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Scientific Data Documentation
   Multiple Cause Mortality, 1998
DSN: CC36.MCMORT98
     CC36.MCMORT98.PS

Documentation Of The Mortality Tape File For 1998 Data

SPECIAL NOTICE

Effective with 1998 data, Commonwealth of  the Northern Marianas Records are included in the Territories' Public Use File

Effective with 1997 data,  American Samoa Records are included in the Territories' 
 Public Use File


This tape documentation was prepared in the Division of Vital Statistics. Gail Parr and Vanetta Harrington of the Systems Programming and Statistical Resources Branch were responsible for developing the mortality documentation. Sherry Murphy of the Mortality Statistics Branch coordinated preparation of the Technical Appendix. The Registration Methods Staff and the Data Acquisition and Evaluation Branch provided consultation to the State vital statistics offices regarding collection of death certificate data.

Questions concerning the documentation or general questions concerning the mortality file should be directed to the Systems Programming and Statistical Resources Branch, Division of Vital Statistics, NCHS, 6525 Belcrest Road, Room 888, Hyattsville, MD 20782 (301-458-4420).

Questions concerning the Technical Appendix or substantive questions concerning the mortality data should be directed to the Mortality Statistics Branch, Division of Vital Statistics, NCHS, 6525 Belcrest Road, Room 840, Hyattsville, MD 20782 (301-458-4666).

* The Detail file's records encompass the first 159 characters of the Multiple Cause file's 
   records.  Detail file users need to refer to the Multiple Cause file documentation item 
   descriptions for tape positions 1-159.   Please note that for all files, the data year is no 
   longer in positions 1-2.  A four-digit data year is now in positions 115-118.  Other items' 
   text descriptions have been updated or modified.

Documentation of the Multiple Cause-of-Death Public-Use File for 1998 Data

I. Introduction

Data on causes of death are released by NCHS in a variety of ways including published reports, special tabulations to answer data requests, and public-use data tapes. Since the inception of the multiple cause-of-death program in 1968, a public-use tape file has been released for each data year. Each file contains a data record for all deaths processed by NCHS. Each data record contains underlying cause, multiple cause, and demographic data for a death.

With the exception of calendar years 1972, 1981 and 1982, all deaths occurring annually in the United States are processed. In 1972, underlying and multiple cause data were coded and processed for only 50 percent of the deaths occurring in each State. In 1981 and 1982, multiple cause data were coded on a 50 percent sample basis for deaths occurring in 19 registration areas. The registration areas are the 50 States, New York City and the District of Columbia. The 50 percent sample States are identified in the documentation of the 1981 and 1982 files. For the remaining 33 registration areas, multiple cause data were processed on a 100 percent basis. In 1981 and 1982, underlying cause, demographic, and geographic data were processed for every death occurring in every State; however the multiple cause-of-death public-use tape contains only those records where the multiple cause field is also coded. A public-use tape containing underlying cause, demographic, and geographic data for every death in the United States is available but contains no multiple cause data.

This document is intended to provide guidance to the consumer in accessing and utilizing the multiple cause-of-death public-use tape file for 1998. It provides the technical data processing information necessary to access the tapes and the classification structure and coding rules applied to create each variable on the file such that the user can readily assess relevance at varying levels of detail to his/her own particular research. Additionally, it conveys the characteristics of the multiple cause files sufficient to guide the user in analyzing and interpreting multiple cause data. The user is alerted to certain pitfalls of interpretation; and the appropriateness of each type of multiple cause data to given applications is discussed. Control totals are also provided for comparison with user generated counts for 1998 data.

A revised U.S. Standard Certificate of Death was recommended for State use beginning on January 1, 1989. Among the changes were the addition of a new item on educational attainment and changes to improve the medical certification of cause of death. In addition, for the first time, the U.S. Standard Certificate of Death includes a question on the Hispanic origin of the decedent. Previously a number of States had included an Hispanic-origin identifier on their certificates. A change was also made in the format of the item to obtain information on type of place of death from an open-ended question to a checkbox.

The Office of Management and Budget revised its designation of metropolitan statistical areas based on figures from the 1990 Census. For the 1990 through 1993 data files, NCHS has been using these new definitions and codes as indicated in the listing of 320 Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs), Primary Metropolitan Statistical Areas (PMSAs), and New England County Metropolitan Areas (NECMAs) included in the documentation for those years. There are also 20 Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas (CMSAs) which are made up of PMSAs. Because other geographic changes based on the 1990 Census became effective with the 1994 data file, the metropolitan statistical area designations were updated as well. Effective with the 1994 data file, there are 311 MSA's, PMSA's, and NECMA's; and 18 CMSA's as indicated in the listing included with this documentation.

NCHS has adopted a new policy on release of vital statistics unit record data files. This new policy was implemented for the 1989 vital event files to prevent the inadvertent disclosure of individuals and institutions. As a result, the files for 1989 and later years do not contain the actual day of the death or the date of birth of the decedent. The geographic detail is also restricted; only counties and cities of 100,000 or more population based on the 1990 census, as well as metropolitan areas of 100,000 or more population based on the 1990 Census are identified.


II. Data File Characteristics

Each record on the annual tape files contains two multiple cause-of-death fields which have been coded using ICD-9. In addition, underlying cause, demographic, and geographic detail data accompany the multiple cause-of-death data. The tape files contain the complete level of detail coded by NCHS except where precluded by confidentiality restrictions or lack of data reliability.

Specifications for the 1998 tape files are as follows:

File Organization:  Multiple files, multiple reels
Record Type:   Blocked, fixed format
Record Length:  440
Blocksize:  26400

U.S. Data Set:

1. Record count: 2,340,708
2. Data counts:  a. By occurrence: 2,340,708
                         b. By residence: 2,337,256
                         c. To foreign residents: 3,452

Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa and Northern Marianas Data Set:

1. Record count: 31,655

Puerto  Rico:
2. Data counts:  a. By occurrence: 29,986
                         b. By residence 29,861

Virigin Islands:
2. Data counts:  a. By occurrence: 613
                         b. By residence: 615

Guam:
2. Data Counts:  a. By occurrence: 651
                          b. By residence: 632

American Samoa:
2. Data Counts:  a. By occurrence: 243
                          b. By residence: 243

Northern  Marianas:
2. Data Counts:  a. By occurence: 162
                          b. By residence: 162


1. The data were processed using the PL/1 language on an IBM 9672.
2. The last block for the data year may be a short block.
3. The data are recorded in IBM/EBCDIC 8-bit code for each character.
4. Codes may be numeric, alphabetic, or blank (Hex 40).
5. A code "z" is the EBCDIC code for the letter "z".
6. A code "&" is the EBCDIC code for an ampersand (a punched card code 12).


III. Tape Format and Variable Definition

The attached record layout provides documentation of variables, variable categories, and variable location on the multiple cause-of-death public-use tapes. It is noted that the following material, while used in the processing of mortality data, is not included in this package:

  1. Manual of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries, and the Cause-of-Death, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) Volumes 1 and 2.
  2. NCHS Instruction Manual Data Preparation Part 2a, Vital Statistics Instructions for Classifying the Underlying Cause-of-Death, 1995.
  3. NCHS Instruction Manual Data Preparation, Part 2b, Vital Statistics Instructions for Classifying Multiple Cause-of-Death, 1995.
  4. NCHS Instruction Manual Data Preparation, Part 2c, Vital Statistics ICD-9 ACME Decision Tables for Classifying Underlying Causes-of-Death, 1995.
  5. NCHS Instruction Manual Data Preparation, Part 2d, Vital Statistics NCHS Procedures for Mortality Medical Data System file Preparation and Maintenance, Effective 1979.
  6. NCHS Instruction Manual Data Tabulation, Part 2f, Vital Statistics ICD-9 TRANSAX Disease Reference Tables for Classifying Multiple Causes-of-Death, 1982-95.
  7. NCHS Instruction Manual Data Preparation, Part 4, Vital Statistics Demographic Classification and Coding Instructions for Death Records, 1998.
  8. NCHS Instruction Manual Tabulation, Part 11, Vital Statistics Computer Edits for Mortality Data, Effective 1990.

These documents describe in detail the rules employed for demographic and medical classification on death records. Volumes 1 and 2 of the ICD-9 may be purchased from WHO Publication Center USA, 49 Sheridan Avenue, Albany, New York, 12210. The remaining documents (Items B-H), while not absolutely essential to the proper interpretation of the data for a number of general applications, should nevertheless be studied carefully prior to any detailed analysis of demographic or medical data variables. In particular, there are a number of exceptions to the ICD rules in multiple cause-of-death coding which, if not treated properly, may result in faulty analysis of the data.

Users who do not already have access to these documents may request them from the Chief, Data Preparation Branch, Division of Data Processing, National Center for Health Statistics, P.O. Box 12214, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709.

In addition, the user should refer to the Technical Appendices of the Vital Statistics of the United States for information on the source of data, coding procedures, quality of the data, etc. Technical Appendix information is enclosed.


IV. Multiple Cause Data

The original scheme for coding conditions contained on the death certificate was designed with two objectives in mind. First, to facilitate etiological studies of the relationships among conditions, it was necessary to reflect accurately in coded form each condition and its location on the certification in the exact manner given by the certifier. Secondly, the codification needed to be carried out in a manner by which the underlying cause-of-death could be assigned through computer applications. The approach was to suspend the linkage provisions of the ICD for the purpose of condition coding and code each entity with minimum regard to other conditions present on the certification. This general approach is hereafter called entity coding.

Unfortunately, the set of multiple cause codes produced by entity coding is not conducive to a third objective -- the generation of person based multiple cause statistics. Person based analysis requires that each condition be coded within the context of every other condition on the same certificate and modified or linked to such conditions as provided by ICD-9. By definition, the entity data cannot meet this requirement since the linkage provisions distort the character and placement of the information originally recorded by the certifying physician.

Since the two objectives are incompatible, DVS has chosen to create from the original set of entity codes a new code set called record axis multiple cause data. Essentially, the axis of classification has been converted from a entity basis to a record (or person) basis. The record axis codes are assigned in terms of the set of codes that best describe the overall medical certification portion of the death certificate.

This translation is accomplished by a computer system called TRANSAX
(TRANSLATION OF AXIS) through selective use of traditional linkage and modification rules for mortality coding. Underlying cause linkages which simply prefer one code over another for purposes of underlying cause selection are not included. Each entity code on the record is examined and modified or deleted as necessary to create a set of codes which are free of contradictions and are the most precise within the constraints of ICD-9 and medical information on the record. Repetitive codes are deleted. The process may (1) combine two entity axis categories together to a new category thereby eliminating a contradiction or standardizing the data; or (2) eliminate one category in favor of another to promote specificity of the data or resolve contradictions. The following examples from ICD-9 illustrate the effect of this translation:

Case 1: When reported on the same record as separate entities, cirrhosis of liver and alcoholism are coded to 5715 (cirrhosis of liver without mention of alcohol) and 303 (alcohol dependence syndrome). Tabulation of records with 5715 would on the surface falsely imply that such records had no mention of alcohol. A preferable codification would be 5712 (alcoholic cirrhosis of liver) in lieu of both 5715 and 303.

Case 2: If "gastric ulcer" and "bleeding gastric ulcer" are reported on a record they are coded to 5319 (gastric ulcer, unspecified as acute or chronic, without mention of hemorrhage or perforation) and 5314 (gastric ulcer, chronic or unspecified, with hemorrhage). A more concise codification would be to code 5314 only since the 5314 shows both the gastric ulcer and the bleeding.


A. Entity Axis Codes

The original conditions coded for selection of the underlying cause-of-death are reformatted and edited prior to creating the public-use tape. The following paragraphs describe the format and application of entity axis data.

FORMAT: Each entity-axis code is displayed as an overall seven byte code with subcomponents as follows:

  1. Line indicator: The first byte represents the line of the certificate on which the code appears. Six lines (1-6) are allowable with the fourth and fifth denoting one or two written in "due to"s beyond the three lines provided in Part I of the U.S. standard death certificate. Line "6" represents Part II of the certificate.
  2. Position indicator: The next byte indicates the position of the code on the line, i.e., it is the first (1), second (2), third (3) .... eighth (8) code on the line.
  3. Cause category: The next four bytes represent the ICD-9 cause code.
  4. Nature of injury flag: ICD-9 uses the same series of numbers (800-999) to indicate nature of injury (N codes) and external cause codes (E codes). This flag distinguishes between the two with a one (1) representing nature of injury codes and a zero (0) representing all other cause codes.

A maximum of 20 of these seven byte codes are captured on a record for multiple cause purposes. This may consist of a maximum of 8 codes on any given line with up to 20 codes distributed across three or more lines depending on where the subject conditions are located on the certificate. Codes may be omitted from one or more lines, e.g., line 1 with one or more codes, line 2 with no codes, line 3 with one or more codes.

