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Scientific Data Documentation
Multiple Cause Mortality, 1997
DSN: CC36.MCMORT97
     CC36.MCMORT97.PS
DOCUMENTATION OF THE MORTALITY TAPE FILE FOR 1997 DATA


*SPECIAL NOTICE                                
EFFECTIVE WITH 1997 DATA, AMERICAN SAMOA RECORDS ARE INCLUDED IN THE 
TERRITORIES' PUBLIC-USE FILE
                                
THE DATA YEAR IS NO LONGER LOCATED IN POSITIONS 1-2 OF EACH RECORD.  
A FOUR-DIGIT DATA YEAR IS NOW LOCATED IN POSITIONS 115-118.                                
                                
THE GEOGRAPHIC CODES WERE CHANGED EFFECTIVE WITH 1996 DATA TO REFLECT 
THE RESULTS OF THE 1990 CENSUS
                                
                                
MORTALITY TAPE FILE DOCUMENTATION

This tape documentation was prepared in the Division of Vital Statistics. 
Gail Parr of the Systems Programming and Statistical Resources Branch
was responsible for developing the mortality documentation.  Sherry
Murphy of the Mortality Statistics Branch coordinated preparation of the
Technical Appendix.  The Registration Methods Staff and the Technical
Services Branch provided consultation to the State vital statistics offices
regarding collection of death certificate data.
Questions concerning the documentation or general questions concerning
the mortality file should be directed to the Systems Programming and
Statistical Resources Branch, Division of Vital Statistics, NCHS, 6525
Belcrest Road, Room 888, Hyattsville, MD 20782 (301-436-8900).
Questions concerning the Technical Appendix or substantive questions
concerning the mortality data should be directed to the Mortality Statistics
Branch, Division of Vital Statistics, NCHS, 6525 Belcrest Road, Room 840,
Hyattsville, MD 20782 (301-436-8884).

* The Detail file's records encompass the first 159 characters of the 
  Multiple Cause file's records.  Detail file users need to refer to 
  the Multiple Cause file documentation item descriptions for tape 
  positions 1-159.   Please note that for all files, the data year is no 
  longer in positions 1-2.  A four-digit data year is now in positions 
  115-118.  Other items'text descriptions have been updated or modified.
 
Table of Contents
      I.   Introduction 
      II.  Data file characteristics 
      III. Tape format and variable definition 
      IV.  Multiple Cause Data 
                A.   Entity Axis Codes 
                B.   Record Axis Codes 
      V.   Additional information 
      VI.  List of data elements and tape locations 
      VII. Multiple Cause-of-Death record layout 
      VIII.Geographic code outline 
      IX.  Primary Metropolitan Statistical Areas and Metropolitan 
           Statistical Areas as adapted for use by NCHS/DVS 
      X.   Control total tables 1-10 
      XI.  Titles and recodes for the 282, 72, 61, 52, and 34 cause-of-death 
           lists 
      XII. Technical Appendix for 1995 along with the 1997 addendum
 
SYMBOLS USED IN TABLES

  Symbol         Explanation 
   ---           Data not available 
   ...           Category not applicable 
    -            Quantity zero           
   0.0           Quantity more than 0 but less than 0.05 
    *            Figure does not meet standards of reliability or precision
 
Documentation of the Multiple Cause-of-Death Public-Use File for 1997 Data 
I.  Introduction 
    Data on causes of death are released by NCHS in a variety of ways including
    published reports, special tabulations to answer data requests, and public-use
    data tapes.  Since the inception of the multiple cause-of-death program in
    1968, a public-use tape file has been released for each data year.  Each file
    contains a data record for all deaths processed by NCHS.  Each data record
    contains underlying cause, multiple cause, and demographic data for a death.  
    With the exception of calendar years 1972, 1981 and 1982, all deaths
    occurring annually in the United States are processed.  In 1972, underlying
    and multiple cause data were coded and processed for only 50 percent of the
    deaths occurring in each State.  In 1981 and 1982, multiple cause data were
    coded on a 50 percent sample basis for deaths occurring in 19 registration
    areas.  The registration areas are the 50 States, New York City and the
    District of Columbia.   The 50 percent sample States are identified in the
    documentation of the 1981 and 1982 files.  For the remaining 33 registration
    areas, multiple cause data were processed on a 100 percent basis.  In 1981
    and 1982, underlying cause, demographic, and geographic data were
    processed for every death occurring in every State; however the multiple
    cause-of-death public-use tape contains only those records where the multiple
    cause field is also coded.  A public-use tape containing underlying cause,
    demographic, and geographic data for every death in the United States is
    available but contains no multiple cause data. 
    This document is intended to provide guidance to the consumer in accessing
    and utilizing the multiple cause-of-death public-use tape file for 1997.  It
    provides the technical data processing information necessary to access the
    tapes and the classification structure and coding rules applied to create each
    variable on the file such that the user can readily assess relevance at varying
    levels of detail to his/her own particular research.  Additionally, it conveys the
    characteristics of the multiple cause files sufficient to guide the user in
    analyzing and interpreting multiple cause data.  The user is alerted to certain
    pitfalls of interpretation; and the appropriateness of each type of multiple
    cause data to given applications is discussed.  Control totals are also provided
    for comparison with user generated counts for 1997 data. 
    A revised U.S. Standard Certificate of Death was recommended for State use
    beginning on January 1, 1989.  Among the changes were the addition of a
    new item on educational attainment and changes to improve the medical
    certification of cause of death.  In addition, for the first time, the U.S. Standard
    Certificate of Death includes a question on the Hispanic origin of the
    decedent.  Previously a number of States had included an Hispanic-origin
    identifier on their certificates.  A change was also made in the format of the
    item to obtain information on type of place of death from an open-ended
    question to a checkbox.
    The Office of Management and Budget revised its designation of metropolitan
    statistical areas based on figures from the 1990 Census.  For the 1990
    through 1993 data files, NCHS has been using these new definitions and
    codes as indicated in the listing of 320 Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs),
    Primary Metropolitan Statistical Areas (PMSAs), and New England County
    Metropolitan Areas (NECMAs) included in the documentation for those years. 
    There are also 20 Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas (CMSAs) which
    are made up of PMSAs.  Because other geographic changes based on the
    1990 Census became effective with the 1994 data file, the metropolitan
    statistical area designations were updated as well.  Effective with the 1994
    data file, there are 311 MSA's, PMSA's, and NECMA's; and 18 CMSA's as
    indicated in the listing included with this documentation. 
    NCHS has adopted a new policy on release of vital statistics unit record data
    files.  This new policy was implemented for the 1989 vital event files to prevent
    the inadvertent disclosure of individuals and institutions.  As a result, the files
    for 1989 and later years do not contain the actual day of the death or the date
    of birth of the decedent.  The geographic detail is also restricted; only counties
    and cities of 100,000 or more population based on the 1990 census, as well
    as metropolitan areas of 100,000 or more population based on the 1990
    Census  are identified.
 
II. Data File Characteristics 
    Each record on the annual tape files contains two multiple cause-of-death
    fields which have been coded using ICD-9.  In addition, underlying cause,
    demographic, and geographic detail data accompany the multiple cause-of-
    death data.  The tape files contain the complete level of detail coded by NCHS
    except where precluded by confidentiality restrictions or lack of data reliability.
    Specifications for the 1997 tape files are as follows:
    File Organization:       Multiple files, multiple reels
    Record Type:             Blocked, fixed format
    Record Length:           440
    Blocksize:               26400
 
    U.S. DATA SET:
 
    1.   Record count:                 2,317,586
    2.   Data counts:   a. By occurrence:        2,317,586
                        b. By residence:         2,314,245
                        c. To foreign residents:     3,341
 
    PUERTO RICO, VIRGIN ISLANDS, GUAM, AND AMERICAN SAMOA DATA SET: 
    1.  Record count:                            30,848
 
    PUERTO RICO:
    
    2.  Data counts:    a.  By occurrence:            29,120
                        b.  By residence              28,963
 
    VIRGIN ISLANDS:

    2.  Data counts:    a.  By occurrence:            608
                        b.  By residence:             620
 
    GUAM:               
    
    2. Data Counts:     a.  By occurrence:            863
                        b.  By residence:             615

    AMERICAN SAMOA:
    
    2. Data Counts:     a.  By occurrence:            257
                        b.  By residence:             257
 

    1.  The data were processed using the PL/1 language on an IBM 3081.
    2.  The last block for the data year may be a short block.
    3.  The data are recorded in IBM/EBCDIC 8-bit code for each character.
    4.  Codes may be numeric, alphabetic, or blank (Hex 40).
    5.  A code "z" is the EBCDIC code for the letter "z".
    6.  A code "&" is the EBCDIC code for an ampersand (a punched card
        code 12).
III. Tape Format and Variable Definition 
     The attached record layout provides documentation of variables, variable
     categories, and variable location on the multiple cause-of-death public-
     use tapes.  It is noted that the following material, while used in the 
     processing of mortality data, is not included in this package:
 
     A.   Manual of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases,
          Injuries, and the Cause-of-Death, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) Volumes 1
          and 2. 
     B.   NCHS Instruction Manual Data Preparation Part 2a, Vital Statistics
          Instructions for Classifying the Underlying Cause-of-Death, 1995. 
     C.   NCHS Instruction Manual Data  Preparation, Part 2b, Vital Statistics
          Instructions for Classifying Multiple Cause-of-Death, 1995. 
     D.   NCHS Instruction Manual Data Preparation, Part 2c, Vital Statistics
          ICD-9 ACME Decision Tables for Classifying Underlying Causes-of-
          Death, 1995. 
     E.   NCHS Instruction Manual Data Preparation, Part 2d, Vital Statistics
          NCHS Procedures for Mortality Medical Data System file Preparation
          and Maintenance, Effective 1979. 
     F.   NCHS Instruction Manual Data Tabulation, Part 2f, Vital Statistics ICD-
          9 TRANSAX Disease Reference Tables for Classifying Multiple
          Causes-of-Death, 1982-95. 
     G.   NCHS Instruction Manual Data Preparation, Part 4, Vital Statistics
          Demographic Classification and Coding Instructions for Death Records,
          1997. 
     H.   NCHS Instruction Manual Tabulation, Part 11, Vital Statistics Computer
          Edits for Mortality Data, Effective 1990.
     These documents describe in detail the rules employed for demographic and
     medical classification on death records.  Volumes 1 and 2 of the ICD-9 may
     be purchased from WHO Publication Center USA, 49 Sheridan Avenue,
     Albany, New York, 12210.  The remaining documents (Items B-H), while not
     absolutely essential to the proper interpretation of the data for a number of
     general applications, should nevertheless be studied carefully prior to any
     detailed analysis of demographic or medical data variables.  In particular,
     there are a number of exceptions to the ICD rules in multiple cause-of-death
     coding which, if not treated properly, may result in faulty analysis of the data. 
     Users who do not already have access to these documents may request them
     from the Chief, Data Preparation Branch, Division of Data Processing,
     National Center for Health Statistics, P.O. Box 12214, Research Triangle
     Park, North Carolina 27709. 
     In addition, the user should refer to the Technical Appendices of the Vital
     Statistics of the United States for information on the source of data, coding
     procedures, quality of the data, etc.  Technical Appendix information is
     enclosed.
 
