CDC Prevention Guidelines Database (Archive)
The Prevention of Youth Violence: A Framework for Community Action
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, National Center for Environmental Health and Injury Control Division of Injury Control, Office of the Assistant Director for Minority Health, Atlanta, GA
Publication date: 01/01/1992
Table of Contents
Defining the Problem
Opinions from Members of the Community
Community Background Information
Goals and Objectives
Locating Resources for your Program
Monitoring the Progress of Your Program
List Of Possible Target Groups
Settings Where Target Groups May Be Reached
Types Of Strategies
Community Organizations Interested In Helping Prevent Youth Violence
Sources Of Information To Describe The Problem
Example Of Objectives Growing From A Goal
Potential Sources For Funding Or Donated Services
Training in Life and Social Skills
Education To Reduce Injuries from Firearms
Pubic Information and Education Campaigns
Legal and Administrative Strategies
Modification of the Physical Environment
ForewordViolence has become common in the United States of America. Every day we see, hear, or experience some form of violence. Murder, sexual assault, child abuse, injuries from fighting, riots at sporting or entertainment events, and other violent occurrences directly affect many Americans. These acts of violence are uniformly condemned by our society, and we are upset and frustrated by their persistence and frequency.
Although most of this violence is obvious and unacceptable, a good deal of it is subtle and even condoned. Indirectly, we are exposed to violence daily on television, radio, and in the newspapers. Modern technology brings on-the-scene coverage of gun-battles, sniper attacks, riots, and other physical violence directly into our homes from our own cities and towns and from around the world. Movies and television entertain us with realistic and bloody dramatizations of murders, beatings, and tortures. Warlike video games have become a popular part of our culture, and our children routinely watch cartoons that depict violent events.
Sadly, the constant exposure to physical violence, some of which we do not even recognize as violent, dulls our natural distaste for this behavior. Violence has become so common that not only do we expect and accept it, but we have begun to view it as appropriate behavior. Frustrated by unemployment, difficult economic times, interpersonal or marital difficulties, racism, and other stresses of modern life, we sometimes respond in a variety of hostile and destructive ways.
Traditionally, our society has taught us that violence often equals courage and strength. We must unlearn this tragic lesson. If we are to survive as healthy, responsible, and caring people, we must teach ourselves and our children that violence does not solve problems.
This manual, which gives a framework for community action, is but one part of an increased effort by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to reduce the number of injuries and deaths produced by violence. Much needs to be done to understand our needs and reactions to the many ways violence robs us of our lives, health, potential security, and peace. We do not claim that the strategies and programs described in this manual provide all the answers to this complex problem. They focus on ways to prevent and discourage physical violence only. The suggested activities are designed to draw upon and empower the creative energies of local communities.
As a nation, we must make this task a personal priority. We can reduce the violence. We can change our lives. We can make our world a safer place for our children, our elderly, and ourselves, making it easier for each member of our society to achieve her or his full potential.
BackgroundViolence is a large and important health problem in the United States. More than 20,000 people die from homicide every year and more than 2,000,000 people suffer injuries received in violent conflicts. The emotional toll is immense. Violence and violence-related injuries and deaths are particularly common among young people, and have escalated in recent years.
In December 1990, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the Minority Health Professions Foundation responded to the growing concern of African- American and other minority communities about violence among youth by convening a conference entitled Forum on Youth Holence in Minority Communities: Setting the Agenda for Prevention. The purpose of this forum was to review what is known about programs designed to prevent youth violence. This framework for community action originated from the discussions in that forum. It has grown and developed through subsequent discussions and meetings with many concerned individuals throughout the country. As this manual progressed, the complex distribution of violence across the United States became clear. Some communities of color are severely affected by violence. Others are not. Some white communities have high rates of violence while others do not. However, the potential for violence exists everywhere. Therefore, this manual can be used by any community dealing with present or potential problems of violence. Each community must assess its own needs and adapt the framework to its own characteristics. The underlying causes of violence vary from community to community. Urban, suburban, and rural communities differ; each community is unique.
Experts provide no simple explanations of the causes of violent injuries and deaths. Deeply imbedded cultural problems such as racism, sexism, poverty, drug and alcohol abuse, drug trafficking, and frequent exposure to violence are but a few of the important pieces of this complicated puzzle. Efforts to reduce these problems and to increase educational and economic opportunities are needed. However, the presence of these large and stubborn problems should not make us forget that we can do something
American society has traditionally looked to the crirmnal justice system for protection from violence. Criminal justice measures have been useful. However, they have not enabled us to satisfactorily reduce the burden of violence upon society. One important reason is that much of the violence does not begin in a criminal setting but arises instead between companions involved in arguments, sometimes over trivial matters. In fact, more than 40 percent of all homicides occur between friends and acquaintances.
- we can take action to reduce violence.
Throughout the country, community organizations are addressing the problem of violence at the local level. These organizations are starting activities based on their understanding of local problems and local conditions. Conflict resolution training is provided in a number of schools. Schools are seeking ways to reduce the number of weapons brought on campus. In several cities, programs are redirecting the energies of young people in gangs from violent confrontations to more peaceful pursuits.
In preparing this manual, we were aware that a great deal of evaluation needs to be done to determine which of the many activities that have been tried or proposed actually do prevent youth violence. However, the seriousness of the problem of violence demands immediate action.
The Purpose of this ManualMany concerned individuals and community-based organizations want to reduce violence and prevent injuries and deaths from violence among youths in their community. This manual is designed to help. It includes a menu of specific activities for communities to undertake plus a framework for putting those activities effectively into place.
The manual is based on the principles of effective, community-based health promotion programs that have been successfully used to address a variety of chronic diseases as well as problems of youth, such as sexually transmitted diseases and teenage pregnancy.
The manual is divided into two major sections -- "Activities To Prevent Youth Violence" describes the target groups, settings, and strategies for the prevention of youth violence. The chapter takes into account:
"Program Management" covers basic principles of effective community-based health promotion programs. This section describes the processes of:
- What is known about youth violence through scientific research
- What has been learned through innovative community efforts
- What has been learned from interventions used to prevent other types of health or social problems
- Organizing the community
- Gathering and analyzing the information needed to describe adequately the problem of youth violence in the community
- Setting goals and objectives
- Locating resources
- Monitoring the progress of the program
Activities to Prevent Youth ViolenceTo prevent violent injury and death, we need to weaken or break the chain of events that leads to violence. Often we do not know exactly why people behave violently, why one adolescent will react violently in a given situation while another who has a similar background will not. We need to learn much more about the causes of violence in American society.
Yet even with imperfect knowledge, helpful action can be taken. We can teach, we can enact and enforce regulations, we can change the environment. Youth can be taught skills to help them deal with violent situations. They can be helped to develop the self-esteem needed to solve differences without violence. Young people can be taught about the situations or actions that are likely to result in violence or violent injuries, such as associating with violent peers, using alcohol or drugs, and possessing a firearm or other weapon. They can be provided with mentors, or special teachers, who can serve as role models. Laws and regulations can be developed specifically to reduce injuries and deaths, such as stronger laws governing the use, ownership, and sale of guns. Teenage parents, abused children, or bored or wayward teenagers can be provided with training, support, and recreation.
In selecting the activities for any commumty, you should consider the following general principles:
- Each activity should have:
- an identified target group (e.g., high school students, youths in detention centers)
- a setting in which that target group is reached (e.g., schools, detention centers)
- a method or strategy to accomplish the objective (e.g., classroom instruction, mentors)
- No single activity in isolation is likely to solve the problem of youth violence. There are too many types and too many causes of violent injury and death to be solved by one strategy. The most effective programs include several types of activities. Most programs will need to begin with one activity and add more activities as they gain experience and resources.
- Activities should complement one another. For example, instruction on how to avoid gang membership may be complemented by alternative activities. Instruction on nonviolent conflict resolution and more staff training on conflict resolution may be accompanied by more monitors in the school hallways.
- Activities may address different steps in the chain of events that lead to injury and death. For example, activities may address:
- factors that influence behavior (e.g., knowledge and attitudes)
- the behavior itself (e.g., carrying weapons or fighting)
- health outcomes (e.g., injury or death)
- The activities selected should be determined by the unique characteristics of the community and the goals and objectives of the program. Activities that have worked in other communities may be a good place to start. They can often be modified to meet the specific needs of your community. However, an activity should not be selected simply because it is or appears to be working in another community.
Target GroupsA target group is the group of people whom the program or activity is designed to influence. Depending on the activity, the target group may be broad or specific. For example, some activities may address adolescents who are out of school or who have a history of violent or criminal behavior. Other activities may address all young children. Still others may address parents, teachers, employers, or others who interact directly or indirectly with youth. Activities suitable for one group may be inappropriate for another because groups and individuals vary in terms of culture, values, knowledge, attitudes, skills, behaviors, experience, and other attributes.
The selection of target groups should take into account the specific nature of the problem being addressed, the major goals and objectives of the program, and community characteristics. For example, members of youth gangs would not be an appropriate target group if gangs are not a problem in the community.
Successful programs will have activities that address many target groups. However, this takes time, and a decision must be made about which target groups to address first. There are a few broad categories of target groups (Table 1) that are useful to consider:
The General Population of Youth -- Many activities designed to reduce injuries from youth violence can be applied to all youth (or to the environment that affects them). An example of such an effort is teaching conflict resolution skills to high school students. In this instance, the purpose of the intervention is to affect the manner in which all students resolve conflicts, not just those students who are thought to be most likely to engage in violent behavior. Programs with activities directed toward the general population of youth, if successful, are likely to produce early and possibly substantial reductions in violent injuries and deaths. However, to be successful they must reach large numbers of youths.
Youth Who Engage in High-Risk Behaviors -- Youth with high-risk behaviors are those most likely to be injured, those most likely to engage in violent behavior that injures others, or both. These groups include young people who consistently engage in physical fights to resolve problems, those with a criminal record or a history of inflicting or receiving a violent injury, drug users, gang members, or those who have failed or dropped out of school. Other youth who may be at risk for fighting are relocated youth. This group includes immigrants and migrants, and can also include youth who live in communities that are highly mobile. One other group that may be prone to fighting are those with emotional or mental deficiencies who may not have the personal skills to settle disputes nonviolently.
If successful, activities directed toward this group of youth may show early and possibly substantial reductions if these groups account for much of the violent injuries and deaths among youth in the community.
Special efforts are often necessary to locate and contact youth with high- risk behaviors. Outreach workers may help. They can meet youths on street corners, parks, fast-food restaurants, or other places where they gather. They work to establish trust. Once trust is established, outreach workers may be able to refer or guide adolescents with high-risk behaviors into helpful activities. Outreach is important in making contact with youth who engage in high-risk behavior, but it is only a part of a program. Other activities are also necessary. The Commumty Youth Gang Services (CYGS) of Los Angeles, California, is a good example of a program that has a strong outreach component with a number of other program activities. This program is described later in the document.
Young Children (10 Years Old or Less) -- Violence is a learned behavior. The basic values, attitudes, and interpersonal skills acquired early in life are likely to be pivotal in developing predispositions for violent behavior later in life. Therefore, activities for young children that promote nonviolent values, attitudes, and interpersonal skills are important to consider. Also, any long-term strategy to prevent violence may also want to include children who are abused or witness violence and activities that lessen the consequences of exposures to violence. If successful, these interventions may show substantial reductions in violent injuries and deaths when these children become adolescents.
Other Target Groups -- The above three categories of target groups--the general population of youth, youth with high-risk behaviors, and young children--may be considered direct target groups because activities are intended to reduce violent injuries and deaths among those groups or caused by those groups. Programs focusing on these groups will also need activities for indirect target groups--those people who have a particular relationship with the primary target group. Examples of indirect target groups are family members, adult role models, or the general population.
Family members -- Family experiences play a critical role in causing, promoting, or reinforcing violent behavior among youth. Consequently, the family is an important target for activities to prevent youth violence. Activities that target families can focus on parents, siblings, or the entire family unit. Typically, these activities reinforce health promotion or prevention messages, support the parents in raising and managing children and youth, or provide help in coping and responding to family crises.
Special groups of adults -- Teachers, coaches, clergy, health proressionals, counselors, athletes, entertainers, and other adults often have special relationships with children and youth. They may be important role models. They may also recognize or decide which children and youth need or receive special services. Adult role models are an important target for youth violence- prevention activities because they are very influential in the lives of children and youth, frequently serving as confidants. As such, they can reinforce health promotion and prevention messages, including those pertaining to violence.
General population -- The general population is an important target group for several reasons. First, people need to be educated about the role of society as a whole in promoting violent behavior. Second, activities such as modifying or passing gun control legislation may affect wide segments of the population.
For such activities to be successful, we must address the entire population.
SettingsThe setting is the location where a prevention activity occurs. There are four important considerations involved in selecting settings for a prevention activity (Table 2):
Settings in which the general population of youth may be reached include schools, churches, streets, playgrounds, youth activity sites, and homes. Additional settings where certain groups with high-risk behaviors may be found include juvenile justice facilities, mental health facilities, social service facilities, and the medical care facilities. Young children may also be reached in child care settings (e.g., Head Start locations).
- First, select a setting where you can reach the target group. Schools, for example, may be an appropriate setting for the general population of youth, but may not be an appropriate setting if the target group is youth who are no longer in school.
- Second, select a setting appropriate for the strategy. A classroom curriculum probably will not be effective if administered on the playground.
- Third, select multiple settings for each target group. The frequency of violent behavior is more likely to decrease if complementary messages or experiences occur in several settings and if the environment is made less conducive to violence. For example, a young boy is less likely to be violent when he is taught alternatives to violent behavior in the school, is exposed less often to violence in the home, and plays in supervised areas where fights are not likely to take place.
