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Scientific Data Documentation
Healthy People 2000 - Statistical Notes


 Healthy People 2000 (1) presents 523 specific (unduplicated)
 objectives and special population subobjectives to improve the
 health of Americans by the year 2000.  (Hereafter, both
 objectives and special population subobjectives will be called
 "objectives".)  While measurability was a key component in the
 establishment of these objectives, the immediate availability of
 baseline data and a data source to monitor progress toward the
 targets was not mandatory.  Indeed, at the time of publication,
 Healthy People 2000 included 91 objectives without baseline data
 points, and many more with only partial baselines.  Since the
 publication of Healthy People 2000, 39 objectives that were
 without baselines now have at least baseline data.  The number of
 objectives with baselines will increase as new data become

 In the course of identifying specific data sources and
 quantifying data definitions for each objective, the National
 Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) identified numerous
 objectives for which the baselines specified in Healthy People
 2000 required revision.  In addition, the availability of new
 data (for example, the 1990 Census) has resulted in the need for
 further refinements.

 In February 1993, the Public Health Service (PHS) Healthy People
 2000 Steering Committee accepted the NCHS recommendation to
 revise the baselines for approximately 100 objectives (Table 1).
 The magnitude of these changes varied considerably.  Some
 revisions had little or no impact; others were substantial.  In
 many cases, the baselines were revised to assure comparability
 between the baseline measure and the data that will be used to
 track progress toward the year 2000 targets.

 These revisions can be grouped into several categories:

   * Baselines for most of the population-based mortality
     objectives were updated using intercensal population
     denominators based on the 1990 Census enumeration.  Although
     all of the applicable death rates were recomputed, in some
     cases the recomputed baseline rate is the same as the

   * The baselines for several American Indian/Alaska Native
     mortality objectives were revised to reflect both the new
     intercensal populations and to include the entire United
     States American Indian/Alaska Native population.

   * In priority area 14 (Maternal and Infant Health), 11
     subobjective baselines were revised to reflect a change in
     the method of tabulating births based on the race of the
     mother instead of the race of the child.

   * For the remaining objectives requiring revision, changes
     were made for a variety of methodological and computational

 These four categories of changes are discussed in greater detail
Table 1

  Table 1.  Healthy People 2000 Original and Revised Baselines

 (Unless otherwise specified, the base of the revised baseline (i.e. rate
 per 100,000, percent, etc.) is the" same as the original published in
 Healthy People 2000. Duplicate objectives are indicated by    )


 Objective number    Original Revised    Reason for revision
 1.1  2.1,3.1,15.1          135     no change   Population denominators
 1.1a  2.1a,3.1a,15.1a      163     168                 """"
 1.3  15.3   5 or more      22      no change   Methodology
 1.3  15.3   7 or more      12      16                  """"

 2.2  16.1                  133     134         Population denominators

 3.2  16.2                  37.9    38.5                """"
 3.3                        18.7    18.9                """"

 4.1a                       52.2    40.4        Expanded to include all U.S.
                                                American Indians-Alaska Natives
 4.2                        9.1     9.2         Population denominators
 4.2a                       22      22.6                """"
 4.2b                       25.9    20.5        Expanded to include all U.S.
                                                American Indians-Alaska Natives
                                                population denominators
 4.3                        3.8     no change   Population denominators

