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Scientific Data Documentation
Linked Birth/Infant Death File, 1983-1984

Data Set Names (DSNs) for Linked Natality 83-84 files:

	CC36.NATAL83.LINK
	CC36.NATAL83.DENOM
	CC36.NATAL84.LINK
	CC36.NATAL84.DENOM


ABSTRACT


      LINKED BIRTH/INFANT DEATH DATA SET:  1983,1984 BIRTH COHORTS


                Linked Birth/Infant Death (Numerator) File and
                           Birth (Denominator) File


                              Table of Contents


  1.  Introduction, Methodology, and Classification of Data.

  2.  Machine used, file and data characteristics.

  3.  List of data elements and locations.

  4.  Record layout and definition of items and codes.

  5.  County geographic codes available on the public-use file.

  6.  City geographic codes available on the public-use file.

  7.  Titles and codes for the 61 cause-of-death list.

  8.  Documentation tables 1-5.

  9.  Technical Appendix for the Natality file.

 10.  Technical Appendix for the 1983 Mortality file.

 11.  Technical Appendix for the 1984 Mortality file.

2Symbols Used in Tables
 SYMBOLS USED IN TABLES

 Symbol     Explanation

    ---     Data not available

    ...     Category not applicable

      -     Quantity zero

    0.0     Quantity more than 0 but less than 0.05

      *     Figure does not meet standards of reliability or precision

1INTRODUCTION - DESCRIPTION OF DATA
21983 Birth Cohort
 The Linked birth/Infant Death Data Set consists of two separate data files.
 The first file includes linked records of live births and infant deaths for
 the 1983 birth cohort -- also referred to as the numerator file.  The second
 file is the live birth file for 1983 -- referred to as the denominator
 file.  The files are offered as a numerator/denominator data set to give
 users the means to compute infant mortality rates.

 The 1983 linked file is comprised of deaths to infants born in 1983 who died
 in 1983 or 1984 before their first birthday.  Infant death records were
 extracted from the 1983 and 1984 National Center for Health Statistics
 (NCHS) mortality statistical files.  Linked birth records were extracted
 from a denominator file that contained the 1983 NCHS natality statistical
 file, a small number of late-filed birth certificates, and certificates from
 selected States that were needed to match to an infant death record.  Refer
 to the Methodology section for a more detailed explanation of records added
 to the statistical file.  The denominator file is not identical with the
 NCHS natality statistical file.

21984 Birth Cohort
 The Linked birth/Infant Death Data Set consists of two separate data files.
 The first file includes linked records of live births and infant deaths for
 the 1984 birth cohort -- also referred to as the numerator file.  The second
 file is the live birth file for 1984 -- referred to as the denominator
 file.  The files are offered as a numerator/denominator data set to give
 users the means to compute infant mortality rates.

 The 1984 linked file is comprised of deaths to infants born in 1984 who died
 in 1984 or 1985 before their first birthday.  Infant death records were
 extracted from the 1984 and 1985 National Center for Health Statistics
 (NCHS) mortality statistical files.  Linked birth records were extracted
 from a denominator file that contained the 1984 NCHS natality statistical
 file, a small number of late-filed birth certificates, and certificates from
 selected States that were needed to match to an infant death record.  Refer
 to the Methodology section for a more detailed explanation of records added
 to the statistical file.  The denominator file is not identical with the
 NCHS natality statistical file.

 The linked file of live births and infant births includes linked records for
 births and deaths that occurred in the United States to U.S. residents and
 to U.S. nonresidents.  Excluded are deaths that occurred outside the United
 States to infants born in the U.S.; deaths that occurred in the United
 States to foreign-born infants; and births and deaths that occurred outside
 the United States to U.S. residents.

 Sources for denominator data and for birth records included in the numerator
 file are described in detail in the 83/84 Technical Appendix from the
 Natality Annual Volume; sources for death records included in the numerator
 file are described in detail in the 1983/84/85 Technical Appendices,  from
 the Mortality Annual Volumes.  Copies of these Technical Appendices are
 included in this tape documentation.

 Because of confidentiality concerns, only those counties of 250,000 or more
 population and only those cities of 250,000 or more population are
 identified in this data set.  The population counts are based on the results
 of the 1980 census.  Users should refer to the geographic code outline in
 this document for the list of available areas and codes.

 In tabulations of linked data and denominator data, events occurring in the
 United States to U.S. nonresidents are included  in tabulations that are by
 place of occurrence, and excluded from tabulations by place of residence.
 For linked data, these exclusions are based on the usual place of residence
 item of the Mother.  This item is contained in both the denominator file and
 the birth section of the numerator (linked) file.  U.S. nonresidents are
 identified by a code 4 in location 11 of these files.

1METHODOLOGY
 The methodology used to create the national file of linked birth and infant
 death records takes advantage of two existing data sources:

     1.  State linked files for the identification of linked birth and infant
         death certificates; and

     2.  NCHS natality and mortality computerized statistical files, the
         source of computer records for the two linked certificates.

 Virtually all States routinely link infant death certificates to their
 corresponding birth certificates for legal and statistical purposes.  When
 the birth and death of an infant occur in different States, linking the two
 records that are filed in different jurisdictions requires State cooperation
 for the exchange of records.  In accordance with the terms of the
 "Association for Vital Records Exchange System," copies of the records are
 exchanged by the State of death and State of birth in order to effect a
 link.  In addition, if a third State is identified as the State of residence
 at the time of birth of death, that State is also sent a copy of the
 appropriate certificate by the State where the birth or death occurred.

 The NCHS natality and mortality files, produced annually, include
 statistical data from birth and death certificates that are provided to NCHS
 by States under the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program (VSCP).  The data
 have been coded according to uniform coding specifications, have passed
 rigid quality control standards, have been edited and reviewed, and are the
 basis for official U.S. birth and death statistics.

 To initiate processing, NCHS obtained computerized linked files from States
 that had them and extracted only the birth and death certificate numbers for
 linked records and State and year of occurrence.  The States of Alaska,
 Arizona, Delaware, Indiana, and Nevada provided linkage information by
 posting birth certificate numbers on a computer-generated list of infant
 death certificate numbers that was provided by NCHS.  A file that contained
 only State-provided identifiers for linked certificates was then matched to
 the NCHS mortality and natality statistical files.  Individual birth and
 death records were selected from their respective files and linked into a
 single statistical record, thereby establishing a national linked record
 file.

 After the initial linkage, NCHS returned to the States of death copies or
 computer lists of unlinked infant death certificates for follow-up linking.
 If the birth occurred in a State different from the State of death, the
 State of birth identified on the death certificate was contacted to obtain
 the linking birth certificate.  If the linking birth certificate from
 another State had been renumbered, the State of death requested the original
 certificate number from the State of birth.  If the linked birth certificate
 had been filed after NCHS closed its statistical files, States provided NCHS
 a copy of the late-filed birth certificate.  These certificates were coded,
 keyed, processed, added to the denominator file and then linked to the
 infant death record.  Approximately 100 late-filed records were added to the
 denominator.

 In addition to late-filed birth records, approximately 3,000 birth records
 were also added to the denominator file for the five registration areas that
 did not participate in the VSCP.  These birth records were required for
 matching to death records, but their addition to the denominator file did
 not change the total occurrence count.

 In 1983, the District of Columbia and the four States of Arizona,
 California, Delaware, and Georgia did not participate in the VSCP.  For
 these five areas, only 50 percent of the birth certificates (the
 even-numbered birth certificates) were coded for the natality file.  Records
 for odd-numbered birth certificates that were linked to infant death
 certificates were added to the denominator file.

 For the five non-VSCP areas, the addition of odd-numbered birth records to
 the 50-percent sample of births in the denominator had implications for
 record weights and sample bias.  Routinely, for non-VSCP States
 even-numbered birth records in the sample are assigned a record weight of 2
 to represent two births.  For the linked file project, odd-numbered birth
 records were assigned a record weight of 1, and added to the denominator
 file.  To maintain the correct total occurrence count, record weights were
 adjusted from 2 to 1 fr the same number of even-numbered birth records.

 The odd-numbered birth records that were added to the denominator were not a
 random sample of birth records but rather a select sample of records for
 infants that died.  To minimize the introduction of bias to the denominator,
 the record weight was adjusted on even-numbered records with a similar birth
 weight value.  Birth weight was the criterion for selecting records for
 adjustment, because it is strongly correlated with infant death.
 Record-weight adjustment was implemented by ordering the denominator file by
 State of occurrence, birth weight, and record number.  The record weight was
 then changed from a "2" to a "1" fo the first even-numbered birth record
 following an odd-numbered birth record in the birth weight sequence.

 The birth record in the denominator file includes an item in tape location 1
 that identifies whether or not the record is linked to an infant death.
 This item is included in the denominator record for users who would want to
 identify individual records for which the infant died in the first year of
 life, or survived.

1DEMOGRAPHIC AND MEDICAL CLASSIFICATION
 The documents listed below describe in detail the procedures employed for
 demographic classification on both the birth and death records and medical
 classification on death records.  While not absolutely essential to the
 proper interpretation of the data for a number of general applications,
 these documents should nevertheless be studied carefully prior to any
 detailed analysis of demographic or medical (especially multiple cause) data
 variables.  In particular, there are a number of exceptions to the ICD rules
 in multiple cause-of-death coding which, if not treated properly, may result
 in faulty analysis of the data.

 A.  Manual of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases,
     Injuries, and the Cause-of-Death, Ninth Revision, (ICD-9) Volumes 1 and
     2.

 B.  NCHS Instruction Manual Data Preparation Part 2a, Vital Statistics
     Instructions for Classifying the Underlying Cause-of-Death, 1983.

 C.  NCHS Instruction Manual Data Preparation, Part 2b, Vital Statistics
     Instructions for Classifying Multiple Cause-of-Death, 1983.

 D.  NCHS Instruction Manual Data Preparation, Part 2c, Vital Statistics
     ICD-9 ACME Decision Tables for Classifying Underlying Causes-of-Death,
     1983.

 E.  NCHS Instruction Manual Data Preparation, Part 2d, Vital Statistics NCHS
     Procedures for Mortality Medical Data System File Preparation and
     Maintenance, Effective 1979.

 F.  NCHS Instruction Manual Data Tabulation, Part 2f, Vital Statistics ICD-9
     TRANSAX Disease Reference Tables for Classifying Multiple
     Causes-of-Death, 1982-86.

 G.  NCHS Instruction Manual Data Preparation, Part 3a, Vital Statistics
     Classification and Coding Instructions for Live Birth Records, 1983.

 H.  NCHS Instruction Manual Data Preparation, Part 4, Vital Statistics
     Demographic Classification and Coding Instructions for Death Records,
     1983.

 I.  NCHS Instruction Manual Tabulation, Part 11, Vital Statistics Computer
     Edits for Mortality Data, Effective 1979.

 Volumes 1 and 2 of the ICD-9 may be purchased from WHO Publication Center
 USA, 49 Sheridan Avenue, Albany, New York, 12210.  The remaining documents
 may be requested from the Chief, Data Preparation Branch, Division of Data
 Processing, National Center for Health Statistics, P. O. Box 12214, Research
 Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709.

 In addition, the user should refer to the Technical Appendices of the Vital
 Statistics of the United States for information on the source of data,
 coding procedures, quality of the data, etc.  The Technical Appendices for
 natality and mortality are part of this documentation package.

1CAUSE-OF-DEATH DATA
 Mortality data are traditionally analyzed and published in terms of
 underlying cause-of-death.  The underlying cause-of-death data are coded and
 classified as described in the 1983/84/85 Mortality Technical
 Appendices.  NCHS has augmented underlying cause-of-death data with data on
 multiple causes reported on the death certificate.  The linked file includes
 both underlying and multiple causes-of-death data.

 The multiple cause of death codes were developed with two objectives in
 mind.  First, to facilitate etiological studies of the relationships among
 conditions, it was necessary to reflect accurately in coded form each
 condition and its location on the certification in the exact manner given by
 the certifier.  Secondly, coding needed to be carried out in a manner by
 which the underlying cause-of-death could be assigned through computer
 applications.  The approach was to suspend the linkage provisions of the ICD
 for the purpose of condition coding and code each entity with minimum regard
 to other conditions present on the certification.  This general approach is
 hereafter called entity coding.

 Unfortunately, the set of multiple cause codes produced by entity coding is
 not conducive to a third objective -- the generation of person based
 multiple cause statistics.  Person based analysis requires that each
 condition be coded within the context of every other condition on the same
 certificate and modified or linked to such conditions as provided by ICD-9.
 By definition, the entity data cannot meet this requirement since the
 linkage provisions distort the character and placement of the information
 originally recorded by the certifying physician.

 Since the two objectives are incompatible, NCHS has chosen to create from
 the original set of entity codes a new code set called record axis multiple
 cause data.  Essentially, the axis of classification has been converted from
 an entity basis to a record (or person) basis.  The record axis codes are
 assigned in terms of the set of codes that best describe the overall medical
 certification portion of the death certificate.

 This translation is accomplished by a computer system called TRANSAX
 (TRANSLATION OF AXIS) through selective use of traditional linkage and
 modification rules for mortality coding.  Underlying cause linkages which
 simply prefer one code over another for purposes of underlying cause
 selection are not included.  Each entity code on the record is examined and
 modified or deleted as necessary to create a set of codes which are free of
 contradictions and are the most precise within the constraints of ICD-9 and
 medical information on the record.  Repetitive codes are deleted.  The
 process may (1) combine two entity axis categories together to a new
 category thereby eliminating a contradiction or standardizing the data; or
 (2) eliminate one category in favor of another to promote specificity of the
 data or resolve contradictions.  The following examples from ICD-9
 illustrate the effect of this translation:

 Case 1:  When reported on the same record as separate entities, cirrhosis of
          liver and alcoholism are coded to 5715 (cirrhosis of liver without
          mention of alcohol) and 303 (alcohol dependence syndrome).
          Tabulation of records with 5715 would on the surface falsely imply
          that such records had no mention of alcohol.  A preferable
          codification would be 5712 (alcoholic cirrhosis of liver) in lieu
          of both 5715 and 303.

 Case 2:  If "gastric ulcer" and "bleeding gastric ulcer" are reported on a
          record they are coded to 5319 (gastric ulcer, unspecified as acute
          or chronic, without mention of hemorrhage or perforation) and 5314
          (gastric ulcer, chronic or unspecified, with hemorrhage).  A more
          concise codification would be to code 5314 only since the 5314
          shows both the gastric ulcer and the bleeding.

 A.  Entity Axis Codes

     The original conditions coded for selection of the underlying
     cause-of-death are reformatted and edited prior to creating the
     public-use tape.  The following paragraphs describe the format and
     application of entity axis data.

     FORMAT:  Each entity-axis code is displayed as an overall seven byte
     code with subcomponents as follows:

     1.  Line indicator:           The first byte represents the line of the
                                   certificate on which the code appears.
                                   Six lines (1-6) are allowable with the
                                   fourth and fifth denoting one or two
                                   written in "due to"s beyond the three
                                   lines provided in Part I of the U.S.
                                   standard death certificate.  Line "6"
                                   represents Part II of the certificate.

     2.  Position indicator:       The next byte indicates the position of
                                   the code on the line, i.e., it is the
                                   first (1), second (2), third (3),...
                                   eighth (8) code on the line.

     3.  Cause category:           The next four bytes represent the ICD-9
                                   cause code.

     4.  Nature of injury flag:    ICD-9 uses the same series of numbers
                                   (800-999) to indicate nature of injury (N
                                   codes) and external cause codes (E
                                   codes).  This flag distinguishes between
                                   the two with a one (1) representing nature
                                   of injury codes and a zero (0)
                                   representing all other cause codes.

     A maximum of 20 of these seven byte codes are captured on a record for
     multiple cause purposes.  This may consist of a maximum of 8 codes on
     any given line with up to 20 codes distributed across three or more
     lines depending on where the subject conditions are located on the
     certificate.  Codes may be omitted from one or more lines, e.g., line 1
     with one or more codes, line 2 with no codes, line 3 with one or more
     codes.

     In writing out these codes, they are ordered as follows:  line 1 first
     code, line 1 second code, etc. ----- line 2 first code, line 2 second
     code, etc. ----- line 3 ----- line 4 ----- line 5 ----- line 6.  Any
     space remaining in the field is left blank.  The specifics of locations
     are contained in the record layout given later in this document.

     EDIT:  The original conditions are edited to remove invalid codes,
     reverify the coding of certain rare causes of death, and assure
     age/cause and sex/cause compatibility.  Detailed information relating to
     the edit criteria and the sets of cause codes which are valid to
     underlying cause coding and multiple cause coding are provided in Part
     11 of the NCHS Vital Statistics Instruction Manual Series.

     ENTITY AXIS APPLICATIONS:  The entity axis multiple cause data is
     appropriate to analyses which require that each condition be coded as a
     stand alone entity without linkage to other conditions and/or require
     information on the placement of such conditions in the certificate.
     Within this framework, the entity data are appropriate to the
     examination of etiological relationships among conditions, accuracy of
     certification reporting, and the validity of traditional assumptions in
     underlying cause selection.  Additionally, the entity data provide in
     certain categories a more detailed code assignment which is linked out
     in the creation of record  axis data.  Where such detail is needed for a
     study, the user should selectively employ entity data.  Finally, the
     researcher may not wish to be bound by the assumptions used in the axis
     translation process preferring rather to investigate hypotheses of his
     own predilection.

     By definition, the main limitation of entity axis data is that an entity
     code does not necessarily reflect the best code for a condition when
     considered within the context of the medical certification as a whole.
     As a result certain entity codes can be misleading or even contradict
     other codes in the record.  For example, category 5750 is titled "Acute
     cholecystitis without mention of calculus".  Within the framework of
     entity codes this is interpreted to mean that the codable entity itself
     contained no mention of calculus rather than that calculus was not
     mentioned anywhere on the record.  Tabulation of records with a "5750"
     as a count of persons having acute cholecystitis without mention of
     calculus would therefore be erroneous.  This illustrates the fact that
     under entity coding the ICD-9 titles cannot be taken literally.  The
     user must study the rules for entity coding as they relate to his/her
     research prior to utilization of entity data.  The user is further
     cautioned that the inclusion notes in ICD-9 which relate to modifying
     and combining categories are seldom applicable to entity coding (except
     where provided in Part 2b of the Vital Statistics Instruction Manual
     Series).

     In tabulating the entity axis data, one may count codes with the
     resultant tabulation of an individual code representing the number of
     times the disease(s) represented by the code appears in the file.  In
     this kind of tabulation of morbid condition prevalence, the counts among
     categories may be added together to produce counts for groups of codes.
     Alternatively, subject to the limitations given above, one may count
     persons having mention of the disease represented by a code or codes.
     In this instance it is not correct to add counts for individual codes to
     create person counts for groups of codes.  Since more than one code in
     the researcher's interest may appear together on the certificate,
     totaling must account for higher order interactions among codes.  Up to
     20 codes may be assigned on a record; therefore, a 20-way interaction is
     theoretically possible.  All totaling must be based on mention of one or
     more of the categories under investigation.