IV.  Multiple Cause Data 
     The original scheme for coding conditions contained on the death certificate
     was designed with two objectives in mind.  First, to facilitate etiological studies
     of the relationships among conditions, it was necessary to reflect accurately in
     coded form each condition and its location on the certification in the exact
     manner given by the certifier.  Secondly, the codification needed to be carried
     out in a manner by which the underlying cause-of-death could be assigned
     through computer applications.  The approach was to suspend the linkage
     provisions of the ICD for the purpose of condition coding and code each entity
     with minimum regard to other conditions present on the certification.  This
     general approach is hereafter called entity coding.  
     Unfortunately, the set of multiple cause codes produced by entity coding is not
     conducive to a third objective -- the generation of person based multiple cause
     statistics.  Person based analysis requires that each condition be coded within
     the context of every other condition on the same certificate and modified or
     linked to such conditions as provided by ICD-9.  By definition, the entity data
     cannot meet this requirement since the linkage provisions distort the character
     and placement of the information originally recorded by the certifying
     physician. 
     Since the two objectives are incompatible, DVS has chosen to create from the
     original set of entity codes a new code set called record axis multiple cause
     data.  Essentially, the axis of classification has been converted from a entity
     basis to a record (or person) basis.  The record axis codes are assigned in
     terms of the set of codes that best describe the overall medical certification
     portion of the death certificate.
 
     This translation is accomplished by a computer system called TRANSAX
     (TRANSLATION OF AXIS) through selective use of traditional linkage and       
     modification rules for mortality coding.    Underlying cause linkages which
     simply prefer one code over another for purposes of underlying cause
     selection are not included.  Each entity code on the record is examined and
     modified or deleted as necessary to create a set of codes which are free of
     contradictions and are the most precise within the constraints of ICD-9 and
     medical information on the record.  Repetitive codes are deleted.  The process
     may (1) combine two entity axis categories together to a new category thereby
     eliminating a contradiction or standardizing the data; or (2) eliminate one
     category in favor of another to promote specificity of the data or resolve
     contradictions.  The following examples from ICD-9 illustrate the effect of 
     this translation:
 
        Case 1:  
           When reported on the same record as separate entities, cirrhosis 
           of liver and alcoholism are coded to 5715 (cirrhosis of liver 
           without mention of alcohol) and 303 (alcohol dependence syndrome). 
           Tabulation of records with 5715 would on the surface falsely imply 
           that such records had no mention of alcohol.  A preferable codification
           would be 5712 (alcoholic cirrhosis of liver) in lieu of both 5715 and 
           303.
 
        Case 2:  
           If "gastric ulcer" and "bleeding gastric ulcer" are reported on a 
           record they are coded to 5319 (gastric ulcer, unspecified as acute or 
           chronic, without mention of hemorrhage or perforation) and 5314 
           (gastric ulcer, chronic or unspecified, with hemorrhage).  A more 
           concise codification would be to code 5314 only since the 5314 shows 
           both the gastric ulcer and the bleeding.
 
  A.  Entity Axis Codes 
      The original conditions coded for selection of the underlying cause-of-death
      are reformatted and edited prior to creating the public-use tape.  The following
      paragraphs describe the format and application of entity axis data.
 
      FORMAT: Each entity-axis code is displayed as an overall seven byte code
      with subcomponents as follows:
 
       1.  Line indicator: The first byte represents the line of the certificate on         
                           which the code appears.  Six lines (1-6) are allowable       
                           with the fourth and fifth denoting one or two written in        
                           "due to"s beyond the three lines provided in Part I of the    
                           U.S. standard death certificate.  Line "6" represents Part    
                           II of the  certificate.
 
       2.  Position indicator: The next byte indicates the position of the code on      
                               the line, i.e., it is the first (1), second (2), third (3) ....    
                               eighth (8) code on the line.
 
       3.  Cause category: The next four bytes represent the ICD-9 cause code.
 
       4.  Nature of injury flag: ICD-9 uses the same series of numbers (800-999)    
                                  to indicate nature of injury (N codes) and external      
                                  cause codes (E codes).  This flag distinguishes          
                                  between the two with a one (1) representing nature    
                                  of injury codes and a zero (0) representing all other    
                                  cause codes.
 
      A maximum of 20 of these seven byte codes are captured on a record for         
      multiple cause purposes.  This may consist of a maximum of 8 codes on any   
      given line with up to 20 codes distributed across three or more lines                 
      depending on where the subject conditions are located on the certificate.          
      Codes may be omitted from one or more lines, e.g., line 1 with one or more       
      codes, line 2 with no codes, line 3 with one or more codes. 
      In writing out these codes, they are ordered as follows: line 1 first code, line 1  
      second code, etc. ----- line 2 first code, line 2 second code, etc. ----- line 3 ----   
      line 4 ----- line 5 ----- line 6.  Any space remaining in the field is left blank.          
      The specifics of locations are contained in the record layout given later in this     
      document. 
 

      EDIT: The original conditions are edited to remove invalid codes, reverify the
      coding of certain rare causes of death, and assure age/cause and sex/cause
      compatibility.  Detailed information relating to the edit criteria and the sets of
      cause codes which are valid to underlying cause coding and multiple cause
      coding are provided in part II of the NCHS Vital Statistics Instruction Manual
      Series.  Table 2, Number of Resident Deaths Tabulated by Mention of an
      Underlying Cause, Record Axis Multiple Cause, or Entity Axis Multiple Cause-
      of-Death by ICD-9 Category, provides a summary list of valid underlying cause
      and multiple cause codes.
 
      ENTITY AXIS APPLICATIONS: The entity axis multiple cause data set is
      appropriate to analyses which require that each condition be coded as a stand
      alone entity without linkage to other conditions and/or require information on
      the placement of such conditions in the certificate.   Within this framework, the
      entity data are appropriate to the examination of etiological relationships
      among conditions, accuracy of certification reporting, and the validity of
      traditional assumptions in underlying cause selection.   Additionally, the entity
      data provide in certain categories a more detailed code assignment which is
      linked out in the creation of record axis data.  Where such detail is needed for
      a study, the user should selectively employ entity data.  Finally, the researcher
      may not wish to be bound by the assumptions used in the axis translation
      process preferring rather to investigate hypotheses of his own predilection. 
      By definition, the main limitation of entity axis data is that an entity code does
      not necessarily reflect the best code for a condition when considered within 
      the context of the medical certification as a whole.  As a result certain entity
      codes can be misleading or even contradict other codes in the record.   For
      example, category 5750 is titled "Acute cholecystitis without mention of
      calculus".  Within the framework of entity codes this is interpreted to mean that
      the codable entity itself contained no mention of calculus rather than that
      calculus was not mentioned anywhere on the record.  Tabulation of records
      with a "5750" as a count of persons having acute cholecystitis without mention
      of calculus would therefore be erroneous.  This illustrates the fact that under
      entity coding the ICD-9 titles cannot be taken literally.  The user must study
      the rules for entity coding as they relate to his/her research prior to utilization
      of entity data.  The user is further cautioned that the inclusion notes in ICD-9
      which relate to modifying and combining categories are seldom applicable to
      entity coding (except where provided in Part 2b of the Vital Statistics
      Instruction Manual Series). 
      In tabulating the entity axis data, one may count codes with the resultant
      tabulation of an individual code representing the number of times the
      disease(s) represented by the code appears in the file.  In this kind of
      tabulation of morbid condition prevalence, the counts among categories may
      be added together to produce counts for groups of codes.  Alternatively,
      subject to the limitations given above, one may count persons having mention
      of the disease represented by a code or codes.  In this instance it is not
      correct to add counts for individual codes to create person counts for groups
      of codes.  Since more than one code in the researcher's interest may appear
      together on the certificate, totaling must account for higher order interactions
      among codes.  Up to 20 codes may be assigned on a record; therefore, a 20-
      way interaction is theoretically possible.  All totaling must be based on mention
      of one or more of the categories under investigation.
 
  B.  Record Axis Codes 
      The following paragraphs describe the format and application of record-axis
      data.  Part 2f of the Vital Statistics Instruction Manual Series describes the
      TRANSAX process for creating record axis data from entity axis data. 
      FORMAT: Each record (or person) axis code is displayed in five bytes. 
      Location information is not relevant.  The Code consists of the following
      components:
 
       1.  Cause category: The first four bytes represent the ICD-9 cause code.  
       2.  Nature of injury flag: The last byte contains a 0 or 1 with the 1 indicating   
                                  that the cause is a nature of injury category.
 
      Again, a maximum of 20 codes are captured on a record for multiple cause
      purposes.  The codes are written in a 100-byte field in ascending code
      number (5 bytes) order with any unused bytes left blank.
 
      EDIT: The record axis codes are edited for rare causes and age/cause and
      sex/cause compatibility.  Likewise, individual code validity is checked.  The
      valid code set for record axis coding is the same as that for entity coding.
 
      RECORD AXIS APPLICATIONS: The record axis multiple cause data set is
      the basis for NCHS core multiple cause tabulations.  Location of codes is not
      relevant to this data set and conditions have been linked into the most
      meaningful categories for the certification.  The most immediate consequence
      for the user is that the codes on the record already represent mention of a
      disease assignable to that particular ICD-9 category.  This is in contrast to the
      entity code which is assigned each time such a disease is reported on two
      different lines of the certification.  Secondly, the linkage implies that 
      within the constraints of ICD-9 the most meaningful code has been assigned.  
      The translation process creates for the user a data set which is edited for
      contradictions, duplicate codes, and imprecisions.  In contrast to entity axis
      data, record axis data are classified in a manner comparable to underlying
      cause of death classification thereby facilitating joint analysis of these
      variables.  Likewise, they are comparable to general morbidity coding where
      the linkage provisions of ICD-9 are usually utilized.  A potential disadvantage
      of record axis data is that some detail is sacrificed in a number of the 
      linkages. 
      The user can take the record axis codes as literally representing the
      information conveyed in ICD-9 category titles.  While knowledge of the rules
      for combining and linking and coding conditions is useful, it is not a
      prerequisite to meaningful analysis of the data as long as one is willing to
      accept the assumptions of the axis translation process.  The user is cautioned,
      however, that due to special rules in mortality coding, not all linkage notes 
      in ICD-9 are utilized.  (See Part 2f of the Vital Statistics Instruction Manual
      Series.) 
      The user should proceed with caution in using record axis data to count
      conditions as opposed to people with conditions since linkages have been
      invoked and duplicate codes have been eliminated.  As with entity data,
      person based tabulations which combine individual cause categories must
      take into account the possible interaction of up to 20 codes on a single
      certificate.
 
  V.  Additional Information 
      In using the NCHS multiple cause data tapes, the user is urged to review the
      information in this document and its references.  The instructional material
      does change from year to year and revision to revision.  The user is cautioned
      that coding of specific ICD-9 categories should be checked in the appropriate
      instruction manual.  What may appear on the surface to be the correct code
      by ICD-9 may in fact not be correct as given in the instruction manuals. 
      If on the surface it is not obvious whether entity axis or record axis data should
      be employed in a given application, detailed examination of Part 2f of the Vital
      Statistics Instruction Manual Series and its attachments will probably provide
      the necessary information to make a decision.  It allows the user to determine
      the extent of the trade-offs between the two sets of data in terms of specific
      categories and the assumption of axis translation.  In certain situations, a
      combination of entity and record axis data may be the more appropriate
      alternative.
      Several basic tabulations of data from selected variables contained on this
      tape have been produced and are included with this document as an aid to the
      user in determining if his own tabulations are correct.  For verification of
      multiple cause-of-death data at the "each cause" level of detail, Table 1
      provides counts of the number of deaths on which a given ICD-9 category is
      mentioned as the underlying cause-of-death, a record axis multiple cause-of-
      death, and an entity axis multiple cause-of-death, respectively.  The counts for
      the record axis multiple cause-of-death  field are divided into two distinct
      subtotals: (1) "total mention" and (2) "secondary".  Secondary is defined as
      any code which is present in the record axis field but is not the underlying
      cause-of-death.  Tables 2-7 provide additional control totals for the three
      cause-of-death fields by age, race, and sex.  Tables 8-10 ignore cause-of-
      death and provide control totals based on age, race, sex, State of residence,
      State of occurrence, and month.  Tables 1-9 are based on resident deaths in
      the United States (excludes deaths to non-residents).  Table 10 is based upon
      deaths occurring in the United States (includes deaths to foreign residents).          