 6.1  7.2                   11.7    no change           """"
 6.1a  7.2a                 10.3    10.2                """"
 6.1b  7.2b                 25.2    no change           """"
 6.1c  7.2c                 46.1    46.7                """"
 6.1d  7.2d                 15      20.1        Expanded to include all U.S.
                                                American Indians-Alaska Natives
                                                Population denominators
 6.3                        12      20          Diag category inclusions/data yr
 6.5                        42.6    44.2        Transcription error
 6.9                        21      24                  """"
 7.1                        8.5     no change   Population denominators
 7.1a                       3.9     no change           """"
 7.1c                       90.5    91.1                """"
 7.1d                       53.1    41.3                """"
 7.1e                       20.0    20.2                """"
 7.1f                       14.1    11.2        Expanded to include all U.S.
                                                American Indians-Alaska Natives
                                                population denominators
 7.3                        14.8    no change   Population denominators
 7.3 (firearms)             12.9    13.0                """"
 7.3 (knives)               1.9     1.8                 """"
 7.6                        11.1    9.7         Orig based on preliminary
 8.1  17.1,21.1             62      64.0        Methodology/data year
 8.1a  17.1a,21.1a          56      no change           """"
 8.1b  17.1b,21.1b          62      66.9                """"
 8.1c  17.1c,21.1c          12      11.9                """"
 8.2                        79      83          Age group/data year/data source
 8.12                       66      68          Methodology/data year
 9.1                        34.5    34.7        Population denominators
 9.1a                       82.6    66.0        Expanded to include all U.S.
                                                American Indians-Alaska Natives
                                                population denominators
 9.1b                       64.9    68.0        Population denominators
 9.1c                       53.6    49.8                """"
 9.2                        887     832         Diagnostic category inclusions
 9.3                        18.8    19.2        Orig based on preliminary
 9.3d                       46.8    37.7        Expanded to include all U.S.
                                                American Indians-Alaska Natives
                                                population denominators
 9.3f                       3.1     2.8         Orig based on preliminary
 9.4                        2.7     no change  Population denominators
 9.4a                       18      18.1                """"
 9.4b                       131.2   133.0               """"
 9.4c                       8       8.1                 """"
 9.5                        2.1     no change           """"
 9.5a                       4.2     4.3         Population denominators
 9.5b                       4.5     no change           """"
 9.5c                       6.6     no change           """"
 9.6                        1.5     1.7                 """"
 9.6a                       4.4     4.5                 """"
 9.6b                       4.4     4.9                 """"
 9.6c                       5.7     6.4                 """"
 9.6d                       3.4     3.3                 """"
 9.6e                       17      26          Methodology
 9.8                        103     108         Diagnostic category inclusions
 9.8a                       650     648                 """"
 9.9                        125     118                 """"
 9.10                       5.9     5.3                 """"
 9.10a                      8.9     9.6                 """"
 10.5  20.3e                6,200   3,090       Orig based on preliminary
 11.7 (200 list)            2.62    3.50        Orig based on preliminary
 11.7 (250 list)            ...     4.48        expanded categories
 11.7 (carcinogens)         0.32    0.48                """"
 11.10 (rivers/lakes
       /estuaries)          25      ...                 """"
 11.10 (rivers)             ...     30                  """"
 11.10 (lakes)              ...     26                  """"
 11.10 (estuaries)          ...     28                  """"
 13.7 (men)                 12.1    13.6        Population denominators
 13.7 (women)               4.1     4.8                 """"
 13.9                       62      61          Orig based on preliminary
 14.1a                      17.9    18.8        Revised definition of race
 14.1b                      12.5    13.4                """"
 14.1e                      11.7    12.3        Revised definition of race
 14.1h                      6.1     6.4                 """"
 14.1i                      6.5     7.0                 """"
 14.2a                      12.8    13.5                """"
 14.3a                      14.2    14.9                """"
 14.5a                      12.7    13.0                """"
 14.5b                      2.7     2.8                 """"
 14.6                       67      68          Orig could not be duplicated
 14.11a                     61.1    60.8        Revised definition of race
 14.11b                     60.2    57.6                """"
 15.2                       30.3    30.4        Population denominators
 15.2a                      51.2    52.5                """"
 15.3                       13.9    14.4        Orig based on preliminary
 15.3a                      32.4    34.0                """"
 16.3                       22.9    23.0        Population denominators
 16.4                       2.8     no change           """"
 16.5                       14.4    14.7                """"
 17.9                       38      no change           """"
 17.9a                      65      67                  """"
 17.9b                      54      46          Expanded to include all U.S.
                                                American Indians-Alaska Natives
                                                population denominators
 17.10c                     10.2    8.8         Data year
 17.11 (prevalence)         28      no change           """"
 17.11 (incidence)          2.9     no change           """"
 18.1                       44,000- 48,400      Orig based on preliminary
                            50,000              analysis