 B.  Record Axis Codes

     The following paragraphs describe the format and application of
     record-axis data.  Part 2f of the vital Statistics Instruction Manual
     Series describes the TRANSAX process for creating recode axis data from
     entity axis data.  FORMAT:  Each record (or person) axis code is
     displayed in five bytes.  Location information is not relevant.  The
     Code consists of the following components:

     1.  Cause category:           The first four bytes represent the ICD-9
                                   cause code.

     2.  Nature of injury flag:    The last byte contains a 0 or 1 with the 1
                                   indicating that the cause is a nature or
                                   injury category.

     Again, a maximum of 20 codes are captured on a record for multiple cause
     purposes.  The codes are written in a 100-byte field in ascending code
     number (5 bytes) order with any unused bytes left blank.

     EDIT:  The record axis codes are edited for rare causes and age/cause
     and sex/cause compatibility.  Likewise, individual code validity is
     checked.  The valid code set for record axis coding is the same
     as that for entity coding.

     RECORD AXIS APPLICATIONS:  The record axis multiple cause data set is
     the basis for NCHS core multiple cause tabulations.  Locations of codes
     is not relevant to this data set and conditions have been linked into
     the most meaningful categories for the certification.  The most
     immediate consequence for the user is that the codes on the record
     already represent mention of a disease assignable to that particular
     ICD-9 category.  This is in contrast to the entity code which is
     assigned each time such a disease is reported on two different lines of
     the certification.  Secondly, the linkage implies that within the
     constraints of ICD-9 the most meaningful code has been assigned.  The
     translation process creates for the user a data set which is edited for
     contradictions, duplicate codes, and imprecisions.  In contrast to
     entity axis data, record axis data are classified in a manner comparable
     to underlying cause of death classification thereby facilitating joint
     analysis of these variables.  Likewise, they are comparable to general
     morbidity coding where the linkage provisions of ICD-9 are usually
     utilized.  A potential disadvantage of record axis data is that some
     detail is sacrificed in a number of the linkages.

     The user can take the record axis codes as literally representing the
     information conveyed in ICD-9 category titles.  While knowledge of the
     rules for combining and linking and coding conditions is useful, it is
     not a prerequisite to meaningful analysis of the data as long as one is
     willing to accept the assumptions of the axis translation process.  The
     user is cautioned, however, that due t special rules in mortality
     coding, not all linkage notes in ICD-9 are utilized.  (See Part 2f of
     the Vital Statistics Instruction Manual Series.)

     The user should proceed with caution in using record axis data to count
     conditions as opposed to people with conditions since linkages have been
     invoked and duplicate codes have been eliminated.  As with entity data,
     person based tabulations which combine individual cause categories must
     take into account the possible interaction of up to 20 codes on a single
     certificate.

 In using the NCHS multiple cause data, the user is urged to review the
 information in this document and its references.  The instructional material
 does change from year to year and revision to revision.  The user is
 cautioned that coding of specific ICD-9 categories should be checked in the
 appropriate instruction manual.  What may appear on the surface to be the
 correct code by ICD-9 may in fact not be correct as given in the instruction
 manuals.

 If on the surface it is not obvious whether entity axis or record axis data
 should be employed in a given application, detailed examination of Part 2f
 of the Vital Statistics Instruction Manual Series and its attachments will
 probably provide the necessary information to make a decision.  It allows
 the user to determine the extent of the trade-offs between the two sets of
 data in terms of specific categories and the assumptions of axis
 translation.  In certain situations, a combination of entity and record axis
 data may be the more appropriate alternative.

1MACHINE/FILE/DATA CHARACTERISTICS
  I.  1983 Denominator File:  DSN=CC36.NATAL83.DENOM

      Record count:                3,341,274

      Data counts:                 a.  By occurrence:     3,643,001
                                   b.  By residence:      3,639,113
                                   c.  To foreign residents:  3,888


 II.  1983 Numerator File:  DSN=CC36.NATAL83.LINK

      Record count:                39,704

      Data counts:                 a.  By occurrence:     39,704
                                   b.  By residence:      39,683
                                   c.  To foreign residents:  21


 III.  1984 Denominator File:  DSN=CC36.NATAL84.DENOM

      Record count:                3,364,090

      Data counts:                 a.  By occurrence:     3,673,693
                                   b.  By residence:      3,669,268
                                   c.  To foreign residents:  4,426


 IV.  1984 Numerator File:  DSN=CC36.NATAL84.LINK

      Record count:                38,314

      Data counts:                 a.  By occurrence:     38,314
                                   b.  By residence:      38,294
                                   c.  To foreign residents:  20

1LIST OF DATA ELEMENTS AND LOCATIONS
                                               Denominator    Numerator File
     Data Items                                   File        Birth    Death

 1.  General
     a.  Match status                             1           1       -
     b.  Year of birth                            2-5         2-5     -
     c.  Year of death                            -           -       194-197
     d.  Record type                              0           10      198
     e.  Resident status                          11          11      199
     f.  Record weight                            91          91      -

 2.  Occurrence
     a.  Region                                   12          12      200
     b.  Division                                 13          13      201
     c.  Expanded State                           15-16       15-16   203-204
     d.  State                                    17-18       17-18   205-206
     e.  County                                   19-21       19-21   207-209

 3.  Residence
     a.  Region                                   22          22      210
     b.  Division                                 23          23      211
     c.  Expanded State                           25-26       25-26   213-214
     d.  State                                    27-28       27-28   215-216
     e.  County                                   29-31       29-31   217-219
     f.  City                                     32-34       32-34   220-222

 4.  Infant
     a.  Race                                     36-37       36-37   -
     b.  Sex                                      38          38      -
     c.  Age                                      -           -       223-227
     d.  Gestation                                39-42       39-42   -
     e.  Birth weight                             43-49       43-49   -
     f.  Plurality                                50          50      -
     g.  Apgar score                              51-54       51-54   -

 5.  Mother
     a.  Origin or descent                        55-56       55-56   -
     b.  Race                                     57          57      -
     c.  Age                                      58-61       58-61   -
     d.  Education                                62-64       62-64   -
     e.  Marital Status                           65          65      -
     f.  State of birth                           66-67       66-67   -

 6.  Father
     a.  Origin or descent                        68-69       68-69   -
     b.  Race                                     70          70      -
     c.  Age                                      71-72       71-72   -
     d.  Education                                73-74       73-74   -

 7.  Pregnancy items
     a.  Interval since last live birth           75          75      -
     b.  Outcome of last pregnancy                76          76      -
     c.  Interval since last pregnancy            77          77      -
     d.  Month prenatal care began                78-80       78-80   -
     e.  Number of prenatal visits                81-82       81-82   -
     f.  Total birth order                        83-85       83-85   -
     g.  Live birth order                         86-88       86-88   -

 8.  Medical data
     a.  Underlying cause                         -           -       231-237
     b.  Multiple conditions                      -           -       238-481

 9.  Other items
     a.  Place of delivery                        89          89      -
     b.  Attendant at birth                       90          90      -
     c.  Hospital and patient status              -           -       228
     d.  Autopsy performed                        - -       229
     e.  Place of accident                        -           -       230

1RECORD LAYOUT, DENOM RECORD & NATALITY SECTION OF LINKED RECORD
21. Match Status
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 1              1       Match Status

                          1           ...  Matched Birth/Infant Death Record
                          2           ...  Late Filed Matched Birth/Infant
                                           Death Record
                          3           ...  Surviving infant record

22-91. Birth Certificate Data
3General Information
 Locations 2-91 of the linked file contain data from the Birth Certificate.

   Residence items in the Denominator Record and in the natality section
   of the Numerator (Linked) Record refer to the usual place of residence of
   the Mother; whereas in the mortality section of the Numerator (Linked)
   Record, these items refer to the residence of the Decedent.

32-5. Year of Birth
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 2-5            4       Year of Birth

                          1983        ...  Born in 1983
                          1984        ...  Born in 1984

36-9. Reserved Positions
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 6-9            4       Reserved positions

310. Record Type
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 10             1       Record Type

                          1           ...  RESIDENTS
                                               State and County of Occurrence
                                               and Residence are the same.
                          2           ...  NONRESIDENTS
                                               State and/or County of
                                               Occurrence and Residence are
                                               different.

311. Resident Status
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 11             1       Resident Status

                          1           ...RESIDENTS
                                               State and County of Occurrence
                                               and Residence are the same.
                          2           ...  INTRASTATE NONRESIDENTS
                                               State of Occurrence and
                                               Residence are the same, but
                                               County is different.
                          3           ...  INTERSTATE NONRESIDENTS
                                               State of Occurrence and
                                               Residence are different, but
                                               both are in the U.S.
                          4           ...  FOREIGN RESIDENTS
                                              State of Occurrence is one of
                                              the 50 States or the District
                                              of Columbia, but Place of
                                              Residence is outside of the U.S.

312-21. Place of Occurrence
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 12-21          10      PLACE OF OCCURRENCE

                          Refer to the Geographic Code Outline in this
                          document for a list of areas and codes available on
                          the public-use file.


 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 12             1       Region of Occurrence


 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 13-14          2       Division and State Subcode of Occurrence

                          Location 12 is Region.  Location 13 is Division and
                          Location 14 identifies States within that Division.

                          1           ...  NORTHEAST
                             1        ...     New England
                                1     ...         Maine
                                2     ...         New Hampshire
                                3     ...         Vermont
                                4     ...         Massachusetts
                                5     ...         Rhode Island
                                6     ...         Connecticut
                             2        ...     Middle Atlantic
                                1     ...         New York
                                2     ...         New Jersey
                                3     ...         Pennsylvania

                          2           ...  MIDWEST
                             3        ...     East North Central
                                1     ...         Ohio
                                2     ...         Indiana
                                3     ...         Illinois
                                4     ...         Michigan
                                5     ...         Wisconsin

                             4        ...     West North Central
                                1     ...         Minnesota
                                2     ...         Iowa
                                3     ...         Missouri
                                4     ...         North Dakota
                                5     ...         South Dakota
                                6     ...         Nebraska
                                7     ...         Kansas

                          3           ...  SOUTH
                             5        ...     South Atlantic
                                1     ...         Delaware
                                2     ...         Maryland
                                3     ...         District of Columbia
                                4     ...         Virginia
                                5     ...         West Virginia
                                6     ...         North Carolina
                                7     ...         South Carolina
                                8     ...         Georgia
                                9     ...         Florida
                             6        ...     East South Central
                                1     ...         Kentucky
                                2     ...         Tennessee
                                3     ...         Alabama
                                4     ...         Mississippi
                             7        ...     West South Central
                                1     ...         Arkansas
                                2     ...         Louisiana
                                3     ...         Oklahoma
                                4     ...         Texas
                          4           ...  WEST
                             8        ...     Mountain
                                1     ...         Montana
                                2     ...         Idaho
                                3     ...         Wyoming
                                4     ...         Colorado
                                5     ...         New Mexico
                                6     ...         Arizona
                                7     ...         Utah
                                8     ...         Nevada
                             9        ...     Pacific
                                1     ...         Washington
                                2     ...         Oregon
                                3     ...         California
                                4     ...         Alaska
                                5     ...         Hawaii


 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 15-16          2       Expanded State of Occurrence

                          This item is designed to separately identify New
                          York city records from upstate New York records.

                          01          ...  Alabama
                          02          ...  Alaska
                          03          ...  Arizona
                          04          ...  Arkansas
                          05          ...  California
                          06          ...  Colorado
                          07          ...  Connecticut
                          08          ...  Delaware
                          09          ...  District of Columbia
                          10          ...  Florida
                          11          ...  Georgia
                          12          ...  Hawaii
                          13          ...  Idaho
                          14          ...  Illinois
                          15          ...  Indiana
                          16          ...  Iowa
                          17          ...  Kansas
                          18          ...  Kentucky
                          19          ...  Louisiana
                          20          ...  Maine
                          21          ...  Maryland
                          22          ...  Massachusetts
                          23          ...  Michigan
                          24          ...  Minnesota
                          25          ...  Mississippi
                          26          ...  Missouri
                          27          ...  Montana
                          28          ...  Nebraska
                          29          ...  Nevada
                          30          ...  New Hampshire
                          31          ...  New Jersey
                          32          ...  New Mexico
                          33          ...  New York
                          34          ...  New York City
                          35          ...  North Carolina
                          36          ...  North Dakota
                          37          ...  Ohio
                          38          ...  Oklahoma
                          39          ...  Oregon
                          40          ...  Pennsylvania
                          41          ...  Rhode Island
                          42          ...  South Carolina
                          43          ...  South Dakota
                          44          ...  Tennessee
                          45          ...  Texas
                          46          ...  Utah
                          47          ...  Vermont
                          48          ...  Virginia
                          49          ...  Washington
                          50          ...  West Virginia
                          51          ...  Wisconsin
                          52          ...  Wyoming


 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 17-18          2       State of Occurrence

                          Asterisk indicates data based on a 50% sample.
                          Late filed birth certificates and certificates from
                          50-percent States that were needed to match to an
                          infant death record, have been included in this
                          data set.

                          01          ...  Alabama
                          02          ...  Alaska
                          03          ...  Arizona
                          04          ...  Arkansas
                          05          ...  California
                          06          ...  Colorado
                          07          ...  Connecticut
                          08          ...  Delaware
                          09          ...  District of Columbia
                          10          ...  Florida
                          11          ...  Georgia
                          12          ...  Hawaii
                          13          ...  Idaho
                          14          ...  Illinois
                          15          ...  Indiana
                          16          ...  Iowa
                          17          ...  Kansas
                          18          ...  Kentucky
                          19          ...  Louisiana
                          20          ...  Maine
                          21          ...  Maryland
                          22          ...  Massachusetts
                          23          ...  Michigan
                          24          ...  Minnesota
                          25          ...  Mississippi
                          26          ...  Missouri
                          27          ...  Montana
                          28          ...  Nebraska
                          29          ...  Nevada
                          30          ...  New Hampshire
                          31          ...  New Jersey
                          32          ...  New Mexico
                          33          ...  New York
                          34          ...  North Carolina
                          35          ...  North Dakota
                          36          ...  Ohio
                          37          ...  Oklahoma
                          38          ...  Oregon
                          39          ...  Pennsylvania
                          40          ...  Rhode Island
                          41          ...  South Carolina
                          42          ...  South Dakota
                          43          ...  Tennessee
                          44          ...  Texas
                          45          ...  Utah
                          46          ...  Vermont
                          47          ...  Virginia
                          48          ...  Washington
                          49          ...  West Virginia
                          50          ...  Wisconsin
                          51          ...  Wyoming


 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 19-21          3       County of Occurrence

                          Because of confidentiality concerns, counties with
                          a population less than 250,000 cannot be identified
                          on the public-use file.

                          001-nnn     ...  Counties and county equivalents
                                           (independent and coextensive
                                           cities) are numbered
                                           alphabetically within each State.
                                           (Note:  To uniquely identify a
                                           county, both the State and county
                                           codes must be used.)
                          999         ...  County with less than 250,000
                                           population

322-35. Place of Residence
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 22-35          14      PLACE OF RESIDENCE

                          Refer to the Geographic Code Outline in this
                          document for a list of areas and codes available on
                          the public-use file.

 22             1       Region of Residence

 23-24          2       Division and State Subcode of Residence

                          Location 22 is Region.  Location 23 is Division and
                          Location 24 identifies States within that Division.

                          000              Foreign Resident

                          1           ...  NORTHEAST
                             1        ...     New England
                                1     ...         Maine
                                2     ...         New Hampshire
                                3     ...         Vermont
                                4     ...         Massachusetts
                                5     ...         Rhode Island
                                6     ...         Connecticut
                             2        ...     Middle Atlantic
                                1     ...         New York
                                2     ...         New Jersey
                                3     ...         Pennsylvania
                          2           ...  MIDWEST
                             3        ...     East North Central
                                1     ...         Ohio
                                2     ...         Indiana
                                3     ...         Illinois
                                4     ...         Michigan
                                5     ...         Wisconsin
                             4        ...     West North Central
                                1     ...         Minnesota
                                2     ...         Iowa
                                3     ...         Missouri
                                4     ...         North Dakota
                                5     ...         South Dakota
                                6     ...         Nebraska
                                7     ...         Kansas

                          3           ...  SOUTH
                             5        ...     South Atlantic
                                1     ...         Delaware
                                2     ...         Maryland
                                3     ...         District of Columbia
                                4     ...         Virginia
                                5     ...         West Virginia
                                6     ...         North Carolina
                                7     ...         South Carolina
                                8     ...         Georgia
                                9     ...         Florida
                             6        ...     East South Central
                                1     ...         Kentucky
                                2     ...         Tennessee
                                3     ...         Alabama
                                4     ...         Mississippi
                             7        ...     West South Central
                                1     ...         Arkansas
                                2     ...         Louisiana
                                3     ...         Oklahoma
                                4     ...         Texas
                          4           ...  WEST
                             8        ...     Mountain
                                1     ...         Montana
                                2     ...         Idaho
                                3     ...         Wyoming
                                4     ...         Colorado
                                5     ...         New Mexico
                                6     ...         Arizona
                                7     ...         Utah
                                8     ...         Nevada
                             9        ...     Pacific
                                1     ...         Washington
                                2     ...         Oregon
                                3     ...         California
                                4     ...         Alaska
                                5     ...         Hawaii

 25-26          2       Expanded State of Residence

                          This item is designed to separately identify New
                          York City records from upstate New York records.

                          01          ...  Alabama
                          02          ...  Alaska
                          03          ...  Arizona
                          04          ...  Arkansas
                          05          ...  California
                          06          ...  Colorado
                          07          ...  Connecticut
                          08          ...  Delaware
                          09          ...  District of Columbia
                          10          ...  Florida
                          11          ...  Georgia
                          12          ...  Hawaii
                          13          ...  Idaho
                          14          ...  Illinois
                          15          ...  Indiana
                          16          ...  Iowa
                          17          ...  Kansas
                          18          ...  Kentucky
                          19          ...  Louisiana
                          20          ...  Maine
                          21          ...  Maryland
                          22          ...  Massachusetts
                          23          ...  Michigan
                          24          ...  Minnesota
                          25          ...  Mississippi
                          26          ...  Missouri
                          27          ...  Montana
                          28          ...  Nebraska
                          29          ...  Nevada
                          30          ...  New Hampshire
                          31          ...  New Jersey
                          32          ...  New Mexico
                          33          ...  New York
                          34          ...  New York City
                          35          ...  North Carolina
                          36          ...  North Dakota
                          37          ...  Ohio
                          38          ...  Oklahoma
                          39          ...  Oregon
                          40          ...  Pennsylvania
                          41          ...  Rhode Island
                          42          ...  South Carolina
                          43          ...  South Dakota
                          44          ...  Tennessee
                          45          ...  Texas
                          46          ...  Utah
                          47          ...  Vermont
                          48          ...  Virginia
                          49          ...  Washington
                          50          ...  West Virginia
                          51          ...  Wisconsin
                          52          ...  Wyoming
                          53-58,60    ...  Foreign Residents
                          53          ...     Puerto Rico
                          54          ...     Virgin Island
                          55          ...     Guam
                          56          ...     Canada
                          57          ...     Cuba
                          58          ...     Mexico
                          60          ...     Remainder of the world

 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 27-28          2       State of Residence

                          01          ...  Alabama
                          02          ...  Alaska
                          03          ...  Arizona
                          04          ...  Arkansas
                          05          ...  California
                          06          ...  Colorado
                          07          ...  Connecticut
                          08          ...  Delaware
                          09          ...  District of Columbia
                          10          ...  Florida
                          11          ...  Georgia
                          12          ...  Hawaii
                          13          ...  Idaho
                          14          ...  Illinois
                          15          ...  Indiana
                          16          ...  Iowa
                          17          ...  Kansas
                          18          ...  Kentucky
                          19          ...  Louisiana
                          20          ...  Maine
                          21          ...  Maryland
                          22          ...  Massachusetts
                          23          ...  Michigan
                          24          ...  Minnesota
                          25          ...  Mississippi
                          26          ...  Missouri
                          27          ...  Montana
                          28          ...  Nebraska
                          29          ...  Nevada
                          30          ...  New Hampshire
                          31          ...  New Jersey
                          32          ...  New Mexico
                          33          ...  New York
                          34          ...  North Carolina
                          35          ...  North Dakota
                          36          ...  Ohio
                          37          ...  Oklahoma
                          38          ...  Oregon
                          39          ...  Pennsylvania
                          40          ...  Rhode Island
                          41          ...  South Carolina
                          42          ...  South Dakota
                          43          ...  Tennessee
                          44          ...  Texas
                          45          ...  Utah
                          46          ...  Vermont
                          47          ...  Virginia
                          48          ...  Washington
                          49          ...  West Virginia
                          50          ...  Wisconsin
                          51          ...  Wyoming
                          52-57,59    ...  Foreign Residents
                          52          ...     Puerto Rico
                          53          ...     Virgin Island
                          54          ...     Guam
                          55          ...     Canada
                          56          ...     Cuba
                          57          ...     Mexico
                          59          ...     Remainder of the world

 29-31          3       County of Residence

                          Because of confidentiality concerns, counties with
                          a population less than 250,000 cannot be identified
                          on the public-use file.