      For help with questions concerning multiple cause-of-death analysis, please     
      refer to the following publications:
 
      National Center for Health Statistics.  Multiple causes of death in the 
      United States.  Monthly vital statistics report; vol 32 no 10, suppl.(2).  
      Hyattsville, Maryland: Public Health Service, 1984. 
      Chamblee, R.F. and Evans, M.C. TRANSAX: The NCHS system for producing
      multiple cause-of-death statistics, 1968-78.  Vital and Health Statistics.  
      Series 1, no 20.  Public Health Service, Washington, DC: U.S. Government 
      Printing Office, June 1986. 
      Israel, R.A., Rosenberg, H.M., and Curtin, L.R. Analytical potential for 
      multiple cause-of-death data.  American Journal of Epidemiology 124(2): 
      161-179.  August, 1986. 
      Manton, K.G. and Stallard, E. Recent trends in mortality analysis.  
      Orlando, Florida; Academic Press, inc., 1984.
 
 When further analytical assistance is needed, contact the Mortality Statistics Branch,
 Division of Vital Statistics, NCHS, 6525 Belcrest Road, Room 840, Hyattsville,
 Maryland 20782, Telephone (301) 436-8884.  For technical assistance pertaining to
 the creation of the multiple cause-of-death file, contact Donna Glenn, Statistician,
 Technical Services Branch, Division of Vital Statistics, NCHS, Room 148, P.O. Box
 12214, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709.  Telephone (919) 541-0999.
VI.  List of Data Elements and Tape Locations
 
     Tape
     Locations                            Data Items  
 
     1.   General 
          a.   Data year                     115-118
          b.   Record Type                        19
          c.   Resident status                    20
          d.   Month of death                  55-56
          e.   Day of week of death               83
          f.   Place of death and decedent's 
               status                             75      
     2.   Occurrence
          a.   State                         21-22,28
          b.   Expanded State                   29-30
          c.   County                           23-25
          d.   County Population size              49
          e.   Region                              26
          f.   Division                            27
          g.   FIPS State                     119-120
          h.   FIPS County                    121-123      
     3.   Residence
          a.   State                         31-32,43
          b.   Expanded State                   44-45
          c.   County                           33-35
          d.   County Population size              50
          e.   City                             36-38
          f.   City Population size                39
          g.   Met/Nonmet county                   40
          h.   Region                              41
          i.   Division                            42
          j.   PMSA/MSA                         46-48
          k.   PMSA/MSA Population size            51
          l.   FIPS State                     124-125
          m.   FIPS County                    126-128
          n.   FIPS Place                      97-101
          o.   FIPS PMSA/MSA                  129-132
          p.   FIPS CMSA                      134-135 
     4.   The Decedent
          a.   Sex                                 59
          b.   Race                             60-63
          c.   Age                              64-74
          d.   Marital status                      77
          e.   State of birth                   78-79
          f.   Hispanic origin               80-81,82
          g.   Kind of Business or Industry     85-87
          h.   Usual Occupation                 88-90
          i.   Education                    52-53, 54        

     5.   Underlying Cause
          a.   ICD-9 code                     142-145
          b.   282 cause recode               146-150
          c.   72 cause recode                151-153
          d.   61 cause recode                154-156
          e.   52 cause recode                  91-93
          f.   34 cause recode                157-159
          g.   Place of accident                  141
          h.   Injury at work                     136 
     6.   Multiple Conditions
          a.   Entity-Axis conditions
               1.   Number of                 160-161
               2.   The conditions            162-301           
          b.   Record-Axis conditions
               1.   Number of                 338-339
               2.   The conditions            341-440



RECORD LAYOUT 
Tape          Field
Location      Size    Item and Code Outline
 1-3            3     Reserved Positions
 
 4-9            6     Certificate Number
                       These positions are blank.
 
 10-11          2     Reserved Positions
 
 12-18          7     Sequence Number
                       These positions are blank
 
 19             1     Record Type
 
                       1    ...  RESIDENTS
                                 State and County of Occurrence and Residence
                                 are the same.
                       2    ...  NONRESIDENTS
                                 State and/or County of Occurrence and Residence
                                 are different.
           
20              1     Resident Status
           
                       United States Occurrence
 
                        1    ...  RESIDENTS
                                  State and County of Occurrence and Residence 
                                  are thesame.
                        2    ...  INTRASTATE NONRESIDENTS
                                  State of Occurrence and Residence are the same, 
                                  but County is different.
                        3    ...  INTERSTATE NONRESIDENTS
                                  State of Occurrence and Residence are different, 
                                  but both are in the U.S.
                        4    ...  FOREIGN RESIDENTS
                                  State of Occurrence is one of the 50 States or 
                                  the District of Columbia, but Place of Residence 
                                  is outside of the U.S.
                     
                       Puerto Rico Occurrence
 
                        1    ...  RESIDENTS
                                  Territory and County-equivalent of Occurrence and
                                  Residence are the same.
                        2    ...  INTRASTATE NONRESIDENTS
                                  Territory of Occurrence and Residence are the same, 
                                  but County-equivalent is different.
                        4    ...  FOREIGN RESIDENTS
                                  Occurred in Puerto Rico to a resident of any other 
                                  place. 
 
 20             1      Resident Status  - Con.
                                         
                        Virgin Islands Occurrence
 
                         1    ...  RESIDENTS
                                   Territory and County-equivalent of Occurrence and
                                   Residence are the same.
                         2    ...  INTRASTATE NONRESIDENTS
                                   Territory of Occurrence and Residence are the same, 
                                   but County-equivalent is different.
                         4    ...  FOREIGN RESIDENTS
                                   Occurred in Virgin Islands to a resident of any 
                                   other place.           
                        Guam Occurrence
                               
                         1    ...  RESIDENTS
                                   Occurred in Guam to a resident of Guam or to a 
                                   resident of the U.S.
                         4    ...  FOREIGN RESIDENTS
                                   Occurred in Guam to a resident of any place other 
                                   than Guam or the U.S. 
                        American Samoa Occurrence
 
                         1    ...  RESIDENTS
                                   Territory and County-equivalent of Occurrence and
                                   Residence are the same.
                         2    ...  INTRASTATE NONRESIDENTS
                                   Territory of Occurrence and Residence are the same, but
                                   County-equivalent is different.
                         4    ...  FOREIGN RESIDENTS
                                   Occurred in American Samoa to a resident of any other
                                   place.
                
 21-30          10      PLACE OF OCCURRENCE
 
                        Refer to the Geographic Code Outline further back in this 
                        document for a detailed list of areas and codes.  Some 
                        Geographic Codes have changed to reflect the results of 
                        the 1990 Census.
 
 21-22          2       State of Occurrence
 
                                        United States
 
                                         01        ... Alabama
                                         02        ... Alaska
                                         03        ... Arizona 
 21-22          2       State of Occurrence - Con.
           
                                         04        ... Arkansas
                                         05        ... California
                                         06        ... Colorado
                                         07        ... Connecticut
                                         08        ... Delaware
                                         09        ... District of Columbia
                                         10        ... Florida
                                         11        ... Georgia
                                         12        ... Hawaii
                                         13        ... Idaho
                                         14        ... Illinois
                                         15        ... Indiana
                                         16        ... Iowa
                                         17        ... Kansas
                                         18        ... Kentucky
                                         19        ... Louisiana
                                         20        ... Maine
                                         21        ... Maryland
                                         22        ... Massachusetts
                                         23        ... Michigan
                                         24        ... Minnesota
                                         25        ... Mississippi
                                         26        ... Missouri
                                         27        ... Montana
                                         28        ... Nebraska
                                         29        ... Nevada
                                         30        ... New Hampshire
                                         31        ... New Jersey
                                         32        ... New Mexico
                                         33        ... New York
                                         34        ... North Carolina
                                         35        ... North Dakota
                                         36        ... Ohio
                                         37        ... Oklahoma
                                         38        ... Oregon
                                         39        ... Pennsylvania
                                         40        ... Rhode Island
                                         41        ... South Carolina
                                         42        ... South Dakota
                                         43        ... Tennessee
                                         44        ... Texas
                                         45        ... Utah
                                         46        ... Vermont
                                         47        ... Virginia
 
 21-22          2       State of Occurrence - Con.
           
                                         48        ... Washington
                                         49        ... West Virginia
                                         50        ... Wisconsin
                                         51        ... Wyoming 
                         Puerto Rico 
                                         52        ...Puerto Rico 
                         Virgin Islands 
                                         53        ...Virgin Islands 
                         Guam
                                         54        ...Guam 
                         American Samoa
 
                                         61        ...American Samoa
 
 
 23-25          3       County of Occurrence     
                     
                         001-nnn   ...  Counties and county equivalents (independent 
                                        and coextensive cities) are numbered 
                                        alphabetically within each State and identify 
                                        each county with a population of 100,000 or 
                                        more in 1990.  
                                        (Note: To uniquely identify a county, both the 
                                        State and county codes must be used.)  A 
                                        complete list of counties is shown in the 
                                        Geographic Code Outline further back
                                        in this document.
                         999       ...  County of less than 100,000 population
 
 
 26             1       Region

 27-28          2       Division and State Subcode of Occurrence
 
                         States are coded within Division.
                         26 is Region.  27 is Division.  28 is State subcode. 
 
                         000         ...  Not applicable: Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, 
                                          Guam or American Samoa occurrence.

                           1         ...  NORTHEAST
                              1        ...        New England
                                   1    ...    Maine
                                   2    ...    New Hampshire
                                   3    ...    Vermont
                                   4    ...    Massachusetts
                                   5    ...    Rhode Island
                                   6    ...    Connecticut
                              2        ...        Middle Atlantic
                                   1    ...    New York
                                   2    ...    New Jersey
                                   3    ...    Pennsylvania
                           2         ...  MIDWEST
                              3        ...        East North Central
                                   1    ...    Ohio
                                   2    ...    Indiana
                                   3    ...    Illinois
                                   4    ...    Michigan
                                   5    ...    Wisconsin
                              4        ...        West North Central
                                   1    ...    Minnesota
                                   2    ...    Iowa
                                   3    ...    Missouri
                                   4    ...    North Dakota
                                   5    ...    South Dakota
                                   6    ...    Nebraska 
                                   7    ...    Kansas
                           3         ...  SOUTH          
                              5         ...       South Atlantic
                                   1    ...    Delaware
                                   2    ...    Maryland
                                   3    ...    District of Columbia
                                   4    ...    Virginia
                                   5    ...    West Virginia
                                   6    ...    North Carolina
                                   7    ...    South Carolina
                                   8    ...    Georgia
                                   9    ...    Florida
 
 26-28          3         Region 
                           Division and State Subcode of Occurrence - Con.
 
