaths to residents of
 selected areas in the United States that reported all periods of
 gestation.  The areas are Colorado, Georgia, Hawaii, New York (including
 New York City), Rhode Island, and Virginia; excluded are fetal deaths to
 residents of Maine.
      Arkansas-Since 1971, Arkansas has been using two reporting forms for
 fetal deaths: A confidential Spontaneous Abortion form that is not sent to
 the National Center for Health Statistics and a Fetal Death Certificate
 that is.  During the period 1971 through 1980, it is believed that most
 spontaneous fetal deaths of less than 20 weeks' gestation were reported on
 the confidential form and, therefore, were not reported to NCHS.  During
 the period 1981 through 1983, Arkansas specified that fetal deaths of less
 than 28 weeks' gestation or weighing less than 1,000 grams could be
 reported on the confidential form; beginning with 1984 data, the State
 specified that fetal deaths of 20 weeks' gestation or weighing 500 grams
 be reported on the Fetal Death Certificate.  Because of these changes, the
 comparability of counts of early fetal deaths may be affected.  In
 particular, counts of fetal deaths aged 20-27 weeks during 1981-83 were
 not comparable between Arkansas and other reporting areas nor with data
 for 1984-86.  It is believed that reporting has improved but is still not
 comparable with data for 1980 and earlier years.
      Idaho-Beginning in 1983, Idaho changed its reporting requirements for
 spontaneous fetal deaths from "after 20 weeks" to "after 20 weeks or a
 weight of 350 grams or more."


 Table A.  Period of gestation at which fetal death reporting is required:
 Each reporting area, 1986


                                      |            |            |            |
                                      |All periods |            |            |
                                      |    of      |     16     |     20     |
                                      | gestation  |    weeks   |    weeks   |
                                      |            |            |            |
 Alabama                              |            |            |      X     |
 Alaska                               |            |            |      X     |
 Arizona                              |            |            |     1X     |
 Arkansas                             |     X      |            |            |
 California                           |            |            |      X     |
 Colorado                             |     X      |            |            |
 Connecticut                          |            |            |      X     |
 Delaware                             |            |            |      X     |
 District of Columbia                 |            |            |            |
 Florida                              |            |            |      X     |
 Georgia                              |     X      |            |            |
 Hawaii                               |     X      |            |            |
 Idaho                                |            |            |            |
 Illinois                             |            |            |      X     |
 Indiana                              |            |            |      X     |
 Iowa                                 |            |            |      X     |
 Kansas                               |            |            |            |
 Kentucky                             |            |            |            |
 Louisiana                            |            |            |            |
 Maine                                |     X      |            |            |
 Maryland                             |            |            |     2X     |
 Massachusetts                        |            |            |            |
 Michigan                             |            |            |            |
 Minnesota                            |            |            |      X     |
 Mississippi                          |            |            |            |
 Missouri                             |            |            |            |
 Montana                              |            |            |      X     |
 Nebraska                             |            |            |      X     |
 Nevada                               |            |            |      X     |
 New Hampshire                        |            |            |            |
 New Jersey                           |            |            |      X     |
 New Mexico                           |            |            |            |
 New York                             |     X      |            |            |
   New York excluding New York City   |     X      |            |            |
   New York City                      |            |            |            |
 North Carolina                       |            |            |      X     |
 North Dakota                         |            |            |      X     |
 Ohio                                 |            |            |      X     |
 Oklahoma                             |            |            |      X     |
 Oregon                               |            |            |     3X     |
 Pennsylvania                         |            |     X      |            |
 Rhode Island                         |     X      |            |            |
 South Carolina                       |            |            |            |
 South Dakota                         |            |            |            |
 Tennessee                            |            |            |            |
 Texas                                |            |            |     X      |
 Utah                                 |            |            |     X      |
 Vermont                              |            |            |    5X      |
 Virginia                             |      X     |            |            |
 Washington                           |            |            |     X      |
 West Virginia                        |            |            |     X      |
 Wisconsin                            |            |            |            |
 Wyoming                              |            |            |     X      |

      1If gestational age is unknown, weight of 350 grams or more.
      2If gestational age is unknown, weight of 500 grams or more.
      3If gestational age is unknown, weight of 450 grams or more, or crown-
          heel length of 28 centimeters or more.
      4If weight is unknown, 22 completed weeks' gestation or more.
      5If gestation age is unknown, weight of 400 or more grams, 15 or more
          ounces.


 Table A.  Period of gestation at which fetal death reporting is required:
 Each reporting area, 1986 - Continued