                          001-nnn     ...  Counties and county equivalents
                                           (independent and coextensive
                                           cities) are numbered
                                           alphabetically within each State.
                                           (Note:  To uniquely identify a
                                           county, both the State and county
                                           codes must be used.)
                          999         ...  County with less than 250,000
                                           population
                          ZZZ         ...  Foreign residents

 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 32-34          3       City of Residence

                          Because of confidentiality concerns, cities with a
                          population less than 250,000 cannot be identified
                          on the public-use file.

                          001-nnn     ...  Cities are numbered alphabetically
                                           within each State.  (Note:  To
                                           uniquely identify a city, both the
                                           State and city codes must be used.)
                          999         ...  Entire county, Balance of County,
                                           or city less than 250,000
                                           population
                          ZZZ         ...  Foreign residents

 35             1       Reserved position

336. Detail Race of Child
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 36             1       Detail Race of Child

                          1           ...  White
                          2           ...  Black
                          3           ...  American Indian (includes Aleuts
                                           and Eskimos)
                          4           ...  Chinese
                          5           ...  Japanese
                          6           ...  Hawaiian (includes Part-Hawaiian)
                          7           ...  Filipino
                          8           ...  Other Asian or Pacific Islander
                          0           ...  Other races

337. Race of Child Recode 3
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 37             1       Race of Child Recode 3

                          1           ...  White
                          2           ...  Races other than White or Black
                          3           ...  Black

338. Sex of Child
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 38             1       Sex of Child

                          1           ...  Male
                          2           ...  Female

339-40. Detail Gestation in Weeks
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 39-40          2       Detail Gestation in Weeks

                          17-52       ...  17th through 52nd week of gestation
                          99          ...  Gestation not stated

341-42. Gestation Recode 10
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 41-42          2       Gestation Recode 10

                          01          ...  Under 20 weeks
                          02          ...  20 - 27 weeks
                          03          ...  28 - 31 weeks
                          04          ...  32-35 weeks
                          05          ...  36 weeks
                          06          ...  37 - 39 weeks
                          07          ...  40 weeks
                          08          ...  41 weeks
                          09          ...  42 weeks and over
                          10          ...  Gestation not stated

343-48. Birth Weight - Detail in Grams
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 43-46          4       Birth weight - Detail in Grams

                          0227-8165   ...  Number of grams
                          9999        ...  Birth weight not stated

 47-48          2         01          ...  499 grams or less
                          02          ...  500 - 749 grams
                          03          ...  750 - 999 grams
                          04          ...  1000 - 1249 grams
                          05          ...  1250 - 1499 grams
                          06          ...  1500 - 1999 grams
                          07          ...  2000 - 2499 grams
                          08          ...  2500 - 2999 grams
                          09          ...  3000 - 3499 grams
                          10          ...  3500 - 3999 grams
                          11          ...  4000 - 4499 grams
                          12          ...  4500 - 4999 grams
                          13          ...  5000 - 8165 grams
                          14          ...  Birth weight not stated

349. Birth Weight Recode 3
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 49             1       Birth weight Recode 3

                          1           ...  2499 grams or less
                          2           ...  2500 grams or more
                          3           ...  Birth weight not stated

350. Plurality - Detail
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 50             1       Plurality - Detail

                          1           ...  Single Birth
                          2           ...  Twin
                          3           ...  Other Multiple Births

351-52. One Minute Apgar Score
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 51-52          2       One Minute Apgar Score

                          00-10       ...  A score of 0-10
                          99          ...  One minute Apgar score unknown or
                                           not stated

353-54. Five Minute Apgar Score
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 53-54          2       Five Minute Apgar Score

                          00-10       ...  A score of 0-10
                          99          ...  Five minute Apgar score unknown or
                                           not stated

355-56. Origin or Descent of Mother
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 55-56          2       Origin or Descent of Mother

                          The Technical Appendix contains a table that shows
                          which States report Detail Ethnicity (codes 01-24,
                          99), which States report Hispanic Origin or Descent
                          (codes 00-05, 99), and which States do not report
                          either item (code 88).

                          00          ...  Non - Spanish
                          01          ...  Mexican
                          02          ...  Puerto Rican
                          03          ...  Cuban
                          04          ...  Central or South American
                          05          ...  Other and Unknown Spanish
                          06          ...  American
                          07          ...  American Indian
                          08          ...  British, Scottish, Welsh,
                                           Scotch-Irish
                          09          ...  Irish
                          10          ...  German
                          11          ...  French
                          12          ...  Norwegian, Swedish, Danish
                          13          ...  Polish
                          14          ...  Italian
                          15          ...  Other North, Central and South
                                           American
                          16          ...  Other Western European
                          17          ...  Other Northern European
                          18          ...  Other Eastern European
                          19          ...  Other Southern European (excluding
                                           Spain)
                          20          ...  Southeast Asian and Pacific
                                           Islander
                          21          ...  South Central Asian
                          22          ...  Other Asian
                          23          ...  North African
                          24          ...  Other African
                          88          ...  Origin or descent of Mother not
                                           reported
                          99          ...  Origin or descent of Mother not
                                           classifiable

357. Detail Race of Mother
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 57             1       Detail Race of Mother

                          1           ...  White
                          2           ...  Black
                          3           ...  American Indian (includes Aleuts
                                           and Eskimos)
                          4           ...  Chinese
                          5           ...  Japanese
                          6           ...  Hawaiian (includes Part-Hawaiian)
                          7           ...  Filipino
                          8           ...  Other Asian or Pacific Islander
                          0           ...  Other races
                          9           ...  Race of Mother not stated

358-59. Detail Age of Mother
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 58-59          2       Detail Age of Mother

                          10-49       ...  Age in single years

360-61. Age of Mother Recode 12
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 60-61          2       Age of Mother Recode 12

                          01          ...  Under 15 years
                          03          ...  15 years
                          04          ...  16 years
                          05          ...  17 years
                          06          ...  18 years
                          07          ...  19 years
                          08          ...  20 - 24 years
                          09          ...  25 - 29 years
                          10          ...  30 - 34 years
                          11          ...  35 - 39 years
                          12          ...  40 - 44 years
                          13          ...  45 - 49 years

362-63. Mother's Education - Detail
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 62-63          2       Mother's Education - Detail

                          00          ...  No formal education
                          01-08       ...  Years of elementary school
                          09          ...  1 year of high school
                          10          ...  2 years of high school
                          11          ...  3 years of high school
                          12          ...  4 years of high school
                          13          ...  1 year of college
                          14          ...  2 years of college
                          15          ...  3 years of college
                          16          ...  4 years of college
                          17          ...  5 or more years of college
                          99          ...  Mother's education not stated

364. Mother's Education Recode 6
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 64             1       Mother's Education Recode 6

                          1           ...  0 - 8 years
                          2           ...  9 - 11 years
                          3           ...  12 years
                          4           ...  13 - 15 years
                          5           ...  16 years and over
                          6           ...  Mother's education not stated

365. Marital Status
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 65             1       Marital Status

                          1           ...  Married
                          2           ...  Unmarried

366-67. Mother's Place of Birth
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 66-67          2       Mother's Place of Birth

                          01          ...  Alabama
                          02          ...  Alaska
                          03          ...  Arizona
                          04          ...  Arkansas
                          05          ...  California
                          06          ...  Colorado
                          07          ...  Connecticut
                          08          ...  Delaware
                          09          ...  District of Columbia
                          10          ...  Florida
                          11          ...  Georgia
                          12          ...  Hawaii
                          13          ...  Idaho
                          14          ...  Illinois
                          15          ...  Indiana
                          16          ...  Iowa
                          17          ...  Kansas
                          18          ...  Kentucky
                          19          ...  Louisiana
                          20          ...  Maine
                          21          ...  Maryland
                          22          ...  Massachusetts
                          23          ...  Michigan
                          24          ...  Minnesota
                          25          ...  Mississippi
                          26          ...  Missouri
                          27          ...  Montana
                          28          ...  Nebraska
                          29          ...  Nevada
                          30          ...  New Hampshire
                          31          ...  New Jersey
                          32          ...  New Mexico
                          33          ...  New York
                          34          ...  North Carolina
                          35          ...  North Dakota
                          36          ...  Ohio
                          37          ...  Oklahoma
                          38          ...  Oregon
                          39          ...  Pennsylvania
                          40          ...  Rhode Island
                          41          ...  South Carolina
                          42          ...  South Dakota
                          43          ...  Tennessee
                          44          ...  Texas
                          45          ...  Utah
                          46          ...  Vermont
                          47          ...  Virginia
                          48          ...  Washington
                          49          ...  West Virginia
                          50          ...  Wisconsin
                          51          ...  Wyoming
                          52          ...  Puerto Rico
                          53          ...  Virgin Island
                          54          ...  Guam
                          55          ...  Canada
                          56          ...  Cuba
                          57          ...  Mexico
                          59          ...  Remainder of the world
                          99          ...  Mother's place of birth not
                                           classifiable

368-69. Origin or Descent of Father
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 68-69          2       Origin or Descent of Father

                          The Technical Appendix contains a table that shows
                          which States report Detail Ethnicity (codes 01-24,
                          99), which States report Hispanic Origin or Descent
                          (codes 00-05, 99), and which States do not report
                          either item (code 88).

                          00          ...  Non - Spanish
                          01          ...  Mexican
                          02          ...  Puerto Rican
                          03          ...  Cuban
                          04          ...  Central or South American
                          05          ...  Other and Unknown Spanish
                          06          ...  American
                          07          ...  American Indian
                          08          ...  British, Scottish, Welsh,
                                           Scotch-Irish
                          09          ...  Irish
                          10          ...  German
                          11          ...  French
                          12          ...  Norwegian, Swedish, Danish
                          13          ...  Polish
                          14          ...  Italian
                          15          ...  Other North, Central and South
                                           American
                          16          ...  Other Western European
                          17          ...  Other Northern European
                          18          ...  Other Eastern European
                          19          ...  Other Southern European (excluding
                                           Spain)
                          20          ...  Southeast Asian and Pacific
                                           Islander
                          21          ...  South Central Asian
                          22          ...  Other Asian
                          23          ...  North African
                          24          ...  Other African
                          88          ...  Origin or descent of Father not
                                           reported
                          99          ...  Origin or descent of Father not
                                           classifiable

370. Detail Race of Father
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 70             1       Detail Race of Father

                          1           ...  White
                          2           ...  Black
                          3           ...  American Indian (includes Aleuts
                                           and Eskimos)
                          4           ...  Chinese
                          5           ...  Japanese
                          6           ...  Hawaiian (includes Part-Hawaiian)
                          7           ...  Filipino
                          8           ...  Other Asian or Pacific Islander
                          0           ...  Other races
                          9           ...  Race of Father not stated

371-72. Detail Age of Father
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 71-72          2       Detail Age of Father

                          10-98       ...  Age in single years
                          99          ...  Age of Father not stated

373-74. Father's Education - Detail
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 73-74          2       Father's Education - Detail

                          00          ...  No formal education
                          01-08       ...  Years of elementary school
                          09          ...  1 year of high school
                          10          ...  2 years of high school
                          11          ...  3 years of high school
                          12          ...  4 years of high school
                          13          ...  1 year of college
                          14          ...  2 years of college
                          15          ...  3 years of college
                          16          ...  4 years of college
                          17          ...  5 or more years of college
                          99          ...  Father's education not stated

375. Interval Since Last Live Birth
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 75             1       Interval Since Last Live Birth

                          0           ...  Not applicable (no previous live
                                           birth)
                          1           ...  Zero months (plural birth)
                          2           ...  1 - 11 months
                          3           ...  12 - 23 months
                          4           ...  24 - 35 months
                          5           ...  36 - 47 months
                          6           ...  48 - 71 months
                          7           ...  72 months and over
                          9           ...  Interval since last live birth not
                                           stated

376. Outcome of Last Pregnancy
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 76             1       Outcome of Last Pregnancy

                          0           ...  Not applicable (no previous
                                           pregnancy)
                          1           ...  Last pregnancy was a live birth
                          2           ...  Last pregnancy was some other
                                           termination
                          9           ...  Last pregnancy's outcome is unknown

377. Interval Since Termination of Last Pregnancy
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 77             1       Interval Since Termination of Last Pregnancy

                          0           ...  Not applicable (no previous
                                           pregnancy)
                          1           ...  Zero months (plural delivery)
                          2           ...  1 - 11 months
                          3           ...  12 - 17 months
                          4           ...  18 - 23 months
                          5           ...  24 - 35 months
                          6           ...  36 - 47 months
                          7           ...  48 - 59 months
                          8           ...  60 months and over
                          9           ...  Interval since termination of last
                                           pregnancy not stated

378-79. Detail Month of Pregnancy Prenatal Care Began
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 78-79          2       Detail Month of Pregnancy Prenatal Care Began

                          01          ...  1st month
                          02          ...  2nd month
                          03          ...  3rd month
                          04          ...  4th month
                          05          ...  5th month
                          06          ...  6th month
                          07          ...  7th month
                          08          ...  8th month
                          09          ...  9th month
                          00          ...  No prenatal care
                          99          ...  Month of pregnancy prenantal care
                                           began not stated

380. Month of Pregnancy Prenatal Care Began Recode 6
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 80             1       Month of Pregnancy Prenatal Care Began Recode 6

                          1           ...  1st - 2nd month
                          2           ...  3rd month
                          3           ...  4th - 6th month
                          4           ...  7th - 9th month
                          5           ...  No prenatal care
                          6           ...  Month of pregnancy prenantal care
                                           began not stated

381-82. Total Number of Prenatal Visits
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 81-82          2       Total Number of Prenatal Visits

                          00          ...  No prenatal visits
                          01-49       ...  Stated number of visits
                          99          ...  Number of prenatal visits not
                                           stated

383-84. Detail Total Birth Order
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 83-84          2       Detail Total Birth Order

                          01-50       ...  Total number of live births and
                                           other terminations
                          99          ...  Total birth order unknown or not
                                           stated

385. Total Birth Order Recode 9
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 85             1       Total Birth Order Recode 9

                          1           ...  First Child
                          2           ...  Second Child
                          3           ...  Third Child
                          4           ...  Fourth Child
                          5           ...  Fifth Child
                          6           ...  Sixth Child
                          7           ...  Seventh Child
                          8           ...  Eighth Child and over
                          9           ...  Total birth order not stated

386-87. Detail Live Birth Order
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 86-87          2       Detail Live Birth Order

                          01-50       ...  Number of children ever born alive
                                           to mother
                          99          ...  Live birth order unknown or not
                                           stated

388. Live Birth Order Recode 9
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 88             1       Live Birth Order Recode 9

                          1           ...  First Child
                          2           ...  Second Child
                          3           ...  Third Child
                          4           ...  Fourth Child
                          5           ...  Fifth Child
                          6           ...  Sixth Child
                          7           ...  Seventh Child
                          8           ...  Eighth Child and over
                          9           ...  Live birth order not stated

389. Place of Delivery
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 89             1       Place of Delivery

                          1           ...  Hospital Births
                          2           ...  Nonhospital Births
                          3           ...  En route or born on arrival (BOA)
                          9           ...  Place of delivery not classifiable

390. Attendant at Birth
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 90             1       Attendant at Birth

                          1           ...  Physician
                          2           ...  Midwife
                          3           ...  Attendant specified other than
                                           physician or midwife
                          9           ...  Attendant at birth unknown

391. Record Weight
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 91             1       Record Weight

                          Numerator (Linked) record

                          1           ...  All records contain a 1

                          Denominator record
                          Each record contains a record weight that is used
                          to inflate totals to national birth figures.

                          1-2         ...  Code range


                        The denominator record ends in location 91.

292-193. Reserved for Additional Data (Numerator (Linked) Record)
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 92-193        102      These positions are contained in the Numerator
                        (Linked) Record only and are reserved for possible
                        additional data.

                        If data are added in the future, they will be
                        included in both files.  The record length of the
                        Denominator file would expand, but it is expected
                        that the Numerator record would remain constant.

1RECORD LAYOUT, MORTALITY PART OF LINKED RECORD
2194-500. Death Certificate Data
3General Information
           Locations 194-500 contain data from the Death Certificate.

   Residence items in the Denominator Record and in the natality section
   of the Numerator (Linked) Record refer to the usual place of residence of
   the Mother; whereas in the mortality section of the Numerator (Linked)
   Record, these items refer to the residence of the Decedent.

3194-197. Year of Death
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 194-197       4        Year of Death

                          1983        ...  Death occurred in 1983
                          1984        ...  Death occurred in 1984
                          1985        ...  Death occurred in 1985

3198. Record Type
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 198           1        Record Type

                          1           ...  RESIDENTS
                                              State and County of Occurrence
                                              and Residence are the same.
                          2           ...  NONRESIDENTS
                                              State and/or County of
                                              Occurrence and Residence are
                                              different.

3199. Resident Status
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 199           1        Resident Status

                          1           ...  RESIDENTS
                                              State and County of Occurrence
                                              and Residence are the same.
                          2           ...  INTRASTATE NONRESIDENTS
                                              State of Occurrence and
                                              Residence are the same, but
                                              County is different.
                          3           ...  INTERSTATE NONRESIDENTS
                                              State of Occurrence and
                                              Residence are different, but
                                              both are in the U.S.
                          4           ...  FOREIGN RESIDENTS
                                              State of Occurrence is one of
                                              the 50 States or the District
                                              of Columbia, but Place of
                                              Residence is outside of the U.S.