In writing out these codes, they are ordered as follows: line 1 first code, line 1 second code, etc. ----- line 2 first code, line 2 second code, etc. ----- line 3 ----line 4 ----- line 5 ----- line 6. Any space remaining in the field is left blank. The specifics of locations are contained in the record layout given later in this document.

EDIT: The original conditions are edited to remove invalid codes, reverify the coding of certain rare causes of death, and assure age/cause and sex/cause compatibility. Detailed information relating to the edit criteria and the sets of cause codes which are valid to underlying cause coding and multiple cause coding are provided in part II of the NCHS Vital Statistics Instruction Manual Series. Table 2, Number of Resident Deaths Tabulated by Mention of an Underlying Cause, Record Axis Multiple Cause, or Entity Axis Multiple Cause-of-Death by ICD-9 Category, provides a summary list of valid underlying cause and multiple cause codes.

ENTITY AXIS APPLICATIONS: The entity axis multiple cause data set is appropriate to analyses which require that each condition be coded as a stand alone entity without linkage to other conditions and/or require information on the placement of such conditions in the certificate. Within this framework, the entity data are appropriate to the examination of etiological relationships among conditions, accuracy of certification reporting, and the validity of traditional assumptions in underlying cause selection. Additionally, the entity data provide in certain categories a more detailed code assignment which is linked out in the creation of record axis data. Where such detail is needed for a study, the user should selectively employ entity data. Finally, the researcher may not wish to be bound by the assumptions used in the axis translation process preferring rather to investigate hypotheses of his own predilection.

By definition, the main limitation of entity axis data is that an entity code does not necessarily reflect the best code for a condition when considered within the context of the medical certification as a whole. As a result certain entity codes can be misleading or even contradict other codes in the record. For example, category 5750 is titled "Acute cholecystitis without mention of calculus". Within the framework of entity codes this is interpreted to mean that the codable entity itself contained no mention of calculus rather than that calculus was not mentioned anywhere on the record. Tabulation of records with a "5750" as a count of persons having acute cholecystitis without mention of calculus would therefore be erroneous. This illustrates the fact that under entity coding the ICD-9 titles cannot be taken literally. The user must study the rules for entity coding as they relate to his/her research prior to utilization of entity data. The user is further cautioned that the inclusion notes in ICD-9 which relate to modifying and combining categories are seldom applicable to entity coding (except where provided in Part 2b of the Vital Statistics Instruction Manual Series).

In tabulating the entity axis data, one may count codes with the resultant tabulation of an individual code representing the number of times the disease(s) represented by the code appears in the file. In this kind of tabulation of morbid condition prevalence, the counts among categories may be added together to produce counts for groups of codes. Alternatively, subject to the limitations given above, one may count persons having mention of the disease represented by a code or codes. In this instance it is not correct to add counts for individual codes to create person counts for groups of codes. Since more than one code in the researcher's interest may appear together on the certificate, totaling must account for higher order interactions among codes. Up to 20 codes may be assigned on a record; therefore, a 20-way interaction is theoretically possible. All totaling must be based on mention of one or more of the categories under investigation.

B. Record Axis Codes

The following paragraphs describe the format and application of record-axis data. Part 2f of the Vital Statistics Instruction Manual Series describes the TRANSAX process for creating record axis data from entity axis data.

FORMAT: Each record (or person) axis code is displayed in five bytes. Location information is not relevant. The Code consists of the following components:

  1. Cause category: The first four bytes represent the ICD-9 cause code.
  2. Nature of injury flag: The last byte contains a 0 or 1 with the 1 indicating that the cause is a nature of injury category.

Again, a maximum of 20 codes are captured on a record for multiple cause purposes. The codes are written in a 100-byte field in ascending code number (5 bytes) order with any unused bytes left blank.

EDIT: The record axis codes are edited for rare causes and age/cause and sex/cause compatibility. Likewise, individual code validity is checked. The valid code set for record axis coding is the same as that for entity coding.

RECORD AXIS APPLICATIONS: The record axis multiple cause data set is the basis for NCHS core multiple cause tabulations. Location of codes is not relevant to this data set and conditions have been linked into the most meaningful categories for the certification. The most immediate consequence for the user is that the codes on the record already represent mention of a disease assignable to that particular ICD-9 category. This is in contrast to the entity code which is assigned each time such a disease is reported on two different lines of the certification. Secondly, the linkage implies that within the constraints of ICD-9 the most meaningful code has been assigned. The translation process creates for the user a data set which is edited for contradictions, duplicate codes, and imprecisions. In contrast to entity axis data, record axis data are classified in a manner comparable to underlying cause of death classification thereby facilitating joint analysis of these variables. Likewise, they are comparable to general morbidity coding where the linkage provisions of ICD-9 are usually utilized. A potential disadvantage of record axis data is that some detail is sacrificed in a number of the linkages.

The user can take the record axis codes as literally representing the information conveyed in ICD-9 category titles. While knowledge of the rules for combining and linking and coding conditions is useful, it is not a prerequisite to meaningful analysis of the data as long as one is willing to accept the assumptions of the axis translation process. The user is cautioned, however, that due to special rules in mortality coding, not all linkage notes in ICD-9 are utilized. (See Part 2f of the Vital Statistics Instruction Manual Series.)

The user should proceed with caution in using record axis data to count conditions as opposed to people with conditions since linkages have been invoked and duplicate codes have been eliminated. As with entity data, person based tabulations which combine individual cause categories must take into account the possible interaction of up to 20 codes on a single certificate.


V. Additional Information

In using the NCHS multiple cause data tapes, the user is urged to review the information in this document and its references. The instructional material does change from year to year and revision to revision. The user is cautioned that coding of specific ICD-9 categories should be checked in the appropriate instruction manual. What may appear on the surface to be the correct code by ICD-9 may in fact not be correct as given in the instruction manuals.

If on the surface it is not obvious whether entity axis or record axis data should be employed in a given application, detailed examination of Part 2f of the Vital Statistics Instruction Manual Series and its attachments will probably provide the necessary information to make a decision. It allows the user to determine the extent of the trade-offs between the two sets of data in terms of specific categories and the assumption of axis translation. In certain situations, a combination of entity and record axis data may be the more appropriate alternative.

Several basic tabulations of data from selected variables contained on this tape have been produced and are included with this document as an aid to the user in determining if his own tabulations are correct. For verification of multiple cause-of-death data at the "each cause" level of detail, Table 1 provides counts of the number of deaths on which a given ICD-9 category is mentioned as the underlying cause-of-death, a record axis multiple cause-of-death, and an entity axis multiple cause-of-death, respectively. The counts for the record axis multiple cause-of-death field are divided into two distinct subtotals: (1) "total mention" and (2) "secondary". Secondary is defined as any code which is present in the record axis field but is not the underlying cause-of-death. Tables 2-7 provide additional control totals for the three cause-of-death fields by age, race, and sex. Tables 8-10 ignore cause-of-death and provide control totals based on age, race, sex, State of residence, State of occurrence, and month. Tables 1-9 are based on resident deaths in the United States (excludes deaths to non-residents). Table 10 is based upon deaths occurring in the United States (includes deaths to foreign residents).

For help with questions concerning multiple cause-of-death analysis, please refer to the following publications:

  • National Center for Health Statistics. Multiple causes of death in the United States. Monthly vital statistics report; vol 32 no 10, suppl.(2). Hyattsville, Maryland: Public Health Service, 1984.
  • Chamblee, R.F. and Evans, M.C. TRANSAX: The NCHS system for producing multiple cause-of-death statistics, 1968-78. Vital and Health Statistics. Series 1, no 20. Public Health Service, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, June 1986.
  • Israel, R.A., Rosenberg, H.M., and Curtin, L.R. Analytical potential for multiple cause-of-death data. American Journal of Epidemiology 124(2): 161-179. August, 1986.
  • Manton, K.G. and Stallard, E. Recent trends in mortality analysis. Orlando, Florida; Academic Press, inc., 1984.

When further analytical assistance is needed, contact the Mortality Statistics Branch, Division of Vital Statistics, NCHS, 6525 Belcrest Road, Room 840, Hyattsville, Maryland 20782, Telephone (301) 458-4666. For technical assistance pertaining to the creation of the multiple cause-of-death file, contact Donna Glenn, Statistician, Technical Services Branch, Division of Vital Statistics, NCHS, Room 148, P.O. Box 12214, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709. Telephone (919) 541-0999.


VI.  List of Data Elements and Tape Locations
Data Items                                    Tape
                                              Locations
1. General
   a.	Data year                              115-118
   b.	Record Type                            19
   c.	Resident status                        20
   d.	Month of death                         55-56
   e.	Day of week of death                   83
   f.	Place of death and decedent's status   75

2. Occurrence
   a.	State                                  21-22,28
   b.	Expanded State                         29-30
   c.	County                                 23-25
   d.	County Population size                 49
   e.	Region                                 26
   f.	Division                               27
   g.	FIPS State                             119-120
   h.	FIPS County                            121-123

3. Residence
   a.	State                                  31-32,43
   b.	Expanded State                         44-45
   c.	County                                 33-35
   d.	County Population size                 50
   e.	City                                   36-38
   f.	City Population size                   39
   g.	Met/Nonmet county                      40
   h.	Region                                 41
   i.	Division                               42
   j.	PMSA/MSA                               46-48
   k.	PMSA/MSA Population size               51
   l.	FIPS State                             124-125
   m.	FIPS County                            126-128
   n.	FIPS Place                             97-101
   o.	FIPS PMSA/MSA                          129-132
   p.	FIPS CMSA                              134-135

4. The Decedent
   a.	Sex                                    59
   b.	Race                                   60-63
   c.	Age                                    64-74
   d.	Marital status                         77
   e.	State of birth                         78-79
   f.	Hispanic origin                        80-81,82
   g.	Kind of Business or Industry           85-87
   h.	Usual Occupation                       88-90
   i.	Education                              52-53, 54

5. Underlying Cause
   a.	ICD-9 code                             142-145
   b.	282 cause recode                       146-150
   c.	72 cause recode                        151-153
   d.	61 cause recode                        154-156
   e.	52 cause recode                        91-93
   f.	34 cause recode                        157-159
   g.	Place of accident	               141
   h.	Injury at work                         136

6. Multiple Conditions
   a.	Entity-Axis conditions
        1.   Number of                         160-161
        2.   The conditions                    162-301
   b.	Record-Axis conditions
        1.   Number of                         338-339
        2.   The conditions                    341-440

1998 Mortality Record Layout

 Tape		 Field
 Location	 Size	     Item and Code Outline
 
 1-3               3         Reserved Positions
 4-9               6         Certificate Number
                               These positions are blank.

 10-11             2         Reserved Positions

 12-18             7         Sequence Number
                              These positions are blank

 19                1         Record Type

                             1  ...  RESIDENTS
                                     State and County of Occurrence and Residence 
                                     are the same.
                             2  ...  NONRESIDENTS
                                     State and/or County of Occurrence and Residence 
                                     are different.

 20                1         Resident Status

                             United States Occurrence

                             1 ...   RESIDENTS
                                     State and County of Occurrence and Residence 
                                     are the same.
                             2 ...   INTRASTATE NONRESIDENTS
                                     State of Occurrence and Residence are the same, 
                                     but County is different.
                             3 ...   INTERSTATE NONRESIDENTS
                                     State of Occurrence and Residence are different, 
                                     but both are in the U.S.
                             4 ...   FOREIGN RESIDENTS
                                     State of Occurrence is one of the 50 States or the 
                                     District of Columbia, but Place of Residence is 
                                     outside of the U.S.

                             Puerto Rico Occurrence

                             1 ...   RESIDENTS
                                     Territory and County-equivalent of Occurrence and
                                     Residence are the same.
                             2 ...   INTRASTATE NONRESIDENTS
                                     Territory of Occurrence and Residence are the same, 
                                     but County-equivalent is different.
                             4 ...   FOREIGN RESIDENTS
                                     Occurred in Puerto Rico to a resident of any other 
                                     place.

 20                1         Resident Status  - Con.

                             Virgin Islands Occurrence

                              1 ...  RESIDENTS
                                     Territory and County-equivalent of Occurrence and
                                     Residence are the same.
                              2 ...  INTRASTATE NONRESIDENTS
                                     Territory of Occurrence and Residence are the same, 
                                     but County-equivalent is different.
                              4 ...  FOREIGN RESIDENTS
                                     Occurred in Virgin Islands to a resident of any 
                                     other place.