                                      |            |            |            |
                                      |  20 weeks  |  20 weeks  |  20 weeks  |
                                      |     or     |     or     |     or     |
                                      |  350 grams |  400 grams |  500 grams |
                                      |            |            |            |
 Alabama                              |            |            |            |
 Alaska                               |            |            |            |
 Arizona                              |            |            |            |
 Arkansas                             |            |            |            |
 California                           |            |            |            |
 Colorado                             |            |            |            |
 Connecticut                          |            |            |            |
 Delaware                             |            |            |            |
 District of Columbia                 |            |            |      X     |
 Florida                              |            |            |            |
 Georgia                              |            |            |            |
 Hawaii                               |            |            |            |
 Idaho                                |     X      |            |            |
 Illinois                             |            |            |            |
 Indiana                              |            |            |            |
 Iowa                                 |            |            |            |
 Kansas                               |            |            |            |
 Kentucky                             |     X      |            |            |
 Louisiana                            |     X      |            |            |
 Maine                                |            |            |            |
 Maryland                             |            |            |            |
 Massachusetts                        |     X      |            |            |
 Michigan                             |            |      X     |            |
 Minnesota                            |            |            |            |
 Mississippi                          |     X      |            |            |
 Missouri                             |     X      |            |            |
 Montana                              |            |            |            |
 Nebraska                             |            |            |            |
 Nevada                               |            |            |            |
 New Hampshire                        |     X      |            |            |
 New Jersey                           |            |            |            |
 New Mexico                           |            |            |            |
 New York                             |            |            |            |
   New York excluding New York City   |            |            |            |
   New York City                      |            |            |            |
 North Carolina                       |            |            |            |
 North Dakota                         |            |            |            |
 Ohio                                 |            |            |            |
 Oklahoma                             |            |            |            |
 Oregon                               |            |            |            |
 Pennsylvania                         |            |            |            |
 Rhode Island                         |            |            |            |
 South Carolina                       |     X      |            |            |
 South Dakota                         |            |            |            |
 Tennessee                            |            |            |            |
 Texas                                |            |            |            |
 Utah                                 |            |            |            |
 Vermont                              |            |            |            |
 Virginia                             |            |            |            |
 Washington                           |            |            |            |
 West Virginia                        |            |            |            |
 Wisconsin                            |     X      |            |            |
 Wyoming                              |            |            |            |

      1If gestational age is unknown, weight of 350 grams or more.
      2If gestational age is unknown, weight of 500 grams or more.
      3If gestational age is unknown, weight of 450 grams or more, or crown-
          heel length of 28 centimeters or more.
      4If weight is unknown, 22 completed weeks' gestation or more.
      5If gestation age is unknown, weight of 400 or more grams, 15 or more
          ounces.


 Table A.  Period of gestation at which fetal death reporting is required:
 Each reporting area, 1986 - Continued


                                      |            |            |            |
                                      |            |            |            |
                                      |     5      |    350     |     500    |
                                      |   months   |   grams    |    grams   |
                                      |            |            |            |
 Alabama                              |            |            |            |
 Alaska                               |            |            |            |
 Arizona                              |            |            |            |
 Arkansas                             |            |            |            |
 California                           |            |            |            |
 Colorado                             |            |            |            |
 Connecticut                          |            |            |            |
 Delaware                             |            |            |            |
 District of Columbia                 |            |            |            |
 Florida                              |            |            |            |
 Georgia                              |            |            |            |
 Hawaii                               |            |            |            |
 Idaho                                |            |            |            |
 Illinois                             |            |            |            |
 Indiana                              |            |            |            |
 Iowa                                 |            |            |            |
 Kansas                               |            |     X      |            |
 Kentucky                             |            |            |            |
 Louisiana                            |            |            |            |
 Maine                                |            |            |            |
 Maryland                             |            |            |            |
 Massachusetts                        |            |            |            |
 Michigan                             |            |            |            |
 Minnesota                            |            |            |            |
 Mississippi                          |            |            |            |
 Missouri                             |            |            |            |
 Montana                              |            |            |            |
 Nebraska                             |            |            |            |
 Nevada                               |            |            |            |
 New Hampshire                        |            |            |            |
 New Jersey                           |            |            |            |
 New Mexico                           |            |            |      X     |
 New York                             |            |            |            |
   New York excluding New York City   |            |            |            |
   New York City                      |            |            |            |
 North Carolina                       |            |            |            |
 North Dakota                         |            |            |            |
 Ohio                                 |            |            |            |
 Oklahoma                             |            |            |            |
 Oregon                               |            |            |            |
 Pennsylvania                         |            |            |            |
 Rhode Island                         |            |            |            |
 South Carolina                       |            |            |            |
 South Dakota                         |            |            |      X     |
 Tennessee                            |            |            |     4X     |
 Texas                                |            |            |            |
 Utah                                 |            |            |            |
 Vermont                              |            |            |            |
 Virginia                             |            |            |            |
 Washington                           |            |            |            |
 West Virginia                        |            |            |            |
 Wisconsin                            |            |            |            |
 Wyoming                              |            |            |            |

      1If gestational age is unknown, weight of 350 grams or more.
      2If gestational age is unknown, weight of 500 grams or more.
      3If gestational age is unknown, weight of 450 grams or more, or crown-
          heel length of 28 centimeters or more.
      4If weight is unknown, 22 completed weeks' gestation or more.
      5If gestation age is unknown, weight of 400 or more grams, 15 or more
          ounces.

      Maine-Maine uses two reporting forms for fetal deaths: A Report of
 Abortion (Spontaneous and Induced) and a Report of Fetal Death.  Most
 spontaneous fetal deaths of less than 20 weeks' gestation are reported on
 the Report of Abortion and, therefore, are excluded from fetal death
 counts in this volume.
      Missouri-Beginning in 1984, Missouri changed its reporting
 requirements for spontaneous fetal deaths from "after 20 weeks" to "after
 20 weeks or a weight of 350 grams or more."
      Wisconsin-Beginning in 1986, Wisconsin changed its reporting
 requirements for spontaneous fetal deaths from "20 weeks" to "20 weeks or
 350 grams."
      Period of gestation-The period of gestation is the number of
 completed weeks elapsed between the first day of the last normal menstrual
 period and the date of delivery.  The first day of the last normal
 menstrual period (LMP) is used as the initial date because it can be more
 accurately determined than the date of conception, which usually occurs 2
 weeks after LMP.  Data on period of gestation are computed from
 information on "date of delivery" and "date last normal menses began."  If
 "date last normal menses began" is not on the record or the calculated
 gestation falls beyond a duration considered biologically plausible,
 "gestation in weeks" or "Physician's estimate of gestation is used.  When
 the period of gestation is reported in months on the report, it is
 allocated to gestational intervals in weeks as follows:

      1-3 months to under 16 weeks
      4 months to 16-19 weeks
      5 months to 20-23 weeks
      6 months to 24-27 weeks
      7 months to 28-31 weeks
      8 months to 32-35 weeks
      9 months to 40 weeks
     10 months and over to 43 weeks and over

 All areas reported LMP in 1986 except Delaware, New Mexico, Puerto Rico,
 and South Dakata.
      Birth weight-Most of the 55 registration areas do not specify how
 weight should be given, that is, in pounds and ounces or in grams.  In the
 tabulation and presentation of birth weight data, the metric system
 (grams) has been used to facilitate comparison with other data published
 in the United States and internationally.  Birth weight specified in
 pounds and ounces is assigned the equivalent of the gram intervals as
 follows:

      Less than 350 grams = 0 lb 12 oz or less
          350-  499 grams = 0 lb 13 oz- 1 lb  1 oz
          500-  999 grams = 1 lb  2 oz- 2 lb  3 oz
        1,000-1,499 grams = 2 lb  4 oz- 3 lb  4 oz
        1,500-1,999 grams = 3 lb  5 oz- 4 lb  6 oz
        2,000-2,499 grams = 4 lb  7 oz- 5 lb  8 oz
        2,500-2,999 grams = 5 lb  9 oz- 6 lb  9 oz
        3,000-3,499 grams = 6 lb 10 oz- 7 lb 11 oz
        3,500-3,999 grams = 7 lb 12 oz- 8 lb 13 oz
        4,000-4,499 grams = 8 lb 14 oz- 9 lb 14 oz
        4,500-4,999 grams = 9 lb 15 oz-11 lb  0 oz
      5,000 grams or more = 11 lb 1 oz or more

      With the introduction of the Ninth Revision, International
 Classification of Diseases, the birth-weight classification intervals for
 perinatal mortality statistics were shifted downward by 1 gram, as shown
 above.  Previously, the intervals were, for example, 1,001-1,500;
 1,501-2,000; etc.
      Race-The race of the fetus is ordinarily classified based on the race
 of the parents.  If the parents are of different races, the following
 rules apply.  (1) When only one parent is white, the fetus is assigned the
 other parent's race.  (2) When neither parent is white, the fetus is
 assigned the father's race with one exception: If the mother is Hawaiian
 or Part-Hawaiian, the fetus is classified as Hawaiian.
      When the race of one parent is missing or ill defined, the race of
 the other determines that of the fetus.  When race of both parents is
 missing, the race of the fetus is allocated to the specific race of the
 fetus on the preceding record.
      Total-birth order-Total-birth order refers to the sum of the live
 births and other terminations (including both spontaneous fetal deaths and
 induced terminations of pregnancy) that a woman has had including the
 fetal death being recorded.  For example, if a woman has previously given
 birth to two live babies and to one born dead, the next fetal death to
 occur is counted as number four in total-birth order.
      In the 1978 revision of the Standard Report of Fetal Death,
 total-birth order is calculated from four items on pregnancy history:
 Number of previous live births, now living, number of previous live
 births, now dead; number of other terminations before 20 weeks; and number
 of other terminations after 20 weeks.
      All registration areas use the two standard items pertaining to the
 number of previous live births.  Most areas use the two standard items
 pertaining to the number of "other terminations" before and after 20
 weeks' gestation, but some areas use other criteria.  Total-birth order
 for all areas is calculated from the sum of available information.  Thus,
 information on total-birth order may not be completely comparable among
 the registration areas.
      Marital status-Table 3-4 shows fetal deaths and fetal-death ratios by
 mother's marital status.  States excluded from this table are as follows:
 California, Connecticut, Maryland, Michigan, Montana, New York (including
 New York City), Ohio, Texas, and Vermont.  Because live births comprise
 the denominator of the ratio, marital status must also be reported for
 mothers of live births.  Marital status of the mother of the live birth is
 inferred for States that did not report it on the birth certificate.
      There are no quantitative data on the characteristics of unmarried
 women who may misreport their marital status or who fail to register fetal
 deaths.  Underreporting may be greater for the unmarried group than for
 the married group.
      Age of mother-The fetal-death report asks for the mother's "age (at
 time of delivery)," and the ages are edited in NCHS for upper and lower
 limits.  When mothers are reported to be under 10 years of age or 50 years
 and over, the age of the mother is considered not stated and is assigned
 as follows; Age on all fetal-death records with age of mother not stated
 is allocated according to the age appearing on the record previously
 processed for a mother of identical race and having the same total-birth
 order (total of live births and other terminations).