                              6        ...       East South Central  
                                   1    ...    Kentucky
                                   2    ...    Tennessee
                                   3    ...    Alabama
                                   4    ...    Mississippi
                              7        ...       West South Central
                                   1    ...    Arkansas
                                   2    ...    Louisiana
                                   3    ...    Oklahoma
                                   4    ...    Texas
                           4       ...  WEST 
                              8        ...       Mountain
                                   1    ...    Montana
                                   2    ...    Idaho
                                   3    ...    Wyoming
                                   4    ...    Colorado
                                   5    ...    New Mexico
                                   6    ...    Arizona
                                   7    ...    Utah
                                   8    ...    Nevada
                              9        ...       Pacific
                                   1    ...    Washington
                                   2    ...    Oregon
                                   3    ...    California
                                   4    ...    Alaska
                                   5    ...    Hawaii
 
 29-30          2         Expanded State of Occurrence Code
 
                           This item is designed to separately identify 
                           New York City records from other New York State 
                           records.
 
                             United States 
                                         01        ... Alabama
                                         02        ... Alaska
                                         03        ... Arizona
                                         04        ... Arkansas
                                         05        ... California
                                         06        ... Colorado
                                         07        ... Connecticut
                                         08        ... Delaware
                                         09        ... District of Columbia
                                         10        ... Florida

 29-30          2       Expanded State of Occurrence - Con.       
 
                                         11        ... Georgia
                                         12        ... Hawaii
                                         13        ... Idaho
                                         14        ... Illinois
                                         15        ... Indiana
                                         16        ... Iowa
                                         17        ... Kansas
                                         18        ... Kentucky
                                         19        ... Louisiana
                                         20        ... Maine
                                         21        ... Maryland
                                         22        ... Massachusetts
                                         23        ... Michigan
                                         24        ... Minnesota
                                         25        ... Mississippi
                                         26        ... Missouri
                                         27        ... Montana
                                         28        ... Nebraska
                                         29        ... Nevada
                                         30        ... New Hampshire
                                         31        ... New Jersey
                                         32        ... New Mexico
                                         33        ... New York
                                         34        ... New York City
                                         35        ... North Carolina
                                         36        ... North Dakota
                                         37        ... Ohio
                                         38        ... Oklahoma
                                         39        ... Oregon
                                         40        ... Pennsylvania
                                         41        ... Rhode Island
                                         42        ... South Carolina
                                         43        ... South Dakota
                                         44        ... Tennessee
                                         45        ... Texas
                                         46        ... Utah
                                         47        ... Vermont
                                         48        ... Virginia
                                         49        ... Washington
                                         50        ... West Virginia
                                         51        ... Wisconsin
                                         52        ... Wyoming
 
                             Puerto Rico

                                         53        ... Puerto Rico
 
 
 29-30          2       Expanded State of Occurrence - Con.       
 
                             Virgin Islands
                                         54        ...Virgin Islands 
                             Guam
                                         55        ... Guam 
                             American Samoa

                                         62        ...American Samoa
 
 31-48         18       PLACE OF RESIDENCE
 
                        Refer to the Geographic Code Outline further back in 
                        this document for a detailed list of areas and codes.
 
 31-32         2        State of Residence
 
                             United States Occurrence 
                                         01        ... Alabama
                                         02        ... Alaska
                                         03        ... Arizona
                                         04        ... Arkansas
                                         05        ... California
                                         06        ... Colorado
                                         07        ... Connecticut
                                         08        ... Delaware
                                         09        ... District of Columbia
                                         10        ... Florida
                                         11        ... Georgia
                                         12        ... Hawaii
                                         13        ... Idaho
                                         14        ... Illinois
                                         15        ... Indiana
                                         16        ... Iowa
                                         17        ... Kansas
                                         18        ... Kentucky
                                         19        ... Louisiana
                                         20        ... Maine
                                         21        ... Maryland
                                         22        ... Massachusetts
                                         23        ... Michigan
                                         24        ... Minnesota
                                         25        ... Mississippi
                                         26        ... Missouri
                                         27        ... Montana
                                         28        ... Nebraska
 
 31-32         2        State of Residence - Con. 
                             U.S. Occurrence 
                                         29        ... Nevada
                                         30        ... New Hampshire
                                         31        ... New Jersey
                                         32        ... New Mexico
                                         33        ... New York
                                         34        ... North Carolina
                                         35        ... North Dakota
                                         36        ... Ohio
                                         37        ... Oklahoma
                                         38        ... Oregon
                                         39        ... Pennsylvania
                                         40        ... Rhode Island
                                         41        ... South Carolina
                                         42        ... South Dakota
                                         43        ... Tennessee
                                         44        ... Texas
                                         45        ... Utah
                                         46        ... Vermont
                                         47        ... Virginia
                                         48        ... Washington
                                         49        ... West Virginia
                                         50        ... Wisconsin
                                         51        ... Wyoming
                                         52-57,59,61... Foreign residents
                                         52         ... Puerto Rico
                                         53         ... Virgin Islands
                                         54         ... Guam
                                         55         ... Canada
                                         56         ... Cuba
                                         57         ... Mexico
                                         59         ... Remainder of the world
                                         61         ... American Samoa 

                             Puerto Rico Occurrence 
                                         52   ... Puerto Rico
                                   01-51,53-
                                   57,59,61   ... Foreign residents: refer to U.S. 
                                                  for specific code structure.
 
 31-32         2        State of Residence - Con.
 
                             Virgin Islands Occurrence 
                                         53   ... Virgin Islands
                                   01-52,54- 
                                   57,59,61   ... Foreign residents: refer to U.S. for  
                                                  specific code structure. 
                             Guam  Occurrence 
                                         54   ... Guam
                                      01-51   ... U.S. resident.  Also considered a 
                                                  resident of Guam.
                                52-53,55-57,
                                      59,61   ... Foreign residents: refer to U.S. for 
                                                  specific code structure.  
                             American Samoa Occurrence 
                                    61   ... American Samoa
                                 01-57,
                                    59   ... Foreign residents: refer to U.S. for 
                                             specific code structure. 
 
 33-35         3        County of Residence
 
                         001-nnn  ... Counties and county equivalents (independent 
                                      and coextensive cities) are numbered 
                                      alphabetically within each State and identify 
                                      each county with a population of 100,000 
                                      or more in 1990.  (Note: to uniquely identify 
                                      a county, both the State and county codes must 
                                      be used.)  A complete list of counties is 
                                      shown in the Geographic Code outline further 
                                      back in this document.
                         zzz      ... Foreign residents
                         999      ... County of less than 100,000 population
 
 36-38         3        City of Residence
 
                         001-nnn  ... Cities are numbered alphabetically within 
                                      each State and identify each city with a 
                                      population of 100,000 or more in 1990.  
                                      (Note: To uniquely identify a city, both the 
                                      State and city codes must be used.  State, 
                                      county and city codes may also be used.)  
                         999      ... balance of county; or city of less than 
                                      100,000 population
                         ZZZ      ... Foreign residents
  
 
 39            1        Population Size of City of Residence 
                         Based on the results of the 1990 Census. 
                                0      ... Place of 1,000,000 or more
                                1      ... Place of   500,000 to 1,000,000
                                2      ... Place of   250,000 to   500,000
                                3      ... Place of   100,000 to    250,000
                                9      ... All other areas in the U.S.
                                Z      ... Foreign residents
 
 40            1        Metropolitan - Nonmetropolitan County of Residence 
                          NOTE:   American Samoa, Guam and the Virgin Islands 
                                  do not have any metropolitan areas.
 
                                         1         ...Metropolitan county
                                         2         ...Nonmetropolitan county
                                         Z         ...Foreign residents
                                 
 41            1        Region

 42-43         2        Division and State Subcode of Residence 
                         States are codes within Division. 41 is Region.  
                         42 is Division. 43 is State subcode.  
  
                            APPLICABLE  TO  U.S.  ONLY.
 
                                 000            ...  Foreign residents
                                 1              ...  NORTHEAST
                                        1         ...     New England
                                           1          ...   Maine
                                           2          ...   New Hampshire
                                           3          ...   Vermont
                                           4          ...   Massachusetts
                                           5          ...   Rhode Island
                                           6          ...   Connecticut
                                        2         ...     Middle Atlantic
                                           1          ...   New York
                                           2          ...   New Jersey
                                           3          ...   Pennsylvania
                                 2              ...  MIDWEST
                                        3         ...     East North Central
                                           1          ...   Ohio
                                           2          ...   Indiana
                                           3          ...   Illinois
                                           4          ...   Michigan
                                           5          ...   Wisconsin
 
 
 41-43         3        Region
                         Division and State of Residence - Con.

                                        4        ...     West North Central
                                           1          ...   Minnesota
                                           2          ...   Iowa
                                           3          ...   Missouri
                                           4          ...   North Dakota
                                           5          ...   South Dakota
                                           6          ...   Nebraska 
                                           7          ...   Kansas
                                 3              ...  SOUTH          
                                        5         ...     South Atlantic
                                           1          ...   Delaware
                                           2          ...   Maryland
                                           3          ...   District of Columbia
                                           4          ...   Virginia
                                           5          ...   West Virginia
                                           6          ...   North Carolina
                                           7          ...   South Carolina
                                           8          ...   Georgia
                                           9          ...   Florida
                                       6        ...       East South Central  
                                           1          ...   Kentucky
                                           2          ...   Tennessee
                                           3          ...   Alabama
                                           4          ...   Mississippi
                                       7        ...       West South Central
                                           1          ...   Arkansas
                                           2          ...   Louisiana
                                           3          ...   Oklahoma
                                           4          ...   Texas
                                 4              ...  WEST 
                                       8         ...      Mountain
                                           1          ...   Montana
                                           2          ...   Idaho
                                           3          ...   Wyoming
                                           4          ...   Colorado
                                           5          ...   New Mexico
                                           6          ...   Arizona
                                           7          ...   Utah
                                           8          ...   Nevada
                                       9         ...      Pacific
                                           1          ...   Washington
                                           2          ...   Oregon
                                           3          ...   California
                                           4          ...   Alaska
                                           5          ...   Hawaii
 
 44-45         2        Expanded State of Residence Code
 
                        This item is designed to separately identify New York 
                        City records from other New York State records. 
                          United States Occurrence 
                                         01        ... Alabama
                                         02        ... Alaska
                                         03        ... Arizona
                                         04        ... Arkansas
                                         05        ... California
                                         06        ... Colorado
                                         07        ... Connecticut
                                         08        ... Delaware
                                         09        ... District of Columbia
                                         10        ... Florida
                                         11        ... Georgia
                                         12        ... Hawaii
                                         13        ... Idaho
                                         14        ... Illinois
                                         15        ... Indiana
                                         16        ... Iowa
                                         17        ... Kansas
                                         18        ... Kentucky
                                         19        ... Louisiana
                                         20        ... Maine
                                         21        ... Maryland
                                         22        ... Massachusetts
                                         23        ... Michigan
                                         24        ... Minnesota
                                         25        ... Mississippi
                                         26        ... Missouri
                                         27        ... Montana
                                         28        ... Nebraska
                                         29        ... Nevada
                                         30        ... New Hampshire
                                         31        ... New Jersey
                                         32        ... New Mexico
                                         33        ... New York
                                         34        ... New York City
                                         35        ... North Carolina
                                         36        ... North Dakota
                                         37        ... Ohio
                                         38        ... Oklahoma
                                         39        ... Oregon
                                         40        ... Pennsylvania
                                         41        ... Rhode Island
 
 44-45         2        Expanded State of Residence - Con.
 