                              Guam Occurrence

                              1 ...  RESIDENTS
                                     Occurred in Guam to a resident of Guam or to a 
                                     resident of the U.S.
                              4 ...  FOREIGN RESIDENTS
                                     Occurred in Guam to a resident of any place other 
                                     than Guam or the U.S.

                              American Samoa Occurrence

                              1 ...  RESIDENTS
                                     Territory and County-equivalent of Occurrence and
                                     Residence are the same.
                              2 ...  INTRASTATE NONRESIDENTS
                                     Territory of Occurrence and Residence are the same,
                                     but County-equivalent is different.
                              4 ...  FOREIGN RESIDENTS
                                     Occurred in American Samoa to a resident of any 
                                     other place.

                              Northern Marianas Occurrence

                              1 ...  RESIDENTS
                                     Territory and County-equivalent of Occurrence and
                                     Residence are the same.
                              2 ...  INTRASTATE NONRESIDENTS
                                     Territory of Occurrence and Residence are the same,
                                     but County-equivalent is different.
                              4 ...  FOREIGN RESIDENTS
                                     Occurred in Northern Marianas to a resident of any 
                                     other place.

 21-30             10         PLACE OF OCCURRENCE

                              Refer to the Geographic Code Outline further back in this 
                              document for a detailed list of areas and codes.  Some 
                              Geographic Codes have changed to reflect the results of 
                              the 1990 Census.

 21-22             2          State of Occurrence

                              United States

                                    01   ... Alabama
                                    02   ... Alaska
                                    03   ... Arizona
                                    04   ... Arkansas
                                    05   ... California
                                    06   ... Colorado
                                    07   ... Connecticut
                                    08   ... Delaware
                                    09   ... District of Columbia
                                    10   ... Florida
                                    11   ... Georgia
                                    12   ... Hawaii
                                    13   ... Idaho
                                    14   ... Illinois
                                    15   ... Indiana
                                    16   ... Iowa
                                    17   ... Kansas
                                    18   ... Kentucky
                                    19   ... Louisiana
                                    20   ... Maine
                                    21   ... Maryland
                                    22   ... Massachusetts
                                    23   ... Michigan
                                    24   ... Minnesota
                                    25   ... Mississippi
                                    26   ... Missouri
                                    27   ... Montana
                                    28   ... Nebraska
                                    29   ... Nevada
                                    30   ... New Hampshire
                                    31   ... New Jersey
                                    32   ... New Mexico
                                    33   ... New York
                                    34   ... North Carolina

 21-22             2          State of Occurrence -Con.

                                    35   ... North Dakota
                                    36   ... Ohio
                                    37   ... Oklahoma
                                    38   ... Oregon
                                    39   ... Pennsylvania
                                    40   ... Rhode Island
                                    41   ... South Carolina
                                    42   ... South Dakota
                                    43   ... Tennessee
                                    44   ... Texas
                                    45   ... Utah
                                    46   ... Vermont
                                    47   ... Virginia
                                    48   ... Washington
                                    49   ... West Virginia
                                    50   ... Wisconsin
                                    51   ... Wyoming

                              Puerto Rico

                                    52   ... Puerto Rico

                              Virgin Islands

                                    53   ... Virgin Islands

                              Guam

                                    54   ... Guam

                              American Samoa

                                    61   ... American Samoa

                              Northern Marianas

                                    62   ... Northern Marianas

 23-25             3          County of Occurrence

                              001-nnn  ... Counties and county equivalents (independent 
                                           and coextensive cities) are numbered 
                                           alphabetically within each State and identify 
                                           each county with a population of 100,000 or 
                                           more in 1990.  (Note: To uniquely identify a 
                                           county, both the State and county codes
                                           must be used.)  A complete list of counties 
                                           is shown in the Geographic Code Outline further 
                                           back in this document.

                               999     ... County of less than 100,000 population

 26                1           Region

 27-28             2           Division and State Subcode of Occurrence

                               States are coded within Division.
                               26 is Region. 27 is Division. 28 is State subcode.

                               000   ...  Not applicable: Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, 
                                          Guam, American Samoa or Northern Marianas 
                                          occurrence.
                                    1  ...  NORTHEAST
                                      1  ...   New England
                                           1   ...   Maine
                                           2   ...   New Hampshire
                                           3   ...   Vermont
                                           4   ...   Massachusetts
                                           5   ...   Rhode Island
                                           6   ...   Connecticut
                                      2  ...   Middle Atlantic
                                           1   ...   New York
                                           2   ...   New Jersey
                                           3   ...   Pennsylvania
                                    2	 ...  MIDWEST
                                      3  ...   East North Central
                                           1   ...   Ohio
                                           2   ...   Indiana
                                           3   ...   Illinois
                                           4   ...   Michigan
                                           5   ...   Wisconsin
                                      4  ...   West North Central
                                           1   ...   Minnesota
                                           2   ...   Iowa
                                           3   ...   Missouri
                                           4   ...   North Dakota

 26-28             3          Region

                              Division and State Subcode of Occurrence- Con.

                                           5  ...   South Dakota
                                           6  ...   Nebraska
                                           7  ...   Kansas
                                    3  ...  SOUTH
                                      5  ...   South Atlantic
                                           1  ...   Delaware
                                           2  ...   Maryland
                                           3  ...   District of Columbia
                                           4  ...   Virginia
                                           5  ...   West Virginia
                                           6  ...   North Carolina
                                           7  ...   South Carolina
                                           8  ...   Georgia
                                           9  ...   Florida
                                      6  ...   East South Central	
                                           1  ...   Kentucky
                                           2  ...   Tennessee
                                           3  ...   Alabama
                                           4  ...   Mississippi
                                      7  ...   West South Central
                                           1  ...   Arkansas
                                           2  ...   Louisiana
                                           3  ...   Oklahoma
                                           4  ...   Texas
                                    4  ...  WEST	
                                      8  ...   Mountain
                                           1  ...   Montana
                                           2  ...   Idaho
                                           3  ...   Wyoming
                                           4  ...   Colorado
                                           5  ...   New Mexico
                                           6  ...   Arizona
                                           7  ...   Utah
                                           8  ...   Nevada
                                      9  ...   Pacific
                                           1  ...   Washington
                                           2  ...   Oregon
                                           3  ...   California
                                           4  ...   Alaska
                                           5  ...   Hawaii

 29-30             2          Expanded State of Occurrence Code

                              This item is designed to separately identify New York 
                              City records from other New York State records.

                              United States

                                    01   ...  Alabama
                                    02   ...  Alaska
                                    03   ...  Arizona
                                    04   ...  Arkansas
                                    05   ...  California
                                    06   ...  Colorado
                                    07   ...  Connecticut
                                    08   ...  Delaware
                                    09   ...  District of Columbia
                                    10   ...  Florida
                                    11   ...  Georgia
                                    12   ...  Hawaii
                                    13   ...  Idaho
                                    14   ...  Illinois
                                    15   ...  Indiana
                                    16   ...  Iowa
                                    17   ...  Kansas
                                    18   ...  Kentucky
                                    19   ...  Louisiana
                                    20   ...  Maine
                                    21   ...  Maryland
                                    22   ...  Massachusetts
                                    23   ...  Michigan
                                    24   ...  Minnesota
                                    25   ...  Mississippi
                                    26   ...  Missouri
                                    27   ...  Montana
                                    28   ...  Nebraska
                                    29   ...  Nevada
                                    30   ...  New Hampshire
                                    31   ...  New Jersey
                                    32   ...  New Mexico
                                    33   ...  New York
                                    34   ...  New York City
                                    35   ...  North Carolina
                                    36   ...  North Dakota
                                    37   ...  Ohio
                                    38   ...  Oklahoma

 29-30             2          Expanded State of Occurrence Code-Con.

                                    39   ...  Oregon
                                    40   ...  Pennsylvania
                                    41   ...  Rhode Island
                                    42   ...  South Carolina
                                    43   ...  South Dakota
                                    44   ...  Tennessee
                                    45   ...  Texas
                                    46   ...  Utah
                                    47   ...  Vermont
                                    48   ...  Virginia
                                    49   ...  Washington
                                    50   ...  West Virginia
                                    51   ...  Wisconsin
                                    52   ...  Wyoming

                              Puerto Rico

                                    53   ...  Puerto Rico

                              Virgin Islands

                                    54   ...  Virgin Islan

                              Guam

                                    55   ...  Guam

                              American Samoa

                                    62   ...  American Samoa

                              Northern Marianas

                                    63   ...  Northern Marianas


 31-48             18         PLACE OF RESIDENCE

                              Refer to the Geographic Code Outline further back in 
                              this document for a detailed list of areas and codes.

 31-32             2          State of Residence

                              United States Occurrence

                                    01   ...  Alabama
                                    02   ...  Alaska
                                    03   ...  Arizona
                                    04   ...  Arkansas
                                    05   ...  California

 31-32             2          State of Residence - Con.

                              U.S. Occurrence

                                    06   ...  Colorado
                                    07   ...  Connecticut
                                    08   ...  Delaware
                                    09   ...  District of Columbia
                                    10   ...  Florida
                                    11   ...  Georgia
                                    12   ...  Hawaii
                                    13   ...  Idaho
                                    14   ...  Illinois
                                    15   ...  Indiana
                                    16   ...  Iowa
                                    17   ...  Kansas
                                    18   ...  Kentucky
                                    19   ...  Louisiana
                                    20   ...  Maine
                                    21   ...  Maryland
                                    22   ...  Massachusetts
                                    23   ...  Michigan
                                    24   ...  Minnesota
                                    25   ...  Mississippi
                                    26   ...  Missouri
                                    27   ...  Montana
                                    28   ...  Nebraska
                                    29   ...  Nevada
                                    30   ...  New Hampshire
                                    31   ...  New Jersey
                                    32   ...  New Mexico
                                    33   ...  New York
                                    34   ...  North Carolina
                                    35   ...  North Dakota
                                    36   ...  Ohio
                                    37   ...  Oklahoma
                                    38   ...  Oregon
                                    39   ...  Pennsylvania
                                    40   ...  Rhode Island
                                    41   ...  South Carolina
                                    42   ...  South Dakota
                                    43   ...  Tennessee
                                    44   ...  Texas
                                    45   ...  Utah
                                    46   ...  Vermont

 31-32             2          State of Residence  - Con.

                              U.S. Occurrence

                                    47   ...  Virginia
                                    48   ...  Washington
                                    49   ...  West Virginia
                                    50   ...  Wisconsin
                                    51   ...  Wyoming
                                    52-57,59,61,62  ...  Foreign residents
                                    52   ...  Puerto Rico>
                                    53   ...  Virgin Islands
                                    54   ...  Guam
                                    55   ...  Canada
                                    56   ...  Cuba
                                    57   ...  Mexico
                                    59   ...  Remainder of the world
                                    61   ...  American Samoa
                                    62   ...  Northern Marianas

                              Puerto Rico Occurrence

                                    52          ...  Puerto Rico
                                    01-51,53-
                                    57,59,61,62 ...  Foreign residents: refer to U.S. for
                                                     specific code structure.

                              Virgin Islands Occurrence

                                    53          ...  Virgin Islands
                                    01-52,54-
                                    57,59,61,62 ...  Foreign residents: refer to U.S. for
                                                     specific code structure.

                              Guam  Occurrence

                                    54          ...  Guam
                                    01-51       ...  U.S. resident. Also considered a resident of Guam.
                                    52-53,55-57,
                                    59,61,62    ...  Foreign residents: refer to U.S. for specific 
                                                     code structure. 

                              American Samoa Occurrence

                                    61          ...  American Samoa
                                    01-57,
                                    59,62       ...  Foreign residents: refer to U.S. for specific 
                                                     code structure.

                              Northern Marianas Occurrence

                                    62          ...  Northern Marianas
                                    01-57,
                                    59,61       ...  Foreign residents: refer to U.S. for specific 
                                                     code structure.

 33-35             3          County of Residence

                              001-nnn  ...  Counties and county equivalents (independent and
                                            coextensive cities) are numbered alphabetically 
                                            within each State and identify each county with 
                                            a population of 100,000 or more in 1990.  
                                            (Note: to uniquely identify a county, both the 
                                            State and county codes must be used.)    
                                            A complete list of counties is shown in the 
                                            Geographic Code outline further back in this 
                                            document.
                              zzz      ...  Foreign residents
                              999      ...  County of less than 100,000 population

 36-38             3          City of Residence

                              001-nnn  ...  Cities are numbered alphabetically within each 
                                            State and identify each city with a population 
                                            of 100,000 or more in 1990.  (Note: To uniquely 
                                            identify a city, both the State and city codes 
                                            must be used.  State, county and city codes may 
                                            also be used.)
                              999      ...  balance of county; or city of less than 100,000 
                                            population
                              ZZZ      ...  Foreign residents


 39                1          Population Size of City of Residence

                              Based on the results of the 1990 Census.