- Fourth, when appropriate, select one setting suitable for several target groups. Churches, for example, may be an appropriate setting for reaching both youths and parents.
StrategiesActivities to prevent youth violence typically employ one of three general prevention strategies: education, legal and regulatory change, and environmental modification. Each of these general strategies has a role in a comprehensive youth violence prevention program (Table 3).
EducationEducation provides information and teaches skills. New knowledge and new skills change or reinforce a person's attitude and behavior thus reducing the chances that the person will behave violently or become a victim of violence. Educational efforts can be directed toward a wide variety of target groups to help convey knowledge and skills. Face-to-face teaching may occur in the classroom, in worksite or recreational settings, or through special teachers, such as nurses on home visits.
Knowledge and skills are a crucial part of the process, but they are often insufficient by themselves. The acquisition of knowledge is usually not followed immediately by the adoption of new behaviors. Behavioral change requires time and repeated effort and is more likely to occur if the physical and social environment support and encourage it.
The following are examples of types of educational strategies. With each example are several brief descriptions of the strategy as it is being implemented in a U.S. community.
Adult Mentoring -- Mentors are special adults who provide a positive, caring influence and standard of conduct for young people. Mentors provide models for young people who have none, or they offer alternatives to negative role models. Mentors may reinforce positive attitudes or behaviors that children are trying to express. Adult role models may be teachers, counselors, friends, and confidants, or simply members of the community. Mentoring activities can be conducted in almost any setting, such as schools, churches, businesses, or other community locations. The attention and interest bestowed on the youngsters by people who care enhance the youth's self-esteem and strengthen his or her ability to choose nonviolent methods to resolve conflict.
Baltimore, Maryland, Project RAISE (410)685-8316: In 1988, Project RAISE recruited mentors for more than 400 sixth grade students. The mentors contact the students at least weekly and meet with them face to face at least every other week. The mentors serve as role models, provide academic support, and strive to boost the youths' self-confidence. The mentors are recruited from two churches, two businesses, and two colleges that serve as sponsors of the project. A Project RAISE staff member coordinates the project with the schools, matching mentors with students after informal contacts and information exchanges with mentors ancJ students. A private foundation is funding the project.
Atlanta, Georgia, Go to High School, Go to College (404)766-5744: The Atlanta "Go to High School, Go to College" project has paired 100 successful older men with adolescent African-American males at four Atlanta area high schools and one middle school. Each mentor meets twice a week with a student who is struggling academically, has discipline problems, or is at risk of dropping out of school. The mentors are provided with a 40-page curriculum of instructions and ideas. Mentors strive to increase the students' self-esteem and improve their grades. A local fraternity chapter provides scholarships to students who qualify and want to attend college.
Conflict Resolution Education -- Classes in conflict resolution are designed to provide students with the opportunity to develop empathy with others, learn ways to control impulses, develop problem-solving skills, and manage their anger. Usually this curriculum is delivered in the classroom setting, although other settings, such as churches, multi-service centers, boys and girls clubs, recreation centers, housing developments, juvenile detention centers, and neighborhood health centers may be appropriate also. Courses in conflict resolution have been developed for students in both elementary and high schools.
The methods used to teach conflict resolution usually include roleplaying conflict situations and analyzing the responses to, and consequences of, violence. Generally, students are trained for 15 or 20 hours, after which they may work in pairs mediating conflicts that occur in the classroom or cafeteria, on the playground, or elsewhere. These conflicts cover a wide range of situations, including bullying, stealing, and spreading rumors. Teaching materials can be designed to meet individual needs of different groups of students.
Boston, Massachusetts, The Boston Conflict Resolution Program (617)492-8820: The Boston Conflict Resolution Program (BCRP) is a violence prevention program that helps elementary school teachers and students understand and deal with conflicts frequently encountered in schools. These conflicts often result from prejudice, competition, miscommunication, an inability to constructively express feelings, and a lack of respect and concern for others. Teachers participate in an intensive training program in conflict resolution, cooperation, and communication skills, dealing with cross-cultural conflict, anger management, and encouraging caring and empathy. They then receive in class support from a multiethnic team of trained staff developers who help them implement what they have learned in the training. In addition, the BCRP staff provide teacher training, implement peer mediation programs, and develop curricula and instructional resources.
San Francisco, California, The School Initiatives Program (415)552-1250: The School Initiatives Program in San Francisco grew out of a community program that began in 1977 to train community residents to help their neighbors resolve disputes peacefully. In 1982, this program expanded to the schools because of growing conflict and violence in that setting.
This program has two components: classroom curricula and a conflict secondary school students. These materials help students acquire self- esteem and the skills needed to resolve conflict and build a stronger sense of cooperation and community at school. To become conflict managers, students at the middle and high-school level participate in 15 hours of training over two and one-half days. They learn communication, leadership, problem-solving, and assertiveness. Once trained, these students help their fellow students to express and resolve their conflicts nonviolently.
Training in Social Skills -- Teaching young people social skills provides them with the ability to interact with others in positive and friendly ways. Training in social skills includes many things that help students successfully interact with others. Aspects of social-skills training include maintaining self- control, building communication skills, forming friendships, resisting peer pressure, being appropriately assertive, and forming good relationships with adults. Nonviolent conflict resolution training may be included with these other social skills. Acquiring these skills provides students with appropriate standards of behavior, a sense of control over their behavior, and improved self-esteem. They may be less likely to resort to violence or become victims of violence.
These educational activities can be conducted in schools, day-care settings, after-school programs, and youth organizations.
New Haven, Connecticut, The New Haven Social Development Program (203)432-4530: Since 1983 the Yale University Psychology Department has collaborated with the New Haven public school system to provide training in social skills in the middle schools of the district. The major components of this activity are classroom activities for sixth and seventh graders that teach social development, and modeling of socially competent behavior by school staff. The curriculum emphasizes self-control, stress management, problem-solving, decision making, and communication skills. Once students have learned a
general problem-solving framework, they apply their critical-thinking skills to specific issues, such as substance use. The emphasis is on providing accurate information about the topic and focusing on realistic situations. Finally, school, family, and community resources are identified that are available to help students cope with personal or family difficulties.
Methods used are role-playing, videotaping, and live modeling; classroom presentations; smallgroup discussion; and competitive and cooperative games. Classroom teachers undergo training that includes practice modeling and review of techniques for dialogue, discussion of students' reactions to the lessons, and adaptation of the lessons to the special needs of their students.
Education To Prevent Injuries from Firearms -- The meaning of education to prevent injuries from firearms varies from community to community. For some, this means avoiding firearms altogether and for others it means the proper handling of firearms. Activities providing education about firearm safety can be conducted in school settings and in the community. A number of educational techniques have been developed, including the use of audiovisual materials and curricula that deal with situations that involve firearms.
Dade County Florida, Kids + Guns = A Deadly Equation (305)995-1986: A program designed to teach students from kindergarten age through high school about the dangers of playing with or carrying guns was developed jointly by the Dade County Public Schools, the Center to Prevent Handgun Violence, and Youth Crime Watch of Dade. Kids + Guns = A Deadly Equation includes classroom instruction and schoolwide activities that center on helping students recognize unsafe situations, react appropriately when encountering guns, resist peer pressure to play with or carry guns, and distinguish between real-life and media violence. The curriculum includes a video program for students in grades 7 through 12; a component for parents includes a brochure and video program.
Parenting Centers -- Improving parenting skills through specially designed classes for parents can improve how the parent and child interact. The improvement in this relationship may reduce the risk of childhood behavior problems and subsequent antisocial behavior that may predispose an individual to violence in later life. Programs targeted toward parents must address the psychological needs of the parents, especially their sense of being competent parents; the parental behaviors that influence the physical and social development of their children; and the stresses and social supports that can either help or hinder parents' ability to adapt to their children's needs.
Minneapolis, Minnesota, Project STEEP (612)624-0210: Project STEEP (Steps Toward Effective, Enjoyable Parenting) serves low-income, first-time parents. Most parents are single and have no more than a high-school education. The program includes both group sessions and home visits. It begins during the second trimester and continues until the baby is at least one year old. Prenatal visits focus on the mother's feelings about pregnancy and preparation for parenting. After the baby is born, transportation to the group sessions is provided by the project. The focus of demonstration and interactive sessions is on child-care skills, infant development, and infant-mother communication. Interactions between mother and infant are videotaped, reviewed, and discussed with the parent.
State of Missouri, Parents as Teachers (PAT) (314)553-5738 Parents as Teachers is a home/school partnership that serves all parents, including single parents, teenage mothers, and two-parent families. PAT parent educators, trained in child development, go to homes of participating parents to help them understand each stage of their child's development and learn ways to encourage that development. The program also conducts group meetings for parents to get together to gain new insights and to share their experiences, common concerns, and successes. They conduct periodic screening of overrall development, language, hearing, and vision to detect potential problems, and refer families to special services.
Peer Education -- Programs that use students to teach their peers about violence prevention are a powerful force among adolescents and can be used effectively to help shape norms and behaviors in this group. Research on peer education for other health issues such as alcohol, cigarette, and drug use, has had positive results and shows promise for violence prevention programs.
Ferguson, Missouri, RAPP (Resolve All Problems Peacefully) (314)521-5792: RAPP was begun to reduce the number of physical fights among students. Students selected by teachers and other students are trained in mediation skills. Students found in conflict are given the choice of going to mediation or going to the office. Those who choose mediation meet with one of the trained mediators who works with them to peacefully resolve the conflict. During the first semester of the project, the number of fights was less than half the average for the same semester over the previous three years.
Oakland, California, Teens on Target (510)635-8600, Ext. 415: Teens on Target is a peer education and mentoring group that was formed by the Oakland Safety Task Force in California after two junior high students were shot in the schools by other students. The task force, made up of a coalition of elected officials, parents, and school and community agency representatives, felt that students would do a better job of dealing with the youth violence problem than adults. Selected high school students are trained in an intensive summer program to be violence prevention advocates, particularly in the areas of guns, drugs (including alcohol), and family violence. These students become peer educators to other high school students and mentors to younger students in the middle and elementary schools. Teachers provide ongoing guidance and supervision to the teen educators.
Public Information and Education Campaigns -- Public information campaigns reach a broad audience. They draw attention to an issue and help establish acceptable behavior for a community. They also convey a limited amount of information, which by itself is rarely enough to change behaviors. Therefore, activities that provide general information to the public are most effective when combined with other activities in a violence prevention program.
There are a number of ways to inform the public through media. Some examples are public service announcements, educational video programs, appearances on public talk shows, posters, brochures, and other print materials.
Charlotte, North Carolina, The Police Executive Research Forum and the Center to Prevent Handgun Violence (202) 289-7319: The Center to Prevent Handgun Violence in conjunction with Police Executive Research Forum developed and ran a public awareness campaign in Chadotte, North Carolina, that attempted to change people's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors concerning the protection they believed firearms offered. Together these two groups developed guidelines, produced print and broadcast media messages, distributed brochures, made community presentations, and conducted safety demonstrations. The messages developed through this awareness campaign included safe storage of firearms, instructing children about handgun safety, and checking firearms before cleaning.
Baltimore, Maryland, The Baltimore County Police Department and the Center to Prevent Handgun Violence (202) 289-7319: The Center to Prevent Handgun Violence has also helped the Baltimore County Police Department develop advertisements, public service announcements, pamphlets, brochures, and police presentations for both gun owners and people who do not own guns. The materials cover the dangers of misusing firearms, how to childproof handguns,legal issues including liability, and the psychological and practical issues of ownership.
Legal and Regulatory ChangeLaws or rules may lower the risk of violent behavior or victimization. Some regulations that would help reduce injuries and deaths from violence have already been enacted, but many are neither widely known nor well enforced. In many cases, it is easier to enforce existing laws than it is to enact new laws. In other cases, existing regulations are inadequate and new ones are needed. You can find out your state laws by contacting your state attorney general's office. You can find out your local laws by contacting your local police agency.
The success of making or enforcing rules depends on the willingness of the population to support and obey the rules and the ability of regulatory agencies, such as the police, to enforce them. Examples of laws or regulations intended to reduce injuries and deaths from violence include laws prohibiting the carrying of firearms in public and rules prohibiting the wearing of gang colors in schools.
Regulations Concerning the Use of and Access to Weapons -- Guns, knives, and other dangerous weapons may not actually cause violence, but they can convert an argument with no associated injuries into one with severe injuries or even death. A variety of strategies have been used to reduce the likelihood that weapons will be used. Many communities already have existing laws and regulations concerning the sale, ownership, use, or carrying of guns or other weapons.
Massachusetts Bartley-Fox Act (1975): This law mandated prison terms for anyone carrying an unlicensed firearm. In the two-year period following passage of this law and the accompanying publicity, the incidence of assaults with guns was reduced by 13.5 percent.
- Most schools prohibit students from bringing weapons into schools. Methods used to help enforce the prohibition include rules requiring students to carry books in see-through bags rather than solid cloth or opaque containers in which weapons can be hidden, random locker searches, rules prohibiting the wearing of clothing in which weapons can be hidden easily, metal-detector checks of selected classrooms or at selected sites in the school, or even metal detectors at the school entrance.
- Some cities prohibit carrying a firearm within the city limits or carrying a concealed weapon. Recently enacted legislation that increased the penalty for disobeying these laws in Detroit and Massachusetts were apparently effective in reducing the number of homicides and assaults with guns.