 18.1a                      26,000- 27,800      Orig based on preliminary
                            28,000              analysis
 18.1b                      14,000- 14,500              """"
 18.1c                      7,000-  8,20                """"
 18.6                       25-30   30.8                """"
 19.4                       100     44.7                """"
 19.5 (genital herpes)      167,000 163,000     Methodology
 19.5 (genital warts)       451,000 290,000             """"
 19.7  20.3b + 20.3c        58,300  47,593      Orig based on preliminary
 19.10a                     25      26          Transcription error
 20.3 (hepatitis A)         31      33          Orig based on preliminary
 20.3a                      30,000  44,348              """"
 20.3b                      33,000  33,995              """"
 20.3c                      25,300  13,598              """"
 20.3d                      8,900   10,817              """"
 20.3f                      3,500   3,863               """"
 20.6 (hepatitis A)         1,280   4,475               """"
 20.6 (malaria)             2,000   932         Data year
 20.7                       6.3     6.5         Transcription error
 20.9                       131     135.4       Original could not be duplicated
 20.10(65 years and over)   48      19.1                """"
 20.10(less than 5 years)   27      29.4                """"
 20.11(less than 2 years)   70-80   54-64       Methodology
 20.11(children in child
  care facilities)          94      94-95       Data presentation
 20.11 (children in
        post secondary
        schools)            97      97-98       Data presentation
 20.11(non-institutional)   10-20   14-30       Methodology/data year
 20.13                      10      10-49       Data presentation/data year
 22.2                       23      22          Data year
Table 2
  Table 2.  Healthy People 2000 Mortality Objectives Revised Using
            Intercensal Population Estimates

 Number        Cause of Death (1)                      ICD-9 Identifying Code

 1.1        Coronary Heart Disease                    410-414, 402, 429.2
 1.1a       Blacks

 2.1a       See 1.1a
 2.2        Cancer (all sites)                        140-208

 3.1        See 1.1
 3.1a       See 1.1a
 3.2        Lung cancer                               162.2-162.9
 3.3        Chronic obstructive
            pulmonary disease                         490-496

 4.2        Cirrhosis                                 571
 4.2a       Black males
 4.2b       American Indians/Alaska Natives
 4.3        Drug-related deaths                       292, 304, 305.2-305.9,
                                                      E850-E858, E950.0-
                                                      E950.5, E962.0, E980.0-

 6.1        Suicides                                 E950-E959
 6.1a       Ages 15-19
 6.1b       Males 20-34
 6.1c       White males 65 and older
 6.1d       American Indian/Alaska Native males

 7.1        Homicides                                 E960-E969
 7.1a       Children 0-3
 7.1b       Spouses 15-34
 7.1c       Black males 15-34
 7.1d       Hispanic males 15-34
 7.1e       Black females 15-34
 7.1f       American Indians/Alaska Natives
 7.2        See 6.1
 7.2a       See 6.1a
 7.2b       See 6.1b
 7.2c       See 6.1c
 7.2d       See 6.1d
 7.3        Firearm injuries                          E922.0-E922.3, E922.8-
                                                      E922.9, E955.0-E955.4,
                                                      E965.0-E965.4, E970,
            Knife injuries                            E920.3, E956, E966
                                                      E986, E974

 9.1        Unintentional injuries                    E800-E949
 9.1a       American Indians/Alaska Natives
 9.1b       Black males
 9.1c       White males
 9.3d       Motor vehicle crashes                     E810-E825
            American Indians/Alaska Natives
 9.4        Falls and fall-related injuries           E880-E888
 9.4a       Ages 65-84
 9.4b       Ages 85+
 9.4c       Black males 30-69
 9.5        Drowning                                  E830, E832, E910
 9.5a       Ages 0-4
 9.5b       Males 15-34
 9.5c       Black males
 9.6        Residential fires                         E890-E899
 9.6a       Ages 0-4
 9.6b       Ages 65 and older
 9.6c       Black males
 9.6d       Black females

 13.7       Cancer of the oral cavity                 140-149
            and pharynx

 15.1       See 1.1
 15.1a      See 1.1a
 15.2       Stroke                                    430-438
 15.2a      Blacks

 16.1       See 2.2
 16.2       See 3.2
 16.3       Breast cancer in women                    174
 16.4       Cancer of the uterine cervix              180
 16.5       Colorectal cancer                         153.0-154.3, 154.8,

 17.9       Diabetes-related deaths(2)                250
 17.9a      Blacks
 17.9b      American Indians/Alaska Natives

 (1) Healthy People 2000 uses underlying cause of death, unless otherwise
 (2) Healthy People 2000 uses multiple-cause of death.
Reasons for Baseline Change

Revised intercensal population estimates

 After each recent decennial population census, the United States
 Bureau of the Census has developed intercensal population
 estimates for the preceding decade to replace postcensal
 estimates.  Intercensal population estimates are more accurate
 than postcensal estimates because they incorporate information
 about the population size at both the beginning and the end of
 the decade.  Intercensal estimates have been prepared for the
 1960's, 1970's, and 1980's to correct for the "error of closure"
 or difference between the estimated population at the end of the
 decade and the enumerated census count for that date.  The error
 of closure at the national level was quite small during the
 1960's (379,000).  However, for the 1970's it was nearly 5
 million.  For the 1980's the error of closure was about 1.5

 The error of closure as a proportion of population tends to be
 comparatively small for the total United States population.
 However, the error can be substantial for small racial/ethnic
 subgroups (for example, American Indians/Alaska Natives) or for
 sub-national geographic areas.   More information can be found in
 several U.S. Bureau of the Census publications (2,3).