                                  0   ...  Place of 1,000,000 or more
                                  1   ...  Place of 500,000 to 1,000,000
                                  2   ...  Place of 250,000 to 500,000
                                  3   ...  Place of 100,000 to 250,000
                                  9   ...  All other areas in the U.S.
                                  Z   ...  Foreign residents

 40                1          Metropolitan - Nonmetropolitan County of Residence

                              NOTE:   American Samoa, Guam, Northern Marianas and the 
                                      Virgin Islands do not have any metropolitan areas.

                                  1   ...  Metropolitan county
                                  2   ...  Nonmetropolitan county
                                  Z   ...  Foreign residents

 41                1          Region

 42-43             2          Division and State Subcode of Residence

                              States are codes within Division. 41 is Region. 
                              42 is Division. 43 is Statesubcode.  
                              APPLICABLE  TO  U.S.  ONLY.

                                      000     ...  Foreign residents
                                       1      ...  NORTHEAST
                                          1   ...    New England
                                            1 ...     Maine
                                            2 ...     New Hampshire
                                            3 ...     Vermont
                                            4 ...     Massachusetts
                                            5 ...     Rhode Island
                                            6 ...     Connecticut
                                          2   ...   Middle Atlantic
                                            1 ...     New York
                                            2 ...     New Jersey
                                            3 ...     Pennsylvania
                                       2      ...  MIDWEST
                                          3   ...   East North Central
                                            1 ...     Ohio
                                            2 ...     Indiana
                                            3 ...     Illinois
                                            4 ...     Michigan
                                            5 ...     Wisconsin
                                          4   ...   West North Central
                                            1 ...     Minnesota
                                            2 ...     Iowa
                                            3 ...     Missouri
                                            4 ...     North Dakota
                                            5 ...     South Dakota
                                            6 ...     Nebraska 
                                            7 ...     Kansas

 42-43             1          Division and State Subcode of Residence -Con-

                                       3      ...  SOUTH
                                          5   ...   South Atlantic
                                            1 ...     Delaware
                                            2 ...     Maryland
                                            3 ...     District of Columbia
                                            4 ...     Virginia
                                            5 ...     West Virginia
                                            6 ...     North Carolina
                                            7 ...     South Carolina
                                            8 ...     Georgia
                                            9 ...     Florida
                                          6   ...   East South Central
                                            1 ...      Kentucky
                                            2 ...      Tennessee
                                            3 ...      Alabama
                                            4 ...      Mississippi
                                          7   ...   West South Central
                                            1 ...      Arkansas
                                            2 ...      Louisiana
                                            3 ...      Oklahoma
                                            4 ...      Texas
                                       4      ...  WEST	
                                          8   ...   Mountain
                                            1 ...      Montana
                                            2 ...      Idaho
                                            3 ...      Wyoming
                                            4 ...      Colorado
                                            5 ...      New Mexico
                                            6 ...      Arizona
                                            7 ...      Utah
                                            8 ...      Nevada
                                          9   ...   Pacific
                                            1 ...      Washington
                                            2 ...      Oregon
                                            3 ...      California
                                            4 ...      Alaska
                                            5 ...      Hawaii

 44-45             2          Expanded State of Residence Code

                              This item is designed to separately identify New York 
                              City records from other New York State records.

                              United States Occurrence

                                    01   ...  Alabama
                                    02   ...  Alaska
                                    03   ...  Arizona
                                    04   ...  Arkansas
                                    05   ...  California
                                    06   ...  Colorado
                                    07   ...  Connecticut
                                    08   ...  Delaware
                                    09   ...  District of Columbia
                                    10   ...  Florida
                                    11   ...  Georgia
                                    12   ...  Hawaii
                                    13   ...  Idaho
                                    14   ...  Illinois
                                    15   ...  Indiana
                                    16   ...  Iowa
                                    17   ...  Kansas
                                    18   ...  Kentucky
                                    19   ...  Louisiana
                                    20   ...  Maine
                                    21   ...  Maryland
                                    22   ...  Massachusetts
                                    23   ...  Michigan
                                    24   ...  Minnesota
                                    25   ...  Mississippi
                                    26   ...  Missouri
                                    27   ...  Montana
                                    28   ...  Nebraska
                                    29   ...  Nevada
                                    30   ...  New Hampshire
                                    31   ...  New Jersey
                                    32   ...  New Mexico
                                    33   ...  New York
                                    34   ...  New York City
                                    35   ...  North Carolina
                                    36   ...  North Dakota
                                    37   ...  Ohio
                                    38   ...  Oklahoma

 44-45             2          Expanded State of Residence - Con

                                    39   ...  Oregon
                                    40   ...  Pennsylvania
                                    41   ...  Rhode Island
                                    42   ...  South Carolina
                                    43   ...  South Dakota
                                    44   ...  Tennessee
                                    45   ...  Texas
                                    46   ...  Utah
                                    47   ...  Vermont
                                    48   ...  Virginia
                                    49   ...  Washington
                                    50   ...  West Virginia
                                    51   ...  Wisconsin
                                    52   ...  Wyoming
                                    53-58, 60, 62,63...  Foreign Residents
                                    53   ...  Puerto Rico
                                    54   ...  Virgin Island
                                    55   ...  Guam
                                    56   ...  Canada
                                    57   ...  Cuba
                                    58   ...  Mexico
                                    60   ...  Remainder of the world
                                    62   ...  American Samoa
                                    63   ...  Northern Marianas

                               Puerto Rico Occurrence

                                    53           ... Puerto Rico
                                    01-52, 54-
                                    58,60,62,63  ... Foreign residents: refer to U.S. for specific 
                                                     code structure.

                               Virgin Islands Occurrence

                                    54           ... Virgin Islands
                                    01-53,55-
                                    58,60,62,63  ... Foreign residents: refer to U.S. for specific 
                                                     code structure.

                               Guam Occurrence

                                    55           ... Guam
                                    01-52        ... U.S. resident. Also considered a resident of Guam.
                                    53-54, 56-58,
                                    60,62,63     ... Foreign residents:  refer  to U.S. for specific 
                                                     code structure.

 44-45             2          Expanded State of Residence - Con.

                              American Samoa Occurrence

                                    62           ... American Samoa
                                    01-58,
                                    60,63        ... Foreign residents: refer to U.S. for specific 
                                                     code structure.

                              Northern Marianas Occurrence

                                    63           ... Northern Marianas
                                    01-58,
                                    60,62        ... Foreign residents: refer to U.S. for specific
                                                     code structure.

 46-48             3          NCHS PMSA/MSA of Residence

                              Primary Metropolitan Statistical Areas and Metropolitan 
                              Statistical Areas are those defined by the U.S. Office 
                              of Management and Budget (OMB) as of 1990. For New England, 
                              the New England County Metropolitan Areas (NECMA) are used.


                              Further back in this document is a list of PMSA's, MSA's, 
                              NECMA's, and their component counties.

                              000     ...  Nonmetropolitan counties
                              001-311 ...  Code range
                              999     ...  Area of less than 100,000 population
                              ZZZ     ...  Foreign residents

 49                1          Population Size of County of Occurrence 

                              Based on the results of the 1990 Census

                                 0   ...  County of 1,000,000 or more
                                 1   ...  County of 500,000 to 1,000,000
                                 2   ...  County of 250,000 to 500,000
                                 3   ...  County of 100,000 to 250,000
                                 9   ...  County of less than 100,000

 50                1          Population Size of County of Residence

                              Based on the results of the 1990 Census

                                0   ...  County of 1,000,000 or more
                                1   ...  County of  500,000 to 1,000,000
                                2   ...  County of  250,000 to  500,000
                                3   ...  County of 100,000 to 250,000
                                9   ...  County of less than 100,000
                                Z   ...  Foreign residents

 51                1          PMSA/MSA Population Size

                              Based on the results of the 1990 Census

                                1   ...  Area of 250,000 or more
                                2   ...  Area of 100,000 to 250,000
                                9   ...  Area of less than 100,000 or
                                         nonmetropolitan area
                                Z   ...  Foreign residents

 52-53             2          Education

                                00     ...  No formal education
                                01-08  ...  Years of elementary school
                                09     ...  1 year of high school
                                10     ...  2 years of high school
                                11     ...  3 years of high school
                                12     ...  4 years of high school
                                13     ...  1 year of college
                                14     ...  2 years of college
                                15     ...  3 years of college
                                16     ...  4 years of college
                                17     ...  5 or more years of college
                                99     ...  Not stated

 54                1          Education Recode

                                 1      ...  0 - 8 years
                                 2      ...  9 - 11 years
                                 3      ...  12 years
                                 4      ...  13 - 15 years
                                 5      ...  16 years or more
                                 6      ...  Not stated

 55-56             2          Month of Death

                                 01     ... January
                                 02     ...  February
                                 03     ...  March
                                 04     ...  April
                                 05     ...  May
                                 06     ...  June
                                 07     ...  July
                                 08     ...  August
                                 09     ...  September
                                 10     ...  October
                                 11     ...  November
                                 12     ...  December

 57-58             2          Reserved Positions

 59                1          Sex

                                 1     ...  Male
                                 2     ...  Female

 60-63             4          RACE

 60-61             2          Detail Race

                              United States Occurrence

                              Beginning with 1992 data, some areas started reporting 
                              additional Asian or Pacific Islander codes for race.  
                              Codes 18 - 68 replace old code 08 for these areas. Code
                              78 replaces old 08 for all other areas.  For consistency 
                              with Census races, code 09 (all other races) has been 
                              imputed.

                                 01   ...  White
                                 02   ...  Black
                                 03   ...  American Indian (includes Aleuts and Eskimos)
                                 04   ...  Chinese
                                 05   ...  Japanese
                                 06   ...  Hawaiian (includes Part-Hawaiian)
                                 07   ...  Filipino
                                 18   ...  Asian Indian
                                 28   ...  Korean
                                 38   ...  Samoan
                                 48   ...  Vietnamese

 60-61             2           Detail Race -Con.

                               United States Occurrence

                                 58   ...  Guamanian
                                 68   ...  Other Asian or Pacific Islander in areas reporting
                                           codes 18-58
                                 78   ...  Combined other Asian or Pacific Islander, includes 
                                           codes 18-68 for areas that do not report them 
                                           separately.

                               Puerto Rico Occurrence

                                 00	...  Other races
                                 01   ...  White
                                 02   ...  Black

                               Virgin Islands Occurrence

                                 01   ...  White
                                 02   ...  Black
                                 03   ...  American Indian (includes Aleuts and Eskimos)
                                 04   ...  Chinese
                                 05   ...  Japanese
                                 06   ...  Hawaiian (includes Part-Hawaiian)
                                 07   ...  Filipino
                                 08   ...  Other Asian or Pacific Islander

                               Guam Occurrence

                                 01   ...  White
                                 02   ...  Black
                                 03   ...  American Indian (Includes Aleuts and Eskimos)
                                 04   ...  Chinese
                                 05   ...  Japanese
                                 06   ...  Hawaiian (includes Part-Hawaiian)
                                 07   ...  Filipino
                                 08   ...  Other Asian or Pacific Islander
                                 58   ...  Guamanian

                               American Samoa Occurrence

                                 01   ...  White
                                 02   ...  Black
                                 03   ...  American Indian (includes Aleuts and Eskimos)
                                 04   ...  Chinese
                                 05   ...  Japanese

 60-61             2           Detail Race - Con.

                                 06   ...  Hawaiian (includes Part-Hawaiian)
                                 07   ...  Filipino
                                 08   ...  Other Asian or Pacific Islander

                               Northern Marianas Occurrence

                                 01   ...  White
                                 02   ...  Black
                                 03	...  American Indian (includes Aleuts and Eskimos)
                                 04   ...  Chinese
                                 05   ...  Japanese
                                 06   ...  Hawaiian (includes Part-Hawaiian)
                                 07   ...  Filipino
                                 18   ...  Asian Indian
                                 28   ...  Korean
                                 38   ...  Samoan
                                 48   ...  Vietnamese
                                 58   ...  Guamanian
                                 68   ...  Other Asian or Pacific Islander in areas reporting 
                                           codes 18-58
                                 78   ...  Combined other Asian or Pacific Islander, includes 
                                           18-68 for areas that do not report them separately

 62                1           Race Recode 3

                                 1    ...  White
                                 2    ...  Races other than White or Black
                                 3    ...  Black

 63                1          Race Recode 2

                                1    ...  White
                                2    ...  All other races

 64-74             11         REPORTED AGE

 64-66             3          Detail Age

                              Three positions are used to code detail age. Location 64 
                              identifies age in years, months, days, etc.  Locations 65-66 
                              are the number of years, months, days, etc.