                                         42        ... South Carolina
                                         43        ... South Dakota
                                         44        ... Tennessee
                                         45        ... Texas
                                         46        ... Utah
                                         47        ... Vermont
                                         48        ... Virginia
                                         49        ... Washington
                                         50        ... West Virginia
                                         51        ... Wisconsin
                                         52        ... Wyoming
                              53-58, 60, 62        ... Foreign Residents
                                         53        ... Puerto Rico
                                         54        ... Virgin Island
                                         55        ... Guam
                                         56        ... Canada
                                         57        ... Cuba
                                         58        ... Mexico
                                         60        ... Remainder of the world
                                         62        ... American Samoa 
                          Puerto Rico Occurrence 
                                         53   ... Puerto Rico
                                  01-52, 54-
                                   58,60,62   ... Foreign residents: refer to U.S. 
                                                  for specific code structure. 
                          Virgin Islands Occurrence 
                                         54   ... Virgin Islands
                                   01-53,55-
                                   58,60,62   ... Foreign residents: refer to U.S. 
                                                  for specific code structure.                
                          Guam   Occurrence 
                                         55   ... Guam
                                      01-52   ... U.S. resident.  Also considered a 
                                                  resident of Guam.
                               53-54, 56-58,
                                      60,62   ... Foreign residents:  refer to U.S. 
                                                  for specific code structure. 
                          American Samoa Occurrence 
                                         62   ... American Samoa
                                      01-58,
                                         60   ... Foreign residents:  refer to U.S. for 
                                                  specific code structure. 
 46-48         3        NCHS PMSA/MSA of Residence                                                   
                        Primary Metropolitan Statistical Areas and Metropolitan 
                        Statistical Areas are those defined by the U.S.  Office 
                        of Management and Budget (OMB) as of 1990.  For New England, 
                        the New England County Metropolitan Areas (NECMA) are used.
 
                        Further back in this document is a list of PMSA's, MSA's, 
                        NECMA's, and their component counties.
 
                                  000   ...  Nonmetropolitan counties
                              001-311   ...  Code range
                                  999   ...  Area of less than 100,000 population
                                  ZZZ   ...  Foreign residents
 
 49            1        Population Size of County of Occurrence  
                         Based on the results of the 1990 Census 
                                    0    ... County of 1,000,000 or more
                                    1    ... County of   500,000 to 1,000,000
                                    2    ... County of   250,000 to   500,000
                                    3    ... County of   100,000 to   250,000
                                    9    ... County of less than 100,000
 
 50            1        Population Size of County of Residence     
                         Based on the results of the 1990 Census                          
                                    0    ... County of 1,000,000 or more
                                    1    ... County of   500,000 to 1,000,000
                                    2    ... County of   250,000 to   500,000
                                    3    ... County of   100,000 to   250,000
                                    9    ... County of less than 100,000
                                    Z    ...  Foreign residents
 
 51            1        PMSA/MSA Population Size                
                        Based on the results of the 1990 Census 
                                    1         ...  Area of 250,000 or more
                                    2         ...  Area of 100,000 to 250,000
                                    9         ...  Area of less than 100,000 or 
                                                   nonmetropolitan area
                                    Z         ...  Foreign residents  
 
 52-53         2        Education 
                                    00   ...  No formal education
                                 01-08   ...  Years of elementary school
                                    09   ...  1 year of high school
                                    10   ...  2 years of high school
                                    11   ...  3 years of high school
                                    12   ...  4 years of high school
                                    13   ...  1 year of college
                                    14   ...  2 years of college
                                    15   ...  3 years of college
                                    16   ...  4 years of college
                                    17   ...  5 or more years of college
                                    99   ...  Not stated
 
 54            1        Education Recode 
                                    1    ...  0 - 8 years
                                    2    ...  9 - 11 years
                                    3    ...  12 years
                                    4    ...  13 - 15 years
                                    5    ...  16 years or more
                                    6    ...   Not stated    
 
 55-56         2        Month of Death 
                                    01   ...  January
                                    02   ...  February
                                    03   ...  March
                                    04   ...  April
                                    05   ...  May
                                    06   ...  June
                                    07   ...  July
                                    08   ...  August
                                    09   ...  September
                                    10   ...  October
                                    11   ...  November
                                    12   ...  December
 
 57-58         2        Reserved Positions
 
 59            1        Sex 
                                   1    ...  Male
                                   2    ... Female 
 
 60-63         4        RACE
 
 60-61         2        Detail Race 
                          United States Occurrence 
                          Beginning with 1992 data, some areas started reporting 
                          additional Asian or Pacific Islander codes for race.  
                          Codes 18 - 68 replace old code 08 for these areas.  
                          Code 78 replaces old 08 for all other areas.    
                          For consistency with Census races, code 09 (all other 
                          races) has been imputed.   
                                    01   ...  White
                                    02   ...  Black
                                    03   ...  American Indian (includes Aleuts 
                                              and  Eskimos)
                                    04   ...  Chinese
                                    05   ...  Japanese
                                    06   ...  Hawaiian (includes Part-Hawaiian)
                                    07   ...  Filipino
                                    18   ...  Asian Indian
                                    28   ...  Korean
                                    38   ...  Samoan
                                    48   ...  Vietnamese
                                    58   ...  Guamanian
                                    68   ...  Other Asian or Pacific Islander in areas 
                                              reporting  codes 18-58
                                    78   ...  Combined other Asian or Pacific Islander,  
                                              includes codes 18-68 for areas that do not 
                                              report them separately 
                          Puerto Rico Occurrence 
                                    00   ...  Other races
                                    01   ...  White
                                    02   ...  Black 
                          Virgin Islands Occurrence 
                                    01   ...  White
                                    02   ...  Black
                                    03   ...  American Indian (includes Aleuts 
                                              and Eskimos)
                                    04   ...  Chinese
                                    05   ...  Japanese
                                    06   ...  Hawaiian (includes Part-Hawaiian)
                                    07   ...  Filipino
                                    08   ...  Other Asian or Pacific Islander 
      
 60-61         2        Detail Race - Con. 
                          Guam Occurrence      
                                    01   ...  White
                                    02   ...  Black
                                    03   ...  American Indian (Includes Aleuts 
                                              and Eskimos)
                                    04   ...  Chinese
                                    05   ...  Japanese
                                    06   ...  Hawaiian (includes Part-Hawaiian)
                                    07   ...  Filipino
                                    08   ...  Other Asian or Pacific Islander    
                                    58   ...  Guamanian 
                          American Samoa Occurrence 
                                    01   ...  White
                                    02   ...  Black
                                    03   ...  American Indian (includes Aleuts 
                                              and Eskimos)
                                    04   ...  Chinese
                                    05   ...  Japanese
                                    06   ...  Hawaiian (includes Part-Hawaiian)
                                    07   ...  Filipino
                                    08   ...  Other Asian or Pacific Islander 
 62            1        Race Recode 3        
                                    1    ...  White
                                    2    ...  Races other than White or Black
                                    3    ...  Black
 
 63            1        Race Recode 2                
                                    1    ...  White
                                    2    ...  All other races
 64-74         11       REPORTED AGE
 
 64-66         3        Detail Age 
                         Three positions are used to code detail age.  Location 64 
                         identifies age in years, months, days, etc.  Locations 65-66 
                         are the number of years, months, days, etc.
 
                                    0    01-99         ...   Years less than 100
                                    1    00-99         ...   Years 100 or more
                                    2    01-11,99      ...   Months
                                    3    01-03,99      ...   Weeks
                                    4    01-27,99      ...   Days
                                    5    01-23, 99     ...   Hours
                                    6    01-59, 99     ...   Minutes
                                    9    99            ...   Age not stated
 
 67-68         2        Age Recode 52 
                                    01   ...  Under 1 hour (includes not stated hours and minutes)
                                    02   ...  1 - 23 hours
                                    03   ...  1 day (includes not stated days)
                                    04   ...  2 days
                                    05   ...  3 days
                                    06   ...  4 days
                                    07   ...  5 days
                                    08   ...  6 days
                                    09   ...  7 - 13 days (includes not stated weeks)
                                    10   ...  14 - 20 days
                                    11   ...  21 - 27 days
                                    12   ...  1 month (includes not stated months)
                                    13   ...  2 months
                                    14   ...  3 months
                                    15   ...  4 months
                                    16   ...  5 months
                                    17   ...  6 months
                                    18   ...  7 months
                                    19   ...  8 months
                                    20   ...  9 months
                                    21   ...  10 months
                                    22   ...  11 months
                                    23   ...  1 year
                                    24   ...  2 years
                                    25   ...  3 years
                                    26   ...  4 years
                                    27   ...  5 - 9 years
                                    28   ...  10 - 14 years
                                    29   ...  15 - 19 years
 
 67-68         2        Age Recode 52 - Con. 
                                    30   ...  20 - 24 years
                                    31   ...  25 - 29 years
                                    32   ...  30 - 34 years
                                    33   ...  35 - 39 years
                                    34   ...  40 - 44 years
                                    35   ...  45 - 49 years
                                    36   ...  50 - 54 years
                                    37   ...  55 - 59 years
                                    38   ...  60 - 64 years
                                    39   ...  65 - 69 years
                                    40   ...  70-74 years
                                    41   ...  75-79 years
                                    42   ...  80 - 84 years
                                    43   ...  85 - 89 years
                                    44   ...  90 - 94 years
                                    45   ...  95 - 99 years
                                    46   ...  100 - 104 years
                                    47   ...  105 - 109 years
                                    48   ...  110 - 114 years
                                    49   ...  115 - 119 years
                                    50   ...  120 - 124 years
                                    51   ...  125 years and over
                                    52   ...   Age not stated
 
 69-70         2        Age Recode 27
 
                                    01   ...  Under 1 month (includes not stated  
                                              weeks, days, hours, and minutes)
                                    02   ...  1 month - 11 months (includes not 
                                              stated months)
                                    03   ...  1 years
                                    04   ...  2 years
                                    05   ...  3 years
                                    06   ...  4 years
                                    07   ...  5 - 9 years
                                    08   ...  10 - 14 years
                                    09   ...  15 - 19 years
                                    10   ...  20 - 24 years
                                    11   ...  25 - 29 years
                                    12   ...  30 - 34 years
                                    13   ...  35 - 39 years
                                    14   ...  40 - 44 years
                                    15   ...  45 - 49 years
                                    16   ...  50 - 54 years
                                    17   ...  55 - 59 years
                                    18   ...  60 - 64 years
                                    19   ...  65 - 69 years
 69-70         2        Age Recode 27 - Con.
 