 The 1986-87 baselines for population-based mortality objectives
 tracked with data from the National Vital Statistics System
 (NVSS) originally used postcensal population estimates based on
 the 1980 census.  These have been recomputed using intercensal
 population estimates based on the 1980 and 1990 Census
 enumerations.  Data for the three mortality objectives (4.1, 9.3
 (except 9.3d), and 10.1) tracked by sources other than the NVSS
 were not revised because of population adjustment.

 With the exception of small population sub-groups (for example,
 American Indian/Alaska Native - see section below), the changes
 are relatively small.  The objectives affected by this change are
 shown in Table 2.

American Indian and Alaska Native death rates

 The baseline rates for some American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN)
 mortality objectives were revised to reflect both the intercensal
 populations and the inclusion of the entire United States AI/AN
 population.  The objectives affected by this change are shown in
 Table A.

 The original baselines and targets for these objectives were
 established using data from the 33 States in which AI/AN health
 services are provided by the federal Indian Health Service
 Regional Service Offices.  While these "Reservation States"
 include approximately 90 percent of the AI/AN population in the
 United States, they exclude some urban centers with large
 American Indian populations.  The revised baselines include data
 for the entire United States AI/AN population.

 In most cases, the revised baselines are substantially lower than
 the original figures.  IHS officials indicate that these large
 differences are primarily due to the relatively greater failure
 to identify AI/AN deaths on death certificates in non-Reservation
 States compared with Reservation States.  To a lesser extent they
 also reflect the larger (about 5%) intercensal population
 estimates for the baseline year based on the 1980 and 1990
 Censuses compared with the postcensal estimates based on the 1980
Table A
  Table A.  Healthy People 2000 American Indian/Alaska Native Objectives
           Revised to Reflect Intercensal Populations and the
           Entire United States American Indian/Alaska Native population

 Objective                          Subject
 4.1a*                    Alcohol-related motor vehicle deaths

 4.2b                     Cirrhosis deaths

 6.1d/7.2d                Suicide deaths

 7.1f                     Homicide deaths

 9.1a                     Unintentional injury deaths

 9.3d                     Motor vehicle crash deaths

 17.9b                    Diabetes-related deaths
 *Revised only for inclusion of entire U.S. AI/AN population.

Race definitions for natality/infant and maternal mortality

 In 1989, NCHS changed the method of tabulating race-specific data
 on live births from a complex algorithm for determining race of
 child based on the race(s) of the parents, to simply using the
 race of the mother.  This modification affects the race-specific
 natality objectives in Healthy People 2000 Chapter 14 (Maternal
 and Infant Health) tracked using NVSS data.  In addition, because
 live births comprise the denominator of infant (including
 neonatal and postneonatal) mortality, maternal mortality and
 fetal death rates, these rates are also affected.  The specific
 objectives affected by the change to race of mother are shown in
 Table B.

 The decision to modify the race-specific tabulation algorithm was
 influenced by three factors:  the growing proportion of births
 for which no information on the father is reported, the increase
 in interracial parentage, and the topical content of the birth
 certificate, which was expanded in 1989 to include considerable
 health and demographic information related to the mother.

 Quantitatively, this change results in more white births and
 fewer births to the black population and other races.  Therefore,
 the change in the denominators causes the infant mortality rates,
 fetal death rates, and maternal mortality rates to be lower for
 white infants and higher for infants of other races than they
 were when computed by the previous method.  Conversely,
 population-based natality measures such as percent of babies with
 low birth weight and percent of mothers receiving early prenatal
 care tend to be higher for births to white mothers and lower for
 births to mothers of other races.