                                0   01-99     ...   Years less than 100
                                1   00-99     ...   Years 100 or more

 64-66             3          Detail Age - Con.

                                2   01-11,99  ...   Months
                                3   01-03,99  ...   Weeks
                                4   01-27,99  ...   Days
                                5   01-23,99  ...   Hours
                                6   01-59,99  ...   Minutes
                                9   99        ...   Age not stated

 67-68             2          Age Recode 52

                                01   ...  Under 1 hour (includes not stated hours and 
                                          minutes)
                                02   ...  1 - 23 hours
                                03   ...  1 day (includes not stated days)
                                04   ...  2 days
                                05   ...  3 days
                                06   ...  4 days
                                07   ...  5 days
                                08   ...  6 days
                                09   ...  7 - 13 days (includes not stated weeks)
                                10   ...  14 - 20 days
                                11   ...  21 - 27 days
                                12   ...  1 month (includes not stated months)
                                13   ...  2 months
                                14   ...  3 months
                                15   ...  4 months
                                16   ...  5 months
                                17   ...  6 months
                                18   ...  7 months
                                19   ...  8 months
                                20   ...  9 months
                                21   ...  10 months
                                22   ...  11 months
                                23   ...  1 year
                                24   ...  2 years
                                25   ...  3 years
                                26   ...  4 years
                                27   ...  5 - 9 years
                                28   ...  10 - 14 years
                                29   ...  15 - 19 years
                                30   ...  20 - 24 years
                                31   ...  25 - 29 years
                                32   ...  30 - 34 years
                                33   ...  35 - 39 years
                                34   ...  40 - 44 years

 67-68             2          Age Recode 52 - Con.

                                35   ...  45 - 49 years
                                36   ...  50 - 54 years
                                37   ...  55 - 59 years
                                38   ...  60 - 64 years
                                39   ...  65 - 69 years
                                40   ...  70-74 years
                                41   ...  75-79 years
                                42   ...  80 - 84 years
                                43   ...  85 - 89 years
                                44   ...  90 - 94 years
                                45   ...  95 - 99 years
                                46   ...  100 - 104 years
                                47   ...  105 - 109 years
                                48   ...  110 - 114 years
                                49   ...  115 - 119 years
                                50   ...  120 - 124 years
                                51   ...  125 years and over
                                52   ...   Age not stated


 69-70             2          Age Recode 27

                                01   ...  Under 1 month (includes not stated weeks, days, 
                                          hours, and minutes)
                                02   ...  1 month - 11 months (includes not stated months)
                                03   ...  1 years
                                04   ...  2 years
                                05   ...  3 years
                                06   ...  4 years
                                07   ...  5 - 9 years
                                08   ...  10 - 14 years
                                09   ...  15 - 19 years
                                10   ...  20 - 24 years
                                11   ...  25 - 29 years
                                12   ...  30 - 34 years
                                13   ...  35 - 39 years
                                14   ...  40 - 44 years
                                15   ...  45 - 49 years
                                16   ...  50 - 54 years
                                17   ...  55 - 59 years
                                18   ...  60 - 64 years
                                19   ...  65 - 69 years
                                20   ...  70 - 74 years
                                21   ...  75 - 79 years

 69-70             2          Age Recode 27 - Con.

                                22   ...  80 - 84 years
                                23   ...  85 - 89 years
                                24   ...  90 - 94 years
                                25   ...  95 - 99 years
                                26   ...  100 years and over
                                27   ...  Age not stated


 71-72             2          Age Recode 12

                                01   ...  Under 1 year (includes not stated infant ages)
                                02   ...  1 - 4 years
                                03   ...  5 - 14 years
                                04   ...  15 - 24 years
                                05   ...  25 - 34 years
                                06   ...  35 - 44 years
                                07   ...  45 - 54 years
                                08   ...  55 - 64 years
                                09   ...  65 - 74 years
                                10   ...  75 - 84 years
                                11   ...  85 years and over
                                12   ...  Age not stated

 73-74            2           Infant Age Recode 22

                                Blank ...  Age 1 year and over or not stated
                                01    ...  Under 1 hour (includes not stated hours and 
                                           minutes)
                                02    ...  1 - 23 hours
                                03    ...  1 day (includes not stated days)
                                04    ...  2 days
                                05    ...  3 days
                                06    ...  4 days
                                07    ...  5 days
                                08    ...  6 days
                                09    ...  7 days (includes not stated weeks)
                                10    ...  14 - 20 days
                                11    ...  21 - 27 days
                                12    ...  1 month (includes not stated months)
                                13    ...  2 months
                                14    ...  3 months
                                15    ...  4 months
                                16    ...  5 months
                                17    ...  6 months
                                18    ...  7 months

 73-74            2           Infant Age Recode 22 - Con.

                                19   ...  8 months
                                20   ...  9 months
                                21   ...  10 months
                                22   ...  11 months

 75               1           Place of Death and Decedent's Status

                                1   ...  Hospital, clinic or Medical Center
                                         - Inpatient
                                2   ...  Hospital, Clinic or Medical Center
                                         - Outpatient or admitted to Emergency Room
                                3   ...  Hospital, Clinic or Medical Center
                                         - Dead on Arrival
                                4   ...  Hospital, Clinic or Medical Center
                                         - Patient status unknown
                                5   ...  Nursing home
                                6   ...  Residence
                                7   ...  Other
                                9   ...  Place of death unknown

 76               1           Reserved Position

 77               1           Marital Status

                                 1  ...  Never married, single
                                 2  ...  Married
                                 3  ...  Widowed
                                 4  ...  Divorced
                                 8  ...  Marital Status not on certificate
                                 9  ...  Marital Status not stated

 78-79            2           State of Birth

                                   01  ... Alabama
                                   02  ... Alaska
                                   03  ... Arizona
                                   04  ... Arkansas
                                   05  ... California
                                   06  ... Colorado
                                   07  ... Connecticut
                                   08  ... Delaware
                                   09  ... District of Columbia

 78-79            2           State of Birth  -Con.

                                   10  ... Florida
                                   11  ... Georgia
                                   12  ... Hawaii
                                   13  ... Idaho
                                   14  ... Illinois
                                   15  ... Indiana
                                   16  ... Iowa
                                   17  ... Kansas
                                   18  ... Kentucky
                                   19  ... Louisiana
                                   20  ... Maine
                                   21  ... Maryland
                                   22  ... Massachusetts
                                   23  ... Michigan
                                   24  ... Minnesota
                                   25  ... Mississippi
                                   26  ... Missouri
                                   27  ... Montana
                                   28  ... Nebraska
                                   29  ... Nevada
                                   30  ... New Hampshire
                                   31  ... New Jersey
                                   32  ... New Mexico
                                   33  ... New York
                                   34  ... North Carolina
                                   35  ... North Dakota
                                   36  ... Ohio
                                   37  ... Oklahoma
                                   38  ... Oregon
                                   39  ... Pennsylvania
                                   40  ... Rhode Island
                                   41  ... South Carolina
                                   42  ... South Dakota
                                   43  ... Tennessee
                                   44  ... Texas
                                   45  ... Utah
                                   46  ... Vermont
                                   47  ... Virginia
                                   48  ... Washington
                                   49  ... West Virginia
                                   50  ... Wisconsin
                                   51  ... Wyoming
                                   52  ... Puerto Rico

 78-79             2          State of Birth - Con.

                                   53  ... Virgin Island
                                   54  ... Guam
                                   55  ... Canada
                                   56  ... Cuba
                                   57  ... Mexico
                                   59  ... Remainder of the world
                                   61  ... American Samoa
                                   62  ... Northern Marianas
                                   99  ... State of birth unknown

 80-81             2          Hispanic Origin

                              Beginning data year 1997 all States report Hispanic Origin.

                                   00   ...  Non - Hispanic
                                   01   ...  Mexican
                                   02   ...  Puerto Rican
                                   03   ...  Cuban
                                   04   ...  Central or South American
                                   05   ...  Other or unknown Hispanic
                                   99   ...  Unknown

 82               1           Hispanic Origin/Race Recode

                                   1   ...  Mexican
                                   2   ...  Puerto Rican
                                   3   ...  Cuban
                                   4   ...  Central or South American
                                   5   ...  Other or unknown Hispanic
                                   6   ...  Non - Hispanic white
                                   7   ...  Non - Hispanic black
                                   8   ...  Non - Hispanic other races
                                   9   ...  Hispanic origin unknown

 83               1           Day of Week of Death

                                   1   ...  Sunday
                                   2   ...  Monday
                                   3   ...  Tuesday
                                   4   ...  Wednesday
                                   5   ...  Thursday
                                   6   ...  Friday
                                   7   ...  Saturday
                                   9   ...  Unknown

 84               1           Reserved Position

 85-87            3           Kind of Business or Industry

                              This item is not reported by all States. Refer to the 
                              Addendum to the Technical Appendix at the back of this 
                              publication for a list of reporting States.

                              A new coding structure was instituted for the 1993 data 
                              year. For a complete list of categories and codes refer 
                              to:

                              U.S. Bureau of the Census: Classified index of industries 
                              and occupations.  1990 Census of Population and Housing.  
                              First Edition.  Washington. U.S. Government Printing Office, 
                              April 1992.

                               010-960   ...  Code range (not inclusive)
                               961       ...  Own home/At home
                               970       ...  Retired; with no other industry reported
                               990       ...  Blank, Unknown, NA

 88-90            3           Usual Occupation

                              This item is not reported by all States.  Refer to the 
                              Addendum to the Technical Appendix at the back of this 
                              publication for a list of reporting States.

                              A new coding structure was instituted for the 1993 data 
                              year.  For a complete list of categories and codes refer 
                              to the Census Bureau publication mentioned above.

                               003-905  ...  Code range (not inclusive)

                              In addition to the codes shown in the Census publication, 
                              the following codes are also applicable:

                                  913   ...  Retired; with no other occupation reported
                                  914   ...  Housewife/Homemaker
                                  915   ...  Student
                                  916   ...  Volunteer
                                  917   ...  Unemployed, never worked, disabled, child, 
                                             infant
                                  999   ...  Blank, Unknown, NA


 91-93             3         52 Cause Recode

                             A recode of the cause code into 52 groups designed for use 
                             in producing tabulations.  Further back in this document 
                             is a complete list of recodes and categories.

                              010-560  ...  Code range (not inclusive)

 94-96             3         Reserved Positions

 97-101            5         Place (city) of Residence (FIPS)

                             A complete list of cities is shown in the Geographic code 
                             outline further back in this document.  Effective with the 
                             1994 data year, the FIPS place code has been added to the 
                             Mortality record.  It identifies each city of 100,000
                             population or more in 1990.

                              00000   ...  Foreign residents
                              00001-
                              nnnnn   ...  code range
                              99999   ...  Balance of county; or city of less than 
                                           100,000 population

 102-114           13        Reserved Positions

 115-118           4         Current Data Year

                                1998   ...   1998

 119-132           14        FEDERAL INFORMATION PROCESSING STANDARDS (FIPS)
                             GEOGRAPHIC CODES

                             Refer to the Geographic Code Outline further back in this 
                             document for a detailed list of areas and codes.  For an 
                             explanation of FIPS codes, reference should be made to 
                             various National Institute of Standards and Technology 
                             (NIST) publications.  Some geographic codes have been
                             changed to reflect the results of the 1990 Census.

 119-120           2         State of Occurrence (FIPS)

                              United States

                                  01   ...  Alabama
                                  02   ...  Alaska
                                  04   ...  Arizona

 119-120           2         State of Occurrence (FIPS) - Con.

                              United States

                                  05   ...  Arkansas
                                  06   ...  California
                                  08   ...  Colorado
                                  09   ...  Connecticut
                                  10   ...  Delaware
                                  11   ...  District of Columbia
                                  12   ...  Florida
                                  13   ...  Georgia
                                  15   ...  Hawaii
                                  16   ...  Idaho
                                  17   ...  Illinois
                                  18   ...  Indiana
                                  19   ...  Iowa
                                  20   ...  Kansas
                                  21   ...  Kentucky
                                  22   ...  Louisiana
                                  23   ...  Maine
                                  24   ...  Maryland
                                  25   ...  Massachusetts
                                  26   ...  Michigan
                                  27   ...  Minnesota
                                  28   ...  Mississippi
                                  29   ...  Missouri
                                  30   ...  Montana
                                  31   ...  Nebraska
                                  32   ...  Nevada
                                  33   ...  New Hampshire
                                  34   ...  New Jersey
                                  35   ...  New Mexico
                                  36   ...  New York
                                  37   ...  North Carolina
                                  38   ...  North Dakota
                                  39   ...  Ohio
                                  40   ...  Oklahoma
                                  41   ...  Oregon
                                  42   ...  Pennsylvania
                                  44   ...  Rhode Island
                                  45   ...  South Carolina
                                  46   ...  South Dakota
                                  47   ...  Tennessee
                                  48   ...  Texas


 119-120           2         State of Occurrence (FIPS) - Con.