3200-209. Place of Occurrence
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 200-209       10       PLACE OF OCCURRENCE

                          Refer to the Geographic Code Outline in this
                          document for a list of areas and codes available on
                          the public-use file.

 200           1        Region of Occurrence

 201-202       2        Division and State Subcode of Occurrence

                          Location 200 is Region.  Location 201 is Division
                          and Location 202 identifies States within that
                          Division.

                          1           ...  NORTHEAST
                             1        ...     New England
                                1     ...         Maine
                                2     ...         New Hampshire
                                3     ...         Vermont
                                4     ...         Massachusetts
                                5     ...         Rhode Island
                                6     ...         Connecticut
                             2        ...     Middle Atlantic
                                1     ...         New York
                                2     ...         New Jersey
                                3     ...         Pennsylvania

                          2           ...  MIDWEST
                             3        ...     East North Central
                                1     ...         Ohio
                                2     ...         Indiana
                                3     ...         Illinois
                                4     ...         Michigan
                                5     ...         Wisconsin
                             4        ...     West North Central
                                1     ...         Minnesota
                                2     ...         Iowa
                                3     ...         Missouri
                                4     ...         North Dakota
                                5     ...         South Dakota
                                6     ...         Nebraska
                                7     ...         Kansas
                          3           ...  SOUTH
                             5        ...     South Atlantic
                                1     ...         Delaware
                                2     ...         Maryland
                                3     ...         District of Columbia
                                4     ...         Virginia
                                5     ...         West Virginia
                                6     ...         North Carolina
                                7     ...         South Carolina
                                8     ...         Georgia
                                9     ...         Florida
                             6        ...     East South Central
                                1     ...         Kentucky
                                2     ...         Tennessee
                                3     ...         Alabama
                                4     ...         Mississippi
                             7        ...     West South Central
                                1     ...         Arkansas
                                2     ...         Louisiana
                                3     ...         Oklahoma
                                4     ...         Texas
                          4           ...  WEST
                             8        ...     Mountain
                                1     ...         Montana
                                2     ...         Idaho
                                3     ...         Wyoming
                                4     ...         Colorado
                                5     ...         New Mexico
                                6     ...         Arizona
                                7     ...         Utah
                                8     ...         Nevada
                             9        ...     Pacific
                                1     ...         Washington
                                2     ...         Oregon
                                3     ...         California
                                4     ...         Alaska
                                5     ...         Hawaii

 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 203-204        2       Expanded State of Occurrence

                          This item is designed to separately identify New
                          York city records from upstate New York records.

                          01          ...  Alabama
                          02          ...  Alaska
                          03          ...  Arizona
                          04          ...  Arkansas
                          05          ...  California
                          06          ...  Colorado
                          07          ...  Connecticut
                          08          ...  Delaware
                          09          ...  District of Columbia
                          10          ...  Florida
                          11          ...  Georgia
                          12          ...  Hawaii
                          13          ...  Idaho
                          14          ...  Illinois
                          15          ...  Indiana
                          16          ...  Iowa
                          17          ...  Kansas
                          18          ...  Kentucky
                          19          ...  Louisiana
                          20          ...  Maine
                          21          ...  Maryland
                          22          ...  Massachusetts
                          23          ...  Michigan
                          24          ...  Minnesota
                          25          ...  Mississippi
                          26          ...  Missouri
                          27          ...  Montana
                          28          ...  Nebraska
                          29          ...  Nevada
                          30          ...  New Hampshire
                          31          ...  New Jersey
                          32          ...  New Mexico
                          33          ...  New York
                          34          ...  New York City
                          35          ...  North Carolina
                          36          ...  North Dakota
                          37          ...  Ohio
                          38          ...  Oklahoma
                          39          ...  Oregon
                          40          ...  Pennsylvania
                          41          ...  Rhode Island
                          42          ...  South Carolina
                          43          ...  South Dakota
                          44          ...  Tennessee
                          45          ...  Texas
                          46          ...  Utah
                          47          ...  Vermont
                          48          ...  Virginia
                          49          ...  Washington
                          50          ...  West Virginia
                          51          ...  Wisconsin
                          52          ...  Wyoming

 205-206        2       State of Occurrence

                          01          ...  Alabama
                          02          ...  Alaska
                          03          ...  Arizona
                          04          ...  Arkansas
                          05          ...  California
                          06          ...  Colorado
                          07          ...  Connecticut
                          08          ...  Delaware
                          09          ...  District of Columbia
                          10          ...  Florida
                          11          ...  Georgia
                          12          ...  Hawaii
                          13          ...  Idaho
                          14          ...  Illinois
                          15          ...  Indiana
                          16          ...  Iowa
                          17          ...  Kansas
                          18          ...  Kentucky
                          19          ...  Louisiana
                          20          ...  Maine
                          21          ...  Maryland
                          22          ...  Massachusetts
                          23          ...  Michigan
                          24          ...  Minnesota
                          25          ...  Mississippi
                          26          ...  Missouri
                          27          ...  Montana
                          28          ...  Nebraska
                          29          ...  Nevada
                          30          ...  New Hampshire
                          31          ...  New Jersey
                          32          ...  New Mexico
                          33          ...  New York
                          34          ...  North Carolina
                          35          ...  North Dakota
                          36          ...  Ohio
                          37          ...  Oklahoma
                          38          ...  Oregon
                          39          ...  Pennsylvania
                          40          ...  Rhode Island
                          41          ...  South Carolina
                          42          ...  South Dakota
                          43          ...  Tennessee
                          44          ...  Texas
                          45          ...  Utah
                          46          ...  Vermont
                          47          ...  Virginia
                          48          ...  Washington
                          49          ...  West Virginia
                          50          ...  Wisconsin
                          51          ...  Wyoming

 207-209        3       County of Occurrence

                          Due to confidentiality requirements, counties with
                          a population less than 250,000 cannot be identified
                          on the public-use file.

                          001-nnn     ...  Counties and county equivalents
                                           (independent and coextensive
                                           cities) are numbered
                                           alphabetically within each State.
                                           (Note:  To uniquely identify a
                                           county, both the State and county
                                           codes must be used.)
                          999         ...  County with less than 250,000
                                           population

3210-223. Place of Residence
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 210-223       14       PLACE OF RESIDENCE

                          Refer to the Geographic Code Outline in this
                          document for a list of areas and codes available on
                          the public-use file.

 210            1       Region of Residence

 211-212        2       Division and State Subcode of Residence

                          Location 210 is Region.  Location 211 is Division
                          and Location 212 identifies States within that
                          Division.

                          000              Foreign Resident

                          1           ...  NORTHEAST
                             1        ...     New England
                                1     ...         Maine
                                2     ...         New Hampshire
                                3     ...         Vermont
                                4     ...         Massachusetts
                                5     ...         Rhode Island
                                6     ...         Connecticut
                             2        ...     Middle Atlantic
                                1     ...         New York
                                2     ...         New Jersey
                                3     ...         Pennsylvania
                          2           ...  MIDWEST
                             3        ...     East North Central
                                1     ...         Ohio
                                2     ...         Indiana
                                3     ...         Illinois
                                4     ...         Michigan
                                5     ...         Wisconsin
                             4        ...     West North Central
                                1     ...         Minnesota
                                2     ...         Iowa
                                3     ...         Missouri
                                4     ...         North Dakota
                                5     ...         South Dakota
                                6     ...         Nebraska
                                7     ...         Kansas
                          3           ...  SOUTH
                             5        ...     South Atlantic
                                1     ...         Delaware
                                2     ...         Maryland
                                3     ...         District of Columbia
                                4     ...         Virginia
                                5     ...         West Virginia
                                6     ...         North Carolina
                                7     ...         South Carolina
                                8     ...         Georgia
                                9     ...         Florida
                             6        ...     East South Central
                                1     ...         Kentucky
                                2     ...         Tennessee
                                3     ...         Alabama
                                4     ...         Mississippi
                             7        ...     West South Central
                                1     ...         Arkansas
                                2     ...         Louisiana
                                3     ...         Oklahoma
                                4     ...         Texas
                          4           ...  WEST
                             8        ...     Mountain
                                1     ...         Montana
                                2     ...         Idaho
                                3     ...         Wyoming
                                4     ...         Colorado
                                5     ...         New Mexico
                                6     ...         Arizona
                                7     ...         Utah
                                8     ...         Nevada
                             9        ...     Pacific
                                1     ...         Washington
                                2     ...         Oregon
                                3     ...         California
                                4     ...         Alaska
                                5     ...         Hawaii

 213-214        2       Expanded State of Residence

                          This item is designed to separately identify New
                          York City records from upstate New York records.

                          01          ...  Alabama
                          02          ...  Alaska
                          03          ...  Arizona
                          04          ...  Arkansas
                          05          ...  California
                          06          ...  Colorado
                          07          ...  Connecticut
                          08          ...  Delaware
                          09          ...  District of Columbia
                          10          ...  Florida
                          11          ...  Georgia
                          12          ...  Hawaii
                          13          ...  Idaho
                          14          ...  Illinois
                          15          ...  Indiana
                          16          ...  Iowa
                          17          ...  Kansas
                          18          ...  Kentucky
                          19          ...  Louisiana
                          20          ...  Maine
                          21          ...  Maryland
                          22          ...  Massachusetts
                          23          ...  Michigan
                          24          ...  Minnesota
                          25          ...  Mississippi
                          26          ...  Missouri
                          27          ...  Montana
                          28          ...  Nebraska
                          29          ...  Nevada
                          30          ...  New Hampshire
                          31          ...  New Jersey
                          32          ...  New Mexico
                          33          ...  New York
                          34          ...  New York City
                          35          ...  North Carolina
                          36          ...  North Dakota
                          37          ...  Ohio
                          38          ...  Oklahoma
                          39          ...  Oregon
                          40          ...  Pennsylvania
                          41          ...  Rhode Island
                          42          ...  South Carolina
                          43          ...  South Dakota
                          44          ...  Tennessee
                          45          ...  Texas
                          46          ...  Utah
                          47          ...  Vermont
                          48          ...  Virginia
                          49          ...  Washington
                          50          ...  West Virginia
                          51          ...  Wisconsin
                          52          ...  Wyoming
                          53-58,60    ...  Foreign Residents
                          53          ...     Puerto Rico
                          54          ...     Virgin Island
                          55          ...     Guam
                          56          ...     Canada
                          57          ...     Cuba
                          58          ...     Mexico
                          60          ...     Remainder of the world

 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 215-216        2       State of Residence

                          01          ...  Alabama
                          02          ...  Alaska
                          03          ...  Arizona
                          04          ...  Arkansas
                          05          ...  California
                          06          ...  Colorado
                          07          ...  Connecticut
                          08          ...  Delaware
                          09          ...  District of Columbia
                          10          ...  Florida
                          11          ...  Georgia
                          12          ...  Hawaii
                          13          ...  Idaho
                          14          ...  Illinois
                          15          ...  Indiana
                          16          ...  Iowa
                          17          ...  Kansas
                          18          ...  Kentucky
                          19          ...  Louisiana
                          20          ...  Maine
                          21          ...  Maryland
                          22          ...  Massachusetts
                          23          ...  Michigan
                          24          ...  Minnesota
                          25          ...  Mississippi
                          26          ...  Missouri
                          27          ...  Montana
                          28          ...  Nebraska
                          29          ...  Nevada
                          30          ...  New Hampshire
                          31          ...  New Jersey
                          32          ...  New Mexico
                          33          ...  New York
                          34          ...  North Carolina
                          35          ...  North Dakota
                          36          ...  Ohio
                          37          ...  Oklahoma
                          38          ...  Oregon
                          39          ...  Pennsylvania
                          40          ...  Rhode Island
                          41          ...  South Carolina
                          42          ...  South Dakota
                          43          ...  Tennessee
                          44          ...  Texas
                          45          ...  Utah
                          46          ...  Vermont
                          47          ...  Virginia
                          48          ...  Washington
                          49          ...  West Virginia
                          50          ...  Wisconsin
                          51          ...  Wyoming
                          52-57,59    ...  Foreign Residents
                          52          ...     Puerto Rico
                          53          ...     Virgin Island
                          54          ...     Guam
                          55          ...     Canada
                          56          ...     Cuba
                          57          ...     Mexico
                          59          ...     Remainder of the world

 217-219        3       County of Residence

                          Due to confidentiality requirements, counties with
                          a population less than 250,000 cannot be identified
                          on the public-use file.

                          001-nnn     ...  Counties and county equivalents
                                           (independent and coextensive
                                           cities) are numbered
                                           alphabetically within each State.
                                           (Note:  To uniquely identify a
                                           county, both the State and county
                                           codes must be used.)
                          999         ...  County with less than 250,000
                                           population
                          ZZZ         ...  Foreign residents

 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 220-222        3       City of Residence

                          Due to confidentiality requirements, cities with a
                          population less than 250,000 cannot be identified
                          on the public-use file.

                          001-nnn     ...  Cities are numbered alphabetically
                                           within each State.  (Note:  To
                                           uniquely identify a city, both the
                                           State and city codes must be used.)
                          999         ...  Entire county, Balance of County,
                                           or city less than 250,000
                                           population
                          ZZZ         ...  Foreign residents

 223-227. Age
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 223-227        5       AGE

                          Age is as computed using the dates of birth and
                          death.  For ages less than 2 days and when age
                          could not be computed, the reported age from the
                          death certificate was  used.

 223            1       Infant Age Recode 5

                          1           ...  Under 1 hour
                          2           ...  1 - 23 hours
                          3           ...  1 - 6 days
                          4           ...  7 - 27 days (late neonatal)
                          5           ...  28 days and over (postneonatal)

 224-225        2       Infant Age Recode 76

                          00          ...  Less than 1 day
                          01-27       ...  1 - 27 days
                          28          ...  4th week
                          29          ...  5th week
                          30          ...  6th week
                          31-76       ...  7th - 52nd weeks

 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 226-227        2       Infant Age Recode 38

                          00          ...  Less than 1 day
                          01-27       ...  1 - 27 days
                          28          ...   1 month
                          29          ...   2 months
                          30          ...   3 months
                          31          ...   4 months
                          32          ...   5 months
                          33          ...   6 months
                          34          ...   7 months
                          35          ...   8 months
                          36          ...   9 months
                          37          ...  10 months
                          38          ...  11 months

 228. Hospital and Patient Status
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 228            1       Hospital and Patient Status

                          1           ...  Hospital, Clinic or Medical Center
                                           - Inpatient
                          2           ...  Hospital, Clinic or Medical Center
                                           - Outpatient or admitted to
                                             Emergency Room
                          3           ...  Hospital, Clinic or Medical Center
                                           - Dead on Arrival
                          4           ...  Hospital, Clinic or Medical Center
                                           - Patient status unknown
                          5           ...  Hospital, Clinic or Medical Center
                                           - Patient status not on certificate
                          6           ...  Other Institution providing
                                           patient care
                          7           ...  All other reported entries
                          8           ...  Dead on Arrival
                                           - Hospital, Clinic or Medical
                                             Center name not given
                          9           ...  Hospital and patient status not
                                           stated

 229. Autopsy Performed
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 229            1       Autopsy Performed

                          1           ...  Yes
                          2           ...  No
                          8           ...  Autopsy performed not on
                                           certificate
                          9           ...  Autopsy performed not stated

 230. Place of Accident for Causes E850-E929
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 230            1       Place of Accident for Causes E850-E929

                          Blank       ...  Causes other than E850-E929
                          0           ...  Home
                          1           ...  Farm
                          2           ...  Mine and Quarry
                          3           ...  Industrial Place and Premises
                          4           ...  Place for Recreation and Sport
                          5           ...  Street and Highway
                          6           ...  Public Building
                          7           ...  Resident Institution
                          8           ...  Other Specified Places
                          9           ...  Place of accident not specified

 231-237. Underlying Cause of Death
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 231-237        7       UNDERLYING CAUSE OF DEATH

 231-234        4       ICD Code (9th Revision)

                          See the "International Classification of Diseases",
                          1975 Revision, Volume 1.  For injuries and
                          poisoning, the external cause is coded (E800-E999)
                          rather than the Nature of Injury (800-999).  These
                          provisions do not include the Letter E for the
                          external cause of injury.  For those causes that do
                          not have a 4th digit, Location 234 is blank.

 235-237        3       61 Infant Cause Recode

                          A recode of the ICD cause code into 61 groups for
                          NCHS publications.  Further back in this document
                          is a complete list of recodes and the causes
                          included.

                          010-680     ...  Code range (not inclusive)

 238-481. Multiple Conditions
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 238-481       244      MULTIPLE CONDITIONS

                          See the "International Classification of Diseases",
                          1975 Revision, Volume 1.  Both the entity-axis and
                          record-axis conditions are coded according to this
                          revision (9th).

 238-239        2       Number of Entity-Axis Conditions

                          00-20       ...  Code range

 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 240-379       140      ENTITY - AXIS CONDITIONS

                          Space has been provided for a maximum of 20
                          conditions.  Each condition takes 7 positions in
                          the record.  Records that do not have 20 conditions
                          are blank in the unused area.

                          Position 1:  Part/Line number on certificate

                            1         ...  Part I, Line 1 (a)
                            2         ...  Part I, Line 2 (b)
                            3         ...  Part I, Line 3 (c)
                            4         ...  Part I, Line 4 (d)
                            5         ...  Part I, Line 5 (e)
                            6         ...  Part II

                          Position 2:  Sequence of condition within part/line

                            1-7       ...  Code range

                          Position 3 - 6: Condition code (ICD 9th Revision)

                          Position 7:  Nature of Injury Flag

                            1         ...  Indicates that the code in
                                           positions 3-6 is a Nature of
                                           Injury code
                            0         ...  All other codes

 240-246        7         1st Condition

 247-253        7         2nd Condition

 254-260        7         3rd Condition

 261-267        7         4th Condition

 268-274        7         5th Condition

 275-281        7         6th Condition

 282-288        7         7th Condition

 289-295        7         8th Condition

 296-302        7         9th Condition

 303-309        7         10th Condition

 310-316        7         11th Condition

 317-323        7         12th Condition

 324-330        7         13th Condition

 331-337        7         14th Condition

 338-344        7         15th Condition

 345-351        7         16th Condition

 352-358        7         17th Condition

 359-365        7         18th Condition

 366-372        7         19th Condition

 373-379        7         20th Condition

 380-381        2       Number of Record-Axis Conditions

                          00-20       ...  Code range

 382-481       100      RECORD - AXIS CONDITIONS

                          Space has been provided for a maximum of 20
                          conditions.  Each condition takes 5 positions in
                          the record.  Records that do not have 20 conditions
                          are blank in the unused area.