                                         20   ...  70 - 74 years
                                         21   ...  75 - 79 years
                                         22   ...  80 - 84 years
                                         23   ...  85 - 89 years
                                         24   ...  90 - 94 years
                                         25   ...  95 - 99 years
                                         26   ...  100 years and over
                                         27   ...  Age not stated
 
 71-72         2        Age Recode 12
 
                                         01   ...  Under 1 year (includes not stated 
                                                   infant ages)
                                         02   ...  1 - 4 years
                                         03   ...  5 - 14 years
                                         04   ...  15 - 24 years
                                         05   ...  25 - 34 years
                                         06   ...  35 - 44 years
                                         07   ...  45 - 54 years
                                         08   ...  55 - 64 years
                                         09   ...  65 - 74 years
                                         10   ...  75 - 84 years
                                         11   ...  85 years and over
                                         12   ...  Age not stated
 
 73-74         2        Infant Age Recode 22
 
                                      Blank   ...  Age 1 year and over or not stated
                                         01   ...  Under 1 hour (includes not stated 
                                                   hours and minutes)
                                         02   ...  1 - 23 hours
                                         03   ...  1 day (includes not stated days)
                                         04   ...  2 days
                                         05   ...  3 days
                                         06   ...  4 days
                                         07   ...  5 days
                                         08   ...  6 days
                                         09   ...  7 days (includes not stated weeks)
                                         10   ...  14 - 20 days
                                         11   ...  21 - 27 days
                                         12   ...  1 month (includes not stated months)
                                         13   ...  2 months
                                         14   ...  3 months
                                         15   ...  4 months
                                         16   ...  5 months
                                         17   ...  6 months
                                         18   ...  7 months
                                         19   ...  8 months
 
 73-74         2        Infant Age Recode 22 - Con.
 
                                         20   ...  9 months
                                         21   ...  10 months
                                         22   ...  11 months
 
 75            1        Place of Death and Decedent's Status
 
                                       1    ...  Hospital, clinic or Medical 
                                                 Center - Inpatient
                                       2    ...  Hospital, Clinic or Medical 
                                                 Center - Outpatient or admitted 
                                                 to Emergency Room
                                       3    ...  Hospital, Clinic or Medical 
                                                 Center - Dead on Arrival
                                       4    ...  Hospital, Clinic or Medical 
                                                 Center - Patient status unknown
                                       5    ...  Nursing home
                                       6    ...  Residence
                                       7    ...  Other
                                       9    ...  Place of death unknown
 
 76           1        Reserved Position
 
 77           1        Marital Status
 
                                         1    ...  Never married, single
                                         2    ...  Married
                                         3    ...  Widowed
                                         4    ...  Divorced
                                         8    ...  Marital Status not on certificate
                                         9    ...  Marital Status not stated
 
 78-79        2        State of Birth
 
                                         01        ... Alabama
                                         02        ... Alaska
                                         03        ... Arizona
                                         04        ... Arkansas
                                         05        ... California
                                         06        ... Colorado
                                         07        ... Connecticut
                                         08        ... Delaware
                                         09        ... District of Columbia
                                         10        ... Florida
                                         11        ... Georgia
                                         12        ... Hawaii
                                         13        ... Idaho
                                         14        ... Illinois

 78-79        2        State of Birth - Con.
 
                                         15        ... Indiana
                                         16        ... Iowa
                                         17        ... Kansas
                                         18        ... Kentucky
                                         19        ... Louisiana
                                         20        ... Maine
                                         21        ... Maryland
                                         22        ... Massachusetts
                                         23        ... Michigan
                                         24        ... Minnesota
                                         25        ... Mississippi
                                         26        ... Missouri
                                         27        ... Montana
                                         28        ... Nebraska
                                         29        ... Nevada
                                         30        ... New Hampshire
                                         31        ... New Jersey
                                         32        ... New Mexico
                                         33        ... New York
                                         34        ... North Carolina
                                         35        ... North Dakota
                                         36        ... Ohio
                                         37        ... Oklahoma
                                         38        ... Oregon
                                         39        ... Pennsylvania
                                         40        ... Rhode Island
                                         41        ... South Carolina
                                         42        ... South Dakota
                                         43        ... Tennessee
                                         44        ... Texas
                                         45        ... Utah
                                         46        ... Vermont
                                         47        ... Virginia
                                         48        ... Washington
                                         49        ... West Virginia
                                         50        ... Wisconsin
                                         51        ... Wyoming
                                         52        ... Puerto Rico
                                         53        ... Virgin Island
                                         54        ... Guam
                                         55        ... Canada
                                         56        ... Cuba
                                         57        ... Mexico
                                         59        ... Remainder of the world
                                         61        ... American Samoa
                                         99        ... State of birth unknown
 
 80-81        2        Hispanic Origin

                            Beginning data year 1997 all States report Hispanic Origin.
 
                                         00        ...  Non - Hispanic
                                         01        ...  Mexican
                                         02        ...  Puerto Rican
                                         03        ...  Cuban
                                         04        ...  Central or South American
                                         05        ...  Other or unknown Hispanic
                                         99        ...  Unknown
 
 82           1        Hispanic Origin/Race Recode
                               
                                          1         ...  Mexican
                                          2         ...  Puerto Rican
                                          3         ...  Cuban
                                          4         ...  Central or South American
                                          5         ...  Other or unknown Hispanic
                                          6         ...  Non - Hispanic white
                                          7         ...  Non - Hispanic black
                                          8         ...  Non - Hispanic other races
                                          9         ...  Hispanic origin unknown
 
 83           1        Day of Week of Death
 
                                          1         ...  Sunday
                                          2         ...  Monday
                                          3         ...  Tuesday
                                          4         ...  Wednesday
                                          5         ...  Thursday
                                          6         ...  Friday
                                          7         ...  Saturday
                                          9         ...  Unknown
 
 84           1        Reserved Position
 
 85-87        3        Kind of Business or Industry
                       
                       This item is not reported by all States.  
                       Refer to the Addendum to the Technical Appendix 
                       at the back of this publication for a list of 
                       reporting States. 
                       A new coding structure was instituted for the 1993 
                       data year.  For a complete list of categories and codes 
                       refer to:
                       
                       U.S. Bureau of the Census: Classified index of industries 
                       and occupations.  1990 Census of Population and Housing.  
                       First Edition. Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office, 
                       April 1992.
 
                                          010-960      ...  Code range (not inclusive)
 
 85-87        3        Kind of Business or Industry - Con. 
                       In addition to the codes shown in the Census publication, 
                       the following codes are also applicable:
 
                                              961       ...  Own home/At home
                                              970       ...  Retired; with no other 
                                                             industry reported
                                              990       ...  Blank, Unknown, NA
 
 88-90        3        Usual Occupation 
                        This item is not reported by all States.  Refer to the 
                        Addendum to the Technical Appendix at the back of this 
                        publication for a list of reporting States. 
                        A new coding structure was instituted for the 1993 data 
                        year.  For a complete list of categories and codes refer 
                        to the Census Bureau publication mentioned above.
 
                                          003-905      ...  Code range (not inclusive)
 
                        In addition to the codes shown in the Census publication, 
                        the following codes are also applicable:
 
                                              913       ...  Retired; with no other 
                                                             occupation reported
                                              914       ...  Housewife/Homemaker
                                              915       ...  Student
                                              916       ...  Volunteer
                                              917       ...  Unemployed, never worked, 
                                                             disabled, child, infant
                                              999       ...  Blank, Unknown, NA
 
 91-93        3        52 Cause Recode 
                        A recode of the cause code into 52 groups designed for use in 
                        producing tabulations.  Further back in this document is a 
                        complete list of recodes and categories.
 
                                          010-560      ...  Code range (not inclusive)
 
 94-96        3        Reserved Positions
 
 97-101       5        Place (city) of Residence (FIPS) 
                        A complete list of cities is shown in the Geographic code 
                        outline further back in this document.  Effective with the 
                        1994 data year, the FIPS place code has been added to the 
                        Mortality record.  It identifies each city of 100,000
                        population or more in 1990.
 
                                         00000        ...  Foreign residents
                                         00001-    
                                         nnnnn        ...  code range
                                         99999        ...  Balance of county; or city 
                                                           of less than 100,000 
                                                           population
 
 102-114       13      Reserved Positions
 
 115-118       4       Current Data Year
                     
                            1997      ...1997
 
 119-132       14      FEDERAL INFORMATION PROCESSING STANDARDS (FIPS)
                       GEOGRAPHIC CODES 
                       Refer to the Geographic Code Outline further back in this 
                       document for a detailed list of areas and codes.  For an 
                       explanation of FIPS codes, reference should be made to 
                       various National Institute of Standards and Technology
                       (NIST) publications.  Some geographic codes have been 
                       changed to reflect the results of the 1990 Census.
 
 119-120       2       State of Occurrence (FIPS) 
                           United States 
                                         01        ... Alabama
                                         02        ... Alaska
                                         04        ... Arizona
                                         05        ... Arkansas
                                         06        ... California
                                         08        ... Colorado
                                         09        ... Connecticut
                                         10        ... Delaware
                                         11        ... District of Columbia
                                         12        ... Florida
                                         13        ... Georgia
                                         15        ... Hawaii
                                         16        ... Idaho
                                         17        ... Illinois
                                         18        ... Indiana
                                         19        ... Iowa

 119-120       2       State of Occurrence (FIPS) - Con.
 
                                         20        ... Kansas
                                         21        ... Kentucky
                                         22        ... Louisiana
                                         23        ... Maine
                                         24        ... Maryland
                                         25        ... Massachusetts
                                         26        ... Michigan
                                         27        ... Minnesota
                                         28        ... Mississippi
                                         29        ... Missouri
                                         30        ... Montana
                                         31        ... Nebraska
                                         32        ... Nevada
                                         33        ... New Hampshire
                                         34        ... New Jersey
                                         35        ... New Mexico
                                         36        ... New York
                                         37        ... North Carolina
                                         38        ... North Dakota
                                         39        ... Ohio
                                         40        ... Oklahoma
                                         41        ... Oregon
                                         42        ... Pennsylvania
                                         44        ... Rhode Island
                                         45        ... South Carolina
                                         46        ... South Dakota
                                         47        ... Tennessee
                                         48        ... Texas
                                         49        ... Utah
                                         50        ... Vermont
                                         51        ... Virginia
                                         53        ... Washington
                                         54        ... West Virginia
                                         55        ... Wisconsin
                                         56        ... Wyoming 
                           Puerto Rico 
                                         72        ...  Puerto Rico 
                           Virgin Islands 
                                         78        ...  Virgin Islands
 
 119-120       2       State of Occurrence (FIPS) - Con.
 
                           Guam
                                         66        ...  Guam 
                           American Samoa

                                         60        ...  American Samoa
 
 121-123       3       County of Occurrence (FIPS) 
                       Counties and county equivalents (independent and coextensive 
                       cities) are numbered alphabetically within each State and 
                       identify each county with a population of 100,000 or more in 
                       1990.  (Note: To uniquely identify a county, both the state 
                       and county codes must be used.)  A complete list of counties 
                       is shown in the Geographic Code Outline further back in this 
                       document.
 
                                        001-nnn   ...  Code range
                                        999       ...  County of less than 100,000 
                                                       population
 
 124-125       2       State of Residence (FIPS)
           
                                         00        ... Foreign residents
                                         01        ... Alabama
                                         02        ... Alaska
                                         04        ... Arizona
                                         05        ... Arkansas
                                         06        ... California
                                         08        ... Colorado
                                         09        ... Connecticut
                                         10        ... Delaware
                                         11        ... District of Columbia
                                         12        ... Florida
                                         13        ... Georgia
                                         15        ... Hawaii
                                         16        ... Idaho
                                         17        ... Illinois
                                         18        ... Indiana
                                         19        ... Iowa
                                         20        ... Kansas
                                         21        ... Kentucky
                                         22        ... Louisiana
                                         23        ... Maine
                                         24        ... Maryland
                                         25        ... Massachusetts
                                         26        ... Michigan
                                         27        ... Minnesota
                                         28        ... Mississippi
                                         29        ... Missouri
 
 124-125       2       State of Residence   (FIPS) - Con.
 