Washington, D.C., Prohibition of Handgun Ownership: ln 1976, the District of Columbia banned the purchase, sale, transfer, or possession of handguns by civilians. Although homicide rates remain high in Washington, D.C. "indicating other actions are still necessary" a comparison of homicide rates in the District with rates in the surrounding counties show that the handgun ban had an effect. The homicide rate in the District dropped about 25% promptly after the ban went into effect and has remained lower than expected on the basis of previous rates. An estimated 40 homicides per year have been prevented by the ban on handguns.
- Some laws ban the possession of particular types of guns, such as handguns or machine guns, except for police or others with a demonstrated need. Individuals who wish to buy these types of guns must obtain special permits. These laws are generally called restrictive licensing laws.
Regulation of the Use of and Access to Alcohol -- Alcohol consumption appears to play an important role in many violent situations. Youth who have been drinking are more likely to become involved in physical fights. In all 50 states and the District of Columbia, the minimum drinking age is now 21 years. Laws prohibit the sale or public possession of alcoholic beverages by anyone under the age of 21.
- Twenty-six states currently require a waiting period, a police background check, or both before a handgun may be purchased. For example, in Tennessee, there is a 15-day waiting period to purchase handguns. In Massachusetts, there is no waiting period to purchase any legally sold firearm, but the buyer must have a permit-to-purchase. However, the buyer must wait 40 days after obtaining the permit-to- purchase before any guns can be purchased.
- Local citizens may be aware of a particular gun dealer who is selling to underage youths or otherwise not obeying the local laws concerning the sale of guns and ammunition. These violations can be brought to the attention of the local police. Local police are generally quite willing to enforce the laws against the illegal sale of weapons.
Oregon, Alcohol Server Education Program (503) 653-3030: Since 1987, Oregon law has required servers, managers, and owners of establishments that serve alcohol for on-premise consumption to pass a server education course. Participants are taught about the effects of alcohol on the body and its interaction with other drugs. They also learn about their responsibility to prevent irresponsible drinking. They learn to estimate the drinking capacity of customers, to look for signs of intoxication, to cut off people who have had too much to drink without causing an argument, and to identify minors. Courses include a minimum of 4.5 hours of instruction and participation. The Oregon Liquor Control Commission monitors the classes to assure their quality. The servers, managers, and owners must take the course every 5 years.
- Sale of alcohol to underage youth may be limited by stricter enforcement of laws. As a general rule, regulations are most poorly followed in convenience stores. Establishments that frequently violate the regulations are often known to the local residents and can be targeted by law enforcement officers. Police are much more likely to take the time to enforce the alcohol laws if they know they have strong community support to do so.
- Keg-labeling laws can be established. Liquor stores can be required to increase the deposit and to place a numbered band on beer kegs. The numbered band identifies the purchaser, making it possible to trace and arrest people who supply kegs to underaged drinkers.
- Clubs, organizations, and those sponsoring entertainment events can prohibit the consumption of alcohol on the premises and refuse admittance to youth who have been drinking.
- All states have laws about the liability of alcohol servers for injuries to their patrons or for injuries caused by their patrons because they had too much to drink. These laws can be publicized, better enforced, and, if necessary, strengthened.
- Cooperation between the owners and managers of places that sell or serve alcohol and community organizations concerned about violence could lead to required instruction for servers and managers. Bartenders and managers of drinking establishments or special events can be taught about their important role in the prevention of irresponsible drinking, how to determine if a customer has had too much to drink, and how to detect underage youth.
Other Types of Laws and Regulations -- In addition to regulations concerning weapons and alcohol, other types of regulations may also reduce youth violence. For example, prohibiting corporal punishment and enforcing some dress codes in schools may be helpful.
Los Angeles, California, Challengers Boys Club (213) 971-6141: This club, which offers a wide range of activities for youth who are 6 to 17 years of age, requires that members adhere to strict rules, including restrictions against wearing gang-related clothing. The absence of gang-related clothing helps prevent the group from dividing into pre-established hostile clusters.
- Corporal punishment in schools is now banned in 23 states and in many large cities in other states. Corporal punishment of students by school officials contributes to the perception that fighting and physically injuring another person is acceptable. On occasion, it may actually cause physical injuries.
- Dress codes for organizations or schools may reduce the identification with gangs or make it more difficult to conceal weapons.
Environmental ModificationEnvironmental modification includes changes in both the social and the physical environments.
Modification of the Social Environment -- Methods of changing the social environment of children and adolescents who may be at risk for being violent or for becoming a victim of violence include such activities as providing preschool education and appropriate or therapeutic day care programs for abused children. For older children and adolescents, this includes providing constructive, alternative activities, such as recreational opportunities and employment. Small, personal after-school programs that offer contact with caring adults, counseling, help with homework, and recreation can create a safe, constructive alternative to violent street cultures.
Home Visitation -- Home visitation is an activity that provides services in the home either for an individual or the entire family. Home visitation programs performed during the prenatal and infancy years of the child focus on preventing health and developmental problems in children born to mothers who are teenagers, unmarried, or of low socioeconomic status. These activities have been found effective in preventing child abuse. Because research shows that abused children are more likely to be violent or be victims of violence as adults, prenatal and infancy home visitation programs may be an effective long-term strategy for preventing youth violence. These programs are typically designed to meet the needs of parents for information, emotional support, stress management, and other factors that undermine parents' health habits and the care of their children.
Elmira, New York, The Prenatal/Early Infancy Project (716) 275-3738: This home visitation project was designed to prevent a wide range of health and developmental problems among children born to young, poor, or unmarried women. In this program, nurses visit pregnant women to provide information and support that encourage the mothers to adopt good health habits, learn the skills needed to care for their infant children, get access to needed community services, achieve educational or occupational goals, and prevent unwanted future pregnancies. Home visits begin in the early stages of pregnancy and continue through the second year of life of the child. Evaluation of this project showed that the health and social skills of participants had improved. In addition, there was a substantial reduction in verified oases of child abuse among the children of at-risk women who were visited at home by the nurses.
Preschool Programs Such as Head Start -- Project Head Start is designed to help children of two-income families develop a greater degree of social competence through developing the child's intellectual skills, fostering emotional and social development, meeting the child's health and nutritional needs, and involving parents and the community in these efforts.
A 1990 report of the Milton S. Eisenhower Foundation, which grew out of the bipartisan National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence, reported that preschool programs like Head Start are among the most cost- effective inner-city crime and drug prevention strategies ever developed.
Therapeutic Activities -- Therapeutic activities provide medical, psychological, or other treatment for children who have been abused, injured by violence, or witnessed an unusually violent event. The provision of medical, psychological, and nurturing services helps break the cycle of violence. In addition to child and family counseling, here are several special types of therapeutic services:
Dallas, Texas, Dallas Independent School District Crisis/Management Plan (214) 565-6700: The Dallas Independent School District Crisis Management Plan divides crises into three levels. The most severe level includes terrorist activities or a death at the school. This level also includes severe natural disasters and suicide clusters. For each level, there is a planned coordinated response. The plan includes methods of informing students, families, and the public about the event. It also includes the identification and provision of counseling services to students in need. Each school has a local crisis team. There is also a District crisis team consisting of psychological and social service experts. The District crisis team participates in the most stressful events, such as a death at the school.
- Foster care programs provide basic physical care and safety from abusive parents. They can be very effective if multiple placements are avoided and foster parents are caring and knowledgeable about the needs of the child.
- Respite day care and therapeutic day care provide services in a safe, nurturing, stimulating, organized environment without taking the child entirely out of the home. Day care programs are often the abused child's first contact with other children besides family members. This interaction helps the child adjust to the separation from parents, attain skills during play, and build self-esteem through interaction with peers.
- Residential treatment programs target school-age children with special needs, such as emotional disturbances or substance abuse problems.
- Crisis management services help groups or individuals deal with the anger, fear, sadness, hopelessness, confusion, and irrational thinking associated with witnessing or being victims of violence.
Recreational Activities -- Recreational activities offer young people opportunities to spend time in a structured and purposeful environment. Recreational interventions cannot be considered a sole answer to youth violence. However, activities that provide outlets for tension, stress, or anger and opportunities for social interactions and constructive problemsolving are important parts of a program with other violence prevention components. Many recreational activities are conducted with these goals across the nation in Boys and Girls Clubs, Girl Scouts and Boy Scouts, YMCAs and YWCAs, and local recreation departments.
Columbia, South Carolina, Mid-night Hoops Program (803) 777-5709: The Mid-night Hoops Program is one part of the Five-Point Youth Violence Prevention Program. More than 200 youths, both boys and girls, 12-18 years of age, participate in evening and late night basketball leagues. Practices and games take place at 9 different sites. Officials are trained and employed by the city and county recreation departments. On Fridays, games are played between 10 p.m. and 1:30 a.m.
Work/Academic Experiences -- Student work and volunteer activities that are supported by community organizations have a positive influence on youth. Structured job experiences and volunteer activities connect adolescents with supportive adults who act as role models, mentors, and counselors. All the parties involved benefit from this type of activity: schools, organizations, and students. School personnel learn about commumty resources, and community agency staff learn about the school system. Students learn what a community is and how a neighborhood functions while learning the roles they play in society.
New York City, New York, Early Adolescent Helper Program (212)642-2947: This program places young adolescents (ages 10-15) in responsible and important work in their communities and schools. Students serve as interns, assistants, and helpers two or three times a week in early childhood and after-school child care programs, senior centers, community agencies, and other appropriate settings. They receive training and supervision in weekly seminars conducted at their school. Seminars place a strong emphasis on reflection and analysis of situations that arise from the work and volunteer placeme
Modification of the Physical Environment -- The physical environment does not cause violence, but it may make violent events more or less likely to occur. Some environmental modifications by themselves may appear to merely displace the undesirable behavior to another location. Better lighting on a playground, for example, may move the undesirable activity to another location in a community. Sometimes, however, the new location is less conducive to violence, more difficult to reach, or easier for potential victims to avoid. In these cases, the overall amount of violence may decrease even though some violence has merely moved to a new location. Protective landscaping, changes in traffic flow, speed bumps, dress codes, visible identification cards, and closed- circuit television monitoring are other examples of enviornmental changes. Environmental change may be particularly effective when combined with educational and regulatory strategies.
Ithaca, New York, Cornell University Blue Light System (607) 255-1111: The Blue Light system on the university campus has three components: an emergency phone system, a bus system, and an escort service. The Blue Light phone system has 61 emergency phones outdoors across the campus, placed so that at least one phone is easily visible to pedestrians. Additionally, there are 158 emergency phones in academic buildings and dormitory entrances. All phones are directly connected to the Public Safety Dispatch Office. When callers pick up the receiver or push a special button, they are automatically connected with the Public Safety office. The location of the phone is displayed and recorded automatically. A patrol unit is sent to all calls for assistance and to all hang-up calls.
The Blue Light bus system is a free transportation system that operates every day from 6:00 p.m. to 1:30 a.m. The system operates throughout the campus and fringe areas. Buses have radio contact with Public Safety and Blue Light escorts. The escorts are paid student teams who are available to escort other students on campus between 8:30 p.m. and 1:30 p.m. People can request escorts by calling Public Safety or by using a Blue Light phone.
Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) is a concept that is attracting interest in many police departments. Although its purpose is to prevent crime, the CPTED principle probably will help prevent violence also. CPTED relies primarily on increasing visibility and encouraging a sense of ownership. Undesirable acts are less likely to occur in places where they will be observed, and people naturally use and protect things they own.
Los Angeles, California, Community Youth Gang Services (213) 266-4264: Community Youth Gang Services is a program with many components, but some of the most innovative involve reclaiming the community that has been taken by gangs. One aspect of the program carefully plots on maps the physical areas of the community that are affected by gangs. These areas are targeted for reclaiming, and community residents are mobilized to do that through such activities as a Saturday in the Park, in which a particular day is designated for clean-up of the park and family activities.
- Visibility can be improved by designing areas so that they are more easily observed by people during their normal daily behavior. For example, parking lots could be placed so they can be clearly seen from the school or office building with which they are associated.
- "Visibility" can be improved by attracting more people to the area. For example, volleyball or basketball courts can be placed in the center of parks or playgrounds. The players will make it more difficult for illicit or violent activity to occur unobserved.
- Limiting the ways in which people enter a building also increases visibility. That makes it more difficult for people who do not belong to enter or depart unobserved. Receptionists can be placed at the entryway of schools or offices. The sales desk can be placed near the entrance in stores.
- Creating a sense of ownership will increase the use of the environment for desirable purposes. Cleaning and maintaining an area may give a sense of ownership.
- Changing traffic flow can make a neighborhood belong more to the residents. Limiting the number of through streets, making one-way streets, creating dead-ends, and narrowing the entrances to some streets can reduce traffic by nonresidents. This helps residents feel like the neighborhood is their own.
Another activity of this program is the removal of graffiti. Community Youth Gang Services staff have the professional staff and equipment to eradicate graffiti without damaging surfaces. Staff hires and supervises local youth and selected youth on probation to do this task.
Combining Activities for an Effective ProgramThe activities listed in this manual are presented individually so that the reader can investigate the different types of activities available to communities. In reality, activities are rarely conducted independently. Effective programs combine a number of activities to render the maximum impact on the problem and reach as many young people as possible. There are a number of examples of programs that combine three, four, or five strategies that have been discussed.
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, House of Umoja Boystown (215) 473-5893: The House of Umoja Boystown is a home for African-American boys in Philadelphia, an area with high numbers of youth in gangs. In addition to providing a home with food and shelter, the program offers extensive services that offer emotional and spiritual support. These services cover a number of the types of activities described earlier in these guidelines, such as outreach, educational activities, recreational opportunities, and work/academic opportunities.