 Because the race-specific objectives in Chapter 14 are now being
 tracked by race of mother, the original baselines for these
 objectives (by race of child) were recomputed to provide
 comparable trend comparisons.  For more information about this
 issue see the 1989 Advance Report of Final Natality Statistics
Table B
  Table B.  Healthy People 2000 Objectives Revised to Reflect the
           Race of the Mother

 Objective         Subject              Racial/ethnic
 Number                                    Subgroup
 14.1a         Infant mortality              Black

 14.1b         Infant mortality              AI/AN

 14.1e         Neonatal mortality            Black

 14.1h         Postneonatal mortality        Black

 14.1i         Postneonatal mortality        AI/AN

 14.2a         Fetal death                   Black

 14.3a         Maternal mortality            Black

 14.5a         Low birth weight              Black

 14.5b         Very low birth weight         Black

 14.11a        Early prenatal care           Black

 14.11b        Early prenatal care           AI/AN

Other revisions

 Baselines for about 50 unduplicated objectives were revised by
 the Public Health Service agency responsible for achieving the
 objectives; changes were made for various methodological and
 computational reasons, described below.  It should be noted that
 some revisions involved more than one of these categories.  The
 reason for the revision to each of these baselines is listed in
 Table 1.

     *    Methodology/specific algorithm used -- A number of
          revisions resulted from modifications to the specific
          algorithm used to generate the data.  For example,
          original baseline data for objective 1.3 (light to
          moderate physical activity) were derived from a complex
          regression algorithm (using Behavioral Risk Factor
          Survey data).  Revised baseline data were derived by
          summing the number of reported physical activities
          which took at least 30 minutes (using National Health
          Interview Survey data).  The change, recommended by the
          National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and
          Health Promotion (Centers for Disease Control and
          Prevention), was an attempt to respond to the original
          intent of the objective, which is to encourage regular
          calorie-burning physical activity, irrespective of the
          type of activity.
     *    Diagnostic category inclusions -- Baseline diagnostic
          code definitions were revised to reflect current
          methodology.  All but one of these revisions involved
          data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey
          (NHDS).  Table C presents a list of all Healthy People
          2000 objectives tracked by the NHDS using the Ninth
          Revision of International Classification of Diseases -
          Clinical Modification (ICD -9 CM) (5) codes.  Baselines
          revised due to changes in diagnostic codes are denoted
          by (*).
          The other baseline revised due to diagnostic code
          inclusions was for objective 6.3 (mental disorders
          among children and adolescents).  The original baseline
          was derived from a general category of childhood
          maladjustment rather than specific psychiatric
          diagnoses (6,7).  The revised baseline uses the
          Diagnostic Statistical Manual (DSM III) which includes
          expanded diagnostic categories for children and
          adolescents (8,9).  The target for this objective was
          proportionally adjusted by the National Institute for
          Mental Health (NIMH) to reflect the change in the
          baseline (see section below on "Target revisions").

     *    Transcription errors - Four baselines were corrected
          because the original figures were transcribed
          incorrectly from the source documents.

     *    Data year/number of data years -- Several baselines
          were revised to reflect changes in the data year.  For
          many of these, the change in data year resulted from a
          change in methodology or data source.  For example, the
          original baseline for years of healthy life (8.1, 17.1,
          21.1) was computed using 1980 data.  The revised
          baseline uses 1990 data derived from the same data
          sources but based on a revised methodology.

          The baselines for objective 17.11, (incidence and
          prevalence of diabetes), which were originally based on
          a single year (1987) of data, were revised to include
          multiple years (1986-88).  The revised baselines are
          identical to the original baselines.  Conversely, one
          baseline (17.10c - lower extremity amputations among
          black persons with diabetes), which was originally
          based on multiple years (1984-87), was revised to a
          single-year (1987) data point.  These revisions were
          made to be consistent with the presentation of diabetes
          data in other PHS publications (10).

     *    Data source -- In a few cases, the data source
          identified in Healthy People 2000 will not be used for
          tracking progress towards the targets.  Therefore, the
          baselines were revised to reflect the new data source.
          For example, the baseline for objective 8.2 (high
          school graduation) originally came from the Current
          Population Survey, United States Bureau of the Census;
          the revised baseline data are from the National Center
          for Education Statistics (United States Department of

     *    Age group -- In addition to a change in data source
          noted above, one baseline revision (8.2 high school
          graduation) involved a change in the age group used to
          measure the objective.  The original baseline was
          computed using the age group 19-20 years.  The revised
          baseline, recommended by the PHS lead agencies
          responsible for achieving the objective, uses the age
          group 20-21 years.