                          Position 1-4: Condition Code (ICD 9th Revision)

                          Position 5:  Nature of Injury Flag
                            1         ...  Indicates that the code in
                                           positions 1-4 is a Nature of
                                           Injury code
                            0         ...  All other codes

 382-386        5         1st Condition

 387-391        5         2nd Condition

 392-396        5         3rd Condition

 397-401        5         4th Condition

 402-406        5         5th Condition

 407-411        5         6th Condition

 412-416        5         7th Condition

 417-421        5         8th Condition

 422-426        5         9th Condition

 427-431        5         10th Condition

 432-436        5         11th Condition

 437-441        5         12th Condition

 442-446        5         13th Condition

 447-451        5         14th Condition

 452-456        5         15th Condition

 457-461        5         16th Condition

 462-466        5         17th Condition

 467-471        5         18th Condition

 472-476        5         19th Condition

 477-481        5         20th Condition

 482-500. Reserved Positions
 Tape         Field
 Location     Size      Item and Code Outline

 482-500       19       Reserved positions


 GEOGRAPHIC CODE OUTLINE

 General Information

 The following pages show in detail the geographic codes used by the Division
 of Vital Statistics in the processing of vital event data occurring in the
 United States.  For the linked data set, counties and cities with a
 population of 250,000 or more are identified.  When an event occurs to a
 nonresident of the United States, residence data are coded only to the
 "State" level; several western hemisphere countries or the remainder of the
 world are uniquely identified.  The vital statistics codes are effective
 with the 1982 data year and are based on results of the 1980 Census.

 To aid the user in interpreting the geographic codes, a brief explanation of
 the codes and of the column headings/abbreviations shown on the following
 pages are:

     State:  Each State and the District of Columbia are numbered
     alphabetically.  In addition, several unique codes are used to identify
     nonresidents of the U.S.

     County:  Counties and county equivalents (independent and coextensive
     cities) are numbered alphabetically within each State.

     City:  Cities are numbered alphabetically within each State.

     Name:  Each State, county and city name is listed along with its
     respective code.  In addition, places used to identify nonresidents of
     the U.S. are also listed along with their codes.


 Listing of Counties Identified in the Linked Data Set
             Listing of Counties Identified in the Linked Data Set

       Vital Statistics Geographic Code Outline Effective With 1982 Data


 State     County     State and County Name

   01                    Alabama
             037            Jefferson
             049            Mobile

   02                    Alaska

   03                    Arizona
             007            Maricopa
             010            Pima

   04                    Arkansas
             060            Pulaski

   05                    California
             001            Alameda
             007            Contra Costa
             010            Fresno
             015            Kern
             019            Los Angeles
             027            Monterey
             030            Orange
             033            Riverside
             034            Sacramento
             036            San Bernardino
             037            San Diego
             038            San Francisco, coext. with San Francisco city
             039            San Joaquin
             041            San Mateo
             042            Santa Barbara
             043            Santa Clara
             049            Sonoma
             050            Stanislaus
             056            Ventura

   06                    Colorado
             003            Arapahoe
             016            Denver, coext. with Denver city
             021            El Paso
             030            Jefferson

 State     County     State and County Name

   07                    Connecticut
             001            Fairfield
             002            Hartford
             005            New Haven

   08                    Delaware
             002            New Castle

   09                    District of Columbia
             001            District of Columbia

   10                    Florida
             005            Brevard
             006            Broward
             013            Dade
             016            Duval
             029            Hillsborough
             048            Orange
             050            Palm Beach
             052            Pinellas
             053            Polk
             064            Volusia

   11                    Georgia
             033            Cobb
             044            DeKalb
             060            Fulton

   12                    Hawaii
             002            Honolulu

   13                    Idaho

   14                    Illinois
             016            Cook
             022            Du Page
             045            Kane
             049            Lake
             082            St. Clair
             099            Will
             101            Winnebago

 State     County     State and County Name

   15                    Indiana
             002            Allen
             045            Lake
             049            Marion

   16                    Iowa
             077            Polk

   17                    Kansas
             046            Johnson
             087            Sedgwick

   18                    Kentucky
             056            Jefferson

   19                    Louisiana
             009            Caddo
             017            East Baton Rouge
             026            Jefferson
             036            Orleans, coext. with New Orleans city

   20                    Maine

   21                    Maryland
             002            Anne Arundel
             003            Baltimore
             004            Baltimore city
             016            Montgomery
             017            Prince George's

   22                    Massachusetts
             003            Bristol
             005            Essex
             007            Hampden
             009            Middlesex
             011            Norfolk
             012            Plymouth
             013            Suffolk
             014            Worcester

 State     County     State and County Name

   23                    Michigan
             025            Genesee
             033            Ingham
             041            Kent
             050            Macomb
             063            Oakland
             081            Washtenaw
             082            Wayne

   24                    Minnesota
             027            Hennepin
             062            Ramsey

   25                    Mississippi
             025            Hinds

   26                    Missouri
             048            Jackson
             096            St. Louis
             097            St. Louis city

   27                    Montana

   28                    Nebraska
             028            Douglas

   29                    Nevada
             003            Clark

   30                    New Hampshire
             006            Hillsborough

   31                    New Jersey
             002            Bergen
             003            Burlington
             004            Camden
             007            Essex
             009            Hudson
             011            Mercer
             012            Middlesex
             013            Monmouth
             014            Morris
             015            Ocean
             016            Passaic
             020            Union

 State     County     State and County Name

   32                    New Mexico
             001            Bernalillo

   33                    New York
             014            Erie
             026            Monroe
             028            Nassau
             029            New York City
             031            Oneida
             032            Onondaga
             034            Orange
             040            Rockland
             048            Suffolk
             056            Westchester

   34                    North Carolina
             041            Guilford
             060            Mecklenburg
             092            Wake

   35                    North Dakota

   36                    Ohio
             009            Butler
             018            Cuyahoga
             025            Franklin
             031            Hamilton
             047            Lorain
             048            Lucas
             050            Mahoning
             057            Montgomery
             076            Stark
             077            Summit

   37                    Oklahoma
             055            Oklahoma
             072            Tulsa

   38                    Oregon
             020            Lane
             026            Multnomah

 State     County     State and County Name

   39                    Pennsylvania
             002            Allegheny
             006            Berks
             009            Bucks
             015            Chester
             023            Delaware
             025            Erie
             036            Lancaster
             039            Lehigh
             040            Luzerne
             046            Montgomery
             051            Philadelphia, coext. with Philadelphia city
             065            Westmoreland
             067            York

   40                    Rhode Island
             004            Providence

   41                    South Carolina
             010            Charleston
             023            Greenville
             040            Richland

   42                    South Dakota

   43                    Tennessee
             019            Davidson
             033            Hamilton
             047            Knox
             079            Shelby

   44                    Texas
             015            Bexar
             057            Dallas
             071            El Paso
             101            Harris
             108            Hidalgo
             123            Jefferson
             178            Nueces
             220            Tarrant
             227            Travis

   45                    Utah
             018            Salt Lake

 State     County     State and County Name

   46                    Vermont

   47                    Virginia
             040            Fairfax
             088            Norfolk city
             127            Virginia Beach city

   48                    Washington
             017            King
             027            Pierce
             031            Snohomish
             032            Spokane

   49                    West Virginia

   50                    Wisconsin
             013            Dane
             041            Milwaukee
             068            Waukesna

   51                    Wyoming

 State     County     State and County Name

   52        ZZZ         Puerto Rico

   53        ZZZ         Virgin Islands

   54        ZZZ         Guam

   55        ZZZ         Canada

   56        ZZZ         Cuba

   57        ZZZ         Mexico

   59        ZZZ         Remainder of world

 Listing of Cities Identified in the Linked Data Set
              Listing of Cities Identified in the Linked Data Set

       Vital Statistics Geographic Code Outline Effective With 1982 Data


 State      City       State and City Name

   01                  Alabama
            008            Birmingham

   02                  Alaska

   03                  Arizona
            011            Phoenix
            016            Tucson

   04                  Arkansas

   05                  California
            112            Long Beach
            115            Los Angeles
            146            Oakland
            186            Sacramento
            194            San Diego
            197            San Francisco
            200            San Jose

   06       009        Colorado
                           Denver

   07                  Connecticut

   08                  Delaware

   09                  District of Columbia
            001            Washington

   10                  Florida
            033            Jacksonville
            047            Miami
            086            Tampa

   11                  Georgia
            004            Atlanta

   12                  Hawaii
            004            Honolulu

   13                  Idaho

   14                  Illinois
            032            Chicago

 State      City       State and City Name

   15                  Indiana
            027            Indianapolis

   16                  Iowa

   17                  Kansas
            033            Wichita

   18                  Kentucky
            016            Louisville

   19                  Louisiana
            024            New Orleans

   20                  Maine

   21                  Maryland
            003            Baltimore

   22                  Massachusetts
            012            Boston

   23                  Michigan
            023            Detroit

   24                  Minnesota
            035            Minneapolis
            055            St. Paul

   25                  Mississippi

   26                  Missouri
            026            Kansas City
            044            St. Louis

   27                  Montana

   28                  Nebraska
            011            Omaha

   29                  Nevada

   30                  New Hampshire

 State      City       State and City Name

   31                  New Jersey
            094            Newark

   32                  New Mexico
            002            Albuquerque

   33                  New York
            009            Bronx borough, Bronx county
            010            Buffalo
            043            Brooklyn borough, King county
            060            Manhattan borough, New York county
            077            Queens borough, Queens county
            078            Staten Island borough, Richmond county

   34                  North Carolina
            008            Charlotte

   35                  North Dakota

   36                  Ohio
            028            Cincinnati
            030            Cleveland
            032            Columbia
            126            Toledo

   37                  Oklahoma
            023            Oklahoma City
            031            Tulsa

   38                  Oregon
            023            Portland

   39                  Pennsylvania
            096            Philadelphia
            098            Pittsburgh

   40                  Rhode Island

   41                  South Carolina

   42                  South Dakota

 State      City       State and City Name

   43                  Tennessee
            026            Memphis
            030            Nashville-Davidson

   44                  Texas
            009            Austin
            036            Dallas
            047            El Paso
            052            Fort Worth
            066            Houston
            121            San Antonio

   45                  Utah

   46                  Vermont

   47                  Virginia
            021            Norfolk
            032            Virginia Beach

   48                  Washington
            030            Seattle

   49                  West Virginia

   50                  Wisconsin
            032            Milwaukee

   51                  Wyoming

 State      City       State and City Name


   52       ZZZ        Puerto Rico

   53       ZZZ        Virgin Islands

   54       ZZZ        Guam

   55       ZZZ        Canada

   56       ZZZ        Cuba

   57       ZZZ        Mexico

   59       ZZZ        Remainder of world


 NINTH REVISION - 61 CAUSES OF DEATH ADAPTED FOR USE BY DVS
           Ninth Revision - 61 Causes of Death Adapted for Use by DVS

           ST:  1 = Subtotal   Limited:  Sex:  1 = Males; 2 = Females
 Length = Of Cause Title     Age:  1 = 5 & Over; 2 = 10-54; 3 = 28 Days & Over

          ***** Cause Subtotals are not Identified in this File *****

   61        Limited
 Recode  ST  Sex Age  Length  Cause Title and ICD-9 Codes Included

   010                 039    Certain intestinal infections (008-009)
   020                 020    Whopping cough (033)
   030                 029    Meningococcal infection (036)
   040            3    016    Septicemia (038)
   050                 024    Viral diseases (045-079)
   060                 025    Conenital syphilis (090)
   070                 100    Remainder of infectious and parasitic
                                    diseases (001-007, 010-032, 034-035, 037,
                                    039-041, 080-088, 091-139)

   080                 089    Malignant neoplasms, including neoplasms of
                                    lymphatic and hematopoietic tissues
                                    (140-208)
   090                 108    Benign neoplasms, carcinoma in situ, and
                                    neoplasms of uncertain behavior and of
                                    unspecified nature (210-239)

   100                 030    Diseases of thymus gland (254)
   110                 023    Cystic fibrosis (277.0)
   120                 052    Diseases of blood and blood-forming organs
                                    (280-289)
   130                 020    Meningitis (320-322)
   140                 059    Other diseases of nervous system and sense
                                    organs (323--389)
   150                 044    Acute upper respiratory infections (460-465)
   160                 042    Bronchitis and bronchiolitis (466, 490-491)

   170   1             033    Pneumonia and influenza (480-487)
   180                 021       Pneumonia (480-486)
   190                 017       Influenza (487)

   200                 061    Remainder of diseases of respiratory system
                                    (470-478, 492-519)
   210                 093    Hernia of abdominal cavity and intestinal
                                    obstruction without mention of hernia
                                    (550-553, 560)
   220                 075    Gastritis, duodenitis, and noninfective
                                    enteritis and colitis (535, 555-558)
   230                 067    Remainder of diseases of digestive system
                                    (520-534, 536-543, 562-579)
   240   1             030    Congenital anomalies of (740-759)
   250                 042       Anencephalus and similar anomalies (740)
   260                 020       Spina bifida (741)
   270                 034       Congenital; hydrocephalus (742.3)
   280                 092       Other congenital anomalies of central nervous
                                    system and eye (742.0-742.2, 742.4-742.9,
                                    743)
   290                 041       Congenital anomalies of heart (745-746)
   300                 056       Other congenital anomalies of circulatory
                                    system (747)
   310                 050       Congenital anomalies of respiratory system
                                    (748)
   320                 052       Congenital anomalies of digestive system
                                    (749-751)
   330                 056       Congenital anomalies of genitourinary system
                                    (752-753)
   340                 058       Congenital anomalies of musculoskeletal
                                    system (754-756)
   350                 025       Down's syndrome (758.0)
   360                 043       Other chromosomal anomalies (758.1-758.9)
   370                 062       All other and unspecified congenital
                                    anomalies (744, 757, 759)

   380   1             064    Certain conditions originating in the perinatal
                                    period (760-779)
   390                 091       Newborn affected by maternal conditions which
                                    may be unrelated to present pregnancy
                                    (760)
   400                 063       Newborn affected by maternal complications
                                    of pregnancy (761)
   410                 074       Newborn affected by complications of
                                    placenta, cord, and membranes (762)
   420                 069       Newborn affected by other complications of
                                    labor and delivery (763)

   430                 048    Slow fetal growth and fetal malnutrition (764)
   440                 077    Disorders relating to short gestation and
                                    unspecified low birthweight (765)
   450                 065    Disorders relating to long gestation and
                                    unspecified high birthweight (766)
   460                 020    Birth trauma (767)
   470                 047    Intrauterine hypoxia and birth asphyxia (768)
   480                 051       Fetal distress in liveborn infant
                                    (768.2-768.4)
   490                 032       Birth asphyxia (768.5-768.9)

   500                 037    Respiratory distress syndrome (769)
   510                 047    Other respiratory conditions of newborn (770)
   520                 051    Infections specific to the perinatal period
                                    (771)
   530                 027    Neonatal hemorrhage (772)
   540                 094    Hemolytic disease of newborn, due to
                                    isoimmunization, and other perinatal
                                    jaundice (773-774)
   550                 088    Syndrome of "infant of a diabetic mother" and
                                    neonatal diabetes mellitus (775.0-775.1)
   560                 040    Hemorrhagic disease of newborn (776.0)
   570                 098    All other and ill-defined conditions originating
                                    in the perinatal period (775.2-775.9,
                                    776.1-779)

   580   1             053    Symptoms, signs, and ill-defined conditions
                                    (780-799)
   590                 038       Sudden infant death syndrome (798.0)
   600                 075       Symptoms, signs, and all other ill-defined
                                    conditions (780-797, 798.1-799)
   610   1             041    Accidents and adverse effects (E800-E949)
   620                 118       Inhalation and ingestion of food or other
                                    object causing obstruction of respiratory
                                    tract or suffocation (E911-E912)
   630                 042       Accidental mechanical suffocation (E913)
   640                 067       Other accidental causes and adverse effects
                                    (E800-E910, E914-E949)
   650   1             020    Homicide (E960-E969)
   660                 047       Child battering and other maltreatment (E967)
   670                 038       Other homicide (E960-E966, E968-E969)
   680                 027    All other causes (Residual)


 CONTROL (DOCUMENTATION) TABLES

 1983 Documentation Tables

 1. Live Births/Infant Deaths by State of Occurrence/Residence
                      1983 DOCUMENTATION TABLE 1

          LIVE BIRTHS BY STATE OF OCCURRENCE AND BY STATE OF RESIDENCE
                                      AND
         INFANT DEATHS BY STATE OF OCCURRENCE AND BY STATE OF RESIDENCE

  (RESIDENCE AT BIRTH IS OF THE MOTHER; RESIDENCE AT DEATH IS OF THE DECEDENT)


                                                        LIVE BIRTHS
       AREA                                 OCCURRENCE               RESIDENCE

    UNITED STATES .........................  3,643,001               3,639,113

 ALABAMA ..................................     58,106                  59,064
 ALASKA ...................................     11,868                  11,998
 ARIZONA ..................................     53,426                  53,745
 ARKANSAS .................................     34,265                  34,999
 CALIFORNIA ...............................    436,096                 436,144

 COLORADO .................................     55,015                  54,662
 CONNECTICUT ..............................     40,954                  41,097
 DELAWARE .................................      9,546                   9,232
 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA .....................     19,078                   9,332
 FLORIDA ..................................    148,677                 149,083

 GEORGIA ..................................     91,712                  90,031
 HAWAII ...................................     19,164                  19,122
 IDAHO ....................................     18,481                  18,749
 ILLINOIS .................................    175,648                 178,886
 INDIANA ..................................     80,815                  80,816

 IOWA .....................................     43,840                  43,262
 KANSAS ...................................     39,409                  40,400
 KENTUCKY .................................     53,855                  54,702
 LOUISIANA ................................     82,455                  82,515
 MAINE ....................................     16,048                  16,667

 MARYLAND .................................     57,936                  63,956
 MASSACHUSETTS ............................     77,834                  76,161
 MICHIGAN .................................    131,879                 133,160
 MINNESOTA ................................     65,976                  65,564
 MISSISSIPPI ..............................     43,689                  44,000
 MISSOURI .................................     77,065                  75,602

 MONTANA ..................................     13,739                  14,063
 NEBRASKA .................................     26,599                  26,232
 NEVADA ...................................     14,166                  14,312
 NEW HAMPSHIRE ............................     13,680                  13,801
 NEW JERSEY ...............................     96,152                  99,218
 NEW MEXICO ...............................     27,122                  27,618

 NEW YORK .................................    249,382                 248,617
   UPSTATE ................................    137,136                 140,011
   CITY ...................................    112,246                 108,606
 NORTH CAROLINA ...........................     84,577                  83,894
 NORTH DAKOTA .............................     13,197                  12,380

 OHIO .....................................    159,299                 158,770
 OKLAHOMA .................................     55,427                  56,903
 OREGON ...................................     41,047                  39,978
 PENNSYLVANIA .............................    159,423                 158,206
 RHODE ISLAND .............................     13,092                  12,595

 SOUTH CAROLINA ...........................     48,484                  50,759
 SOUTH DAKOTA .............................     12,517                  12,528
 TENNESSEE ................................     70,159                  65,480
 TEXAS ....................................    299,658                 295,527
 UTAH .....................................     40,613                  39,474

 VERMONT ..................................      7,741                   7,954
 VIRGINIA .................................     77,512                  80,737
 WASHINGTON ...............................     68,703                  68,680
 WEST VIRGINIA ............................     26,872                  25,882
 WISCONSIN ................................     72,132                  72,558
 WYOMING ..................................      9,501                  10,268

 FOREIGN RESIDENTS ........................        ...                   3,888


                                                INFANT DEATHS
                                      AT BIRTH                 AT DEATH
       AREA                    OCCURRENCE   RESIDENCE   OCCURRENCE   RESIDENCE