Some of the program activities of the House of Umoja Boystown include remedial education in subjects such as reading and mathematics, preparation for taking graduate equivalency examinations, vocational education, life skills training, job training and placement, planning for reintegration into the community, training in stress and aggression control, values clarification, problem-solving, communication, and conflict resolution. The program has organized many recreational opportunities, including the Black Youth Olympics in which the youth of Philadelphia competed with youth from other cities.
Boston, Massachusetts, The Violence Prevention Project (617) 534-5196: The Violence Prevention Project in Boston, Massachusetts, is a multi- institutional, community-based program designed to reduce the incidence of interpersonal violence among adolescents, along with associated medical and social hazards. The major activity used in this program is a violence prevention curriculum that focuses on conflict resolution. However, in the initial phases of development, it became apparent that a school-based activity was not enough and activities in the community were added to reinforce nonviolent options learned in the classroom.
Staff from the program train providers in diverse community settings in the use of the curriculum's strategies. They also help providers find ways to incorporate these strategies into the delivery of services to adolescents and encourage consensus from the community that supports the prevention of violence. As a result, educational materials are available in waiting areas of health centers, and staff at these centers offer violence prevention counseling. This program also includes activities at Boston City Hospital. Adolescents are screened in the emergency room to identify those at high risk of violence, and a special violence prevention clinic at the hospital offers services to these adolescents. Services include comprehensive assessment, educational interventions, counseling, therapy, and referral to other community services.
Chicago, Illinois, African-American Male Education Network (AMEN) (708) 720-0235: The African-American Male Education Network centers its activities on Rites of Passage programs,which foster self-esteem and pride in one's cultural heritage and provides guidance for youth as they move from one stage of life to another. The program provides the guidance and support to overcome the confusion and frustration that lead to youth choosing destructive alternatives and alternatives such as violence,
gangs, and substance abuse. The program accomplishes these goals through education, teaching life and social skills, and mentoring. Los Angeles, California, Community Youth Gang Services (213) 266-4264 The Community Youth Gang Services (CYGS) of Los Angeles is a program with many activities. CYGS has crisis intervention teams that negotiate disputes among gangs in the target area and try to convince youth not to join gangs. The program also has activities to reclaim areas of the community from gangs, areas such as parks or playgrounds that were not considered safe because of gang activity. Volunteers work with program staff and local agencies and community groups to develop cultural, recreational, and other activities that are alternatives to gang involvement. Educational programs in the schools are complemented with parent education and teacher education. In the June 17, 1993job development section of the program, staff work with youth to prepare them for employment and also encourage local employers to hire youth. One other active part of the program is the removal of graffiti from community landmarks. Staff hire youth in the community to do this task under professional supervision. This program has an aggressive outreach effort that works continually in the community to discourage gang membership and direct youth already in gangs to other activities.
Program ManagementCertain steps are necessary in building a successful community program to prevent youth violence. These steps, which are essentially the same for all community-action activities, are based on two principles:
- Community programs require the input of the entire community.
- A problem must be clearly identified before it can be addressed.
Community OwnershipA united community can produce powerful changes. Even large and complicated problems like violence can be reduced by the creative energy of a community. One necessary ingredient is the participation of many residents. Community-based health promotion programs in other areas have been effective because they combined the efforts of many different organizations and individuals. In these programs, diverse organizations and individuals recognize their common interest and work together for a common purpose. A single individual or organization may provide the initial stimulus or the ongoing leadership, but sustained and effective community-wide action depends upon the coordinated efforts of many individuals and groups.
In the process of building a community effort, you should do the following:
Throughout the life of the program, one of the major challenges will be to maintain a productive working relationship among all individuals and organizations interested in working to prevent youth violence.
- Keep leadership and ownership of the program at the community level. Many organizations and government agencies may provide support or be involved, but the community should be the leader. Community ownership is the best way to assure that the violence prevention program becomes a permanent program in the community.
- While keeping leadership of the program at the community level, do not miss opportunities to gain the support and resources that can be provided through the involvement of government agencies or private organizations, such as businesses and churches.
- Include young people of the community in as many parts of the program as possible. They are the most important target group and can be a big help to the program.
- Establish a leadership and organizational structure. Initially, both leadership and organizational structure are likely to be informal and flexible. As the program grows, they become more formal. Members of the target population, neighborhood, or community must be part of the leadership group.
- Determine the resources available to you. Resources may be divided into three groups: money, ideas, and people. All three types of resources may be scarce. In addition, the need for each type of resource will vary at different stages of program development. Groups or organizations that may be available to supply some of the necessary resources are listed in (Table 4). Not every group on the list is appropriate for every community. Most communities will also have unique organizations and individuals who are not on the list but should be included.
- Coordinate efforts. The carefully planned and coordinated activities of multiple groups, each doing a little bit, accomplish more than the same efforts applied in an uncoordinated fashion.
Defining the ProblemAn accurate description of the problem of violence among youth in the community will help you:
As members of the community, you have good insight into what information will best describe the problem of youth violence in your community. There is no "scientific" formula for collecting this information -- it mostly requires patience and work. Providing training to community people who seek this information will help ensure its quality. People who participate in this process will be interested in the results; therefore, it is important to share the results of the process with community members at open meetings.
- Determine where the problem is greatest
- Identify appropriate action
- Develop program objectives that are realistic and appropriate
- Measure progress toward meeting the objectives
- Market or "sell" your program to potential volunteers, supporters, community leaders, and people or organizations that may provide funds or other resources
There are several types of information that help describe the nature and extent of the problem in a community. There is factual information from statistical records and opinions about the nature of the problem from people in the community (Table 5).
Factual InformationFactual information can describe: The outcome of violent events, such as those that cause injuries and deaths. This information can be obtained from the vital statistics division of the state or local health departments, medical examiner records, hospital or emergency room records, outpatient records from public or private clinics, emergency medical service (ambulance) records, and school nurse records. Once you have these statistics, it may be helpful to compare them with state and national data, if possible, to see how your community compares with other areas. When possible, collect information specific to the neighborhood -- for example, incident reports from local schools.
It is usually best to begin with statistics on the number of violence related injuries and deaths. When these are described as well as possible, then look for information about the times, places, and circumstances of the events.
- The time, place, and circumstances of violent events (e.g., fights over girl- or boyfriends, fights over clothing, fights about drugs, fights between gangs). This information is not routinely assembled. However, you may find this information by reviewing police records, hospital records, or school records. This type of information may help identify times, places, or circumstances that deserve special attention.
Opinions from Members of the CommunityYou must learn what your community members see as a problem and what they think is causing the problem. You can find this out through surveys of residents and discussions with community leaders, school personnel, legal and police personnel, health workers, and parents. For example, ask school principals and guidance counselors about the violence they see in the schools and listen to their ideas for reducing it. It is also important to talk to children and adolescents themselves, particularly those who might be in trouble or at risk for trouble (for example, those who are expelled from school). Contact youth and their parents in as many community sites as possible, including supermarkets and shopping areas, basketball courts and other recreational areas, churches, schools, and homes. Local schools and universities may be able to help with opinion surveys.
- The results of opinion surveys reflect the personal beliefs, viewpoints, and judgments of community members, including victims, offenders, community leaders, and, most importantly, young people.
- People who respond to such surveys will give you valuable information about knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs concerning violence in the community. They will also identify what is acceptable in the community and how certain activities may be perceived by community members.
- Be sure that workers collecting the information have credibility in the community.
Community Background InformationOther types of information on such topics as racism, poverty, unemployment, and other social, cultural, or economic factors provide helpful background information about the community and the problem of violence. Some of this information can be obtained through the U.S. Census (available through your local library), the Department of Labor employment statistics, and from the Department of Housing and Urban Development. When approaching an organization, ask for information specifically related to the institution. For example, ask schools about attendance, truancy, suspensions, expulsions, and failures.
The information you acquire from opinion surveys of local leaders and citizens is valuable and may not be available anywhere else. Academic institutions or university research organizations in the community may be able to help you obtain and assemble this type of information.
Data PresentationStatistics from public sources are usually set up for the needs of the particular agency or organization. They may not be tabulated, explained, or displayed in ways that you need. You can ask, but do not expect the people or the organizations from whom you get data to modify it for your use. You may find it useful to include people in your effort who have the data or who know how to organize, interpret, and use it.
The causes of violent behavior are multiple and complex. The combination of statistics and opinions is important when you are deciding what you want to do. Statistics will suggest several possible areas for activities. However, the opinions from the community may identify information not provided by the statistics and could indicate the areas that should be addressed first. In addition, information about the community is a powerful tool to convince law-makers and other decision-makers about the importance of the problem and the need to address it.
(Table 5) Sources of Information to Describe the Problem.
Goals and ObjectivesEffective community programs have both goals and objectives. A goal is a broad, general statement about what the program is designed to accomplish. Goals determine the direction of the program. Objectives are statements of specific things to be achieved by a specific time, and they determine what activities the community will do.
Example: Goal--Reduce violent behavior in the schools. Objective--In the 1994-95 school year, 100 eighth grade students will study the curriculum on nonviolent conflict resolution.
An objective should tell who should achieve how much of what, where, and by when.
As you develop goals and objectives, the following guidelines should be helpful:
- who means the individuals or groups expected to accomplish a task or change a behavior.
- What tells the desired action, such as a change in behavior or health practice. The what should be based on your list of priorities. At least one of the objectives should be a change in an important health event such as injuries from fights. Other objectives might relate to the number of fights, the number of students who learn how to avoid a fight, or even the number of students who take a class about avoiding fights.
- How much indicates the amount of change you expect. This amount partially depends on available resources.
- When means the time by which the desired action or change will be attained. The time will depend on a number of factors -- including the resources available to make the change.
- Where indicates a geographical area such as a county, city, school system, or neighborhood that has been identified as the target community.
(Table 6) shows how objectives flow from a goal. Objectives are important because they clarify the tasks that need to be done, call attention to areas of needed effort, and document the progress of the program and its activities.
- Ensure that program members agree upon goals and major objectives. The goals and objectives need to be consistent with the overall goals and objectives of each participating group. However, they do not need to include all the goals and objectives of each individual organization. Participating groups need to recognize their common interests but they cannot be expected to have all their interests in common.
- Create objectives that fit the unique characteristics and resources of the community.
- Modify the objectives as new information becomes available, as resources change, or as activities go faster or slower than planned. No program ever goes exactly as planned.
- Make objectives detailed enough so you can see what steps need to be taken to successfully implement the activities.
- Do not create objectives just to satisfy someone else's research objective. (Be smart, however. Do not miss an opportunity to get resources if it only requires minor additions or modifications to your program.)
- If appropriate, divide objectives into categories depending upon whether they pertain to health effects (e.g., injuries), behaviors (e.g., fights), participation (e.g., students in a class), or other aspects of the program (e.g., the number of newspaper articles published on violence).
(Table 6) is a possible final objective, Often several intermediate objectives (steps) must be achieved first to ultimately meet the final objective.
- By 1993, principals will have placed posters about the policy forbidding weapons in schools in all classrooms and on all public announcement boards in all Ajax County high schools.
What: Put up posters
How much: Every classroom and on every public announcement board
Where: Ajax County high schools
Who: School administrators
- By 1994, school administrators will enforce the policy forbidding bringing weapons into all Ajax County high schools.
What: Enforce policy forbidding weapons
How much: All high schools
When: By 1994
Where: Ajax County high schools
Who: High school students
- By 1995, the number of knives and guns confiscated from Ajax County high school students will be reduced from 6 per month to 2 per month.
What: Number of knives and guns confiscated
How much: Reduce from an average of 6 per month to 2 per month
When: By 1995
Where: Ajax County schools
As you can see from this example, an objective:
- Is specific and quantitative. It specifies the group involved, a single result, and a target date.
- Tells what will happen and when, not why or how this should be done.
- Is readily understandable to those involved.
- Is realistic, attainable, yet a challenge.
- Identifies criteria for evaluating achievement.
Locating Resources for your ProgramYou will need many resources to run a community violence prevention program. The greatest resource you can have is the time and efforts of community people. There are also a number of resources, such as office space, equipment, and supplies, that may be donated by organizations that cannot contribute money to a program. All these resources cost real dollars if they are not donated. Therefore, their contribution is very important. Although having funds will allow you to conduct more activities and reach more people, money does not assure success.
There are two major sources of funds for community programs: public and private (Table 7). Public funds come from federal, state, or local governments. Particularly in tight financial times, government funds often go to support existing programs. In addition, because people administering public funds are held accountable to the public for their management, government agencies usually retain a great deal of control over how the money is spent.
Private funds come from a number of private organizations, such as foundations, corporations and other businesses, voluntary organizations, charitable institutions, churches, and a wide variety of local concerns. Usually private organizations are more flexible than public agencies in the types of programs they fund and in the management of the program.
Your own program can also raise funds by sponsoring events that bring attention to the program and also raise money. For example, you can conduct walk-a-thons or community road races, solicit pledges through media programs, conduct bake sales, or conduct contests or raffles with prizes donated by local businesses. Although the amount of money raised in this manner varies, the community's willingness to participate and to take on responsibility provides your program a good record when you approach private or public organizations to request funding. In fact, some granting organizations require that a percentage of the program's costs be provided by the community or other sources.
Private OrganizationsCommunity Organization -- Many organizations within local communities want to help worthy causes, often because of their sense of "corporate citizenship." You should consider the following types of organizations as possible sources of funding:
Some organizations may not have funds to contribute, but may donate facilities, equipment, or labor. Because these resources would probably cost a program real dollars to acquire, their donation is as good as money.
- Businesses (including banks)
- Civic organizations, such as the Kiwanis and Lions Clubs
- Religious organizations
- Local divisions of state or national voluntary organizations (such as the American Heart Association and the American Cancer Society)
- Hospitals and other health care facilities
- Local television and radio stations and newspapers (Community media often contribute publicity and the help of local media personalities for community efforts.)