                                         30        ... Montana
                                         31        ... Nebraska
                                         32        ... Nevada
                                         33        ... New Hampshire
                                         34        ... New Jersey
                                         35        ... New Mexico
                                         36        ... New York
                                         37        ... North Carolina
                                         38        ... North Dakota
                                         39        ... Ohio
                                         40        ... Oklahoma
                                         41        ... Oregon
                                         42        ... Pennsylvania
                                         44        ... Rhode Island
                                         45        ... South Carolina
                                         46        ... South Dakota
                                         47        ... Tennessee
                                         48        ... Texas
                                         49        ... Utah
                                         50        ... Vermont
                                         51        ... Virginia
                                         53        ... Washington
                                         54        ... West Virginia
                                         55        ... Wisconsin
                                         56        ... Wyoming
 
                              Puerto Rico Occurrence 
                                         72     ...  Puerto Rico
                               00-56,60, 66,
                                         78     ...  Foreign residents: refer to  
                                                     U.S. for specific code
                                                     structure. 
                              Virgin Islands Occurrence      
                                        78      ... Virgin Islands
                              00-56,60, 66,
                                        72      ... Foreign residents: refer to 
                                                    U.S. for specific code
                                                    structure.   
                              Guam Occurrence                
                                        66      ...  Guam                                                                                   01-56        ...  U.S. Resident.  Also considered a resident of Guam.
                               00,60,72,78      ...  Foreign residents: refer to 
                                                     U.S. for specific code
                                                     structure.
 
 124-125       2       State of Residence   (FIPS) - Con. 
                           American Samoa Occurrence 
                                       60       ...  American Samoa
                           00-56,66,72,78       ...  Foreign residents: refer to U.S. 
                                                     for specific code
                                                     structure.
 
 126-128       3       County of Residence (FIPS) 
                       Counties and county equivalents (independent and coextensive 
                       cities) are numbered alphabetically within each State and 
                       identify each county with a population of 100,000 or more in 
                       1990.  (Note: To uniquely identify a county, both the state 
                       and county codes must be used.)  A complete list of counties 
                       is shown in the Geographic Code Outline further back in this 
                       document.
                
                                      000       ...  Foreign residents   
                                  001-nnn       ...  Code range
                                      999       ...  County of less than 100,000 
                                                     population
 
 129-132       4       PMSA/MSA of Residence (FIPS) 
                       Primary Metropolitan Statistical Areas and Metropolitan 
                       Statistical Areas are those defined by the U.S. Office of 
                       Management and Budget (OMB) as of 1990.  For New England, 
                       the New England County Metropolitan Areas (NECMA) are used.
 
                       Further back in this docuent is a list of PMSA's, MSA's, 
                       NECMA's, and their component counties.
 
                                       0000      ...  Nonmetropolitan counties or 
                                                      foreign residents
                                  0040-9360      ...  Code range
                                       9999      ...  Area of less than 100,000 
                                                      population
 
 133           1       Reserved Position 
 
 134-135       2       CMSA of Residence (FIPS) 
                       Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas are groupings 
                       of certain Primary Metropolitan Statistical Areas and are 
                       defined by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) 
                       as of 1990. 
                            All Areas 
                                       00       ...  Not a CMSA 
 
 134-135       2       CMSA of Residence (FIPS) - Con.
 
                            United States Occurrence
 
                                         07     ...  Boston - Worcester-Lawrence, MA-NH-ME-CT, CMSA
                                         14     ...  Chicago - Gary-Kenosha, IL-IN-WI, CMSA
                                         21     ...  Cincinnati - Hamilton, OH-KY-IN, CMSA
                                         28     ...  Cleveland - Akron, OH, CMSA
                                         31     ...  Dallas - Fort Worth, TX, CMSA
                                         34     ...  Denver - Boulder-Greeley, CO, CMSA
                                         35     ...  Detroit - Ann Arbor-Flint, MI, CMSA
                                         42     ...  Houston - Galveston-Brazoria, TX, CMSA
                                         49     ...  Los Angeles -Riverside- Orange County, CA, CMSA
                                         56     ...  Miami - Fort Lauderdale, FL, CMSA
                                         63     ...  Milwaukee - Racine, WI, CMSA
                                         70     ...  New York -Northern New Jersey-Long Island, NY-NJ-   
                                                     CT-PA, CMSA
                                         77     ...  Philadelphia - Wilmington-Atlantic City, PA-NJ-DE-        
                                                     MD. CMSA
                                         79     ...  Portland - Salem , OR-WA, CMSA
                                         82     ...  Sacremento - Yolo, CA, CMSA
                                         84     ...  San Francisco -Oakland-San Jose, CA, CMSA
                                         91     ...  Seattle - Tacoma-Bremerton, WA, CMSA
                                         97     ...  Washington - Baltimore, DC-MD-VA-WV, CMSA
           
                            Puerto Rico Occurrence 
                                         87     ...  San Juan -Caguas-Arecibo, PR, CMSA
 
 136           1       Injury at Work 
                                          1     ...  Yes
                                          2     ...  No
                                          9     ...  Unknown
 
 137           1       Race Imputation Flag 
                                       Blank    ...  Race is not imputed
                                           1    ...  Unknown race is imputed
                                           2    ...  All other races, formerly 
                                                     code 09, is imputed
 
 138           1       Age Substitution Flag 
                       If reported age is unknown but a valid age is calculated 
                       using dates of birth and death, the calculated age is 
                       substituted for the unknown reported age. 
                                          1     ...  Calculated age is substituted 
                                                     for reported age
 
 139-140       2       Reserved Positions
 
 141           1       Place of Accident for Causes E850-E869 and E880-E928 
                                     Blank      ...  Causes other than E850-E869 
                                                     and E880-E928    
                                         0      ...  Home
                                         1      ...  Farm
                                         2      ...  Mine and Quarry
                                         3      ...  Industrial Place and Premises
                                         4      ...  Place for Recreation and Sport
                                         5      ...  Street and Highway
                                         6      ...  Public Building
                                         7      ...  Resident Institution
                                         8      ...  Other Specified Places
                                         9      ...  Place of Accident not specified
 
 142-159       18      UNDERLYING CAUSE OF DEATH
 
 142-145        4      ICD Code (9th Revision) 
                       See the International Classification of Diseases, 1975 
                       Revision, Volume 1. For injuries and poisoning, the 
                       external cause is coded (E800-E999) rather than the 
                       Nature of Injury (800-999).  These positions do not 
                       include the letter E for the external cause of injury.  
                       For those causes that do not have a 4th digit, location 
                       145 is blank.
 
 146-150       5       282 Cause Recode 
                       A recode of the ICD cause code into 282 groups for NCHS 
                       publications. Further back in this document is a complete 
                       list of recodes and the causes included.
 
                                         00300-35800    ...  Code range 
                                                             (not inclusive)
 
 151-153       3       72 Cause Recode           
                       A recode of the ICD cause code into 72 groups for NCHS 
                       publications.  Further back in this document is a complete 
                       list of recodes and the causes included.
                
                                         010-840      ...  Code range 
                                                           (not inclusive) 
 
 154-156      3        61 Infant Cause Recode 
                       A recode of the ICD cause code into 61 groups for NCHS 
                       publications.  Further back in this document is a complete 
                       list of recodes and the causes included.
                                        010-680      ...  Code range 
                                                          (not inclusive) 
                               
 157-159      3        34  Cause Recode 
                       A recode of the ICD cause code into 34 groups for NCHS 
                       publications. Further back in this document is a complete 
                       list of records and the causes included.
 
                                        010-370      ...  Code range 
                                                          (not inclusive)
 
 160-440    281        MULTIPLE CONDITIONS
 
 160-161      2        Number of Entity-Axis Conditions
 
                                         00-20       ...  Code range
 
 162-301    140        ENTITY - AXIS CONDITIONS 
                       Space has been provided for maximum of 20 conditions.  
                       Each condition takes 7 positions in the record. Records 
                       that do not have 20 conditions are blank in the unused 
                       area.
 
                          Position 1: Part/line number on certificate 
                                         1         ...  Part I, line 1 (a)
                                         2         ...  Part I, line 2 (b)
                                         3         ...  Part I, line 3 (c)
                                         4         ...  Part I, line 4 (d)
                                         5         ...  Part I, line 5 (e)
                                         6         ...  Part II
 
                          Position 2: Sequence of condition within part/line 
                                         1-7      ...  Code range
 
                          Position 3 - 6: Condition code 
                             See Table 1 for a complete list of codes 
 
                       ENTITY - AXIS CONDITIONS - Con.
 
                          Position 7: Nature of Injury Flag 
                                         1       ...  Indicates that the code in positions 3-6 is a

                          Nature of Injury code

                                         0       ...  All other codes
 
 162-168       7       1st Condition
 
 169-175       7       2nd Condition
 
 176-182       7       3rd Condition
 
 183-189       7       4th Condition
 
 190-196       7       5th Condition
 
 197-203       7       6th Condition
 
 204-210       7       7th Condition
 
 211-217       7       8th Condition
 
 218-224       7       9th Condition       
 
 225-231       7       10th Condition
 
 232-238       7       11th Condition      
 
 239-245       7       12th Condition
 
 246-252       7       13th Condition
 
 253-259       7       14th Condition
 
 260-266       7       15th Condition
 
 267-273       7       16th Condition
 
 274-280       7       17th Condition
 
 281-287       7       18th Condition
 
 288-294       7       19th Condition
 
 295-301       7       20th Condition
 
 302-337      36       Reserved Positions
 
 338-339       2       Number of Record-Axis Conditions 
                                  00-20          ... Code range
 
 340           1       Reserved Position
 
 341-440     100       RECORD  - AXIS CONDITIONS 
                       Space has been provided for a maximum of 20 conditions.  
                       Each condition takes 5 positions in the record. Records 
                       that do not have 20 conditions are blank in the unused 
                       area.
 
                             Positions 1 - 4: Condition Code
 
                             See Table 1 for a complete list of codes
 
                             Position 5: Nature of Injury Flag 
                                            1    ...  Indicates that the code in 
                                                      positions 1-4 is a Nature of          
                                                      Injury code
                                            0    ...  All other codes
 
 341-345       5       1st Condition  
 
 346-350       5       2nd Condition
 
 351-355       5       3rd Condition
 
 356-360       5       4th Condition
 
 361-365       5       5th Condition
 
 366-370       5       6th Condition
 
 371-375       5       7th Condition
 
 376-380       5       8th Condition
 
 381-385       5       9th Condition
 
 386-390       5       10th Condition
 
 391-395       5       11th Condition
 
 396-400       5       12th Condition 
 
                       RECORD  - AXIS CONDITIONS - Con.
 