    UNITED STATES ............     39,704      39,683       39,704      39,684

 ALABAMA .....................        748         767          777         770
 ALASKA ......................        139         143          125         140
 ARIZONA .....................        503         503          503         504
 ARKANSAS ....................        325         360          332         364
 CALIFORNIA ..................      4,142       4,149        4,157       4,150

 COLORADO ....................        546         544          575         546
 CONNECTICUT .................        423         410          421         417
 DELAWARE ....................         99          98          101          98
 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA ........        298         159          332         157
 FLORIDA .....................      1,756       1,769        1,764       1,766

 GEORGIA .....................      1,203       1,172        1,189       1,174
 HAWAII ......................        180         179          178         176
 IDAHO .......................        194         195          166         198
 ILLINOIS ....................      2,148       2,212        2,098       2,201
 INDIANA .....................        925         911          904         915

 IOWA ........................        379         382          360         379
 KANSAS ......................        399         404          360         408
 KENTUCKY ....................        607         639          588         642
 LOUISIANA ...................      1,047       1,038        1,031       1,030
 MAINE .......................        142         148          139         149

 MARYLAND ....................        632         726          602         724
 MASSACHUSETTS ...............        688         671          724         672
 MICHIGAN ....................      1,516       1,540        1,516       1,540
 MINNESOTA ...................        634         633          668         633
 MISSISSIPPI .................        627         639          604         641
 MISSOURI ....................        841         803          929         799

 MONTANA .....................        118         127           99         123
 NEBRASKA ....................        272         264          269         261
 NEVADA ......................        158         153          155         155
 NEW HAMPSHIRE ...............        101         120           85         120
 NEW JERSEY ..................      1,044       1,096          967       1,085
 NEW MEXICO ..................        261         271          251         269

 NEW YORK .....................     2,720       2,695        2,760       2,701
   UPSTATE ....................     1,327       1,346        1,302       1,355
   CITY .......................     1,393       1,349        1,458       1,346
 NORTH CAROLINA ...............     1,101       1,090        1,108       1,095
 NORTH DAKOTA .................       129         119          127         116

 OHIO .........................     1,782       1,768        1,784       1,765
 OKLAHOMA .....................       593         597          581         588
 OREGON .......................       410         395          414         394
 PENNSYLVANIA .................     1,689       1,663        1,715       1,673
 RHODE ISLAND .................       169         155          162         154

 SOUTH CAROLINA ...............       723         749          722         752
 SOUTH DAKOTA .................       143         141          139         142
 TENNESSEE ....................       913         828          940         823
 TEXAS ........................     3,149       3,127        3,148       3,123
 UTAH .........................       366         346          403         350

 VERMONT ......................        67          67           63          69
 VIRGINIA .....................       923         968          909         972
 WASHINGTON ...................       675         681          707         695
 WEST VIRGINIA ................       280         273          300         272
 WISCONSIN ....................       705         708          699         707
 WYOMING ......................        72          88           54          87

 FOREIGN RESIDENTS ............       ...          21          ...          20

 2. Live Births/Infant Deaths/Mort. Rates by Race,Sex,Birth Wt.
                        1983 DOCUMENTATION TABLE 2

             LIVE BIRTHS, INFANT DEATHS, AND INFANT MORTALITY RATES
            BY RACE OF CHILD, SEX, AND BIRTH WEIGHT:  UNITED STATES
                               1983 BIRTH COHORT
                        (RATES ARE PER 1000 LIVE BIRTHS)


                                            500    500-749  750-999  1000-1249
 RACE OF CHILD AND SEX          TOTAL      GRAMS    GRAMS    GRAMS     GRAMS


 ALL RACES1
   BOTH SEXES
     LIVE BIRTHS              3,639,113    4,444    7,594    9,004    10,193
     INFANT DEATHS               39,683    3,937    5,815    3,762     2,145
     INF. MORT. RATE               10.9    885.9    765.7    417.8     210.4
   MALE
     LIVE BIRTHS              1,865,887    2,243    3,911    4,706     5,292
     INFANT DEATHS               22,480    1,972    3,153    2,245     1,375
     INF. MORT. RATE               12.0    879.2    806.2    477.1     259.8
   FEMALE
     LIVE BIRTHS              1,773,226    2,201    3,683    4,298     4,901
     INFANT DEATHS               17,203    1,965    2,662    1,517       770
     INF. MORT. RATE                9.7    892.8    722.8    353.0     157.1

 WHITE
   BOTH SEXES
     LIVE BIRTHS              2,904,381    2,577    4,492    5,593     6,456
     INFANT DEATHS               27,094    2,295    3,549    2,476     1,545
     INF. MORT. RATE                9.3    890.6    790.1    442.7     239.3
   MALE
     LIVE BIRTHS              1,492,585    1,273    2,344    2,957     3,373
     INFANT DEATHS               15,454    1,115    1,934    1,493       985
     INF. MORT. RATE               10.4    875.9    825.1    504.9     292.0
   FEMALE
     LIVE BIRTHS              1,411,796    1,304    2,148    2,636     3,083
     INFANT DEATHS               11,640    1,180    1,615      983       560
     INF. MORT. RATE                8.2    904.9    751.9    372.9     181.6

 BLACK
   BOTH SEXES
     LIVE BIRTHS                586,085    1,749    2,874    3,146     3,393
     INFANT DEATHS               11,087    1,534    2,114    1,167       526
     INF. MORT. RATE               18.9    877.1    735.6    370.9     155.0
   MALE
     LIVE BIRTHS                297,130      911    1,438    1,615     1,741
     INFANT DEATHS                6,205      802    1,133      680       341
     INF. MORT. RATE               20.9    880.4    787.9    421.1     195.9
   FEMALE
     LIVE BIRTHS                288,955      838    1,436    1,531     1,652
     INFANT DEATHS                4,882      732      981      487       185
     INF. MORT. RATE               16.9    873.5    683.1    318.1     112.0


  1 INCLUDES RACES OTHER THAN WHITE AND BLACK.


                           1250-1499  1500-1999  2000-2499  2500 GRAMS    NOT
 RACE OF CHILD AND SEX       GRAMS      GRAMS      GRAMS      OR MORE   STATED


 ALL RACES1
   BOTH SEXES
     LIVE BIRTHS             12,049     47,325    157,209   3,385,912   5,383
     INFANT DEATHS            1,378      2,688      3,438      15,357   1,163
     INF. MORT. RATE          114.4       56.8       21.9         4.5   216.1
   MALE
     LIVE BIRTHS              6,198     23,296     71,075   1,746,353   2,814
     INFANT DEATHS              839      1,490      1,816       8,925     665
     INF. MORT. RATE          135.4       64.0       25.6         5.1   235.4
   FEMALE
     LIVE BIRTHS              5,851     24,029     86,134   1,639,559   2,570
     INFANT DEATHS              539      1,198      1,622       6,432     498
     INF. MORT. RATE           92.1       49.9       18.8         3.9   193.8

 WHITE
   BOTH SEXES
     LIVE BIRTHS              7,877     31,313    106,212   2,735,714   4,147
     INFANT DEATHS            1,026      1,910      2,406      11,155     732
     INF. MORT. RATE          130.3       61.0       22.7         4.1   176.5
   MALE
     LIVE BIRTHS              4,132     15,695     48,381   1,412,266   2,164
     INFANT DEATHS              635      1,087      1,267       6,499     439
     INF. MORT. RATE          153.7       69.3       26.2         4.6   202.9
   FEMALE
     LIVE BIRTHS              3,745     15,618     57,831   1,323,448   1,983
     INFANT DEATHS              391        823      1,139       4,656     293
     INF. MORT. RATE          104.4       52.7       19.7         3.5   147.8

 BLACK
   BOTH SEXES
     LIVE BIRTHS              3,750     14,362     44,379     511,416   1,016
     INFANT DEATHS              308        673        892       3,485     388
     INF. MORT. RATE           82.1       46.9       20.1         6.8   381.9

   MALE
     LIVE BIRTHS              1,836      6,757     19,601     262,687     544
     INFANT DEATHS              177        352        472       2,041     207
     INF. MORT. RATE           96.4       52.1       24.1         7.8   380.5
   FEMALE
     LIVE BIRTHS              1,914      7,605     24,778     248,729     472
     INFANT DEATHS              131        321        420       1,444     181
     INF. MORT. RATE           68.4       42.2       17.0         5.8   383.5


  1 INCLUDES RACES OTHER THAN WHITE AND BLACK.

33. Live Birth/Infant Death/Mort Rate by Birth Wt.,Race,Gest. Age
                        1983 DOCUMENTATION TABLE 3

             LIVE BIRTHS, INFANT DEATHS, AND INFANT MORTALITY RATES
      BY BIRTH WEIGHT, RACE OF CHILD, AND GESTATIONAL AGE:  UNITED STATES
                               1983 BIRTH COHORT
                        (RATES ARE PER 1000 LIVE BIRTHS)

                                                  GESTATION
 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE                        28     28-31    32-35      36
      OF CHILD                   TOTAL      WEEKS    WEEKS    WEEKS    WEEKS


 ALL RACES1

 TOTAL
   LIVE BIRTHS                3,639,113    26,237   38,608   160,353  109,661
   INFANT DEATHS                 39,683    11,329    3,692     3,833    1,309
   INF. MORT. RATE                 10.9     431.8     95.6      23.9     11.9

 LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                  247,818    19,656   25,823    66,053   22,161
   INFANT DEATHS                 23,163    10,663    3,451     2,821      620
   INF. MORT. RATE                 93.5     542.5    133.6      42.7     28.0

   LESS THAN 500 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                  4,444     3,392      153        60       12
     INFANT DEATHS                3,397     3,096      130        46        6
     INF. MORT. RATE              885.9     912.7    849.7     766.7    500.0

   500-749 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                  7,594     5,346      710       224       40
     INFANT DEATHS                5,815     4,313      486       141       28
     INF. MORT. RATE              765.7     806.8    684.5     629.5    700.0

   750-999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                  9,004     4,889    2,083       556       59
     INFANT DEATHS                3,762     2,285      711       199       22
     INF. MORT. RATE              417.8     467.4    341.3     357.9    372.9

   1,000-1,249 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                 10,193     2,375    4,532     1,482      168
     INFANT DEATHS                2,145       630      842       278       32
     INF. MORT. RATE              210.4     265.3    185.8     187.6    190.5

   1,250-1,499 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                 12,049       984    5,476     2,945      388
     INFANT DEATHS                1,378       164      597       296       38
     INF. MORT. RATE              114.4     166.7    109.0     100.5     97.9

   1,500-1,999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                 47,325     1,363    8,738    19,730    3,406
     INFANT DEATHS                2,688       123      543       896      187
     INF. MORT. RATE               56.8      90.2     62.1      45.4     54.9


                                                  GESTATION
 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE                        28     28-31    32-35      36
      OF CHILD                   TOTAL      WEEKS    WEEKS    WEEKS    WEEKS


 ALL RACES1 CONTINUED

   2,000-2,499 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                157,209     1,307    4,131    41,056   18,088
     INFANT DEATHS                3,438        52      142       965      307
     INF. MORT. RATE               21.9      39.8     34.4      23.5     17.0

 2,500-2,999 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                  586,810     1,880    4,616    40,832   38,084
   INFANT DEATHS                  4,997        48       88       555      356
   INF. MORT. RATE                  8.5      25.5     19.1      13.6      9.3

 3,000-3,499 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                1,341,151     2,398    4,812    33,583   32,708
   INFANT DEATHS                  5,797        40       51       236      214
   INF. MORT. RATE                  4.3      16.7     10.6       7.0      6.5

 3,500-3,999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS              1,062,897     1,270    2,465    15,651   13,028
     INFANT DEATHS                3,290        29       15       106       72
     INF. MORT. RATE                3.1      22.8      6.1       6.8      5.5

 4,000-4,499 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                326,599       322      599     3,312    3,027
     INFANT DEATHS                  930        16        4        23       23
     INF. MORT. RATE                2.8      49.7      6.7       6.9      7.6

 4,500-4,999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                 60,324        45       93       540      465
     INFANT DEATHS                  229        12        3         9        3
     INF. MORT. RATE                3.8     266.7     32.3      16.7      6.5

 5,000 GRAMS OR MORE
     LIVE BIRTHS                  8,131        63       27       104       82
     INFANT DEATHS                  114        40        6         6        1
     INF. MORT. RATE               14.0     634.9    222.2      57.7     12.2

 NOT STATED
     LIVE BIRTHS                  5,383       603      173       278      106
     INFANT DEATHS                1,163       481       74        77       20
     INF. MORT. RATE              216.2     797.7    427.7     277.0    188.7


                                                  GESTATION
 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE         37-39      40        41       42 WEEKS    NOT
      OF CHILD                 WEEKS     WEEKS     WEEKS     OR MORE    STATED


 ALL RACES1 CONTINUED

 TOTAL
   LIVE BIRTHS               1,318,549  770,410   538,104    520,746   156,445
   INFANT DEATHS                 7,314    3,072     2,432      3,012     3,690
   INF. MORT. RATE                 5.9      4.0       4.5        5.8      23.6

 LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                  63,367   14,288     8,497     11,195    16,778
   INFANT DEATHS                 1,760      433       363        498     2,554
   INF. MORT. RATE                27.8     30.3      42.7       44.5     152.2

   LESS THAN 500 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                    67       25        53         40       642
     INFANT DEATHS                  33        7        32         20       567
     INF. MORT. RATE             492.5    280.0     603.8      500.0     883.2

   500-749 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                   163       71        68         97       875
     INFANT DEATHS                  55       19        29         50       694
     INF. MORT. RATE             337.4    267.6     426.5      515.5     793.1

   750-999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                   207       99        91        103       917
     INFANT DEATHS                  69       24        24         30       398
     INF. MORT. RATE             333.3    242.4     263.7      291.3     434.0

   1,000-1,249 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                   339      121        77        144       955
     INFANT DEATHS                  76       20        16         30       221
     INF. MORT. RATE             224.2    165.3     207.8      208.3     231.4

   1,250-1,499 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                   747      142       137        237       993
     INFANT DEATHS                  83       16        19         18       147
     INF. MORT. RATE             111.1    112.7     138.7       75.9     148.0

   1,500-1,999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                 7,283    1,243       853      1,268     3,441
     INFANT DEATHS                 453       79        61         96       250
     INF. MORT. RATE              62.2     63.6      71.5       75.7      72.7


                                                  GESTATION
 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE         37-39      40        41       42 WEEKS    NOT
      OF CHILD                 WEEKS     WEEKS     WEEKS     OR MORE    STATED


 ALL RACES1 CONTINUED

   2,000-2,499 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                54,561   12,587     7,218      9,306     8,955
     INFANT DEATHS                 991      268       182        254       277
     INF. MORT. RATE              18.2     21.3      25.2       27.3      30.9

 2,500-2,999 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                 272,819   90,523    51,117     58,301    28,638
   INFANT DEATHS                 1,963      609       419        625       334
   INF. MORT. RATE                 7.2      6.7       8.2       10.7      11.7

 3,000-3,499 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                 555,551  295,423   183,541    177,815    55,320
   INFANT DEATHS                 2,200    1,058       765        921       312
   INF. MORT. RATE                 4.0      3.6       4.2        5.2       5.6

 3,500-3,999 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                 336,108  271,346   201,206    182,142    39,681
   INFANT DEATHS                   979      684       601        642       162
   INF. MORT. RATE                 2.9      2.5       3.0        3.5       4.1

 4,000-4,499 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                  76,961   82,965    75,984     72,073    11,356
   INFANT DEATHS                   246      182       193        205        38
   INF. MORT. RATE                 3.2      2.2       2.5        2.8       3.3

 4,500-4,999 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                  11,328   13,794    15,516     16,390     2,153
   INFANT DEATHS                    44       52        39         54        13
   INF. MORT. RATE                 3.9      3.8       2.5        3.3       6.0

 5,000 GRAMS OR MORE
   LIVE BIRTHS                   1,531    1,598     1,905      2,462       359
   INFANT DEATHS                    15        8         7         14        17
   INF. MORT. RATE                 9.8      5.0       3.7        5.7      47.4

 NOT STATED
   LIVE BIRTHS                     884      473       338        368     2,160
   INFANT DEATHS                   107       46        45         53       260
   INF. MORT. RATE               121.0     97.3     133.1      144.0     120.4


                                                  GESTATION
 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE                        28     28-31    32-35      36
      OF CHILD                   TOTAL      WEEKS    WEEKS    WEEKS    WEEKS


 WHITE

 TOTAL
   LIVE BIRTHS                2,904,381    15,095   23,781   106,514   78,221
   INFANT DEATHS                 27,094     6,987    2,552     2,675      899
   INF. MORT. RATE                  9.3     462.9    107.3      25.1     11.5

 LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                  164,520    11,460   16,507    44,955   15,069
   INFANT DEATHS                 15,207     6,622    2,403     2,001      416
   INF. MORT. RATE                 92.4     577.8    145.6      44.5     27.6

   LESS THAN 500 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                  2,577     1,978       91        27        7
     INFANT DEATHS                2,295     1,825       79        22        3
     INF. MORT. RATE              890.6     922.6    868.1     814.8    428.6

   500-749 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                  4,492     3,209      401       127       20
     INFANT DEATHS                3,549     2,663      283        86       14
     INF. MORT. RATE              790.1     829.9    705.7     677.2    700.0

   750-999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                  5,593     3,017    1,339       349       36
     INFANT DEATHS                2,476     1,489      488       136       10
     INF. MORT. RATE              442.7     493.5    364.5     389.7    277.8

   1,000-1,249 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                  6,456     1,448    2,943       950      103
     INFANT DEATHS                1,545       449      604       201       26
     INF. MORT. RATE              239.3     310.1    205.2     211.6    252.4

   1,250-1,499 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                  7,877       515    3,658     1,947      271
     INFANT DEATHS                1,026       112      457       229       28
     INF. MORT. RATE              130.3     217.5    124.9     117.6    103.3

   1,500-1,999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                 31,313       674    5,821    13,256    2,259
     INFANT DEATHS                1,910        58      401       656      123
     INF. MORT. RATE               61.0      86.1     68.9      49.5     54.4


                                                  GESTATION
 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE                        28     28-31    32-35      36
      OF CHILD                   TOTAL      WEEKS    WEEKS    WEEKS    WEEKS


 WHITE CONTINUED

   2,000-2,499 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                106,212       619    2,254    28,339   12,373
     INFANT DEATHS                2,406        26       91       671      212
     INF. MORT. RATE               22.7      42.0     40.4      23.7     17.1

 2,500-2,999 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                  416,741       919    2,346    26,569   27,119
   INFANT DEATHS                  3,423        20       55       376      250
   INF. MORT. RATE                  8.2      21.8     23.4      14.2      9.2

 3,000-3,499 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                1,055,839     1,259    2,648    21,082   23,284
   INFANT DEATHS                  4,154        22       23       145      143
   INF. MORT. RATE                  3.9      17.5      8.7       6.9      6.1

 3,500-3,999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                909,563       840    1,633    10,695    9,802
     INFANT DEATHS                2,567        18       11        74       52
     INF. MORT. RATE                2.8      21.4      6.7       6.9      5.3

 4,000-4,499 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                291,730       223      456     2,480    2,428
     INFANT DEATHS                  751         9        3        17       15
     INF. MORT. RATE                2.6      40.4      6.6       6.9      6.2