- Schools, including local colleges and universities with programs aimed at violence prevention (Educational organizations often provide volunteers as well as conduct fund-raising activities through student organizations.)
- Community service organizations, such as sororities, fraternities, and associations of retired teachers.
Community organizations may not require formal grant proposals or extensive written requests. However, you must convince the person making decisions that the project is good for the community. Also, these organizations are not easily located. One of the best ways to find them is to talk with people who are likely to know about different kinds of community organizations and their leaders. You can also contact people with authority in organizations that have donated to local activities in the past.
Foundations -- The sole purpose of foundations is philanthropic giving. One major advantage to grants from foundations is that it is usually easier to request money from foundations than from public agencies. Foundations also have the reputation for funding programs with good ideas but little experience. They are more likely to take a chance on a new organization.
Because foundations may support only specific types of projects or projects in certain geographic areas, it is important to find out what foundations support violence prevention projects. The Foundation Center is an authoritative guide to foundations and provides detailed information on the interests and restrictions of individual foundations and on the money they have granted.
The Foundation Center has four main offices as well as libraries in all 50 states. To locate the nearest library, call 1-800-424-9836. You can also find listings of foundations and information on what they support in your local library.
After identifying a potential foundation funding source, write a letter to the foundation that briefly states what you want to do in the community and ask whether the foundation is interested in this type of project. Through this inquiry, you will also find out how to submit a grant proposal.
Corporations -- Large business and nonprofit organizations in the United States donate a great deal of money each year. You may find a large company with facilities in your community, such as a factory or major distribution office, that is interested in donating money to your program.
Public AgenciesLocal Agencies--
Local agencies are potential sources for funding. These agencies include:
State Agencies -- State funding sources are often difficult to locate. Few states publish a directory of available funds. However, you may find funding sources through personal contacts, such as local elected officials. The Public Health Foundation compiles information on what program areas are funded in each state. You can reach the Foundation at (202) 898-5600.
- Local health department
- Department of housing
- Departments of human or social services
- Department of parks and recreation
- Department of education or school boards
In addition, each state receives Federal funds in the form of block grants. These block grants are divided into four areas: preventive health; maternal and child health; alcohol, drug abuse, and mental health; and primary care. For information about these block grants, you can contact the appropriate administrative agency:
Federal Agencies --
- Preventive Health
Centers for Disease Control
Procurement and Grants Office
255 East Paces Ferry Road, NE
Atlanta, GA 30305
- Maternal and Child Health
Health Resources and Services Administration
Division of Maternal and Child Health
5600 Fishers Lane
Rockville, MD 20857
- Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration
Division of Grants and Contract Management
5600 Fishers Lane
Rockville, MD 20857
- Primary Care
Health Resources and Services Administration
Division of Primary Care Services
5600 Fishers Lane
Rockville, MD 20857
As discussed under state agencies, Federal funds in the form of block grants are distributed through the states. However, there are additional grants and contracts distributed through individual Federal agencies. There are several sources for finding these federal agencies. Agencies solicit proposals and grant applications in the Federal Register and the Commerce Business Daily. Expect to devote considerable time to researching this information.
Subscriptions to the Federal Register and the Commerce Business Daily can be ordered from the Government Printing Office by calling (202) 783-3238. (Stock number for this document is 941-001-00005-0.) However, these subscriptions are expensive. You may find it more practical to review these publications in your local library.
The Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance is an annual publication that describes major Federal grants and contracts. This publication includes eligibility requirements, criteria for selection, financial information, and contacts. Because this information could become outdated quickly, you should contact the agencies involved before submitting a proposal. The Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance can be obtained by calling the Government Printing Office at (202) 783-3238. (Stock number for this document is 941-001-00005-0.)
Other Federal agencies and organizations that have an interest in violence programs are listed here. These programs may not provide grant money or may have very restrictive qualifications for grantees. You should write the agency or talk with someone there to determine whether they are interested in your program.
- Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration
Division of Applied Sciences and Services
National Institute of Mental Health
5600 Fishers Lane, Room 18-105
Rockville, MD 20857
- Division of Biometry and Epidemiology
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
5600 Fishers Lane, Room 14C-26
Rockville, MD 20857
- AGENCY FOR HEALTH CARE POLICY AND RESEARCH
2101 East Jefferson Street, Suite 600
Rockville, MD 20852
- CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL
Division of Adolescent and School Health
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
Mail Stop K-33
Centers for Disease Control
1600 Clifton Road, N.E.
Atlanta, GA 30333
_ Division of Injury Control
National Center for Environmental Health and Injury Control
Mail Stop F-36
1600 Clifton Road, NE
Centers for Disease Control
Atlanta GA 30333
- HEALTH RESOURCES AND SERVICES ADMINISTRATION
Maternal and Child Health Bureau
Health Resources and Services Administration
5600 Fishers Lane, Room 9-31
Rockville, MD 20857
- INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE
Indian Health Service
Parklawn Building 6A-54
5600 Fishers Lane
Rockville, MD 20857
- NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
CRMC, National Institute of Child Health and Development
National Institutes of Health
Executive Plaza North, Room 633D
6130 Executive Blvd.
Bethesda, MD 20892
- OFFICE OF MINORITY HEALTH
Office of Minority Health
Hubert Humphrey Building, Room 118-F
200 Independence Avenue, SW
Washington, D.C. 20201
- OFFICE OF THE SURGEON GENERAL
Office of the Surgeon General
Hubert Humphrey Building, Room 718-E
200 Independence Avenue, SW
Washington, D.C. 20201
Monitoring the Progress of Your ProgramProgram monitoring or evaluation is essential. It helps you adjust your program to meet unanticipated circumstances. We monitor things daily, which is how we improve things. Monitoring also enables the workers, the funding agencies, and, most importantly, the community members to know whether the program is making progress. Monitoring includes the collection of both objective data (e.g., the number of children who took a conflict resolution class) and subjective data (e.g., the number of students who say they are less likely to get into a fight). Monitoring should indicate whether your activities are on track and whether the intended outcomes are being achieved. Here are some of the questions that should be answered:
One of the major difficulties in violence prevention is that very few activities have been proven to work. Although some appear promising, thorough scientific evaluations of these programs are badly needed. However, such evaluations are complicated, expensive, and often too difficult for a community to do alone. Communities with a local university have a good opportunity to develop a community/academic partnership. In this type of relationship, the university could help design and carry out detailed evaluation of the community's violence prevention program.
- Have the activities or interventions been implemented? For example: Has the conflict resolution curriculum actually been used?
- Has the activity been properly implemented? For example: Were teaching materials provided? Were the teachers trained? Were the classes given in all the schools? Did all eighth grade students take the classes?
- Did the activity achieve its intermediate objectives? For example: Did the students pass the test at the end of the course?
- Did the activity achieve its long-term objectives? For example: Were there fewer fights in school and on the school grounds?
Even communities with limited resources must monitor and evaluate their progress. The specific evaluation activities undertaken and data collected are determined by the goals and objectives of the program. At the very least, community-based programs should do the following to monitor their progress:
- Examine the objectives. Properly prepared objectives will help identify the information necessary to determine whether the program is on track. Keep records and collect data to see whether the objectives are being achieved.
- Keep records of what has happened during all phases of the program.
- Review your data regularly to be sure things are on track.
- Keep regularly recorded notes by the staff, volunteers, or participants to provide an ongoing history of what has taken place.
- Use data to make decisions about day-to-day activities. If the available data are not helping the program with day-to-day decisions, then decide what information will help and collect that.
- Decide early in the program what things need to be counted (e.g., number of students in class, the number of fights). Count them.
- A behavioral objective (e.g., reduced number of fights) or health objective (e.g., fewer injuries) may not be met for two reasons. One reason is that the activity simply does not work. Another reason is that the activity has not been properly done. Use collected data to help you determine whether the activity has been properly carried out, or whether it simply does not work in your community.
- Rarely are data collected, tabulated, interpreted, and printed in a manner that precisely matches the stated objectives of the program. Sometimes the data are available in files or various records but need to be extracted and assembled. Rearrange data into a useful format.
ConclusionEffective community programs must do two general things:
The descriptions of the strategies provide a "menu" of violence prevention activities that may be appropriate for your community. Few of these activities are scientifically proven, but they appear promising. Many can be adapted to the specific needs of most communities. The chapter on "Program Management" provides suggestions about how to define the problem, select activities, get them started, and see them through to success. In general, one should strive to do the following:
- Include activities that are appropriate for the community and the problem.
- Create the organization to carry out the activities effectively.
To be successful, a program also requires attention day by day. Here are a few suggestions:
- Empower the community to take active leadership, responsibility, and control of the program.
- Enlist and coordinate multiple community organizations and groups.
- Include many activities targeted at specific risk groups in a variety of settings.
- Support individual behavioral change through policy and environmental change.
- Provide necessary training for all community people, both volunteers and professionals, who are working in the program.
- Be flexible. Nothing goes exactly as planned. Make adjustments but do not lose sight of the long-term goal.
- Seek new individuals and organizations to broaden the scope of the program and enhance the probability of its success.
- Search for ways to provide special training and specific experience for the workers. Violence prevention is a new area and few experienced and trained people are available. The natural talents of many of the workers often can be rapidly improved with training. In particular, staff members might receive conflict resolution training.
- Listen to your coworkers. They know the community. They often have original and practical ideas.
- Be alert for and seek new resources. Do not lose sight of the long-term goal, but be willing to bend a little or add a little in order to get the resources to move the whole program ahead.
- Set up numerous milestones so that workers can appreciate their progress. Violence is a big problem. For a community effort to work, the problem needs to be divided into pieces that are small enough to be realistically addressed with goals that have a chance of being reached. Success builds enthusiasm and commitment.
- Continually evaluate the progress of the program. Note whether the objectives are being reached.
- Be persistent. However, do not set impossible goals and objectives.
- Design activities for hard-to-reach groups who are also the groups most at risk of violence. Outreach activities are necessary to help youth in gangs or those who are separated from the mainstream: the homeless, runaways, or youth who are out of school.
- When you do not know what to do, ask someone for help. If you do not know who to ask, call one of the projects mentioned in this manual or listed in the appendix.
Other Useful Things To ReadBrown CR. The art of coalition building: A guide for community leaders. New York: The American Jewish Committee, 1984.
Dyal WW. Program management: A guide for improving program decisions. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control, Public Health Program Office.
Green LW, Kreuter MW. Health promotion planning: An educational and environmental approach. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Co., 1991.
Milton S. Eisenhower Foundation. Youth investment and community reconstruction: Street lessons on drugs and crime for the nineties. Washington, D.C.: Milton S. Eisenhower Foundation, 1990.
National Crime Prevention Council. Preventing Violence: Program ideas and examples. Order from the National Crime Prevention Council, 1700 K Street, NW, Second Floor, Washington, D.C. 20006-3817
The National Youth Gang Suppression and Intervention Program in cooperation with the U.S. Justice Department has developed a number of reports on youth gangs, how cities have responded to the problem of gangs, and community mobilization. You can order these reports by contacting:
University of Chicago
School of Social Service Administration
National Youth Gang Project
969 East 60th Street
Chicago, Illinois 60637
Newman O. Defensible space: Crime prevention through urban design. New York: Macmillan, 1972.
Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Locating funds for health promotion projects. ODPHP National Health Information Center, P.O. Box 1133, Washington, D.C. 20013-1133.
Wilson-Brewer R, Cohen S, O'Donnell LO, Goodman IF. Violence prevention for young adolescents: A survey of the state of the art. Working papers from the Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development. Carnegie Corporation, 2400 N Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037-1153 (202) 429-7979
Appendix: Activities in the United States To Prevent Youth ViolenceThe following lists of community programs designed to prevent youth violence will help other communities that want to start activities locate programs that are of interest and talk to the people involved. Several points to keep in mind:
- Programs included are not promoted by the Public Health Service or the Centers for Disease Control as the answer to any one community's problems. Very few violence prevention programs have been evaluated. In addition, programs that work in one community may need to be tailored to fit another community's needs.
- Programs are listed by the strategies discussed in these guidelines. Because many programs have more than one strategy, some programs will be listed in a number of places.
- The programs listed are those that CDC has been involved in or that have been reported to CDC by various organizations across the country. The list is by no means complete. If you have a program that you would like listed, please fill in the form at the end of this appendix and send to the address given. Please feel free to duplicate this form and pass along to other interested organizations.
Tables that identify each Program(Table 8) - Mentoring
(Table 9) - Conflict Resolution
(Table 10) - Training in Life and Social Skills
(Table 11) - Education to Reduce Injuries from Firearms
(Table 12) - Parenting
(Table 13) - Peer Education
(Table 14) - Public Information and Education Campaigns
(Table 15) - Legal and Administrative Strategies
(Table 16) - Therapeutic Activities
(Table 17) - Recreational Activities
(Table 18) - Work Opportunities
(Table 19) - Modification of the Physical Environment
If you want to list your violence prevention program, please fill out the following form and send to:
Name of the program:
- Division of Injury Control, National Center for Environmental Health and Injury Control, Centers for Disease Control, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30333
Sponsoring organization (if any):
We would appreciate your helping us improve subsequent versions of this manual by taking a few minutes to answer the following questions:
What did you find about the manual that was most helpful?
What did you find least helpful?
How would you improve this manual?
POINT OF CONTACT FOR THIS DOCUMENT:To request a copy of this document or for questions concerning this document, please contact the person or office listed below. If requesting a document, please specify the complete name of the document as well as the address to which you would like it mailed. Note that if a name is listed with the address below, you may wish to contact this person via CDC WONDER/PC e-mail.