3Perinatal Mortality
      Perinatal definitions- Beginning with data year 1979, perinatal
 mortality data for the United States and each State have been published in
 section 4.  The World Health Organization in the ninth Revision of the
 International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9) recommended that
 "national perinatal statistics should include all fetuses and infants
 delivered weighing at least 500 grams (or when birth weight is
 unavailable, the corresponding gestational age (22 weeks) or body length
 (25 cm crown-hell)), whether alive or dead...."  It was further
 recommended that "countries should present, solely for international
 comparisons, 'standard perinatal statistics' in which both the numerator
 and denominator of all rates are restricted to fetuses and infants
 weighing 1,000 grams or more (or, where birth weight is unavailable, the
 corresponding gestational age (28 weeks) or body length (35 cm
 crown-heel))."  Because birth weight and gestational age are not reported
 on the death certificate in the United States, NCHS was unable to
 recommend adopting these definitions.  Three definitions of perinatal
 mortality are currently used by NCHS: Perinatal Definition I, generally
 used for international comparisons, which includes fetal deaths of 28
 weeks or more gestation and infant deaths of less than 7 days; Perinatal
 Definition II, which includes fetal deaths of 20 weeks or more gestation
 and infant deaths of less than 28 days; and Perinatal Definition III,
 which includes fetal deaths of 20 weeks or more gestation and infant
 deaths of less than 7 days.
      Variations in fetal death reporting requirements and practices have
 implications for comparing perinatal rates among States.  Because
 reporting is generally poorer near the lower limit of the reporting
 requirement, States that require reporting of all products of pregnancy
 regardless of gestation are likely to have more complete reporting of
 fetal deaths of 20 weeks or more than are other States.  The larger number
 of fetal deaths reported by these "all periods" States may result in
 higher perinatal rates compared with States whose reporting is less
 complete.  Accordingly, reporting completeness may account, in part, for
 differences among the State perinatal rates, particularly differences for
 Definitions II and III, which use data for fetal deaths of 20-27 weeks.
      Not stated-Fetal deaths with gestational age not stated are presumed
 to be of 20 weeks' gestation or more if (1) the State requires reporting
 of all fetal deaths of gestational age 20 weeks or more or (2) the fetus
 weighed 500 grams or more, in those States requiring reporting of all
 fetal deaths regardless of gestational age.  For Definition I, fetal
 deaths with gestation not stated but presumed to be 20 weeks or more are
 allocated to the category 28 weeks or more, according to the proportion of
 fetal deaths with stated gestational age that falls into that category.
 For Definitions II and III, fetal deaths with presumed gestation of 20
 weeks or more are included with those of stated gestation of 20 weeks or
 more.
      For all three definitions, following the distribution of gestation
 not stated described above, fetal deaths with not-stated sex are allocated
 within gestational age groups on the basis of the distribution of stated
 cases.  The allocation of not-stated gestational age and sex for fetal
 deaths is made individually for each State, for metropolitan and
 nonmetropolitan areas, and separately for the United States as a whole.
 Accordingly, the sum of perinatal deaths for the areas according to
 Definition I may not equal the total number of perinatal deaths for the
 United States.

2Quality of Data
3Completeness of Registration
      All States have adopted laws that require the registration of births
 and deaths, and the reporting of fetal deaths.  It is believed that over
 99 percent of the births and deaths occurring in this country are
 registered.
      Reporting requirements for fetal deaths vary somewhat from State to
 State (see "Comparability and completeness of data").  Overall reporting
 completeness is not as good for fetal deaths as for births and deaths, but it
 is believed to be relatively complete for fetal deaths of 28 weeks'
 gestation or more.  National statistical data on fetal deaths include only
 those fetal deaths with stated or presumed gestation of 20 weeks or more.

3Massachusetts Data
      The 1964 statistics for deaths exclude approximately 6,000 events
 registered in Massachusetts, primarily to residents of that State.
 Microfilm copies of these records were not received by NCHS.  Figures for
 the United States and the New England Division are also somewhat affected.

3Quality Control Procedures
      Demographic items on the death certificate-As previously indicated,
 for 1986 the mortality data for these items were obtained from two
 sources: (1) Microfilm images of the original certificates furnished by
 the Virgin Islands and photocopies from Guam; and (2) records on data tape
 furnished by the 50 States, the District of Columbia, New York City, and
 Puerto Rico.  For the Virgin Islands and Guam, which sent only copies of
 the original certificates, the demographic items were coded for 100
 percent of the death certificates.  The demographic coding for 100 percent
 of the certificates was independently verified.
      As part of the quality control procedures for mortality data, each
 registration area has to go through a calibration period during which it
 must achieve the specified error tolerance level of 2 percent per item for
 3 consecutive months, based on NCHS independent verification of a
 50-percent sample of that area's records.  Once the area has achieved the
 required error tolerance level, a sample of 70-80 records per month is
 used to monitor quality of coding.  All areas providing data on computer
 tapes prior to 1986 have achieved the specified error tolerance;
 accordingly, the demographic items on about 70-80 records per area per
 month were independently verified by NCHS.  The estimated average error
 rate for all demographic items in 1986 was 0.25 percent.
      These verification procedures involve controlling two types of error
 (coding and entering into the data record tape) at the same time, and the
 error rates are a combined measure of both types.  It may be assumed that
 the entering errors are randomly distributed across all items on the
 record, but this assumption cannot be made as readily for coding errors.
 Although systematic errors in coding infrequent events may escape
 detection during sample verification, it is probable that some of these
 errors were detected during the initial period when 50 percent of the file
 was being verified, thus providing an opportunity to retrain the coders.
      Medical items on the death certificate-As for demographic data,
 mortality medical data are also subject to quality control procedures
 which control for errors of both coding and data entry.  Each of the 22
 registration areas that furnished NCHS with coded medical information
 according to NCHS specifications first had to qualify for sample
 verification.  During an initial calibration period, the area had to
 demonstrate that its staff could achieve a specified error tolerance level
 of less than 5 percent for coding all medical items.  After the area has
 achieved the required error tolerance level, a sample of 70-80 records per
 month is used to monitor quality of medical coding.  For these 22 States,
 the average coding error rate in 1986 was estimated at just over 4
 percent.
      For the remaining 33 registration areas-28 States, the District of
 Columbia, New York City, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Island, and Guam-NCHS
 coded the medical items for 100 percent of the death records.  A 1-percent
 sample of the records was independently coded for quality control
 purposes.  The estimated average error rate for these areas was about 3
 percent.
      The ACME system for selecting the underlying cause of death through
 computer application contributes to the quality control of medical items
 on the death certificate.  (See section "Automated selection of underlying
 cause of death.")
      Demographic items on the report of fetal death-For 1986, all data on
 fetal deaths, except for New York State (excluding New York City), were
 coded under contract by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.  Coding and
 entering information on data tapes were verified on a 100-percent basis
 because of the relatively small number of records involved.
      Other control procedures-After coding and entering on data tape are
 completed, record counts are balanced against control totals for each
 shipment of records from a registration area.  Editing procedures ensure
 that records with inconsistent or impossible codes are modified.
 Inconsistent codes are those, for example, where there is contradiction
 between cause of death and age or sex of the decedent.  Records so
 identified during the computer-editing process are either corrected by
 reference to the source record or adjusted by arbitrary code assignment
 (NCHS, 1979).  Further, conditions specified on a list of infrequent or
 rare causes of death need to be confirmed by the certifier or State Health
 Officer.  For 1985 records, cryptosporidiosis was no longer confirmed by
 NCHS although this condition was still on the list of infrequent or rare
 causes of death through 1986.  Because cryptosporidiosis has increased in
 frequency due to its association with the human immunodeficiency virus
 (HIV) infection, it is no longer considered infrequent.  All subsequent
 operations in tabulating and in preparing tables are verified during the
 computer processing or by statistical clerks.