     *    Data presentation - Three baselines were revised to
          reflect changes in the way the data are presented.  Two
          baseline data points for 20.11 (immunization status of
          children in child care facilities and children entering
          schools) were revised from point estimates (averages of
          antigen-specific immunizations) to ranges that
          represent the percent immunized for specific antigens
          (diseases).  The original baseline for objective 20.13
          was the number of states with immunization laws for all
          antigens and all settings.   The revised baseline shows
          the range in the number of states that have laws for
          specific antigens and types of facilities (child care
          as compared to school).

     *    Original based on preliminary analysis - A number of
          baselines published in Healthy People 2000 were based
          on preliminary analyses.  These measures were updated
          when more refined data became available.  Several of
          these involved preliminary estimates of the number of
          diagnosed AIDS cases (objectives 18.1, 18.1a-c)
          measured by data ranges.  The original range estimates
          have been replaced by more accurate point estimates.

     *    Original could not be duplicated - In a few cases, the
          figure published in Healthy People 2000 could not be
          precisely duplicated using current methodology and
          inclusion categories.  In these cases the current
          estimates are substituted for the original figures.
          The small differences between the original and revised
          figures are probably due to rounding or minor changes
          in methodology.

 Many of the changes resulting from the methodological and
 computation refinements listed above were relatively small.
 However, several were substantial and therefore present a very
 different picture of the effort needed to achieve the year 2000
 targets.  For example, the original baseline for objective 20.6
 (hepatitis A among international travelers) was 1,280.  The
 Healthy People 2000 text discussion mentioned an underreporting
 factor of 33% and estimated the total case count at about 5,000
 infections.  The revised baseline case count for hepatitis A
 among international travelers (4,475) is adjusted to account for

 For more information on the change applicable to a specific
 objective, contact the Healthy People 2000 staff at NCHS.
Table C
  Table C.  ICD-9 CM Codes Used for Objectives Tracked by the
           National Hospital Discharge Survey

 Objective             Subject                        ICD-9 CM codes
 9.2*             All non-fatal injuries             800-959

 9.7              Hip fractures                      820

 9.9*             Non-fatal head injuries            800-801,803-804,850-
                                                     854, 870-873, 925)

 9.10*            Non-fatal spinal cord injuries     806, 952

 11.1             Hospitalizations for asthma        493

 14.7             Severe complications of            630-676 minus 635

 14.8             Cesarean births-total              74 (excluding 74.3
                                                     and 74.91

 14.8a            Cesarean births-primary            74 (excluding 74.3
                                                     and 74.91) - without

 14.8b            Cesarean births-repeat             74 (excluding 74.3
                                                     and 74.91) - with

 17.10            Lower extremity amputation         84.11-84.12
                  among people with diabetes

 19.6             Hospitalizations for pelvic        614.0-614.5, 614.7-
                  inflammatory disease               614.9, 6.15.0, 615.1,
                                                     615.9, 098.10,
                                                     098.16, 098.17,
                                                     098.30, 098.36
                                                     098.37, 098.39,
Table D
  Table D.  Objectives for Which Targets Have Been Revised

 Objective                           Target
 Number          Subject        Original  Revised       Reason
 6.3       Child/Adolescent                           Diagnostic category
           Mental Illness          10%       17%      inclusions

 7.6       Assault Injuries        10%       8.7%     Original based on
                                                      preliminary analysis

Target Revisions

 The baseline revisions described above have implications for the
 year 2000 targets published in Healthy People 2000.  For some
 objectives the direction of the revised baseline is away from the
 target, implying that a greater level of effort will be required
 to achieve the target.  For others, the revisions move the
 baselines closer to the year 2000 target.  In fact, for several
 objectives, including a number of AI/AN objectives, the
 statistical adjustments yield baselines at or below the targets.
 As of this writing, except for objectives 6.3 and 7.6 which were
 revised by the lead PHS agency responsible for achieving the
 objectives (Table D), all Healthy People 2000 targets are being
 shown as originally published.

 The extent to which Healthy People 2000 targets should be revised
 in light of these baseline revisions is a major policy decision.
 Therefore, the U.S. Public Health Service will be asking for
 public comment on revising the targets.  As we move through the
 decade, every attempt will be made to be as consistent as
 possible in tracking the year 2000 objectives.  However, as
 improvements in methodologies are made, as new data sources
 become available, and as definitions change (for example
 HIV/AIDS), the  Healthy People 2000 process will respond to these
 issues as appropriate in tracking the changing health status of
 all Americans.
                  Klein, RJ, Freedman, MA. Revisions to Healthly
              People 2000 Baselines.  Statistical Notes. Number 5.
              Public Health Service. Washington. July.

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