 4,500-4,999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                 54,700        34       72       450      378
     INFANT DEATHS                  184         7        2         6        3
     INF. MORT. RATE                3.4     205.9     27.8      13.3      7.9

 5,000 GRAMS OR MORE
     LIVE BIRTHS                  7,141        39       17        69       63
     INFANT DEATHS                   76        23        4         5        1
     INF. MORT. RATE               10.6     589.7    235.3      72.5     15.9

 NOT STATED
     LIVE BIRTHS                  4,147       321      102       194       78
     INFANT DEATHS                  732       266       51        51       19
     INF. MORT. RATE              176.5     828.7    500.0     262.9    243.6


                                                  GESTATION
 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE         37-39      40        41       42 WEEKS    NOT
      OF CHILD                 WEEKS     WEEKS     WEEKS     OR MORE    STATED


 WHITE CONTINUED

 TOTAL
   LIVE BIRTHS               1,029,527  641,091   458,235    431,721   120,156
   INFANT DEATHS                 5,152    2,307     1,880      2,251     2,391
   INF. MORT. RATE                 5.0      3.6       4.1        5.2      19.9

 LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                  42,411    9,846     5,858      7,352    11,022
   INFANT DEATHS                 1,203      319       254        352     1,637
   INF. MORT. RATE                28.4     32.4      43.4       47.9     148.5

   LESS THAN 500 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                    36       22        28         32       356
     INFANT DEATHS                  17        6        17         13       313
     INF. MORT. RATE             472.2    272.7     607.1      406.3     879.2

   500-749 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                    81       35        38         56       525
     INFANT DEATHS                  20       10        13         37       423
     INF. MORT. RATE             246.9    285.7     342.1      660.7     805.7

   750-999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                   112       50        58         61       571
     INFANT DEATHS                  38       13        17         23       262
     INF. MORT. RATE             339.3    260.0     293.1      377.0     458.8

   1,000-1,249 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                   198       60        57         90       607
     INFANT DEATHS                  55       12        12         18       168
     INF. MORT. RATE             277.8    200.0     210.5      200.0     276.8

   1,250-1,499 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                   498       88       101        145       654
     INFANT DEATHS                  62       13        15          7       103
     INF. MORT. RATE             124.5    147.7     148.5       48.3     157.5

   1,500-1,999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                 4,830      854       567        797     2,255
     INFANT DEATHS                 325       60        49         74       164
     INF. MORT. RATE              67.3     70.3      86.4       92.8      72.7


                                                  GESTATION
 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE         37-39      40        41       42 WEEKS    NOT
      OF CHILD                 WEEKS     WEEKS     WEEKS     OR MORE    STATED


 WHITE CONTINUED

   2,000-2,499 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                36,656    8,737     5,009      6,171     6,054
     INFANT DEATHS                 686      205       131        180       204
     INF. MORT. RATE              18.7     23.5      26.2       29.2      33.7

 2,500-2,999 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                 193,144   66,662    37,998     41,910    20,074
   INFANT DEATHS                 1,321      418       315        445       223
   INF. MORT. RATE                 6.8      6.3       8.3       10.6      11.1

 3,000-3,499 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                 433,208  239,223   151,139    141,823    42,173
   INFANT DEATHS                 1,573      779       590        669       210
   INF. MORT. RATE                 3.6      3.3       3.9        4.7       5.0

 3,500-3,999 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                 281,886  236,360   177,628    157,786    32,933
   INFANT DEATHS                   733      554       487        523       115
   INF. MORT. RATE                 2.6      2.3       2.7        3.3       3.5

 4,000-4,499 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                  67,062   74,721    69,237     65,224     9,909
   INFANT DEATHS                   194      150       167        169        27
   INF. MORT. RATE                 2.9      2.0       2.4        2.6       2.7

 4,500-4,999 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                   9,889   12,503    14,348     15,111     1,915
   INFANT DEATHS                    33       46        32         44        11
   INF. MORT. RATE                 3.3      3.7       2.2        2.9       5.7

 5,000 GRAMS OR MORE
   LIVE BIRTHS                   1,285    1,385     1,742      2,243       298
   INFANT DEATHS                    12        5         6         10        10
   INF. MORT. RATE                 9.3      3.6       3.4        4.5      33.6

 NOT STATED
   LIVE BIRTHS                     672      391       285        272     1,832
   INFANT DEATHS                    83       36        29         39       158
   INF. MORT. RATE               123.5     92.1     101.8      143.4      86.2


                                                  GESTATION
 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE                        28     28-31    32-35      36
      OF CHILD                     TOTAL    WEEKS    WEEKS    WEEKS    WEEKS


 BLACK

 TOTAL
   LIVE BIRTHS                   586,085   10,382   13,487   46,988   26,628
   INFANT DEATHS                  11,087    4,032    1,023    1,020      352
   INF. MORT. RATE                  18.9    388.4     75.9     21.7     13.2

 LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                    73,653    7,653    8,479   18,745    6,136
   INFANT DEATHS                   7,214    3,748      941      717      175
   INF. MORT. RATE                  97.9    489.7    111.0     38.3     28.5

   LESS THAN 500 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                   1,749    1,324       62       30        4
     INFANT DEATHS                 1,534    1,189       51       21        3
     INF. MORT. RATE               877.1    898.0    822.6    700.0    750.0

   500-749 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                   2,874    1,998      284      193       16
     INFANT DEATHS                 2,114    2,543      186       53       11
     INF. MORT. RATE               735.6    772.3    654.9    569.9    687.5

   750-999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                   3,146    1,725      692      192       19
     INFANT DEATHS                 1,167      725      200       59       10
     INF. MORT. RATE               370.9    420.3    289.0    307.3    526.3

   1,000-1,249 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                   3,393      857    1,443      476       56
     INFANT DEATHS                   526      161      214       63        6
     INF. MORT. RATE               155.0    187.9    148.3    132.4    107.1

   1,250-1,499 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                   3,750      442    1,639      902       97
     INFANT DEATHS                   308       47      123       59        7
     INF. MORT. RATE                82.1    106.3     75.0     65.4     72.2

   1,500-1,999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                  14,362      651    2,629    5,845    1,003
     INFANT DEATHS                   673       60      121      208       52
     INF. MORT. RATE                46.9     92.2     46.0     35.6     51.8


                                                  GESTATION
 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE                        28     28-31    32-35      36
      OF CHILD                     TOTAL    WEEKS    WEEKS    WEEKS    WEEKS


 BLACK CONTINUED

   2,000-2,499 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                  44,379      656    1,730   11,207    4,941
     INFANT DEATHS                   892       23       46      254       86
     INF. MORT. RATE                20.1     35.1     26.6     22.7     17.4

 2,500-2,999 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                   140,894      909    2,077   12,450    9,320
   INFANT DEATHS                   1,352       28       30      165       90
   INF. MORT. RATE                   9.6     30.8     14.4     13.3      9.7

 3,000-3,499 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                   224,341    1,066    1,966   10,797    7,929
   INFANT DEATHS                   1,350       17       26       80       61
   INF. MORT. RATE                   6.0     15.9     13.2      7.4      7.7

 3,500-3,999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                 116,112      379      754    4,137    2,664
     INFANT DEATHS                   564       10        4       26       17
     INF. MORT. RATE                 4.9     26.4      5.3      6.3      6.4

 4,000-4,499 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                  25,355       81      123      688      469
     INFANT DEATHS                   143        7        1        5        8
     INF. MORT. RATE                 5.6     86.4      8.1      7.3     17.1

 4,500-4,999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                   3,987        9       18       72       73
     INFANT DEATHS                    39        3        1        3        -
     INF. MORT. RATE                 9.8    333.3     55.6     41.7        -

 5,000 GRAMS OR MORE
     LIVE BIRTHS                     727       22        9       25       16
     INFANT DEATHS                    37       16        2        1        -
     INF. MORT. RATE                50.9    727.3    222.2     40.0        -

 NOT STATED
     LIVE BIRTHS                   1,016      263       61       74       21
     INFANT DEATHS                   388      203       18       23        1
     INF. MORT. RATE               381.9    771.9    295.1    310.8     47.6


                                                  GESTATION
 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE         37-39      40        41       42 WEEKS    NOT
      OF CHILD                 WEEKS     WEEKS     WEEKS     OR MORE    STATED


 BLACK CONTINUED

 TOTAL
   LIVE BIRTHS                230,072   100,630    62,130     71,222    21,546
   INFANT DEATHS                1,814       640       457        652     1,097
   INF. MORT. RATE                7.9       6.4       7.4        9.2      44.7

 LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                 18,214     3,895     2,327      3,399     4,805
   INFANT DEATHS                  501       102        95        129       806
   INF. MORT. RATE               27.5      26.2      40.8       38.0     167.7

   LESS THAN 500 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                   29         3        25          7       265
     INFANT DEATHS                 14         1        15          7       233
     INF. MORT. RATE            482.8     333.3     600.0     1000.0     879.2

   500-749 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                   77        27        29         35       315
     INFANT DEATHS                 35         8        16         13       249
     INF. MORT. RATE            454.9     296.3     551.7      371.4     790.5

   750-999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                   91        45        33         36       313
     INFANT DEATHS                 31         9         7          6       120
     INF. MORT. RATE            340.7     200.0     212.1      166.7     383.4

   1,000-1,249 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                  125        58        19         48       311
     INFANT DEATHS                 18         7         4         10        43
     INF. MORT. RATE            144.0     120.7     210.5      208.3     138.3

   1,250-1,499 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                  216        51        35         77       291
     INFANT DEATHS                 20         3         3         10        36
     INF. MORT. RATE             92.6      58.8      85.7      129.9     123.7

   1,500-1,999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                2,181       357       257        423     1,016
     INFANT DEATHS                118        17         9         20        68
     INF. MORT. RATE             54.1      47.6      35.0       47.3      66.9


                                                  GESTATION
 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE         37-39      40        41       42 WEEKS    NOT
      OF CHILD                 WEEKS     WEEKS     WEEKS     OR MORE    STATED


 BLACK CONTINUED

   2,000-2,499 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS               15,495     3,354     1,929      2,773     2,294
     INFANT DEATHS                265        57        41         63        57
     INF. MORT. RATE             17.1      17.0      21.3       22.7      24.8

 2,500-2,999 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                 65,548    19,699    10,797     14,002     6,092
   INFANT DEATHS                  550       165        86        160        78
   INF. MORT. RATE                8.4       8.4       8.0       11.4      12.8

 3,000-3,499 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                 96,126    43,637    25,328     29,115     8,377
   INFANT DEATHS                  500       226       146        218        76
   INF. MORT. RATE                5.2       5.2       5.8        7.5       9.1

 3,500-3,999 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                 41,367    26,258    17,813     18,714     4,026
   INFANT DEATHS                  190       103        91         92        31
   INF. MORT. RATE                4.6       3.9       5.1        4.9       7.7

 4,000-4,499 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                  7,434     5,964     4,872      4,896       828
   INFANT DEATHS                   45        26        19         28         4
   INF. MORT. RATE                6.1       4.4       3.9        5.7       4.8

 4,500-4,999 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                  1,021       966       827        874       127
   INFANT DEATHS                    9         6         7          8         2
   INF. MORT. RATE                8.8       6.2       8.5        9.2      15.7

 5,000 GRAMS OR MORE
   LIVE BIRTHS                    189       143       129        147        47
   INFANT DEATHS                    3         3         1          4         7
   INF. MORT. RATE               15.9      21.0       7.8       27.2     148.9

 NOT STATED
   LIVE BIRTHS                    173        68        37         75       244
   INFANT DEATHS                   16         9        12         13        93
   INF. MORT. RATE               92.5     132.4     324.3      173.3     381.1


  1 INCLUDES RACES OTHER THAN WHITE AND BLACK.

 4. Live Birth/Infant Death/Mort. Rate by Wt., Race, Age at Death
                        1983 DOCUMENTATION TABLE 4

             LIVE BIRTHS, INFANT DEATHS, AND INFANT MORTALITY RATES
        BY BIRTH WEIGHT, RACE OF CHILD, AND AGE AT DEATH:  UNITED STATES
                               1983 BIRTH COHORT

      (INFANT DEATHS ARE UNDER 1 YEAR.  NEONATAL DEATHS ARE UNDER 28 DAYS;
              EARLY NEONATAL, 0-6 DAYS; LATE NEONATAL, 7-27 DAYS;
                  AND POSTNEONATAL, 28 DAYS THROUGH 11 MONTHS)

                        (RATES ARE PER 1000 LIVE BIRTHS)


 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE                         LIVE         INFANT     TOTAL
      OF CHILD                                BIRTHS        DEATHS    NEONATAL

     ALL RACES1

 TOTAL (ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS)...NUMBER..        3,639,113      39,683     25,830
                               RATE..                         10.9        7.1

 LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS.......NUMBER..          247,818      23,163     18,726
                               RATE..                         93.5       75.6

   LESS THAN 500 GRAMS.......NUMBER..            4,444       3,937      3,916
                               RATE..                        885.9      881.2

   500-749 GRAMS.............NUMBER..            7,594       5,815      5,411
                               RATE..                        765.7      712.5

   750-999 GRAMS.............NUMBER..            9,004       3,762      3,070
                               RATE..                        417.8      341.0

   1,000-1,249 GRAMS.........NUMBER..           10,193       2,145      1,669
                               RATE..                        210.4      163.7

   1,250-1,499 GRAMS.........NUMBER..           12,049       1,378        987
                               RATE..                        114.4       81.9

   1,500-1,999 GRAMS.........NUMBER..           47,325       2,688      1,791
                               RATE..                         56.8       37.8

   2,000-2,499 GRAMS.........NUMBER..          157,209       3,438      1,882
                               RATE..                         21.9       12.0

 2,500-2,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..          586,810       4,997      2,068
                               RATE..                          8.5        3.5

 3,000-3,499 GRAMS...........NUMBER..        1,341,151       5,797      2,086
                               RATE..                          4.3        1.6


 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE                         LIVE         INFANT     TOTAL
      OF CHILD                                BIRTHS        DEATHS    NEONATAL


 ALL RACES1 CONTINUED

 3,500-3,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..        1,062,897       3,290      1,235
                               RATE..                          3.1        1.2

 4,000-4,499 GRAMS...........NUMBER..          326,599         930        390
                               RATE..                          2.8        1.2

 4,500-4,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..           60,324         229        130
                               RATE..                          3.8        2.2

 5,000 GRAMS OR MORE.........NUMBER..            8,131         114         99
                               RATE..                         14.0       12.2

 NOT STATED..................NUMBER..            5,383       1,163      1,096
                               RATE..                        216.1      203.6



 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE                         EARLY        LATE        POST
      OF CHILD                                NEONATAL    NEONATAL    NEONATAL

 ALL RACES1 CONTINUED

 TOTAL (ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS)...NUMBER..          21,689       4,141      13,853
                               RATE..             6.0         1.1         3.8

 LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS.......NUMBER..          16,479       2,247       4,437
                               RATE..            66.5         9.1        17.9

   LESS THAN 500 GRAMS.......NUMBER..           3,889          27          21
                               RATE..           875.1         6.1         4.7

   500-749 GRAMS.............NUMBER..           5,012         399         404
                               RATE..           660.0        52.5        53.2

   750-999 GRAMS.............NUMBER..           2,585         485         692
                               RATE..           287.1        53.9        76.9

   1,000-1,249 GRAMS.........NUMBER..           1,326         343         476
                               RATE..           130.1        33.7        46.7

   1,250-1,499 GRAMS.........NUMBER..             797         190         391
                               RATE..            66.1        15.8        32.5

   1,500-1,999 GRAMS.........NUMBER..           1,468         323         897
                               RATE..            31.0         6.8        19.0

   2,000-2,499 GRAMS.........NUMBER..           1,402         480       1,556
                               RATE..             8.9         3.1         9.9

 2,500-2,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..           1,471         597       2,929
                               RATE..             2.5         1.0         5.0

 3,000-3,499 GRAMS...........NUMBER..           1,421         665       3,711
                               RATE..             1.1          .5         2.8

 3,500-3,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..             818         417       2,055
                               RATE..              .8          .4         1.9


 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE                         EARLY        LATE        POST
      OF CHILD                                NEONATAL    NEONATAL    NEONATAL

 ALL RACES1 CONTINUED

 4,000-4,499 GRAMS...........NUMBER..             263         127         540
                               RATE..              .8          .4         1.7

 4,500-4,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..             108          22          99
                               RATE..             1.8          .4         1.6

 5,000 GRAMS OR MORE.........NUMBER..              90           9          15
                               RATE..            11.1         1.1         1.8

 NOT STATED..................NUMBER..           1,039          57          67
                               RATE..           193.0        10.6        12.4


 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE                         LIVE         INFANT     TOTAL
      OF CHILD                                BIRTHS        DEATHS    NEONATAL

            WHITE

 TOTAL (ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS)...NUMBER..        2,904,381      27,094     17,786
                               RATE..                          9.3        6.1

 LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS.......NUMBER..          164,520      15,207     12,535
                               RATE..                         92.4       76.2

   LESS THAN 500 GRAMS.......NUMBER..            2,577       2,295      2,284
                               RATE..                        890.6      886.3

   500-749 GRAMS.............NUMBER..            4,492       3,549      3,353
                               RATE..                        790.1      746.4

   750-999 GRAMS.............NUMBER..            5,593       2,476      2,111
                               RATE..                        442.7      377.4

   1,000-1,249 GRAMS.........NUMBER..            6,456       1,545      1,261
                               RATE..                        239.3      195.3

   1,250-1,499 GRAMS.........NUMBER..            7,877       1,026        763
                               RATE..                        130.3       96.9

   1,500-1,999 GRAMS.........NUMBER..           31,313       1,910      1,336
                               RATE..                         61.0       42.7

   2,000-2,499 GRAMS.........NUMBER..          106,212       2,406      1,427
                               RATE..                         22.7       13.4

 2,500-2,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..          416,741       3,423      1,551
                               RATE..                          8.2        3.7

 3,000-3,499 GRAMS...........NUMBER..        1,055,839       4,154      1,560
                               RATE..                          3.9        1.5

 3,500-3,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..          906,563       2,567        985
                               RATE..                          2.8        1.1


 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE                         LIVE         INFANT     TOTAL
      OF CHILD                                BIRTHS        DEATHS    NEONATAL


         WHITE CONTINUED

 4,000-4,499 GRAMS...........NUMBER..          291,730         751        308
                               RATE..                          2.6        1.1

 4,500-4,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..           54,700         184         98
                               RATE..                          3.4        1.8

 5,000 GRAMS OR MORE.........NUMBER..            7,141          76         65
                               RATE..                         10.6        9.1

 NOT STATED..................NUMBER..            4,147         732        684
                               RATE..                        176.5      164.9


 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE                         EARLY        LATE        POST
      OF CHILD                                NEONATAL    NEONATAL    NEONATAL

         WHITE CONTINUED

 TOTAL (ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS)...NUMBER..          14,858       2,928       9,308
                               RATE..             5.1         1.0         3.2

 LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS.......NUMBER..          11,009       1,526       2,672
                               RATE..            66.9         9.3        16.2

   LESS THAN 500 GRAMS.......NUMBER..           2,262          22          11
                               RATE..           877.8         8.5         4.3