3Estimates of Errors Arising from 50-Percent Sample for 1972
      Death statistics for 1972 in this report (excluding fetal-death
 statistics) are based on a 50-percent sample of all deaths occurring in
 the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
      A description of the sample design and a table of the percent errors
 of the estimated numbers of deaths by size of estimate and total deaths in
 the area are shown in the Technical Appendix of Vital Statistics of the
 United States, 1972, Volume II, Mortality, Part A.

2Computation of Rates and Other Measures
3Population Bases
      The population bases from which death rates shown in this report are
 computed are prepared by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.  Rates for 1940,
 1950, 1960, 1970, and 1980 are based on the population enumerated as of
 April 1 in the censuses of those years.  Rates for all other years use the
 estimated midyear (July 1) population.  Death rates for the United States,
 individual States, and SMSA's are based on the total resident populations
 of the respective areas.  Except as noted these populations exclude the
 Armed Forces abroad but include the Armed Forces stationed in each area.
      The resident populations of the birth- and death-registration States
 for 1900-32 and of the United States for 1900-86 are shown in table 7-1.
 In addition, the population including Armed Forces abroad is shown for the
 United States.  Table B lists the sources for these populations
        Population estimates for 1986-The population of the United States
 estimated by age, race, and sex for 1986 is shown in table 7-2, and the
 population for each State by broad age groups follows in table 7-3.
 Population estimates for 1984-86 incorporate new estimation procedures for
 net migration and net undocumented immigration.  The 1986 estimates are
 comparable with those for 1984 and 1985 but are not strictly comparable
 with the postcensal estimates for 1981-83 shown in table 7-2 and 7-3 of
 Vital Statistics of the United States, Volume II, for those years.
 Although the death rates and estimates of life expectancy for 1984-86 are
 not strictly comparable with those for previous years, the trends for the
 total population and most age-race-sex groups are not substantially
 affected.  For additional details, see the Technical Appendix in Vital
 Statistics of the United States, 1984, Volume II, and the report of the
 U.S. Bureau of the Census (1988).  Population data by race are consistent
 with the modified (see below) 1980 population by race.
      Population for 1980-The population of the United States by age, race,
 and sex, and the population for each State by age, are shown in tables 7-2
 and 7- 3, respectively, of Vital Statistics of the United States, 1980,
 Volume II.  The figures by race have been modified as described below.
      The racial counts in the 1980 census are affected by changes in
 reporting practices, particularly of the Hispanic population, and in
 coding and classifying.  One particular change created a major
 inconsistency between the 1980 census data and historical data series,
 including censuses and vital statistics.  About 40 percent of the Hispanic
 population counted in 1980, over 5.8 million persons did not mark one of
 the specified races listed on the census questionnaire but instead marked
 the "Other" category.
      In the 1980 census, coding procedures were modified for persons who
 marked "Other" race and wrote in a national origin designation of a Latin


 Table B.  Sources for resident population and population including Armed
 Forces abroad:  Birth- and death- registration States, 1900-1932, and
 United States, 1900-1986