Office of Communication Resources
National Center for Injury Prevention and Control
Centers for Disease Control
4770 Buford Highway, MS K-65
Atlanta, GA 30341
Table 1Table 1. List of Possible Target Groups ==================================================================== General population of youth Youth with high-risk behaviors -------------------------------------------------- . juvenile offenders . youth with histories of fighting or victimization . drug/alcohol abusers . drug dealers . weapon carriers . gang members . school dropouts . unemployed youths . homeless youth . relocated and immigrant youth Young children (10 years or less) -------------------------------------- . abused or neglected children . children who have witnessed violence . children with behavioral problems Other target groups ---------------------------- . family members . special groups of adults . general population ====================================================================
Table 2Table 2. Settings Where Target Groups May Be Reached ============================================================================================ Setting General Population Youth with High Young Children in of Youth Risk Behaviors General Populations -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Schools X X X Homes X X X Religious X X X organizations Streets and X X public areas Playgrounds X X X Day care centers X Juvenile justice X facilities Medical care facilities X X X Community and X X recreation centers Mental health facilities X Social service facilities X X ============================================================================================
Table 3Table 3. Types of Strategies ========================================================================================================== Education Legal/Regulatory Change Environmental Modification ----------- ------------------------ --------------------------- Adult Mentoring: Regulate the Use of and- Modify the Social Environment: Conflict Resolution: Access to Weapons: - Home Visitations Training in Social Skill: - Weaponless schools - Preschool programs such as Firearm Safety: - Control of concealed weapons Head Start Parenting Centers: - Restrictive licensing - Therapeutic activities Peer Education: - Appropriate sale of guns - Recreational activities Public Information and- - Work/Academic experiences Education Campaigns: Regulate the Use of and- Modify the Physical Environment: Access to Alcohol: - Make risk areas visible - Appropriate sale of alcohol - Increase use of an area - Prohibition or control of - Limit building entrances and exits alcohol sales at events - Creates sense of ownership - Training of severs Other Types of Regulations - Appropriate punishment in schools - Dress codes =========================================================================================================
Table 4Table 4. Community Organizations That May Be Interested In Helping Prevent Youth Violence ===================================================================================================== Government and Community Agencies Professional Groups and Organizations ---------------------------------- ----------------------- - Health Department - Medical Associations including - Social Service Agencies associations of black physicians - Mental Health Agencies - Nursing Association - Police Depaartment - Legal Association - Judicial System - Social Workers Association - Fire Department - Morticians - Housing Authority - Secondary and Elementary Schools - Alternative Schools - Agricultural Extension Service Private Organizations (for profit or nonprofit) - Tribal Councils ------------------------------------------------ - Neighborohood Associations - Foundations - Tenant Councils - NAACP - Urban League - Churches/Religious organizations Volunteer Service Associations - General and Specialty Hospitals, including ------------------------------- Mental Health Hospitals - Veterans's Organizations - Colleges and Universities - Salvation Army - Local Businesses - Goodwill Industries - MediaOrganizations Including Newspaper, - Fraternities/Sororities Radio, and Television - 100 Black Men/Women - YMCA/YWCA - Links - Entertainers - National Network of Runaway and - Professional Sports Organizations Youth Services Clubs ------------ - Big Brother/Big Sister - Boys Club/Girls Club - Girl Scouts/Boy Scouts - Other Youth Clubs =====================================================================================================
Table 5Table 5. Sources of Information To Describe the Problem ====================================================================== Health Outcome Information - Health department-vital statistics (mortality information) - Medical examiner - Hospital or emergency room records - Outpatient records from public and private clinics - Emergency medical service (ambulance) records - School records Information that Describes the Violent Event or Its Causes - School records-attendance, truancy, suspensions, expulsions, failures - Substance abuse clinics - Police and legal system- assaults, domestic violence calls - Firearm sales Opinion Information - Discussions with community leaders (political, religious) - Discussions with school personnel, legal and police personnel, health workers, parents) - Discussions with all types of youth in the community, including those who are imprisoned, expelled from school, or otherwise in trouble - Opinion surveys of the general population - Focus groups Community Background Information - U.S. Census - Department of Labor - Department of Housing and Urban Development - Schools - Churches - Community businesses ======================================================================
Table 6Table 6. Example of Objectives Growing from a Goal =========================================================================== Goal: Reducing injuries fron fights in schools. Example: By 1996, the number of visits by high school students to the school nurse for injuries related to weapons violence in Ajax County will be reduced from an average of 2 per month to an average of 1 per month. Who: High school students What: Injuries related to weapons violence How much: Reduce from an average of 2 visits per month to 1 visit per month Where: Ajax County ===========================================================================
Table 7Table 7. Potential Sources for Funding or Donated Services =========================================================================== Private Organizations ---------------------- Community Organizations -- Businesses and banks, civic organizations, churches, local divisions of state or national voluntary organizations, professional organizations, hospitals and health care facilities, local media, private schools and universities Foundations -- Call 1-800-424-9836 to locate the Foundation Center library nearest you. Corporations -- Approach any corporations, especially those with offices in your community. Public Agencies ---------------- Local Agencies -- Health Department, police and fire departments, housing department, department of human or social services, department of parks and recreation, schools State Agencies (including those dispersing Federal block grants) -- State health departments, state attorney general's offices, state social service agencies, state maternal and child health agencies, state department of recreation, state department of labor Federal Agencies -- Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration Agency for Health Care Policy and Research Centers for Disease Control Health Resources and Services Administration Indian Health Service National Institutes of Health Office of Minority Health Office of the Surgeon General ===========================================================================
Table 8TABLE 8 Mentoring ====================================================================================================================================== Name Target Group Setting Description Black Male Youth Project Males, ages 11-17 Elementary and secondary Mentoring 1510 9th Street N.W. schools, homes, churches, Washington, DC 20077 youth organizations (202) 332-0213 Breakthrough Foundation: Youth, ages 13-21 Wilderness retreat, Mentoring Youth at Risk community Also: Wilderness course 1952 Lombard St. stressing rules, San Francisco, CA 94123 responsibility, reliance on (415) 673-01 71 group Go to High School, Go to College Adolescent African- High school, middle school Mentoring Atlanta, GA American males (404) 766-5744 Project 2000 Elementary school-age Elementary schools Mentoring Center for Educating males, mostly from single- African-American Males, parent, female-headed Morgan State University, homes School of Education in Urban Studies 3083 Jenkins Hail Baltimore, MD 21239 (410) 319-3275 Project Image African-American males, Churches Mentoring 765 E. 69th Place, ages 8 - 18 Chicago, IL 60637 (312) 324-8700 Project PEACE Elementary and high school Schools, Mentoring 534 E. 37th Street, 1st Floor, students near public public housing Chicago,IL 60653 housing Also: Peer leadership, peer (312) 791-4768 mediation, Rites of Passage, grief counseling, life training Project RAISE Youth with high-risk School, home Mentoring 605 N. Eutaw, St., behaviors in fifth, sixth, Baltimore, MD 21201 and seventh grades (410) 685-8316 Project RAP African-American males, Community, Mentoring (Reaching Adulthood Prepared) ages 12-17 church Timothy Baptist Church 481 Timothy Road Athens, GA 30606 (404) 549-1435 Safe Kids/Safe Neighborhoods Youth of all ages Community Mentoring; New York City Department of Health Also: Conflict resolution, Box 46, 125 Worth Street social skills training, parent New York, NY 10013 training and support, job (212) 566-6121 or 566-8003 training, peer leadership training, recreation YES! Atlanta 13- to 18-year olds from Housing projects Mentoring 955 Spring Street housing projects Also: Tutoring for school Atlanta, GA 30309 and job skills (404) 874-6996 Young Men's Project African-American males Elementary and secondary Mentoring 3030 W. Harrison St., schools Also: Curriculum Chicago, IL 60612 6000 S. Wentworth Ave., Chicago. IL 60621 ======================================================================================================================================
Table 9Table 9 Conflict Resolution =============================================================================================================================================================== Name Target Group Setting Description --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Boston Conflict Resolution Program Elementary school children School Conflict resolution training, Boston Area Educators and teachers Also: Teacher training for Social Responsibility programs, support groups. 11 Garden Street peer mediation Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (617) 492-8820 Children's Creative Response to Conflict Early elementary school School Conflict resolution, Also: Box 271,523 N. Broadway, Nyack, NY 109(]0 children Classroom workshops that (914) 358-4601 emphasize cooperation, communication Committee for Children Preschoolers, School Curriculum on conflict 172 20th Avenue elementary school children resolution, empathy, anger Seattle. Washington 98122 management (800) 634-4449 Community Youth Gang Services Project Gang members, Street outreach, Crisis intervention and 144 S. FetteHy Ave., Broadway, potential gang members neighborhood programs mediation; Also: Nyack, NY 10960 Job counseling, (914) 358-4601 environmental barriers, recreation opportunities Grant Middle School Students Middle schools Conflict resolution training Conflict Resolution Training 2400 Grant Boulevard, Syracuse, NY 13208 (315) 435-4433 Hartford Adolescent Violence Adolescents Schools, recreation Conflict resolution; Also Prevention Project programs, youth service Link with social support The Connecticut Childhood Injury agencies, churches, and Services, public awareness Prevention Center clubs campaign 80 Seymour St. Hartford, Connecticut 06115 Hawaii Mediation Program Students High schools Conflict resolution training Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Also: Student mediators West Hall Annex 2. Room 222. 1776 University Ave., Honolulu, HI 96822 House of Umoja Boystown Potential gang members. Home Conflict resolution. Also: 1410 N. Frazier Street, gang members Surrogate family, remedial Philadelphia, PA 19131 basic education, vocational (215) 473-5893 education and counseling. life skills training, and recreation Male Health Alliance for Life Extension Youth with high-risk Special schools ( (MHALE) behavior, ages 11-17. community settings Conflict resolution; Also: 10 Sunnybrook Road, P.O. Box 1409 African-American males Remedial basic education. Raleigh. North Carolina 27620 vocational education and (919) 250-4535 counseling, life skills training Resolving Conflict Creatively Program Children and youth in Elementary and secondary Conflict resolution 163 Third Ave.,#239, grades K - 12 schools curriculum, New York City, NY 10003 Also: Student mediation (212) 260-6290 Safe Kids/Safe Neighborhoods Youth of all ages Community C.R., Also: Social skills, New York City Dept. of Health parent training and support, Box 46 mentoring, job training, 125 Worth Street peer leadership training, New York, NY 10013 recreation (212) 566-6121/8003 Santa Fe Mountain Center Youth with high-risk Wilderness camp Conflict resolution, Also: Route 4, Box 34C behavior, activity site, Educational programs, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501 First offenders schools social skills, (505) 983-6158 community communication, problem- solving, counseling, recreational opportunities School Initiatives Program Students Middle and high schools Conflict resolution training 149 Ninth Street, San Francisco, CA 94103 Also: Peer conflict (415) 552-1250 managers Urban Interpersonal Violence Youth with high-risk Special schools Educational program on Injury Control Project behavior, usually referred conflict resolution and 2360 East Linwood through courts or social anger control, Also: Kansas City, Missouri 64109 services Problem-solving, (816) 861-9100 recreational and social opportunities Violence Intervention Program (VIP) Elementary school children Middle and elementary Conflict resolution; Also: Durham City Schools middle school teachers schools teacher training. peer Durham, North Carolina 27702 counselors (8th grade (919) 966-5980 students for 6th grade students) Violence Prevention Program Students in 7th, 8th, and Middle schools Conflict resolution, Mecklenburg County Health Department 9th grades support groups 249 Billingsley Road Charotte, North Carolina 28211 (704) 336-6443 Violence Prevention Project Adolescents Schools, multiservice Conflict resolution Health Promotion Program for Urban Youth centers, boys and girls curriculum 1010 Massachusetts Ave., 2nd Floor clubs, recreation programs, Also: Public service Boston, MA 02118 housing developments, announcements, (617) 534-5196 juvenile detention centers, educational media, churches, neighborhood identification of high-risk health centers youth, counseling Voyageur Outward Bound School Gang members, 13 - 17 Wilderness and urban Conflict resolution training, 500 W. Madison Street, Suite 2100, years of age settings Also: Wilderness and urban Chicago, IL 60606 adventure course that (312) 715-0550 teaches group cooperation, communication, alternatives to violent solutions Washington Community Violence Youth and adolescents Schools and juvenile Conflict resolution training, Prevention Program detention centers education about risk factors Washington Hospital Center for violence, problem- Room 4B-46 solving. Also: Public 110 Irving Street, N.W. information media campaign Washington, D.C. 20010 (202) 877-3761 The Youth Gang Drug Prevention Program Potential gang members, Schools, Conflict resolution; Also: Mecklenburg County Health Department youth, ages 10-18, and their neighborhoods, Recreation 249 Billingsley Road families housing developments, Charlotte, North Carolina 28211 recreation centers (704) 336-6443 ===============================================================================================================================================================