                              United States

                                  49   ...  Utah
                                  50   ...  Vermont
                                  51   ...  Virginia
                                  53   ...  Washington
                                  54   ...  West Virginia
                                  55   ...  Wisconsin
                                  56   ...  Wyoming

                              Puerto Rico

                                  72   ...  Puerto Rico

                              Virgin Islands

                                  78   ...  Virgin Islands

                              Guam

                                  66   ...  Guam

                              American Samoa

                                  60   ...  American Samoa

                              Northern Marianas

                                  69   ...  Northern Marianas

 121-123           3         County of Occurrence (FIPS)

                             Counties and county equivalents (independent and 
                             coextensive cities) are numbered alphabetically 
                             within each State and identify each county with a
                             population of 100,000 or more in 1990. (Note: To 
                             uniquely identify a county, both the state and 
                             county codes must be used.)  A complete list of 
                             counties is shown in the Geographic Code Outline 
                             further back in this document.

                              001-nnn ...  Code range
                              999     ...  County of less than 100,000 population

 124-125           2         State of Residence (FIPS)

                                  00   ...  Foreign residents
                                  01   ...  Alabama
                                  02   ...  Alaska

 124-125           2         State of Residence (FIPS) - Con.

                                  04   ...  Arizona
                                  05   ...  Arkansas
                                  06   ...  California
                                  08   ...  Colorado
                                  09   ...  Connecticut
                                  10   ...  Delaware
                                  11   ...  District of Columbia
                                  12   ...  Florida
                                  13   ...  Georgia
                                  15   ...  Hawaii
                                  16   ...  Idaho
                                  17   ...  Illinois
                                  18   ...  Indiana
                                  19   ...  Iowa
                                  20   ...  Kansas
                                  21   ...  Kentucky
                                  22   ...  Louisiana
                                  23   ...  Maine
                                  24   ...  Maryland
                                  25   ...  Massachusetts
                                  26   ...  Michigan
                                  27   ...  Minnesota
                                  28   ...  Mississippi
                                  29   ...  Missouri
                                  30   ...  Montana
                                  31   ...  Nebraska
                                  32   ...  Nevada
                                  33   ...  New Hampshire
                                  34   ...  New Jersey
                                  35   ...  New Mexico
                                  36   ...  New York
                                  37   ...  North Carolina
                                  38   ...  North Dakota
                                  39   ...  Ohio
                                  40   ...  Oklahoma
                                  41   ...  Oregon
                                  42   ...  Pennsylvania
                                  44   ...  Rhode Island
                                  45   ...  South Carolina
                                  46   ...  South Dakota
                                  47   ...  Tennessee
                                  48   ...  Texas
                                  49   ...  Utah

 124-125           2         State of Residence (FIPS) - Con.

                                  50   ...  Vermont
                                  51   ...  Virginia
                                  53   ...  Washington
                                  54   ...  West Virginia
                                  55   ...  Wisconsin
                                  56   ...  Wyoming

                              Puerto Rico Occurrence

                                  72   ...  Puerto Rico
                                  00-56,60, 66,
                                  78   ...  Foreign residents: refer to  U.S. for specific 
                                            code structure.

                              Virgin Islands Occurrence

                                  78   ...  Virgin Islands
                                  00-56,60, 66,
                                  72   ...  Foreign residents: refer to U.S. for specific 
                                            code structure.

                              Guam Occurrence

                                  66     ...  Guam
                                  01-56  ...  U.S. Resident.  Also considered a resident of Guam.
                                  00,60,72,78 ... Foreign residents: refer to U.S. for specific 
                                                  code structure.

                              American Samoa Occurrence

                                  60    ... American Samoa
                                  00-56, 66,
                                  72,78 ... Foreign residents: refer to U.S. for specific 
                                            code structure.

                              Northern Marianas Occurrence

                                  69    ...  Northern Marianas
                                  00-56,60,66
                                  72,78 ...  Foreign residents: refer to U.S. for specific 
                                             code structure.

 126-128           3         County of Residence (FIPS)

                             Counties and county equivalents (independent and coextensive 
                             cities) are numbered alphabetically within each State and 
                             identify each county with a population of 100,000 or more in 
                             1990.  (Note: To uniquely identify a county, both the state 
                             and county codes must be used.)  A complete list of counties
                             is shown in the Geographic Code Outline further back in this 
                             document.

                               000     ...  Foreign residents
                               001-nnn ...  Code range
                               999     ...  County of less than 100,000 population

 129-132           4         PMSA/MSA of Residence (FIPS)

                             Primary Metropolitan Statistical Areas and Metropolitan 
                             Statistical Areas are those defined by the U.S. Office 
                             of Management and Budget (OMB) as of 1990. For New England, 
                             the New England County Metropolitan Areas (NECMA) are used.

                             Further back in this docuent is a list of PMSA's, MSA's, 
                             NECMA's, and their component counties.

                               0000      ...  Nonmetropolitan counties or foreign residents
                               0040-9360 ...  Code range
                               9999      ...  Area of less than 100,000 population

 133               1         Reserved Position

 134-135           2         CMSA of Residence (FIPS)

                             Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas are groupings 
                             of certain Primary Metropolitan Statistical Areas and are 
                             defined by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) 
                             as of 1990.

                               All Areas

                                 00   ...  Not a CMSA

                               United States Occurrence

                                 07   ...  Boston - Worcester-Lawrence, MA-NH-ME-CT,
                                           CMSA
                                 14   ...  Chicago - Gary-Kenosha, IL-IN-WI, CMSA
                                 21   ...  Cincinnati - Hamilton, OH-KY-IN, CMSA

 134-135           2         CMSA OF Residence (FIPS) - Con.

                               United States Occurrence

                                 28   ...  Cleveland - Akron, OH, CMSA
                                 31   ...  Dallas - Fort Worth, TX, CMSA
                                 34   ...  Denver - Boulder-Greeley, CO, CMSA
                                 35   ...  Detroit - Ann Arbor-Flint, MI, CMSA
                                 42   ...  Houston - Galveston-Brazoria, TX, CMSA
                                 49   ...  Los Angeles -Riverside- Orange County, CA, CMSA
                                 56   ...  Miami - Fort Lauderdale, FL, CMSA
                                 63   ...  Milwaukee - Racine, WI, CMSA
                                 70   ...  New York -Northern New Jersey-Long Island, NY-NJ- 
                                           CT-PA, CMSA
                                 77   ...  Philadelphia - Wilmington-Atlantic City, PA-NJ-DE-
                                           MD. CMSA
                                 79   ...  Portland - Salem , OR-WA, CMSA
                                 82   ...  Sacremento - Yolo, CA, CMSA
                                 84   ...  San Francisco -Oakland-San Jose, CA, CMSA
                                 91   ...  Seattle - Tacoma-Bremerton, WA, CMSA
                                 97   ...  Washington - Baltimore, DC-MD-VA-WV, CMSA

                              Puerto Rico Occurrence

                                 87   ...  San Juan -Caguas-Arecibo, PR, CMSA

 136               1         Injury at Work

                                  1   ...  Yes
                                  2   ...  No
                                  9   ...  Unknown

 137               1         Race Imputation Flag

                                  Blank  ...  Race is not imputed
                                  1      ...  Unknown race is imputed
                                  2      ...  All other races, formerly code 09, is imputed

 138               1         Age Substitution Flag

                             If reported age is unknown but a valid age is calculated 
                             using dates of birth and death, the calculated age is 
                             substituted for the unknown reported age.

                                  1   ...  Calculated age is substituted for reported age

 139-140           2         Reserved Positions


 141               1         Place of Accident for Causes E850-E869 and E880-E928

                                Blank  ...  Causes other than E850-E869 and E880-E928
                                0      ...  Home
                                1      ...  Farm
                                2      ...  Mine and Quarry
                                3      ...  Industrial Place and Premises
                                4      ...  Place for Recreation and Sport
                                5      ...  Street and Highway
                                6      ...  Public Building
                                7      ...  Resident Institution
                                8      ...  Other Specified Places
                                9      ...  Place of Accident not specified

 142-159           18        UNDERLYING CAUSE OF DEATH

 142-145           4         ICD Code (9th Revision)

                             See the International Classification of Diseases, 
                             1975 Revision, Volume 1.  For injuries and poisoning, 
                             the external cause is coded (E800-E999) rather than the 
                             Nature of Injury (800-999).  These positions do not 
                             include the letter E for the external cause of injury.  
                             For those causes that do not have a 4th
                             digit, location 145 is blank.

 146-150           5         282 Cause Recode

                             A recode of the ICD cause code into 282 groups for NCHS 
                             publications.  Further back in this document is a complete 
                             list of recodes and the causes included.

                              00300-35800   ...  Code range (not inclusive)

 151-153           3         72 Cause Recode

                             A recode of the ICD cause code into 72 groups for NCHS 
                             publications.  Further back in this document is a complete 
                             list of recodes and the causes included.

                              010-840   ...  Code range (not inclusive)

 154-156           3         61 Infant Cause Recode

                             A recode of the ICD cause code into 61 groups for NCHS 
                             publications.  Further back in this document is a complete 
                             list of recodes and the causes included.

                              010-680   ...  Code range (not inclusive)

 157-159           3         34  Cause Recode

                             A recode of the ICD cause code into 34 groups for NCHS 
                             publications.  Further back in this document is a complete 
                             list of records and the causes included.

                              010-370   ...  Code range (not inclusive)


 160-440           281       MULTIPLE CONDITIONS

 160-161           2         Number of Entity-Axis Conditions

                                00-20    ...  Code range

 162-301           140       ENTITY - AXIS CONDITIONS

                             Space has been provided for maximum of 20 conditions.  
                             Each condition takes 7 positions in the record. Records 
                             that do not have 20 conditions are blank in the unused 
                             area.

                              Position 1: Part/line number on certificate

                                 1   ...  Part I, line 1 (a)
                                 2   ...  Part I, line 2 (b)
                                 3   ...  Part I, line 3 (c)
                                 4   ...  Part I, line 4 (d)
                                 5   ...  Part I, line 5 (e)
                                 6   ...  Part II

                              Position 2: Sequence of condition within part/line

                                 1-7 ...  Code range

                              Position 3 - 6: Condition code

 162-301           140       ENTITY - AXIS CONDITIONS  - Con.

                             See Table 1 for a complete list of codes

                               Position 7: Nature of Injury Flag

                                 1   ...  Indicates that the code in positions 3-6 is a
                                          Nature of Injury code
                                 0   ...  All other codes

 162-168           7         1st Condition

 169-175           7         2nd Condition

 176-182           7         3rd Condition

 183-189           7         4th Condition

 190-196           7         5th Condition

 197-203           7         6th Condition

 204-210           7         7th Condition

 211-217           7         8th Condition

 218-224           7         9th Condition

 225-231           7         10th Condition

 232-238           7         11th Condition

 239-245           7         12th Condition

 246-252           7         13th Condition

 253-259           7         14th Condition

 260-266           7         15th Condition

 267-273           7         16th Condition

 274-280           7         17th Condition

 281-287           7         18th Condition

 288-294           7         19th Condition

 162-301           140       ENTITY - AXIS CONDITIONS - Con.

 295-301           7         20th Condition

 302-337           36        Reserved Positions

 338-339           2         Number of Record-Axis Conditions

                              00-20  ...  Code range

 340               1         Reserved Position

 341-440           100       RECORD  - AXIS CONDITIONS

                             Space has been provided for a maximum of 20 conditions.  
                             Each condition takes 5 positions in the record. Records 
                             that do not have 20 conditions are blank in the unused 
                             area.

                               Positions 1 - 4: Condition Code

                             See Table 1 for a complete list of codes

                               Position 5: Nature of Injury Flag

                                1   ...  Indicates that the code in positions 1-4 is 
                                         a Nature of Injury code
                                0   ...  All other codes

 341-345           5         1st Condition

 346-350           5         2nd Condition

 351-355           5         3rd Condition

 356-360           5         4th Condition

 361-365           5         5th Condition

 366-370           5         6th Condition

 371-375           5         7th Condition

 376-380           5         8th Condition

 341-440           100       RECORD - AXIS CONDITIONS - Con.