         Year                              Source


 1986-----------------U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population
                      Reports, Series P-25, No. 1022, Mar. 1988.
 1985-----------------U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population
                      Reports, Series P-25, No. 1000, Feb. 1987.
 1984-----------------U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population
                      Reports, Series P-25, No. 985, Apr. 1986.
 1983-----------------U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population
                      Reports, Series P-25, No. 965, Mar. 1985.
 1982-----------------U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population
                      Reports, Series P-25, No. 949, May 1984
 1981-----------------U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population
                      Reports, Series P-25, No. 929, May 1983
 1980-----------------U.S. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Census of Population:
                      1980, Number of Inhabitants, PC80-1-A1, United States
                      Summary, 1983.
 1971-79--------------U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population
                      Reports, Series P-25, No. 917, July 1982.
 1970-----------------U.S. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Census of Population:
                      1970, Number of Inhabitants, Final Report PC(1)-A1.
                      United States Summary, 1971.
 1961-69--------------U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population
                      Reports, Series P-25, No. 519, April 1974
 1960-----------------U.S. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Census of Population:
                      1960, Number of Inhabitants, PC80-1-A1, United States
                      Summary, 1964.
 1951-59--------------U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population
                      Reports, Series P-25, No. 310, June 30, 1965.
 1940-50--------------U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population
                      Reports, Series P-25, No. 499, May 1973.
 1930-39--------------U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population
                      Reports, Series P-25, No. 499, May 1973, and National
                      Office of Vital Statistics, Vital Statistics Rates in
                      the United State, 1900-1940, 1947.
 1920-29--------------National Office of Vital Statistic, Vital Statistics
                      Rates in the United States, 1900-1940, 1947.
 1917-19--------------Same as for 1930-39
 1900-1916------------Same as for 1920-29


 American country or a specific Hispanic-origin group in response to the
 racial question.  These persons remained in the "Other" racial category in
 1980 census data; in previous censuses and in vital statistics such
 responses had almost always been coded into the "White" category.
      In order to maintain comparability, the "Other" racial category in
 the 1980 census was reallocated to be consistent with previous procedures.
 Persons who marked the "Other" racial category and reported any Spanish
 origin on the Spanish origin question (5,840,648 persons) were distributed
 to white and black races in proportion to the distribution of persons of
 Hispanic origin who actually reported their race as "White" or "Black."
 This was done for each age-sex group.
      As a result of this procedure, 5,705,155 persons (98 percent) were
 added to the white population and 135,493 persons (2 percent) to the black
 population.  Persons who marked the "Other" racial category and reported
 that they were not of Spanish origin (916,338 persons) were distributed as
 follows:  20 percent in each age-sex group were added to the "Asian and
 Pacific Islander" category (183,268 persons), and 80 percent were added to
 the "White" category (733,070 persons).  The count of American Indians,
 Eskimos, and Aleuts was not affected by these procedures.  Unpublished
 tabulations of these modified census counts were obtained from the U.S.
 Bureau of the Census and used to compute the rates for this volume.
      Population estimates for 1971-79-Death rates in this volume for
 1971-79 used revised population estimates that are consistent with the
 1980 census levels.  The 1980 census enumerated approximately 5.5 million
 more persons than had previously been estimated for April 1, 1980 (U.S.
 Bureau of the Census, 1982b).  These revised estimates for the United
 States by age, race, and sex are published by the U.S. Bureau of the
 Census in Current Population Reports, Series P-25, Number 917.
 Unpublished revised estimates for States were obtained from the U.S.
 Bureau of the Census.  For Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Guam,
 revised estimates are published in Current Population Reports, Series
 P-25, Number 919.
      Population estimates for 1961-69-Death rates in this volume for
 1961-69 are based on revised estimates of the population and thus may
 differ slightly from rates published before 1976.  The rates shown in
 tables 1-1 and 1-2, the life table values in table 6-5, and the population
 estimates in table 7-1 for each year in the period 1961-69 have been
 revised to reflect modified population bases, as published in the U.S.
 Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-25, Number 519.
 The data shown in table 1-10 for 1961-69 have not been revised.
      Rates and ratios based on live births-Infant and maternal mortality
 rates, and fetal death and perinatal mortality ratios, are computed on the
 basis of the number of live births.  Fetal death and perinatal mortality
 rates are computed on the basis of the number of live births and fetal
 deaths.  Counts of live births are published annually in Vital Statistics
 of the United States, Volume I, Natality.
      New Jersey-As previously indicated, data by race are not available
 for New Jersey for 1962 and 1963.  Therefore for 1962 and 1963 the
 National Center for Health Statistics estimated a population by age, race,
 and sex excluding New Jersey for rates shown by race.  The methodology
 used to estimate the revised population excluding New Jersey is discussed
 in the Technical Appendixes of the 1962 and 1963 volumes.