Table 10Table 10 Training in Life and Social Skills ===================================================================================================================================================== Name Target Group Setting Description ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- African American Male Education Network (AMEN) African-American males, Schools, social service Rites of Passage, 9824 South Western Avenue, Suite 175 families, teachers, trainers agencies, law enforcement advocacy. education for Chicago, Illinois 60643 agencies, hospitals and male and female (708) 720-0235 churches responsibility and parenting Barron Assessment and Counseling Center Weapons carriers Elementary, middle and Education on violence 25 Walk Hill Street, high schools prevention, Also: Individual Jamaica Plan, MA 02130 and group counseling (617) 635-8123 Boston Conflict Resolution Program Elementary school children School Teacher training programs, Boston Area Educators for Social Responsibility and teachers support groups, peer 11 Garden Street mediation. curricula on Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 conflicts that commonly (617) 492-8820 occur in school settings and ways to deal with conflict Breakthrough Foundation: Youth at Risk Youth, ages 13 - 21 Wilderness retreat, Wilderness course 1952 Lombard St., San Francisco, CA 94123 community stressing rules, (415) 673-0171 responsibility, reliance on group, Also: Mentoring Channeling Children's Anger Junior and senior high Schools, social service Anger management Institute for Mental Health Initiatives students, settings, heath care settings curriculum 4545 42nd Street, NW., Suite 311, professionals who work Washington, DC 20016 with young people and their (202) 364-7111 families Chicanos por la Causa Youth with high-risk Social service agencies Education 112 E. Buckeye Road, Phoenix, AZ 85034 behavior Also: Counseling, (602) 257-0700 job placement Children's Creative Response to Conflict Elementary school children School, churches, social Classroom workshops that Box 271,523 N. Broadway, Nyack, NY 10960 service agencies, emphasize cooperation, (914) 358-4601 community communication, bias awareness, Also: Conflict resolution Climb Theatre* Elementary school children Schools Violence education for 500 N. Robert Street, Suite 220, children, including a play, St. Paul, MN 55101 curriculum, psychological (612) 227-9660 counseling *does a production called "Ouch" Community Youth Gang Services Project Gang members, Street outreach, Crisis intervention and 144 S. Fettery Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90022 potential gang members neighborhood programs mediation (213) 266-4264 Also: Job counseling, environmental barriers, recreation opportunities Early Adolescent Helper Program Adolescents, ages 10 -15 Schools, day-care Curriculum on human 25 West 43rd Street, Room 620, programs, senior centers, development; Also: New York City, NY 10036 community agencies Community involvement, (212) 642-2307 learning job skills Gang Prevention and Intervention Program School-age youth Elementary, middle and Curriculum on self-esteem. Turning Point Family Services. Inc. high schools decision-making skills, and 1602 S. Brookhurst St., Anaheim, CA g2804 other issues related to gangs Good Grief Program Children who experience a School, Crisis intervention, 295 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA 02115 death of family member or community consultation for teachers. (617) 232-8390 friend through violence adminislralors, parents HAWK Federation Manhood Development and Adolescent African- Junior high and high High school curriculum. Training Program American males schools, churches, cultural problem-solving 175 Filbert Street, Suite 202, community cenlers skills, interpersonal skills, Oakland, California 94607 character development. (510) 836-3245 academic and decision- making skills House of Umoja Boystown Potential gang members, Home Surrogate family, remedial 1410 N. Frazier Streel, Philadelphia, PA 19131 gang members basic education, vocational (215) 473-5893 education and counseling, life skills training, Also: Conflict resolution training, and recreation Leadership Development Institu te African-American youth, Home, Rites of Passage, cultural 2137 W. 54th Street ages 10-21, and their schools, awareness, male and Chicago, Illinois 60609 families community female responsibility, stress (708) 868-8411 management, violence prevention, sex education and parenting Male Health Alliance for Life Extension (MHALE) Youth with high-risk Special schools, Life skills training; Also: 10 Sunnybrook Road, P.O. Box 1409 behavior, ages 11-17, community settings Remedial basic education, Raleigh, North Carolina 27620 African-American males vocational education and (919) 250-4535 counseling, conflict resolution Metropolitan Area Child Study (MACS) Elementary school children School, Development of University of Illinois at Chicago home nonagressive norms for Department of Psychology (M/C 285) behavior, reduction of Chicago, Illinois 60680 hostile bias, (312) 996-2600 encouragement of prosocial behavior Milwaukee Public Schools African-American males Elementary and middle Immersion schools P.O. Drawer, 10K, Milwaukee, WI 53201 schools (414) 475-8393 The New Haven Social Development Program Students Middle schools Curriculum that helps Department of Social Development students acquire socially New Haven Public School System competent behavior James Hillhouse High School New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (203) 772-7443 The Paramount Plan: Alternatives to Gang Potential gang members Elementary and middle Curriculum for sludents Membership schools, Also: Parenl/communily 16400 Colorado Ave., Paramount, CA 90723 community settings awareness (213) 220-2140 PATHS: Promoting Adolescents Through Adolescents, ages 12 to 17, Community Family life and sex Health Service parents education; Also: Health Children's Hospital Medical Center of Akron care, counseling, fitness 377 S. Portage Path activities, theatre and Akron, Ohio 44320 dance, tutoring, career (216) 535-7000 awareness program, parent education PATHS: Providing Alternative Thinking Strategies Early elementary school School Curriculum that stresses University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 children adaptive capabililies, self- control, emotional understanding, problem- solving Philadelphia Injury Prevention Program Gang members Community outreach, Crisis intervention, Philadelphia Health Department hospital counseling victims to 500 S. Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19146 prevent retaliation, Also: (215) 875-5661 Community education Planned Futures Adolescents, Community center Family life education, Also: Brand Whitlock Community Center parents Job club, educational help, 642 Division Street education on history and Toledo, Ohio 43602 culture, sports, physical (419) 698-2646 and mental health services, parent program Project PEACE Elementary and high school Schools, Mentoring; Also: Peer 534 E.37th Street, 1st Floor, students near public public housing leadership, peer mediation, Chicago, Illinois 60653 housing Rites of Passage, grief (312) 791-4768 counseling, life training Project SPIRIT African-American children, Churches After-school curriculum and 1225 Eye Street, N.W., Suite 750 parents, and pastors life skills training, Washington, DC 20005 pastoral counseling, (202) 371-1091 training, parenting education Safe Kids/Safe Neighborhoods Youth of all ages Community C. R; Also: Social Skills, New York City Dept. of Health parent training and support. Box 46 mentoring, job training, 125 Worth Street recreation New York, NY 10013 (212) 566-6121/8003 Santa Fe Mountain Center Youth with high-risk Wilderness camp, Educational programs, Route 4, Box 34C behavior, activity site, social skills, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501 first offenders schools, communication, problem- (505) 983-6158 community solving, Also: Conflict resolution, counseling, recreational opportunities Southeast Community Day Center School Juvenile offenders Special schools Classroom education, 9525 E. Imperial Highway, Downey, CA 90242 life skills training (213) 922-6821 Also: Job skills training, work opportunities Southeastern Michigan Spinal Cord Injury System High school students Schools, other settings Videotape program and 261 Mack Avenue, Detroit, MI 48201 where youth come together discussion guide about (313) 745-9740 in a structured environment gunshot victims Teens, Crime, and the Community Students Schools Curriculum on how National Crime Prevention Council students can reduce their 1700 K Street, N.W., Suite 200, chances of becoming a Washington, DC 20006 victim and encouraging (202) 466-6272 students to participate in community projects Urban Interpersonal Violence Youth with high-risk Special schools Educational program on Injury Control Project behavior, usually referred conflict resolution and 2360 East Linwood through courts or social anger control, Also: Kansas City, Missouri 64109 services Problem-solving, (816) 861-9100 recreational and social opportunities Viewpoints Training Program Violent youth Social service agencies, Curriculum for group University of Illinois at Chicago law enforcement agencies sessions that teach skills at Center for Research on Aggression, Dept. of Psychology, solving social problems and P.O. Box 4348, M/C 285, Chicago, IL 60680 alternatives to violent (312) 413-2624 behavior Voyageur Outward Bound School Gang members, 13-17 Wilderness and urban Wilderness and urban 500 W. Madison Street, Suite 2100, years of age settings adventure course that Chicago, IL 60606 teaches group cooperation, (312) 715-0550 communication, alternatives to violent solutions, Also: Conflict resolution training, Where Have All the Children Gone? Students, 10-17 years of Schools Curriculum on awareness New Center Community Mental Health Services age of violence and problem- 2051 W. Grand Boulevard, Detroit, MI 48208 solving skills (313) 895-4000 Young Men's Project African-American males Elementary and secondary Curriculum 3030 W. Harrison St., Chicago, IL 60612 schools 6000 S. Wentworth Ave., Chicago, IL 60621 Also: Mentoring Youth Development, Inc. All ages (from 3-year-olds Community outreach Educational activities 1710 Centro Familiar. S.W., Albuquerque, NM 87105 to youth in early 20s) Also: Work opportunities, (505) 873-1604 recreational opportunities 102nd Street Elementary School Children who experience a School Classes on grief and loss Los Angeles, California death of family member or friend through violence ===================================================================================================================================================== Training in Life and Social Skills 72
Table 11Table 11 Education To Reduce Injuries from Firearms ===================================================================================================================================================== Name Target Group Setting Description ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Community Youth Gang Services Project Gang memobors, Street outreach, Crisis intervention and 144 S. Fetterly Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90022 potential gang members neighborhood programs mediation (213) 266-4264 Also: Job counseling, environmental barriers, recreation opportunities Kids + Guns = A Deadly Equation Students School settings: K- 12 Curriculum to teach 1450 Northeast 2nd Ave., Room 904, Miami, FL 33132 children and youth the (305) 995-1986 dangers of playing with or carrying guns Public Information Campaign Public Community Awareness campaign about Charlotte, N.C. Police Department and handgun safety Center to Prevent Handgun Violence 1225 Eye Street, NW. Suite 1100 Washington, D.C. 20005 (202) 289-7319 Public Information Campaign Public Community Awareness campaign about Baltimore Maryland Police Department and handgun safety Center to Prevent Handgun Violence 1225 Eye Street, NW, Suite 1100 Washington, D.C. 20005 (202) 289-7319 =====================================================================================================================================================
Table 12Table 12 Parenting ================================================================================================================================================ Name Target Group Setting Description ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Community Youth Gang Services Project Gang members, Street outreach, Crisis intervention and 144 S. Fetterly Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90022 potential gang members neighborhood programs mediation (213) 266-4264 Also: Job counseling, environmental barriers, recreation opportunities Planned Futures Adolescents, Community center Parent program; Also: Brand Whitlock Community Center parents Family life education, Also: 642 Division Street Job club, educational help, Toledo, Ohio 43602 education on history and (419) 698-2646 culture, sports, physical and mental health services Prenatal/Infancy Project Poor pregnant women Home, Home visitation to teach Elmira, New York community parenting skills and basic (716) 275-3738 health education Parents as Teachers Parents of children Home, Home visitation and group University of Missouri, Marillac Hall (prenatal through age 3) community meetings by parent 8001 Natural Bridge Road educators who teach St. Louis, Missouri 63121 parenting skills; screen for (314) 553-5738 developmental problems and link with other services PATHS: Promoting Adolescents Through Adolescents. ages 12 to 17, Community Parent education; Also: Health Service parents Family life and sex Children's Hospital Medical Center of Akron education; Also: Health 377 S. Portage Path care, counseling, fitness Akron, Ohio 44320 activities, theatre and (216) 535-7000 dance, tutoring, career awareness program Project STEEP (Steps Toward Effective, Low-income, first-time Community, Parenting classes, Enjoyable Parenting) parents home individual therapeutic N548 Elliott Hall intervention and case 75 East River Road management Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (612) 624-0210 Richstone Family Center Victims of child abuse and Community, Parenting classes; Also: 13620 Cordary Avenue their families home Counseling and referral Hawthorne, California 90250 services (213) 970-1921 Safe Kids/Safe Neighborhoods Youth of all ages Community C.R, Also: Social skills, New York City Dept. of Health parent training and support, Box 46 mentoring, job training, 125 Worth Street peer leadership training, New York, NY 10013 recreation (212) 566-6121/8003 ================================================================================================================================================
Table 13Table 13 Peer Education ===================================================================================================================================================== Name Target Group Setting Description ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Hawaii Mediation Program Students High schools Student mediators Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa. Also: West Hall Annex 2, Room 222, Conflict resolution training 1776 University Ave., Honolulu, HI 96822 New Way of Fighting Gang members Schools Peer meetings and 878 Peachtree St., N.E., Room 212, mediation Atlanta, GA 30309 (404) 894-6617 Project Reach Asian, Black, Latino and Community-based Peer counseling and 1 Orchard Street, 2nd Floor White youth at risk youth center training regarding New York, New York 10002 (ages 12-21); immigrants, antidiscrimination, racism, (212) 966-4227 runaways, gang members. sexism, homophobia & suicidal youth heterosexism Also: Crisis counseling, school and court advocacy RAPP (Resolve All Problems Peacefully) Middle school students Schools Peer mediation Ferguson Middle School 701 January Avenue Ferguson, Missouri 63135 (314) 521-5792 Resolving Conflict Creatively Program Children and youth in Elementary and secondary Student mediation New York City Public Schools grades K- 12 schools Also: Conflict resolution 163 Third Ave.,#239, New York City, NY 10003 curriculum, (212) 260-6290 School Initiatives Program Students Middle and high schools Peer conflict managers 149 Ninth Street, San Francisco, CA 94103 Also: (415) 552-1250 Conflict resolution training Teens on Target Students Middle and high schools Peer education and 314 East 10th St., Oakland, CA 94606 youth advocacy (51O) 635-8600, ext. 415 Violence Intervention Program (VIP) Elementary school Middle and elementary Peer counseling; Also: Durham City Schools students middle school schools Teacher training, conflict Durham, North Carolina 27702 teachers resolution (919) 966-5980 =====================================================================================================================================================