 381-385           5         9th Condition

 386-390           5         10th Condition

 391-395           5         11th Condition

 396-400           5         12th Condition

 401-405           5         13th Condition

 406-410           5         14th Condition

 411-415           5         15th Condition

 416-420           5         16th Condition

 421-425           5         17th Condition

 426-430           5         18th Condition

 431-435           5         19th Condition

 436-440           5         20th Condition





Vital Statistics Geographic Code Outline for the United States

The following pages show in detail the geographic codes used by the Division of Vital Statistics in the processing of vital event data occurring in the United States. When an event occurs to a nonresident of the United States, residence data are coded only to the "State" level; several western hemisphere countries or the remainder of the world are uniquely identified. Along with the Division of Vital Statistics codes, the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) codes are shown for several items. Both sets of codes appear on the vital event public-use files. Codes are effective with the 1998 data year and are based on the 1990 Census.

To aid the user in interpreting the geographic codes, a brief explanation of the codes and of the column headings/abbreviations shown on the following pages are:

State (St): Each State and the District of Columbia are numbered alphabetically. In addition, several unique codes are used to identify nonresidents of the U.S.

County (Cnty): Counties and county equivalents (independent and coextensive cities) are numbered alphabetically within each state.

P/MSA: Primary metropolitan statistical areas and metropolitan statistical areas are those established by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) using 1990 Census population counts. For New England, the New England County Metropolitan Areas (NECMA) are used.

M/NM: Metropolitan counties (code 1) are component counties of P/MSA's. Nonmetropolitan counties (code 2) are not part of any P/MSA.

City or Place: Cities/Places are numbered alphabetically within each State and identify each city with a population of 10,000 or more in 1990.

P/S: Population size code for city/place of residence based on the 1990 Census. Refer to the code outline given earlier in this document for specific codes and meanings.

Name: Each State, county, and city name is listed along with its respective code. In addition, places used to identify nonresidents of the U.S. are also listed along with their codes.

FIPS: For an explanation of FIPS codes, reference should be made to various National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) publications.

So! How do I find Yavapai county, Arizona; or Tupelo city, Mississippi?

Since counties and cities/places are numbered within State, the State and county or the State and city/places codes must be used to select these areas. It is most helpful if the county is known when looking for a particular city since areas are shown by State, county, and city/place.

Yavapai county, Arizona - State and county codes NCHS: 03 014; FIPS: 04 025.

Tupelo, Mississippi - State and city/place codes NCHS: 25 032; FIPS: 28 74840; or State, county, city/place codes NCHS: 25 041 032; FIPS: 28 081 74840.



Vital Statistics Geographic Code Outline for Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa and Northern Marianas

The following pages show in detail the geographic codes used by the Division of Vital Statistics in the processing of vital event data occurring in Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa or Northern Marianas. When an event occurs to a nonresident of these areas, residence data are coded only to the "State" level; each U.S. state, several western hemisphere countries or the remainder of the world are uniquely identified. Along with the Division of Vital Statistics codes, the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) codes are shown for several items. Both sets of codes appear on the vital event public-use files. Codes are effective with the 1998 data year and are based on results of the 1990 Census.

To aid the user in interpreting the geographic codes, a brief explanation of the codes and of the column headings/abbreviations shown on the following pages are:

Puerto Rico:

State (St): Puerto Rico has its own unique code. In addition, several unique codes are used to identify nonresidents of Puerto Rico.

County (Cnty): Each municipio (county equivalent) is numbered alphabetically.

P/MSA: Primary metropolitan statistical areas and metropolitan statistical areas are those established by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) using 1990 Census population counts.

M/NM: Metropolitan counties (code 1) are component counties of P/MSA's Nonmetropolitan counties (code 2) are not part of any P/MSA.

City or Place: No city/places in Puerto Rico are identified.

Name: Puerto Rico and each municipio are listed along with their respective codes. In addition, places used to identify nonresidents of Puerto Rico are also listed along with their codes.

FIPS: For an explanation of FIPS codes, reference should be made to various National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) publications.

Virgin Islands:

State (St): The Virgin Islands has its own unique code. In addition, several unique codes are used to identify nonresidents of the V.I.

County (Cnty): Several Islands (county equivalent) are numbered alphabetically.

P/MSA: None are identified in the Virgin Islands.

M/NM: No metropolitan areas are identified for the Virgin Islands.

City or Place: City/places are numbered alphabetically and identify each city with a population of 10,000 or more in 1990.

P/S: Population size code for city of residence based on the 1990 Census. Refer to the code outline given earlier in this document for specific codes and meanings.

Name: The Virgin Islands as a whole and several islands are listed along with their respective codes. In addition, places used to identify nonresidents of the V.I. are also listed along with their codes.

Guam:

State (St): Guam has its own unique code. In addition, several unique codes are used to identify nonresidents of Guam.

County (Cnty): None are identified in Guam.

P/MSA: None are identified in Guam.

M/NM: No metropolitan areas are identified for Guam.

City or Place: None are identified in Guam.

P/S: No population size groups are identified for Guam.

Name: Guam as a whole is listed along with its respective code. In addition, places used to identify nonresidents of Guam are also listed along with their codes.

American Samoa:

State (St): American Samoa has its own unique code. In addition, several unique codes are used to identify nonresidents of American Samoa.

County (Cnty): None are identified in American Samoa.

P/MSA: None are identified in American Samoa.

M/NM: No metropolitan areas are identified for American Samoa.

City or Place: None are identified in American Samoa.

P/S: No population size groups are identified for American Samoa.

Name: American Samoa as a whole is listed along with its respective code. In addition, places used to identify nonresidents of American Samoa are also listed along with their codes.

Northern Marianas:

State (St): Northern Marianas has its own unique code. In addition, several unique codes are used to identify nonresidents of Northern Marianas

County ( Cnty): None are identified in Northern Marianas.

P/MSA: None are identified in Northern Marianas.

M/NM: No metropolitan areas are identified for Northern Marianas.

City or Place: None are identified in Northern Marianas.

P/S: No population size groups are identified for Northern Marianas.

Name: Northern Marianas as a whole is listed along with its respective code. In addition, places used to identify nonresidents of Northern Marianas are also listed along with their codes.

 

Vital Statistics Geographic Code Outline For Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa and Northern Marianas Effective with 1998 Data

Vital Statistics Codes                               FIPS Codes 
 St  Cnty  P/MSA M/NM  City  Area Names               St  Cnty P/MSA  Place

 01  000   999   9     000   Alabama                  01  000  0000   00000
 02  000   999   9     000   Alaska                   02  000  0000   00000
 03  000   999   9     000   Arizona                  04  000  0000   00000
 04  000   999   9     000   Arkansas                 05  000  0000   00000
 05  000   999   9     000   California               06  000  0000   00000
 06  000   999   9     000   Colorado                 08  000  0000   00000
 07  000   999   9     000   Connecticut              09  000  0000   00000
 08  000   999   9     000   Delaware                 10  000  0000   00000
 09  000   999   9     000   District of Columbia     11  000  0000   00000
 10  000   999   9     000   Florida                  12  000  0000   00000
 11  000   999   9     000   Georgia                  13  000  0000   00000
 12  000   999   9     000   Hawaii                   15  000  0000   00000
 13  000   999   9     000   Idaho                    16  000  0000   00000
 14  000   999   9     000   Illinois                 17  000  0000   00000
 15  000   999   9     000   Indiana                  18  000  0000   00000
 16  000   999   9     000   Iowa                     19  000  0000   00000
 17  000   999   9     000   Kansas                   20  000  0000   00000
 18  000   999   9     000   Kentucky                 21  000  0000   00000
 19  000   999   9     000   Louisiana                22  000  0000   00000
 20  000   999   9     000   Maine                    23  000  0000   00000
 21  000   999   9     000   Maryland                 24  000  0000   00000
 22  000   999   9     000   Massachusetts            25  000  0000   00000
 23  000   999   9     000   Michigan                 26  000  0000   00000
 24  000   999   9     000   Minnesota                27  000  0000   00000
 25  000   999   9     000   Mississippi              28  000  0000   00000
 26  000   999   9     000   Missouri                 29  000  0000   00000
 27  000   999   9     000   Montana                  30  000  0000   00000
 28  000   999   9     000   Nebraska                 31  000  0000   00000
 29  000   999   9     000   Nevada                   32  000  0000   00000
 30  000   999   9     000   New Hampshire            33  000  0000   00000
 31  000   999   9     000   New Jersey               34  000  0000   00000
 32  000   999   9     000   New Mexico               35  000  0000   00000
 33  000   999   9     000   New York                 36  000  0000   00000
 34  000   999   9     000   North Carolina           37  000  0000   00000
 35  000   999   9     000   North Dakota             38  000  0000   00000
 36  000   999   9     000   Ohio                     39  000  0000   00000
 37  000   999   9     000   Oklahoma                 40  000  0000   00000
 38  000   999   9     000   Oregon                   41  000  0000   00000
 39  000   999   9     000   Pennsylvania             42  000  0000   00000
 40  000   999   9     000   Rhode Island             44  000  0000   00000
 41  000   999   9     000   South Carolina           45  000  0000   00000
 42  000   999   9     000   South Dakota             46  000  0000   00000
 43  000   999   9     000   Tennessee                47  000  0000   00000
 44  000   999   9     000   Texas                    48  000  0000   00000
 45  000   999   9     000   Utah                     49  000  0000   00000
 46  000   999   9     000   Vermont                  50  000  0000   00000
 47  000   999   9     000   Virginia                 51  000  0000   00000
 48  000   999   9     000   Washington               53  000  0000   00000
 49  000   999   9     000   West Virginia            54  000  0000   00000
 50  000   999   9     000   Wisconsin                55  000  0000   00000
 51  000   999   9     000   Wyoming                  56  000  0000   00000
Vital Statistics Codes                               FIPS Codes 
 St  Cnty  P/MSA M/NM  City  Area Names               St  Cnty P/MSA  Place

 52                          Puerto Rico              72
     001   000   2     999   Adjuntas                     001  0000
     002   000   1     999   Aguada                       003  0060
     003   001   1     999   Aguadilla                    005  0060 
     004   006   1     999   Aguas Buenas                 007  7440 
     005   000   2     999   Aibonito                     009  0000 
     006   004   1     999   Anasco                       011  4840 
     007   002   1     999   Arecibo                      013  0470 
     008   000   2     999   Arroyo                       015  0000 
     009   006   1     999   Barceloneta                  017  7440 
     010   000   2     999   Barranquitas                 019  0000 
     011   006   1     999   Bayamon                      021  7440 
     012   004   1     999   Cabo Rojo                    023  4840 
     013   003   1     999   Caguas                       025  1310 
     014   002   1     999   Camuy                        027  0470 
     015   006   1     999   Canovanas                    029  7440 
     016   006   1     999   Carolina                     031  7440 
     017   006   1     999   Catano                       033  7440 
     018   003   1     999   Cayey                        035  1310 
     019   006   1     999   Ceiba                        037  7440 
     020   000   2     999   Ciales                       039  0000 
     021   003   1     999   Cidra                        041  1310 
     022   000   2     999   Coamo                        043  0000 
     023   006   1     999   Comerio                      045  7440 
     024   006   1     999   Corozal                      047  7440 
     025   000   2     999   Culebra                      049  0000 
     026   006   1     999   Dorado                       051  7440 
     027   006   1     999   Fajardo                      053  7440 
     028   006   1     999   Florida                      054  7440 
     029   000   2     999   Guanica                      055  0000 
     030   000   2     999   Guayama                      057  0000 
     031   005   1     999   Guayanilla                   059  6360 
     032   006   1     999   Guaynabo                     061  7440 
     033   003   1     999   Gurabo                       063  1310 
     034   002   1     999   Hatillo                      065  0470 
     035   004   1     999   Hormigueros                  067  4840 
     036   006   1     999   Humacao                      069  7440 
     037   000   2     999   Isabela                      071  0000 
     038   000   2     999   Jayuya                       073  0000 
     039   005   1     999   Juana Diaz                   075  6360 
     040   006   1     999   Juncos                       077  7440 
     041   000   2     999   Lajas                        079  0000 
     042   000   2     999   Lares                        081  0000 
     043   000   2     999   Las Marias                   083  0000 
     044   006   1     999   Las Piedras                  085  7440 
     045   006   1     999   Loiza                        087  7440 
     046   006   1     999   Luquillo                     089  7440 
     047   006   1     999   Manati                       091  7440 
     048   000   2     999   Maricao                      093  0000 
     049   000   2     999   Maunabo                      095  0000 
     050   004   1     999   Mayaguez                     097  4840 
     051   001   1     999   Moca                         099  0060 
     052   006   1     999   Morovis                      101  7440 
     053   006   1     999   Naguabo                      103  7440 
     054   006   1     999   Naranjito                    105  7440 
     055   000   2     999   Orocovis                     107  0000 
     056   000   2     999   Patillas                     109  0000 
     057   005   1     999   Penuelas                     111  6360 
     058   005   1     999   Ponce                        113  6360 
     059   000   2     999   Quebradillas                 115  0000 
     060   000   2     999   Rincon                       117  0000 
     061   006   1     999   Rio Grande                   119  7440 
     062   004   1     999   Sabana Grande                121  4840 
     063   000   2     999   Salinas                      123  0000 
     064   004   1     999   San German                   125  4840 
     065   006   1     999   San Juan                     127  7440 
     066   003   1     999   San Lorenzo                  129  1310 
     067   000   2     999   San Sebastian                131  0000 
     068   000   2     999   Santa Isabel                 133  0000 
     069   006   1     999   Toa Alta                     135  7440 
     070   006   1     999   Toa Baja                     137  7440 
     071   006   1     999   Trujillo Alto                139  7440 
     072   000   2     999   Utuado                       141  0000 
     073   006   1     999   Vega Alta                    143  7440 
     074   006   1     999   Vega Baja                    145  7440
Vital Statistics Codes                               FIPS Codes 
 St  Cnty  P/MSA M/NM  City  Area Names               St  Cnty P/MSA  Place