3Net Census Undercount
      Just as the underenumeration of deaths and the misreporting of
 demographic characteristics on the death certificate can introduce error
 into the annual rates, so can enumeration errors in the latest decennial
 census.  This is because annual population estimates for the postcensal
 interval, which are used in the denominator for calculating death rates,
 are computed using the decennial census count as a base (U.S. Bureau of
 the Census, 1988).  Net census undercount is the result of miscounting and
 misreporting of demographic characteristics such as age.  Age-specific
 death rates are affected by both the net census undercount and the
 misreporting of age on the death certificate (NCHS, 1968b).  To the extent
 that the net undercount is substantial and that it varies among subgroups
 and geographic areas, it may have important consequences for vital
 statistics measures.
      Although death rates based on a population adjusted for net census
 undercount may be more accurate than rates based on an unadjusted
 population, rates in this volume are not adjusted; rather, they are
 computed using population estimates that preserve the age pattern of the
 net census undercount across the postcensal interval.  Thus, it is
 important to consider the possible impact of net census undercount on
 death rates.
      The U.S. Bureau of the Census has conducted extensive research on
 completeness of coverage of the U.S. population (including
 underenumeration and misstatement of age, race, and sex) in the last four
 decennial censuses- 1950, 1960, 1970, and 1980.  From this work have come
 estimates of the national population that was not counted by age, race,
 and sex (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1974, 1977).  The reports for 1980
 include estimates of net census undercount using alternative
 methodological assumptions for age, race, and sex subgroups of the
 national population (Passel and Robinson, 1985).  These studies indicate
 that, although coverage was improved over previous censuses, there was
 differential coverage in the 1980 census among the population subgroups;
 that is, some age, race, and sex groups were more completely counted than
 others.
      Net census undercounts can affect (1) levels of the observed vital
 rates, (2) differences among groups, and (3) levels and group differences
 shown by summary measures such as age-adjusted death rates and life
 expectancy.
      Levels and differentials-If adjustments were made for net census
 undercount, the size of denominators of the death rates generally would
 increase and the rates, therefore, would decrease.  The adjusted rates for
 1980 can be computed by multiplying the reported rates by ratios of the
 census- level resident population to the resident population adjusted for
 the estimated net census undercount (table 7-4).  A ration of less than
 1.0 indicates a net census undercount and, when applied, results in a
 corresponding decrease in the death rate.  A ratio greater than
 1.0-indicating a net census overcount-multiplied by the reported rate
 results in an increase in the death rate.
      Coverage ratios for all ages show that, in general, females were more
 completely enumerated than males and the white population more completely
 than the population of all other races in the 1980 Census of Population.
 The black population was undercounted relative to the total population of
 all other races.
      For the total population, underenumeration varied by age group, with
 the greatest differences found for persons aged 80-84 and 85 years and
 over.  All other age groups were overcounted or undercounted by less than
 3 percent.
      Among the age-sex-race groups, coverage was lowest for black males
 aged 40-44 and 45-49 years.  Underenumeration for these groups was 19
 percent.  In contrast, white females in these age groups were essentially
 completely enumerated.  For black females and white males in these same
 age groups, the undercount ranged from 3 to 6 percent.  For the
 under-1-year age group the white population was overenumerated by 2
 percent, whereas infants of other races were underenumerated by 9 percent.
      If vital statistics measures were calculated with adjustments for net
 census undercounts for each population subgroup, the resulting rates would
 be differentially reduced from their original levels; that is, rates for
 those groups with the greatest estimated undercounts would show the
 greatest relative reductions due to these adjustments.  Similar effects
 would be evident in the opposite direction for groups with overcounts.  As
 a consequence, the ratio of mortality between the rates for males and
 females, and between the rates for the white population and the population
 of other races, or the black population, usually would be reduced.
      Similarly, the differences between the death rates among subgroups of
 the population by cause of death would be affected by adjustments for net
 census undercounts.  For example, for the age group 35-39 years in 1980,
 the ratio of the death rate for Homicide and legal intervention for black
 males to that for white males is 7.3, whereas the ratio of the death rates
 adjusted for net census undercount is 6.2.  For Ischemic heart disease for
 males aged 40-44 years, the ratio of the death rate for the population of
 all other races to that for the white population is 1.2 using the
 unadjusted rates, but it is 1.1 when adjusted for estimated
 under-enumeration.
      Summary measures-The effect of net census undercount on age-adjusted
 death rates depends on the under-enumeration of each age group and on the
 distribution of death by age.  Thus, the age-adjusted death rate in 1980
 for All causes would decrease from 585.8 to 579.3 per 100,000 population
 if the age-specific death rates were corrected for net census undercount.
      For Diseases of the heart, the age-adjusted death rate for white
 males would decrease from 277.5 to 273.0 per 100,000 population, a decline
 of 1.3 percent.  For black males the change, from an unadjusted rate of
 327.3 to an adjusted rate of 308.3, would amount to 5.8 percent.
      If death rates by age were adjusted, then the corresponding life
 expectancy at birth computed from these rates would change.  The
 importance of adjustments varies by age; that is, when calculating life
 expectancy, the impact of an undercount or overcount is greatest at the
 younger ages.  In general, the effect of correcting the death rates is to
 increase the estimate of life expectancy at birth.  Differential
 underenumeration among race-sex groups would lead to greater changes in
 life expectancy for some groups than for others.  For white females who
 were completely enumerated in 1980, revised estimates of life expectancy
 would remain roughly constant; those for black males would show the
 greatest increase.

3Age-Adjusted Death Rates
      Age-adjusted death rates shown in this volume are computed by using
 the distribution in 10-year intervals of the enumerated population of the
 United States in 1940 as the standard population.  Each figure represents
 the rate that would have existed if the age-specific rates of the
 particular year prevailed in a population whose age distribution was the
 same as that of the United States in 1940.  The rates for the total
 population and for each race- sex group were adjusted using the same
 standard population.  It is important not to compare age-adjusted death
 rates with crude rates. The standard 1940 population, on the basis of one
 million total population, is as follows:

                  Age                    Number

           All ages. . . . . . . . . . . 1,000,000
      Under 1 year . . . . . . . . . . .    15,343
      1-4 years. . . . . . . . . . . . .    64,718
      5-14 years . . . . . . . . . . . .   170,355
      15-24 years. . . . . . . . . . . .   181,677
      25-34 years. . . . . . . . . . . .   162,066
      35-44 years. . . . . . . . . . . .   139,237
      45-54 years. . . . . . . . . . . .   117,811
      55-64 years. . . . . . . . . . . .    80,294
      65-74 years. . . . . . . . . . . .    48,426
      75-84 years. . . . . . . . . . . .    17,303
      85 years and over. . . . . . . . .     2,770