Table 14Table 14 Public Information and Education Campaigns ===================================================================================================================================================== Name Target Group Setting Description ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Community Youth Gang Services Project Gang members, Street outreach, Crisis intervention and 144 S. Fetterly Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90022 potential gang members neighborhood programs mediation (213) 266-4264 Also: Job counseling, environmental barriers, recreation opportunities Hartford Adolescent Violence Prevention Project Adolescents Schools, recreation Public awareness The Connecticut Childhood Injury Prevention Center programs, youth service campaign; Also: Conflict 80 Seymour St. agencies, churches, clubs resolution, educational Hartford, Connecticut 06115 program for health care providers Montgomery County Violence Prevention Project Elementary, middle, and Community settings: Media publicity, poster 301 W. Third Street, Fifth Floor high school students, schools, media, youth clubs contests, rap contests Dayton, Ohio 45402-1418 general public (513) 225-5623 The Paramount Plan: Alternatives to Gang Potential gang members Elementary and middle Parent/community Membership schools, awareness, Also: City of Paramount community settings Curriculum for students 16400 Colorado Ave., Paramount, CA 90723 (213) 220-2140 Philadelphia Injury Prevention Program Gang members Community outreach, Community education 500 S. Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19146 hospital Also: Crisis intervention, (215) 875-5657 counseling victims to prevent retaliation Public Information Campaign Public Community Awareness campaign about Chadotto, N.C. Police Department and handgun safety Center to Prevent Handgun Violence 1225 Eye Street, NW, Suite 1100 Washington, D.C. 20005 (202) 289-7319 Public Information Campaign Public Community Awareness campaign about Baltimore Maryland Police Department and handgun safety Center to Prevent Handgun Violence 1225 Eye Street, NW, Suite 1100 Washington, D.C. 20005 (202) 289-7319 Save Our Sons and Daughters (SOSAD) Parents, Community Public awareness 453 Martin Luther King Boulevard, public campaigns, community Detroit, MI 48201 marches, lobby for (303) 833-3030 elimination of handguns Also: Family support of children who have been killed Violence Prevention Project Adolescents Schools, multiservice Public service Health Promotion Program for Urban Youth centers, boys and girls announcements, 1010 Massachusetts Ave., 2nd Floor clubs, recreation programs, educational media Boston, MA 02118 housing developments, Also: Conflict resolution, (617) 534-5196 juvenile detention centers, curriculum, churches, neighborhood identification of youth with health centers high-risk behavior, counseling Washington Community Violence Prevention Program General public Community Public service Washington Hospital Center announcements, posters Room 4B-46 and other media. Also: 110 Irving Street. N.W. Conflict resolution for youth Washington, D.C. (202) 877-3761 =====================================================================================================================================================
Table 15Table 15 Legal and Administrative Strategies ================================================================================================================================================ Name Target Group Setting Description ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Challengers Boys Club Males and females, Community center Strict code of rules 5029 S. Vermont Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90037 ages 6 - 17 including restrictions (213) 971-6141 against wearing gang- related clothing; Also: Recreational activities, social development Save Our Sons and Daughters (SOSAD) Parents, Community Lobby for elimination of 453 Martin Luther King Boulevard, Detroit, MI 48201 public handguns; Also: Public (303) 833-3030 awareness campaigns, community marches, family support of children who have been killed ================================================================================================================================================
Table 16Table 16 Therapeutic Activities ===================================================================================================================================================== Name Target Group Setting Description ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Cities in Schools Elementary and secondary Schools Counseling. employment, 401 Wythe Street students recreational, legal Ste. 200 assistance, services Alexandria, VA 22314-1963 brought to school (703) 519-8999 Community Youth Gang Services Gang members, Street outreach, Recreation opportunities, 144 S. Fetterly Ave., potential gang members potential gang members Also: Crisis intervention and Los Angeles, CA 90022 mediation, job counseling, (213) 266-4264 environmental barriers Dallas Independent School District School management and Schools Coordinated response to Crisis Management Plan teachers crises; counseling, referral 3700 Ross Avenue Dallas, Texas 75204-5491 (214) 565-6700 Good Grief Program Children who experience a School, Crisis intervention 295 Longwood Ave., death of family member or community Consultation for teachers, Boston, MA 02115 friend through violence administrators, parents (617) 232-8390 House of Umoja Boystown Potential gang members, Home Surrogate family, remedial 1410 N. Frazier Street, gang members basic education, vocational Philadelphia, PA 19131 education and counseling, (215) 473-5893 life skills training, conflict resolution, and recreation Howard University Children who have Community Counseling, parent support Violence Prevention Project witnessed violence or lost and teacher training; Also: Department of Psychology, loved one to homicide Conflict resolution, 525 Bryant Street NW development of social skills Washington. D.C. 20011 (202) 806-6805 PATHS: Promoting Adolescents Adolescents, ages 12 to 17. Community Counseling; Also: Family Through Health Service parents life and sex education, Children's Hospital Medical Ctr of Akron health care, fitness 377 S. Portage Path activities, theatre and Akron, Ohio 44320 dance, tutoring, career (216) 535-7000 awareness program, parent education Philadelphia Injury Prevention Program Gang members Community outreach, Crisis intervention, 500 S. Broad Street, hospital community education. Philadelphia, PA 19146 counseling victims to (215) 875-5657 prevent retaliation Planned Futures Adolescents, Community center Counseling; Also: Family Brand Whitlock Community Center parents life education, job club, 642 Division Street educational help, education Toledo, Ohio 43602 on history and culture, (419) 698-2646 sports, physical health services, parent program Project Reach Asian, Black, Latino and Community-based Individual and family crisis 1 Orchard Street, 2nd Floor while youth at risk (ages youth center counseling; school and New York, New York 10002 12-21); immigrants. court advocacy, Also: (212) 966-4227 runaways, gang members. Peer counseling and training suicidal youth Richstone Family Center Victims of child abuse and Center, Counseling and referral; 13620 Cordary Avenue their families home Also: Parenting classes Hawthorne, California 90250 (213) 970-1921 Santa Fe Mountain Center Youth with high-risk Wilderness Counseling Route 4, Box 34C behavior, Recreational opportunities. Sante Fe, NM 87501 first offenders Also: Educational (505) 983-6158 programs, conflict resolution, social skills, communication, problem- solving Save Our Sons and Daughters (SOSAD) Parents, Community Family support of children 453 Martin Luther King Boulevard, public who have been killed, Also: Detroit, MI 48201 Public awareness (303) 833-3030 campaigns, community marches, lobby for elimination of handguns The Violence Postvention Program Youth with high-risk Hospitals, Crisis interention, group Philadelphia Injury Prevention Program behavior, community therapy, peer and Philadelphia Dept. of Public Health adolescents, community support Philadelphia, PA parents (215) 875-5657 Violence Prevention Project Adolescents Schools, multiservice Identification of youth with Health Promotion Program for Urban Youth centers, boys and gills high-risk behavior, 1010 Massachusetts Ave., 2nd Floor clubs, recreation counseling, Also: Public Boston, MA 02118 housing developments, service announcements, (617) 534-5196 juvenile detention educational media, conflict centers, churches, resolution curriculum neighborhood health centers ===================================================================================================================================================== Therapeutic Activities 85
Table 17Table 17 Recreational Activities ===================================================================================================================================================== Name Target Group Setting Description ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Challengers Boys Club Males and females, Community center Recreational activities 5029 S. Vermont Ave., ages 6 - 17 Also: Social development, Los Angeles, CA 90037 strict code of rules (213) 971-6161 including restrictions against wearing gang- related clothing Chicago Commons Association Gang members, Chicago Common centers, Recreational activities, Also: 915 N. Wolcott, Chicago, IL 60622 potential gang members street outreach Case-managment support, (312) 342-5330 job training, work opportunities Cities and Schools Elementary and secondary Schools Counseling, employment, 401 Wythe Street students recreational, legal Ste. 200 assistance services brought Alexandria, VA 22314-1963 to school (703) 519-8999 Community Youlh Gang Services Gang members, Street outreach, Recreation opportunities. 144 S. Fetterly Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90022 potential gang members neighborhood programs Also: Crisis intervention and (213) 266-4264 mediation, job counseling, environmental barriers House of Umoja Boystown Potential gang members, Home Recreation. Also: Surrogate 1410 N. Frazier Street, Philadelphia, PA 19131 gang members family, remedial basic (215) 473-5893 education, vocational education and counseling, life skills training, conflict resolution Mid-night Hoops Program Youth (male and female) City and county recreation Recreation Columbia, SC 12-18 years of age departments (803) 777-5709 PATHS: Promoting Adolescents Through Adolescents, ages 12 to 17, Community Expression through theatre Health Service parents and dance, fitness Children's Hospital Medical Center of Akron activities; Also: Counseling 377 S. Portage Path Akron, Ohio 44320 (216) 535-7000 Planned Futures Adolescents, Community center Sports; Also: Counseling, Brand Whitlock Community Center parents family life education, job 642 Division Street club, educational help, Toledo, Ohio 43602 education on history and (419) 698-2646 culture, physical health services, parent program Safe Kids/Safe Neighborhoods Youth of all ages Community C.R., Also: Social skills, New York City Dept. of Health parent training and support, Box 46 mentoring, job training, 125 Worth Street peer leadership training, New York, NY 10013 recreation (212) 566-6121/8003 Santa Fe Mountain Center Youth with high-risk Wilderness Recreational opportunities, Route 4, Box 34C behavior, Also: Educational pro- Santa Fe, NM 87501 first offenders grams, conflict resolution, (505) 983-6158 societal skills, communica- tion, problem-solving Urban Interpersonal Violence Injury Youth with high-risk Special schools Recreational and social Control Project behavior, usually referred opportunities, Also: 2360 East Linwood through courts or social Educational program on Kansas City, Missouri 64109 services conflict resolution, anger (816) 861-9100 control, problem-solving Youth Development, Inc. All ages (from 3-year-olds Community outreach Recreational opportunities, 1710 Centro Familiar, S.W., to youth in early 20s) Also: Educational activities, Albuquerque, NM 87105 work opportunities (505) 873-1604 The Youth Gang Drug Prevention Program Potential gang members, Schools, Recreation and teen clubs; Mecklenburg County Health Department youth, ages 10-18, and their neighborhoods, Also: Conflict resolution 249 Billingsley Road, families housing developments, Charlotte, North Carolina 28211 recreation centers (704) 336-6443 =====================================================================================================================================================
Table 18Table 18 Work Opportunities ===================================================================================================================================================== Name Target Group Setting Description ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Chicago Commons Association Gang members, Chicago Common centers, Job training, 915 N. Wolcott, Chicago, IL 60622 potential gang members street outreach work opportunities, Also: (312) 342-5330 Recreational activities, case-managment support Chicanos por la Causa Juvenile offenders Social service agencies Job placement, Also: 1112 E. Buckeye Road, Phoenix, AZ 85034 Education, counseling (602) 257-0700 Cities in Schools Elementary and secondary Schools Counseling, employment, 401 Wythe Street students recreational, legal Ste. 200 assistance services brought Alexandria, VA 22314-1963 to school (703) 519-8999 Community Youth Gang Services Gang members, Street outreach, Job counseling, Also: 144 S. Fetterly Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90022 potential gang members neighborhood programs Recreation opportunities, (213) 266-4264 Crisis intervention and mediation, environmental barriers Early Adolescent Helper Program Adolescents, ages 10 -15 Schools, day-care Community involvement, 25 West 43rd Street, Room 620, programs, senior centers, learning job skills. Also: New York City, NY 10036 community Curriculum on human (212) 642-2307 agencies development Male Health Alliance for Life Extension (MHALE) Youth with high risk Special Schools, Vocational education and 10 Sunnybrook Road, P.O. Box 1409 behavior, ages 11-17, community settings counseling; Also: Remedial Raleigh, North Carolina 27620 African-American males basic education, vocational (919) 250-4535 education and counseling, life skills training, conflict resolution Planned Futures Adolescents, Community center Job club; Also: family life Brand Whitlock Community Center parents education, educational 642 Division Street help, education on history Toledo, Ohio 43602 and culture, sports, (419) 698-2646 physical and mental health services, parent program Safe Kids/Safe Neighborhoods Youth of all ages Community C.R., Also: Social skills, New York City Dept. of Health parent training and support, Box 46 mentoring, job training, 125 Worth Street recreation New York, NY 10013 (212) 566-6121/8003 Southeast Community Day Center School Juvenile offenders Special schools Job skills training, 9525 East Imperial Highway, Downey, CA 90242 work opportunities, Also: (213) 922-6821 Classroom education, life skills training Youth Development, Inc. All ages (from 3-year-olds Community outreach Work opportunities, Also: 1710 Centro Familiar, S.W., Albuquerque, NM 87105 to youth in early 20s) Recreational opportunities, (505) 873-1604 educational activities ===================================================================================================================================================== 91
Table 19Table 19 Modification of the Physical Environment ===================================================================================================================================================== Name Target Group Setting Description ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Community Youth Gang Services Gang members, Street outreach, Environmental barriers, 144 S. Fetterly Ave., potential gang members neighborhood programs Also: Job counseling, Los Angeles, CA 90022 recreation opportunities, (213) 266-4264 crisis intervention and mediation Concrete Barriers Gangs and drug dealers Streets Concrete barriers, 1354 Newton St., Los Angeles, CA 90021 off-limit signs, (213) 485-5261 increased police patrol Cornell University "Blue Light" Program Anyone on campus Dormitories and academic Phone security system. Crime Prevention Unit buildings on open campus night bus service and Department of Public Safety escort service Cornell University Ithaca, New York 14853 (607) 255-1111 Safe By Design All community members Community Environmental design for Tucson Police Department safety Tucson, Arizona (602) 791-4450 Safe Kids/Safe Neighborhoods Youth of all ages Community C.R., Also: Social Skills, New York City Dept. of Health parent training and support, Box 46 mentoring, job training, 125 Worth Street peer leadership training, New York, NY 10013 recreation (212) 566-6121/8003 =====================================================================================================================================================