 401-405      5        13th Condition
 
 406-410      5        14th Condition
 
 411-415      5        15th Condition
 
 416-420      5        16th Condition
 
 421-425      5        17th Condition
 
 426-430      5        18th Condition
 
 431-435      5        19th Condition
 
 436-440      5        20th Condition

 

1997 ADDENDUM TO "TECHNICAL APPENDIX" OF VITAL STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES: 
MORTALITY, 1995
To assist the users of the mortality public-use data tapes and CD-ROMs, 
attached is a copy of the "Technical Appendix" of the Vital Statistics of 
the United States: Mortality, 1995. This technical appendix provides certain 
qualifications that are essential to using, analyzing, and interpreting the 
data on those tapes and CD-ROMs. Certain modifications to the technical
appendix are essential to make it applicable to the mortality file for the 
1997 data year. Those modifications include the following:
I. Sources of data
   State-coded medical data
          1996
          Utah
                           
  For 1997, of the States in the VSCP, 42 States submitted precoded medical 
  data for all death certificates in the form of electronic data files. Of 
  these 42 States, Maine, Montana, and North Dakota contracted with a private 
  company to provide NCHS with precoded medical data. The remaining eight VSCP 
  States, New York City, and the District of Columbia submitted copies of the 
  original certificates from which NCHS coded the medical data.
  For 1997, approximately 29 percent of the Nation's death records were 
  multiple-cause coded using SuperMICAR and 71 percent using MICAR. This 
  represents data from 22 States which was coded by SuperMICAR and data from 
  28 States, the District of Columbia, and New York City which was coded by 
  MICAR.
    
  All States submitted precoded demographic data for all death certificates 
  in the form of electronic data files in 1997.
  Data for Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Guam have been included on the 
  mortality public-use data tapes since 1994. Data for American Samoa are included 
  for the first time for 1997.
II. Classification of data
  A. Race
     Death certificates for some States have a checkbox for "multi-racial". 
     Some States are mandated by law to code "multi-racial" as a separate 
     category. For these States, death records with an entry of "multi-racial" 
     but without a specified racial entry or entries were assigned to the 
     specified race of the previous record. States not mandated to code "multi-
     racial" may code "multi-racial" in the same way as mandated States or may 
     code "multi-racial" to "Other entries." For death records where race is 
     coded to "Other entries", if origin is Hispanic and the place of birth is 
     Puerto Rico, Cuba or Mexico, the race is assigned as White. Otherwise, 
     except for Puerto Rico, death records with race coded to "Other entries" 
     were assigned to the specified race of the previous record with known
     race. For Puerto Rico, if race is coded to "Other entries", race is 
     assigned to "Other races." 
  B. Hispanic origin
     For 1997, data by Hispanic origin include, for the first time, all 50 
     States and the District of Columbia .
     Infant mortality--Infant mortality data by Hispanic origin are based on 
     deaths to residents of the entire United States.
     Infant mortality rates by Hispanic origin are biased because of 
     inconsistencies in reporting Hispanic or ethnic origin between the birth 
     and death certificates for the same infant. Estimates of reporting bias 
     may be made by comparing rates based on the linked file of infant deaths 
     and live births 1 with those where the Hispanic or ethnic origin of 
     infant death is based on information from the death certificate 2. Infant 
     mortality rates by Hispanic origin are less subject to reporting bias 
     when based on linked files of infant deaths and live births 1.
  C. Educational attainment
     Deaths by educational attainment have been included on the public-use 
     data tapes since 1989. It is recommended for 1997 that analyses of 
     educational attainment data include deaths to residents of 46 States 
     and the District of Columbia whose data were approximately 80 percent 
     or more complete on a place-of-occurrence basis. Although data for 
     Kentucky are included on the data tape, they would be excluded from 
     analyses because more than 20 percent of their death certificates were 
     classified to "unknown educational attainment." Data for Georgia, 
     Rhode Island, and South Dakota were excluded from the data tape because 
     their death certificates did not include an educational attainment item.
     Death rates for educational attainment are based on population estimates 
     derived from the U.S. Bureau of the Census' Current Population Survey 
     (CPS) and adjusted to resident population control totals. As a result, 
     the rates are subject to the variability of the denominator as well as 
     the numerator. Computation of the relative standard errors, 95-percent 
     confidence intervals, and statistical tests are discussed in the Technical 
     notes of the National Vital Statistics Reports 2.
     Death rates for educational attainment may be biased for the following 
     three reasons:  1) because of inconsistencies in reporting between the 
     death certificates and the CPS for decedents; 2) because of a change in 
     the basic item used to collect data about education in the CPS; and 3) 
     because of possible under-enumeration of the population estimates (there
     have been no studies evaluating this potential bias).
     In the National Longitudinal Mortality Survey (NLMS) a total of 9,257 
     death certificates were compared with responses to educational attainment 
     questions from a total of 12 CPS's conducted by the U.S. Bureau of the 
     Census for data year 1989 3.  Based on the results of this study and after 
     proportionally allocating the "unknown education" on the death certificate, 
     the ratio of CPS deaths having reported less than a high school education 
     (grades 0-11) to death certificate deaths having reported less than high 
     school education was about 1.37. This indicates that the number of deaths 
     and death rates for decedents having less than high school education are 
     biased downward in the vital statistics data by about 37 percent. Similarly, 
     the corresponding ratios for having completed high school (grade 12) and 
     having completed more than high school (grades 13 and more) are 0.70 and 
     0.87 respectively. 
       In the CPS, the item used to collect education information was changed 
       in 1992 from:
          23a) What is the highest grade or year of regular school ... has ever 
               attended?; 
          23b) Did ... complete that grade (year?); Yes, No
       to:
          23) What is the highest level of school ... has completed or the 
              highest degree ... has received?
     Based on a Bureau of the Census study 4, the ratio of population estimates 
     derived from the "old" educational attainment definition for less than a high 
     school education (grades 0-11) to population estimates derived from the "new" 
     definition for less than high school education was about 0.99. This indicates 
     that the death rates for decedents having less than high school education are 
     biased upward in the vital statistics data by about 1 percent. Similarly, the 
     corresponding ratios for having completed high school (grade 12) and having 
     completed more than high school (grades 13 and more) were 1.15 and 0.93
     respectively. 
     Accounting for both the inconsistency in reporting between the death 
     certificates and the CPS for decedents and the change in the definition of 
     education population estimates may be accomplished simultaneously by combining 
     the above ratios. The combined ratio for less than high school is about 1.36 
     (1.37 x .99), for high school about 0.81 (0.70 x 1.15), and for more than high 
     school about 0.81 (0.87 x .93). These ratios may vary by age, sex, race/Hispanic 
     origin, cause of death, and geographic area.
          

    D. Occupation and industry
    
       For 1997, the occupation and industry mortality data were included for the 
       following 16 reporting States:
                 Colorado         North Carolina
                 Georgia          Ohio
                 Idaho            Rhode Island
                 Kansas           South Carolina
                 Kentucky         Utah
                 Nevada           Vermont
                 New Jersey       West Virginia
                 New Mexico       Wisconsin
                    
                    
  E. Quality of data
     California death confirmations--Selected causes of death considered to be 
     of public health concern are routinely confirmed by the States according 
     to agreed upon procedures between the State vital statistics programs and 
     the National Center for Health Statistics 5,6,7. For 1997, the State of 
     California did not confirm deaths from the following causes (number of 
     deaths shown in parentheses after cause):
       Giardiasis (1); Brucellosis (1); Leprosy (1); Whooping cough (1); Tetanus (1); 
       Schistosomiasis (1); Other cestode infection (8); Congenital rubella (1).
                    
III. Population bases for computing rates
     The population used for computing death rates (furnished by the U.S. Bureau 
     of the Census) represents the population residing in the specified area. 
     Population estimates used for computing rates by age, sex, race, Hispanic 
     origin, and non-Hispanic origin for the United States for 1997 are based on 
     population estimates as of July 1, 1997 8 (available upon request). The 
     estimates are based on demographic analysis and, therefore, are not subject 
     to sampling variability.
     Population estimates used for computing death rates by specified Hispanic 
     origin, race for non-Hispanic origin, age, and sex for the United States 
     are as of July 1, 1997 9 (available upon request). The estimates for Mexicans, 
     Puerto Ricans, Cubans, and Other Hispanics are based on the CPS adjusted to 
     resident population control totals and, therefore, are subject to sampling 
     error (see Technical Appendix from Vital Statistics of the United States: 
     Mortality, 1995).
     Population estimates used for computing death rates by marital status, age, 
     race, and sex for the United States 9 are as of July 1, 1997 and are available 
     upon request. Population estimates used for computing death rates by marital 
     status, age, Hispanic origin, race for non-Hispanic origin, and sex for the 
     United States 9 are as of July 1, 1997 and are also available upon request. 
     The population estimates for never married, married, widowed, and divorced
     and for Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans, and Other Hispanics are based on the 
     CPS adjusted to resident population control totals and, therefore, are subject 
     to sampling error (see Technical Appendix from Vital Statistics of the United 
     States: Mortality, 1995).
     Population estimates used for computing death rates by educational attainment, 
     age, and sex for the total of 46 States and the District of Columbia are 
     presented in table IV of the Technical notes of the "Report of Final Mortality 
     Statistics" 2. These estimates are based on the CPS adjusted to resident 
     population control for the 46 States and the District of Columbia. 
     Population estimates for each State, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Guam, and 
     American Samoa 10-14 are presented in table V of the Technical notes of the 
     "Report of Final Mortality Statistics" 2. These estimates are based on 
     demographic analysis, and therefore, are not subject to sampling variability.
     All population estimates for 1997 are based on the 1990 census level counts 
     that were modified by age, race, and sex to be consistent with the U.S. Office 
     of Management and Budget categories and historical categories for death data 15.
References
 1. MacDorman MF, Atkinson JO. Infant mortality statistics from the 1996 period 
    linked birth/infant death data set. Monthly vital statistics report; vol 46 
    no 12, supp. Hyattsville, Maryland: National Center for Health Statistics. 
    1998.
 2. Hoyert DL, Kochanek KD, Murphy SL. Deaths: Final data for 1997. National 
    vital statistics reports; in press. Hyattsville, Maryland: National Center 
    for Health Statistics.
 3. Sorlie PD, Johnson NJ. Validity of education information on the death 
    certificate.  Epidemiology 7(4): 437-439. 1996.
 4. Kominski R, Adams A. Educational attainment in the United States: March 1993 
    and 1992. U.S. Bureau of the Census. Current Population Reports: Series P20-476. 
    Washington:   U.S. Government Printing Office. 1994.
 5. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital statistics, instructions for 
    classifying the underlying cause of death. NCHS instruction manual; part 2a. 
    Hyattsville, Maryland: Public Health Service. Published annually.
 6. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital statistics, instructions for 
    classifying multiple causes of death. NCHS instruction manual; part 2b. 
    Hyattsville, Maryland: Public Health Service. Published annually.
 7. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital statistics, nonindexed terms, 
    standard abbreviations, and State geographic codes used in mortality data 
    classification. NCHS instruction manual; part 2e. Hyattsville, Maryland: 
    Public Health Service. Published annually.
 8. U.S. Bureau of the Census. U.S. population estimates, by age, sex, race, and 
    Hispanic origin: 1990 to 1997. PPL-91R. Washington, DC. 1998.
 9. U.S. Bureau of the Census. Population estimates based on unpublished 
    tabulations prepared by the Housing and Household Economics Statistics 
    Division.
 10. U.S. Bureau of the Census. Estimates of the population of states by age 
     and sex: 1990 to 1997.  PPL-109. Product Announcement CB98-122. 
     Washington, DC.  Released July 21, 1998.
 11. U.S. Bureau of the Census. Unpublished Census file PRICO.WK4.
 12. U.S. Bureau of the Census. Unpublished Census file USVI.WK4.
 13. U.S. Bureau of the Census. Unpublished Census file GUAM.WK4.
 14. U.S. Bureau of the Census. Unpublished Census file ASAMOA.WK4.
 15. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Unpublished data from the 1990 census, by age, 
     sex, race and Hispanic origin. 1990.




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