3Life Tables
      U.S. abridged life tables are constructed by reference to a standard
 table (NCHS, 1966).  Life tables for the decennial period 1979-81 are used
 as the standard life tables in constructing the 1980-86 abridged life
 tables.  With the availability of the 1979-81 standard life tables,
 revised life table values were computed for 1980-82; these appeared for
 the first time in Vital Statistics of the United States, 1983.
      Life tables for the decennial period 1969-71 are used as the standard
 life tables in constructing the 1970-79 abridged life tables.  Life table
 values for 1970-73 were first revised in Vital Statistics of the United
 States, 1977; before 1977, life table values for 1970-73 were constructed
 using the 1959-61 decennial life tables.  In addition, life table values
 for 1951-59, 1961-69, and 1971-79 appearing in this volume are based on
 revised intercensal estimates of the populations for those years.  As
 such, these life table values may differ from life table values for those
 years published in previous volumes.
      The change in the population estimation methodology (se above section
 "Population bases") results in life expectancies at certain 5-year age
 intervals for 1984-86 that are lower than those that would have occurred
 had they been based on the same methodology used to compute 1983 life
 expectancies.  For additional details, see Technical Appendix for Vital
 Statistics of the United States, 1984, Volume II.
      There has been an increasing interest in data on average length of
 life () for single calendar years before the initiation of the annual
 abridged life table series for selected race-sex groups in 1945.  The
 figures in table 6-5 for the race and sex groups for the following years
 were estimated to meet these needs.  For estimating procedures, see
 National Office of Vital Statistics (1951).

                                         Race and
                     Years               sex groups

      1900-45. . . . . . . . . . . . .   Total
      1900-47. . . . . . . . . . . . .   Male
      1900-47. . . . . . . . . . . . .   Female
      1900-50. . . . . . . . . . . . .   White
      1900-44. . . . . . . . . . . . .   White, male
      1900-44. . . . . . . . . . . . .   White, female
      1900-50. . . . . . . . . . . . .   All other
      1900-44. . . . . . . . . . . . .   All other, male
      1900-44. . . . . . . . . . . . .   All other, female

      The geographic areas covered in life tables before 1929-31 were
 limited to the death-registration areas.  Life tables for 1900-02 and
 1909-11 were constructed using mortality data from the 1900
 death-registration States-10 States and the District of Columbia-and for
 1919-21 from the 1920 death- registration States-34 States and the
 District of Columbia.  The tables for 1929-31 through 1958 cover the
 conterminous United States.  Decennial life table values for the 3-year
 period 1959-61 were derived from data that include both Alaska and Hawaii
 for each year (table 6-4).  Data for each year shown in table 6-5 include
 Alaska beginning in 1959 and Hawaii beginning in 1960.  It is believed
 that the inclusion of these two States does not materially affect life
 table values.

3Random Variation in No. of Deaths,Death Rates,Mort. Rates/Ratios
      Deaths and population-based rates-Except for 1972, the numbers of
 deaths reported for a community represent complete counts of such events.
 As such, they are not subject to sampling error, although they are subject
 to errors in the registration process.  However, when the figures are used
 for analytical purposes, such as the comparison of rates over a time
 period or for different areas, the number of events that actually occurred
 may be considered as one of a large series of possible results that could
 have arisen under the same circumstances (National Office of Vital
 Statistics,1961).  The probable range of values may be estimated from the
 actual figures according to certain statistical assumptions.
      In general, distributions of vital events may be assumed to follow
 the binomial distribution.  Estimates of standard error and tests of
 significance under this assumption are described in most standard
 statistics texts.  When the number of events is large, the standard error,
 expressed as a percent of the number or rate, is usually small.
      When the number of events is small (perhaps less than 100) and the
 probability of such an event is small, considerable caution must be
 observed in interpreting the conditions described by the figures.  This is
 particularly true for infant mortality rates, cause-specific death rates,
 and death rates for counties.  Events of a rare nature may be assumed to
 follow a Poison probability distribution.  For this distribution, a simple
 approximation may be used to estimate a confidence interval, as follows.
      If N is the number of registered deaths in the population and R is
 the corresponding rate, the chances are 19 in 20 that

      1.  N - 2  N and N + 2 N

          covers the "true" number of events.


                R            R
      2.  R - 2 -- and R + 2 --
                N         N


 If the rate R corresponding to N events is compared with the rate S
 corresponding to M events, the difference between the two rates may be
 regarded as statistically significant, if it exceeds


      2 R1 + S2
        N    M


      For example, if the observed death rate for Community A were 10.0 per
 1,000 population and if this rate were based on 20 recorded deaths, then
 the chances are 19 in 20 that the "true" death rate for that community
 lies between 5.5 and 14.5 per 1,000 population.  If the death rate for
 Community A of 10.0 per 1,000 population were being compared with a rate
 of 20.0 per 1,000 population for Community B, which is based on 10
 recorded deaths, then the difference between the rates for the two
 communities is 10.0.  This difference is less than twice the standard
 error of the difference

      2  (10.0)2  + (20.0)2
           20         10


 of the two rates, which is computed to be 13.4.  From this, it is
 concluded that the difference between the rats for the two communities is
 not statistically significant.

2Symbols Used in Tables
 Data not available _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _    _ _ _

 Category not applicable_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _    ...

 Quantity zero_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _    _

 Quantity more than zero but less than 0.05 _ _ _    0.0

 Quantity more than zero but less than 500
 where numbers are rounded to thousands     _ _ _   Z

 Figure does not meet standards of reliability
 or precision _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _    .

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