 52                          Puerto Rico              72
     075   000    2    999    Vieques                     147  0000 
     076   005    1    999    Villalba                    149  6360 
     077   006    1    999    Yabucoa                     151  7440 
     078   005    1    999    Yauco                       153  6360
 53                          Virgin Islands           78  
     001   000    2    999    St. Croix                   010  0000 
     002   000    2    999    St. John                    020  0000 
     003   000    2           St. Thomas                  030  0000 
                       001      Charlotte Amalie                      99999 
                       999      Balance of area                       99999     
 54                           Guam                    66  
     000   000    2             Guam                      010  0000 
                       000       Guam                                 99999     
 55  ZZZ   ZZZ    Z    ZZZ    Canada                  00  000  0000   00000
 56  ZZZ   ZZZ    Z    ZZZ    Cuba                    00  000  0000   00000
 57  ZZZ   ZZZ    Z    ZZZ    Mexico                  00  000  0000   00000
 59  ZZZ   ZZZ    Z    ZZZ    Remainder of World      00  000  0000   00000
 61                           American Samoa          60 
     000   000    2             American Samoa            000  0000 
                       000       American Samoa                       99999
 62                           Northern Marianas       69
     000   000    2             Northern Marianas         000  0000
                       000       Northern Marianas                    99999


1998 Addendum To "Technical Appendix" Of Vital Statistics Of The United States: Mortality, 1995

To assist the users of the mortality public-use data tapes and CD-ROMS, attached is a copy of the "Technical Appendix" of the Vital Statistics of the United States: Mortality, 1995. This technical appendix provides certain qualifications that are essential to using, analyzing, and interpreting the data in those tapes and CD-ROMS. Certain modifications to the technical appendix are essential to make it applicable to the mortality file for the 1998 data year. Those modifications include the following:

I. Sources of data

   State-coded medical data

1996
Utah

1998
Tennessee

For 1998, of the States in the VSCP, 43 States submitted precoded medical data for all death certificates in the form of electronic data files. Of these 43 States, Maine and Montana contracted with a private company to provide NCHS with precoded medical data. The remaining seven VSCP States, New York City, and the District of Columbia submitted copies of the original certificates from which NCHS coded the medical data.

For 1998, approximately 36 percent of the Nation's death records were multiple-cause coded using SuperMICAR and 64 percent using MICAR. This represents data from 25 States which were coded by SuperMICAR and data from 25 States, the District of Columbia, and New York City which were coded by MICAR.

All States submitted precoded demographic data for all death certificates in the form of electronic data files in 1998.

Data for Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Guam have been included in the mortality public-use data files since 1994. Data for American Samoa have been included since 1997. Data for the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (Northern Marianas) are included for the first time for 1998.

 
II.  Classification of data

A.  Race

Death certificates for some States have a checkbox for "multi-racial". Some States are mandated by law to code "multi-racial" as a separate category. For these States, death records with an entry of "multi-racial" but without a specified racial entry or entries were assigned to the specified race of the previous record. States not mandated to code "multi-racial" may code "multi-racial" in the same way as mandated States or may code "multi-racial" to "Other entries." For death records where race is coded to "Other entries", if origin is Hispanic and the place of birth is Puerto Rico, Cuba or Mexico, the race is assigned as White. Otherwise, except for Puerto Rico, death records with race coded to "Other entries" were assigned to the specified race of the previous record with known race. For Puerto Rico, if race is coded to "Other entries", race is assigned to "Other races."


B.  Hispanic origin

Beginning with the 1997 data year, data by Hispanic origin include all 50 States and the District of Columbia .

Infant mortality--Infant mortality data by Hispanic origin are based on deaths to residents of the entire United States.

Infant mortality rates by Hispanic origin are biased because of inconsistencies in reporting Hispanic or ethnic origin between the birth and death certificates for the same infant. Estimates of reporting bias may be made by comparing rates based on the linked file of infant deaths and live births 1 with those where the Hispanic or ethnic origin of infant death is based on information from the death certificate 2. Infant mortality rates by Hispanic origin are less subject to reporting bias when based on linked files of infant deaths and live births 1.


C.  Educational attainment

Deaths by educational attainment have been included in the public-use data files since 1989. It is recommended for 1998 that analyses of educational attainment data include deaths to residents of 46 States and the District of Columbia whose data were approximately 80 percent or more complete on a place-of-occurrence basis. Although data for Kentucky are included in the file, they would be excluded from analyses because more than 20 percent of their death certificates were classified to "unknown educational attainment." Data for Georgia, Rhode Island, and South Dakota were excluded from the file because their death certificates did not include an educational attainment item.

Death rates for educational attainment are based on population estimates derived from the U.S. Bureau of the Census' Current Population Survey (CPS) and adjusted to resident population control totals. As a result, the rates are subject to the variability of the denominator as well as the numerator. Computation of the relative standard errors, 95-percent confidence intervals, and statistical tests are discussed in the Technical notes of the National Vital Statistics Report 2.

Death rates for educational attainment may be biased for the following three reasons: 1) because of inconsistencies in reporting between the death certificates and the CPS for decedents; 2) because of a change in the basic item used to collect data about education in the CPS; and 3) because of possible under-enumeration of the population estimates (there have been no studies evaluating this potential bias).

In the National Longitudinal Mortality Survey (NLMS) a total of 9,257 death certificates were compared with responses to educational attainment questions from a total of 12 CPS's conducted by the U.S. Bureau of the Census for data year 1989 3. Based on the results of this study and after proportionally allocating the "unknown education" on the death certificate, the ratio of CPS deaths having reported less than a high school education (grades 0-11) to death certificate deaths having reported less than high school education was about 1.37. This indicates that the number of deaths and death rates for decedents having less than high school education are biased downward in the vital statistics data by about 37 percent. Similarly, the corresponding ratios for having completed high school (grade 12) and having completed more than high school (grades 13 and more) are 0.70 and 0.87 respectively.

    In the CPS, the item used to collect education information was changed in
   1992 from:

23a) What is the highest grade or year of regular school ... has ever attended?;

23b) Did ... complete that grade (year?); Yes, No

to:

23) What is the highest level of school ... has completed or the highest degree ... has received?

Based on a Bureau of the Census study 4, the ratio of population estimates derived from the "old" educational attainment definition for less than a high school education (grades 0-11) to population estimates derived from the "new" definition for less than high school education was about 0.99. This indicates that the death rates for decedents having less than high school education are biased upward in the vital statistics data by about 1 percent. Similarly, the corresponding ratios for having completed high school (grade 12) and having completed more than high school (grades 13 and more) were 1.15 and 0.93 respectively.

Accounting for both the inconsistency in reporting between the death certificates and the CPS for decedents and the change in the definition of education population estimates may be accomplished simultaneously by combining the above ratios. The combined ratio for less than high school is about 1.36 (1.37 x .99), for high school about 0.81 (0.70 x 1.15), and for more than high school about 0.81 (0.87 x .93). These ratios may vary by age, sex, race/Hispanic origin, cause of death, and geographic area.


D. Occupation and industry

For 1998, the occupation and industry mortality data were included for the following 20 reporting States:

Colorado
Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Indiana
Kansas
Kentucky
Maine
Nevada
New Hampshire

New Jersey
New Mexico
North Carolina
Ohio
Rhode Island
South Carolina
Utah
Vermont
West Virginia
Wisconsin

 
III.  Population bases for computing rates

The population used for computing death rates (furnished by the U.S. Bureau of the Census) represents the population residing in the specified area. Population estimates used for computing rates by age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, and race for non-Hispanic origin for the United States for 1998 are based on population estimates as of July 1, 1998 8 (available upon request). The estimates are based on demographic analysis and, therefore, are not subject to sampling variability.

Population estimates used for computing death rates for specified Hispanic origin by age and sex for the United States are as of July 1, 1998 9 (available upon request). The estimates for Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans, and Other Hispanics are based on the CPS adjusted to resident population control totals and, therefore, are subject to sampling error (see Technical Appendix from Vital Statistics of the United States: Mortality, 1995).

Population estimates used for computing death rates for marital status by age, race, and sex for the United States are as of July 1, 1998 9 and are available upon request. Population estimates used for computing death rates for marital status by age, Hispanic origin, race for non-Hispanic origin, and sex for the United States are as of July 1, 1998 9 and are also available upon request. The population estimates for never married, married, widowed, and divorced are based on the CPS adjusted to resident population control totals and, therefore, are subject to sampling error (see Technical Appendix from Vital Statistics of the United States: Mortality, 1995).

Population estimates used for computing death rates for educational attainment by age and sex for the total of 46 States and the District of Columbia are as of July 1, 1998 9 and are presented in table IV of the Technical notes of the "Report of Final Mortality Statistics" 2. These estimates are based on the CPS adjusted to resident population control for the 46 States and the District of Columbia.

Population estimates for each State, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and Northern Marianas 10-15 are presented in table V of the Technical notes of the "Report of Final Mortality Statistics" 2. These estimates are based on demographic analysis, and therefore, are not subject to sampling variability.

All population estimates for 1998 are based on the 1990 census level counts that were modified by age, race, and sex to be consistent with the U.S. Office of Management and Budget categories and historical categories for death data 16.

References

  1. MacDorman MF, Atkinson JO. Infant mortality statistics from the 1997 period linked birth/infant death data set. National vital statistics reports; vol 47 no 23, supp. Hyattsville, Maryland: National Center for Health Statistics. 1999.
  2. Murphy SL. Deaths: Final data for 1998. National vital statistics reports; in press. Hyattsville, Maryland: National Center for Health Statistics.
  3. Sorlie PD, Johnson NJ. Validity of education information on the death certificate. Epidemiology 7(4): 437-439. 1996.
  4. Kominski R, Adams A. Educational attainment in the United States: March 1993 and 1992. U.S. Bureau of the Census. Current Population Reports: Series P20-476. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1994.
  5. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital statistics, instructions for classifying the underlying cause of death. NCHS instruction manual; part 2a. Hyattsville, Maryland: Public Health Service. Published annually.
  6. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital statistics, instructions for classifying multiple causes of death. NCHS instruction manual; part 2b. Hyattsville, Maryland: Public Health Service. Published annually.
  7. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital statistics, nonindexed terms, standard abbreviations, and State geographic codes used in mortality data classification. NCHS instruction manual; part 2e. Hyattsville, Maryland: Public Health Service. Published annually.
  8. U.S. Bureau of the Census. Unpublished census file NESTV98. Consistent with populations published in: U.S. population estimates, by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin: 1990 to 1998. Washington, DC. 1999.
  9. U.S. Bureau of the Census. Population estimates for 1998 based on unpublished tabulations prepared by the Housing and Household Economics Statistics Division.
  10. U.S. Bureau of the Census. Population estimates for the U.S. and states by single year of age and sex: July 1, 1998. Unpublished census file STRES981.txt. Washington, DC. 1999.
  11. U.S. Bureau of the Census. Unpublished Census file PR98SYA.WK1.
  12. U.S. Bureau of the Census. Unpublished Census file USVI.WK1.
  13. U.S. Bureau of the Census. Unpublished Census file GUAM.WK1.
  14. U.S. Bureau of the Census. Unpublished Census file ASAMOA.WK1.
  15. U.S. Bureau of the Census. Unpublished Census file CNMI.WK1.
  16. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Unpublished data from the 1990 census, by age, sex, race and Hispanic origin. 1990.



This page last reviewed: Thursday, January 28, 2016
This information is provided as technical reference material. Please contact us at cwus@cdc.gov to request a simple text version of this document.
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