   500-749 GRAMS.............NUMBER..           3,139         214         196
                               RATE..           698.8        47.6        43.6

   750-999 GRAMS.............NUMBER..           1,794         317         365
                               RATE..           320.8        56.7        65.3

   1,000-1,249 GRAMS.........NUMBER..             995         266         284
                               RATE..           154.1        41.2        44.0

   1,250-1,499 GRAMS.........NUMBER..             624         139         263
                               RATE..            79.2        17.6        33.4

   1,500-1,999 GRAMS.........NUMBER..           1,101         235         574
                               RATE..            35.2         7.5        18.3

   2,000-2,499 GRAMS.........NUMBER..           1,094         333         979
                               RATE..            10.3         3.1         9.2

 2,500-2,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..           1,129         422       1,872
                               RATE..             2.7         1.0         4.5

 3,000-3,499 GRAMS...........NUMBER..           1,073         487       2,594
                               RATE..             1.0          .5         2.5

 3,500-3,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..             659         326       1,582
                               RATE..              .7          .4         1.7


 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE                         EARLY        LATE        POST
      OF CHILD                                NEONATAL    NEONATAL    NEONATAL

         WHITE CONTINUED

 4,000-4,499 GRAMS...........NUMBER..             208         100         443
                               RATE..              .7          .3         1.5

 4,500-4,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..              81          17          86
                               RATE..             1.5          .3         1.6

 5,000 GRAMS OR MORE.........NUMBER..              57           8          11
                               RATE..             8.0         1.1         1.5

 NOT STATED..................NUMBER..             642          42          48
                               RATE..           154.8        10.1        11.6


 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE                          LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      OF CHILD                                 BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

            BLACK

 TOTAL (ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS)...NUMBER..          586,085      11,087      7,202
                               RATE..                         18.9       12.3

 LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS.......NUMBER..           73,653       7,214      5,620
                               RATE..                         97.9       76.3

   LESS THAN 500 GRAMS.......NUMBER..            1,749       1,534      1,524
                               RATE..                        877.1      871.4

   500-749 GRAMS.............NUMBER..            2,874       2,114      1,926
                               RATE..                        735.6      670.1

   750-999 GRAMS.............NUMBER..            3,146       1,167        867
                               RATE..                        442.7      275.6

   1,000-1,249 GRAMS.........NUMBER..            3,393         526        353
                               RATE..                        155.0      104.0

   1,250-1,499 GRAMS.........NUMBER..            3,750         308        188
                               RATE..                         82.1       50.1

   1,500-1,999 GRAMS.........NUMBER..           14,362         673        384
                               RATE..                         46.9       26.7

   2,000-2,499 GRAMS.........NUMBER..           44,379         892        378
                               RATE..                         20.1        8.5

 2,500-2,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..          140,894       1,352        429
                               RATE..                          9.6        3.0

 3,000-3,499 GRAMS...........NUMBER..          224,341       1,350        440
                               RATE..                          6.0        2.0

 3,500-3,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..          116,112         564        209
                               RATE..                          4.9        1.8


 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE                          LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      OF CHILD                                 BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL


         BLACK CONTINUED

 4,000-4,499 GRAMS...........NUMBER..           25,355         143         70
                               RATE..                          5.6        2.8

 4,500-4,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..            3,987          39         29
                               RATE..                          9.8        7.3

 5,000 GRAMS OR MORE.........NUMBER..              727          37         33
                               RATE..                         50.9       45.4

 NOT STATED..................NUMBER..            1,016         388        372
                               RATE..                        381.9      366.1


 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE                         EARLY        LATE        POST
      OF CHILD                                NEONATAL    NEONATAL    NEONATAL

         BLACK CONTINUED

 TOTAL (ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS)...NUMBER..          6,151        1,051       3,885
                               RATE..           10.5          1.8         6.6

 LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS.......NUMBER..          4,976          644       1,594
                               RATE..           67.6          8.7        21.6

   LESS THAN 500 GRAMS.......NUMBER..          1,520            4          10
                               RATE..          869.1          2.3         5.7

   500-749 GRAMS.............NUMBER..          1,752          174         188
                               RATE..          609.6         60.5        65.4

   750-999 GRAMS.............NUMBER..            713          154         300
                               RATE..          226.6         49.0        95.4

   1,000-1,249 GRAMS.........NUMBER..            285           68         173
                               RATE..           84.0         20.0        51.0

   1,250-1,499 GRAMS.........NUMBER..            146           42         120
                               RATE..           38.9         11.2        32.0

   1,500-1,999 GRAMS.........NUMBER..            304           80         289
                               RATE..           21.2          5.6        20.1

   2,000-2,499 GRAMS.........NUMBER..            256          122         514
                               RATE..            5.8          2.7        11.6

 2,500-2,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..            277          152         923
                               RATE..            2.0          1.1         6.6

 3,000-3,499 GRAMS...........NUMBER..            294          146         910
                               RATE..            1.3           .7         4.1

 3,500-3,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..            139           70         355
                               RATE..            1.2           .6         3.1


 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE                         EARLY        LATE        POST
      OF CHILD                                NEONATAL    NEONATAL    NEONATAL

         BLACK CONTINUED

 4,000-4,499 GRAMS...........NUMBER..             50           20          73
                               RATE..            2.0           .8         2.9

 4,500-4,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..             24            5          10
                               RATE..            6.0          1.3         2.5

 5,000 GRAMS OR MORE.........NUMBER..             32            1           4
                               RATE..           44.0          1.4         5.5

 NOT STATED..................NUMBER..            359           13          16
                               RATE..          353.3         12.8        15.7


  1 INCLUDES RACES OTHER THAN WHITE AND BLACK.

 5. Live Births/Infant Deaths for 10 Leading Causes Infant Death
                        1983 DOCUMENTATION TABLE 5

      LIVE BIRTHS BY BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE OF CHILD AND INFANT DEATHS AND
    INFANT MORTALITY RATES BY AGE AT DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT, AND RACE OF CHILD
    FOR 10 LEADING CAUSES OF INFANT DEATH:  UNITED STATES, 1983 BIRTH COHORT

      (INFANT DEATHS ARE UNDER 1 YEAR.  NEONATAL DEATHS ARE UNDER 28 DAYS;
              EARLY NEONATAL, 0-6 DAYS; LATE NEONATAL, 7-27 DAYS;
                  AND POSTNEONATAL, 28 DAYS THROUGH 11 MONTHS)

                      (RATES ARE PER 100,000 LIVE BIRTHS)


 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

           ALL RACES1
        ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..    3,639,113     39,683     25,830
                                    RATE..                 1,090.5      709.8

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..                   8,568      6,326
                                    RATE..                   235.4      173.8

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..                   5,271        389
                                    RATE..                   144.8       10.7

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..                   3,596      3,362
                                    RATE..                    98.8       92.4

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..                   3,235      3,201
                                    RATE..                    88.9       88.0

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..                   1,433      1,424
                                    RATE..                    39.4       39.1

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..                   1,180      1,108
                                    RATE..                    32.4       30.4

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..                     870         69
                                    RATE..                    23.9        1.9

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..                     845        808
                                    RATE..                    23.2       22.2

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..                     842        838
                                    RATE..                    23.1       23.0


 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

           ALL RACES1
        ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..                     732        158
                                    RATE..                    20.1        4.3

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..                   1,840        599
                                    RATE..                    50.6       16.5


 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

           ALL RACES1
        ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS
           (CONTINUED)

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..       21,689      4,141     13,853
                                    RATE..        596.0      113.8      380.7

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..        5,143      1,183      2,242
                                    RATE..        141.3       32.5       61.6

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..           38        351      4,882
                                    RATE..          1.0        9.6      134.2

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..        2,852        510        234
                                    RATE..         78.4       14.0        6.4

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..        3,169         32         34
                                    RATE..         87.1         .9         .9

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..        1,415          9          9
                                    RATE..         38.9         .2         .2

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..          957        151         72
                                    RATE..         26.3        4.1        2.0

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..           22         47        801
                                    RATE..           .6        1.3       22.0

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..          557        251         37
                                    RATE..         15.3        6.9        1.0

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..          818         20          4
                                    RATE..         22.5         .5         .1


 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

           ALL RACES1
        ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..           83         75        574
                                    RATE..          2.3        2.1       15.8

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..          381        218      1,241
                                    RATE..         10.5        6.0       34.1


 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

           ALL RACES1
      LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..    247,818       23,163     18,726
                                    RATE..                 9,346.8    7,556.4

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..                   3,801      3,048
                                    RATE..                 1,533.8    1,229.9

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..                   1,076         60
                                    RATE..                   434.2       24.2

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..                   3,379      3,158
                                    RATE..                 1,363.5    1,274.3

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..                   2,912      2,880
                                    RATE..                 1,175.1    1,162.1

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..                   1,286      1,279
                                    RATE..                   518.9      516.1

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..                     673        648
                                    RATE..                   271.6      261.5

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..                     138         23
                                    RATE..                    55.7        9.3

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..                     598        569
                                    RATE..                   241.3      229.6

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..                     665        664
                                    RATE..                   268.3      267.9


 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

           ALL RACES1
      LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..                     228         66
                                    RATE..                    92.0       26.6

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..                     815        322
                                    RATE..                   328.9      129.9


 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

           ALL RACES1
      LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS
           (CONTINUED)

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..       16,479      2,247     4,437
                                    RATE..      6,649.6      906.7   1,790.4

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..        2,647        401       753
                                    RATE..      1,068.1      161.8     303.9

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..            3         57     1,016
                                    RATE..          1.2       23.0     410.0

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..        2,683        475       221
                                    RATE..      1,082.6      191.7      89.2

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..        2,853         27        32
                                    RATE..      1,151.2       10.9      12.9

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..        1,270          9         7
                                    RATE..        512.5        3.6       2.8

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..          590         58        25
                                    RATE..        238.1       23.4      10.1

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..            9         14       115
                                    RATE..          3.6        5.6      46.4

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..          391        178        29
                                    RATE..        157.8       71.8      11.7

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..          656          8         1
                                    RATE..        264.7        3.2        .4


 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

           ALL RACES1
      LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..           37         29       162
                                    RATE..         14.9       11.7      65.4

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..          212        110       493
                                    RATE..         85.5       44.4     198.9


 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

           ALL RACES1
       2,500 GRAMS OR MORE

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..    3,385,912     15,357     6,008
                                    RATE..                   453.6     177.4

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..                   4,538     3,069
                                    RATE..                   134.0      90.6

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..                   4,189       329
                                    RATE..                   123.7       9.7

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..                     141       129
                                    RATE..                     4.2       3.8

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..                      81        79
                                    RATE..                     2.4       2.3

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..                      30        28
                                    RATE..                      .9        .8

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..                     452       407
                                    RATE..                    13.3      12.0

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..                     729        43
                                    RATE..                    21.5       1.3

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..                     236       228
                                    RATE..                     7.0       6.7

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..                     124       121
                                    RATE..                     3.7       3.6


 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

           ALL RACES1
       2,500 GRAMS OR MORE
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..                     499        90
                                    RATE..                    14.7       2.7

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..                   1,005       264
                                    RATE..                    29.7       7.8


 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

           ALL RACES1
       2,500 GRAMS OR MORE
           (CONTINUED)

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..       4,171       1,837     9,349
                                    RATE..       123.2        54.3     276.1

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..       2,300         769     1,469
                                    RATE..        67.9        22.7      43.4

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..          35         294     3,860
                                    RATE..         1.0         8.7     114.0

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..         102          27        12
                                    RATE..         3.0          .8        .4

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..          75           4         2
                                    RATE..         2.2          .1        .1

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..          28           -         2
                                    RATE..          .8           -        .1

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..         320          87        45
                                    RATE..         9.5         2.6       1.3

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..          10          33       686
                                    RATE..          .3         1.0      20.3

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..         156          72         8
                                    RATE..         4.6         2.1        .2

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..         110          11         3
                                    RATE..         3.2          .3        .1


 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

           ALL RACES1
       2,500 GRAMS OR MORE
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..          44          46       409
                                    RATE..         1.3         1.4      12.1

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..         159         105       741
                                    RATE..         4.7         3.1      21.9


 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

           ALL RACES1
      NOT STATED BIRTH WEIGHT

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..     5,383         1,163      1,096
                                    RATE..                21,605.1   20,360.4

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..                     229        209
                                    RATE..                 4,254.1    3,882.6

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..                       6          -
                                    RATE..                    111.5         -

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..                      76         75
                                    RATE..                 1,411.9    1,393.3

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..                     242        242
                                    RATE..                 4,495.6    4,495.6

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..                     117        117
                                    RATE..                 2,173.5    2,173.5

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..                      55         53
                                    RATE..                 1,021.7      984.6

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..                       3          3
                                    RATE..                    55.7       55.7

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..                      11         11
                                    RATE..                   204.3      204.3

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..                      53         53
                                    RATE..                   984.6      984.6


 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

           ALL RACES1
      NOT STATED BIRTH WEIGHT

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..                       5          2
                                    RATE..                    92.9       37.2

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..                      20         13
                                    RATE..                   371.5      241.5


 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

           ALL RACES1
      NOT STATED BIRTH WEIGHT
           (CONTINUED)

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..         1,039         57         67
                                    RATE..      19,301.5    1,058.9    1,244.7

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..           196         13         20
                                    RATE..       3,641.1      241.5      371.5

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..             -          -          6
                                    RATE..             -          -      111.5

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..            67          8          1
                                    RATE..       1,244.7      148.6       18.6

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..           241          1          -
                                    RATE..       4,477.1       18.6          -

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..           117          -          -
                                    RATE..       2,173.5          -          -

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..            47          6          2
                                    RATE..         873.1      111.5       37.2

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..             3          -          -
                                    RATE..          55.7          -          -

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..            10          1          -
                                    RATE..         185.8       18.6          -

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..            52          1          -
                                    RATE..         966.0       18.6          -



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

           ALL RACES1
      NOT STATED BIRTH WEIGHT
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..           2           -         3
                                    RATE..        37.2           -      55.7

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..          10           3         7
                                    RATE..       185.7        55.7     130.0


 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

              WHITE
        ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..    2,904,381     27,094     17,786
                                    RATE..                   932.9      612.4

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..                   6,751      5,043
                                    RATE..                   232.4      173.6

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..                   3,533        247
                                    RATE..                   121.6        8.5

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..                   2,561      2,414
                                    RATE..                    88.2       83.1

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..                   1,833      1,815
                                    RATE..                    63.1       62.5

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..                     975        969
                                    RATE..                    33.6       33.4

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..                     804        756
                                    RATE..                    27.7       26.0

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..                     573         42
                                    RATE..                    19.7        1.4

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..                     589        563
                                    RATE..                    20.3       19.4

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..                     599        595
                                    RATE..                    20.6       20.5


 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

              WHITE
        ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..                     438        102
                                    RATE..                    15.1        3.5

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..                   1,214        428
                                    RATE..                    41.8       14.7



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

              WHITE
        ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS
           (CONTINUED)

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..       14,858      2,928     9,308
                                    RATE..        511.6      100.8     320.5

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..        4,118        925     1,708
                                    RATE..        141.8       31.8      58.8

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..           24        223     3,286
                                    RATE..           .8        7.7     113.1

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..        2,034        380       147
                                    RATE..         70.0       13.1       5.1

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..        1,794         21        18
                                    RATE..         61.8         .7        .6

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..          962          7         6
                                    RATE..         33.1         .2        .2

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..          654        102        48
                                    RATE..         22.5        3.5       1.7

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..           14         28       531
                                    RATE..           .5        1.0      18.3

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..          386        177        26
                                    RATE..         13.3        6.1        .9

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..          583         12         4
                                    RATE..         20.1         .4        .1



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

              WHITE
        ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..           55         47        336
                                    RATE..          1.9        1.6       11.6

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..          276        152        786
                                    RATE..          9.5        5.2       27.1



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

              WHITE
      LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..    164,520       15,207     12,535
                                    RATE..                 9,243.3    7,691.1

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..                   2,936      2,401
                                    RATE..                 1,784.6    1,459.4

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..                     607         31
                                    RATE..                   369.0       18.8

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..                   2,415      2,276
                                    RATE..                 1,467.9    1,383.4

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..                   1,669      1,652
                                    RATE..                 1,014.5    1,004.1
   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..                     880        875
                                    RATE..                   534.9      531.9

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..                     425        412
                                    RATE..                   258.3      250.4

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..                      75         13
                                    RATE..                    45.6        7.9

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..                     395        376
                                    RATE..                   240.1      228.5

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..                     479        478
                                    RATE..                   291.2      290.5



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

              WHITE
      LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..                     111         33
                                    RATE..                    67.5       20.1

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..                     517        224
                                    RATE..                   314.2      136.2



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

              WHITE
      LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS
           (CONTINUED)

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..       11,009      1,526     2,672
                                    RATE..      6,691.6      927.5   1,624.1

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..        2,104        297       535
                                    RATE..      1,278.9      180.5     325.2

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..            1         30       576
                                    RATE..           .6       18.2     350.1

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..        1,920        356       139
                                    RATE..      1,167.0      216.4      84.5

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..        1,634         18        17
                                    RATE..        993.2       10.9      10.3

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..          868          7         5
                                    RATE..        527.6        4.3       3.0

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..          376         36        13
                                    RATE..        228.5       21.9       7.9

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..            6          7        62
                                    RATE..          3.6        4.3      37.7

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..          258        118        19
                                    RATE..        156.8       71.7      11.5

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..          472          6         1
                                    RATE..        286.9        3.6        .6



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

              WHITE
      LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..           19         14        78
                                    RATE..         11.5        8.5      47.4

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..          150         74       293
                                    RATE..         91.2       45.0     178.1


 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

              WHITE
       2,500 GRAMS OR MORE

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..    2,735,714     11,155     4,567
                                    RATE..                   407.8     166.9

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..                   3,361     2,475
                                    RATE..                   132.7      90.5

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..                   2,923       216
                                    RATE..                   106.8       7.9

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..                      94        87
                                    RATE..                     3.4       3.2

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..                      47        46
                                    RATE..                     1.7       1.7

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..                      18        17
                                    RATE..                      .7        .6

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..                     339       306
                                    RATE..                    12.4      11.2

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..                     495        26
                                    RATE..                    18.1       1.0

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..                     186       179
                                    RATE..                     6.8       6.5

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..                      85        82
                                    RATE..                     3.1       3.0


 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

              WHITE
       2,500 GRAMS OR MORE
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..                     324        68
                                    RATE..                    11.8       2.5

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..                     685       197
                                    RATE..                    25.0       7.2


 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

              WHITE
       2,500 GRAMS OR MORE
           (CONTINUED)

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..       3,207       1,360     6,588
                                    RATE..       117.2        49.7     240.8

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..       1,858         617     1,156
                                    RATE..        67.9        22.6      42.3

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..          23         193     2,707
                                    RATE..          .8         7.1     99.0

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..          68          19         7
                                    RATE..         2.5          .7        .3

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..          44           2         1
                                    RATE..         1.6          .1        .0

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..          17           -         1
                                    RATE..          .6           -        .0

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..         244          62        33
                                    RATE..         8.9         2.3       1.2

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..           5          21       469
                                    RATE..          .2          .8      17.1

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..         121          58         7
                                    RATE..         4.4         2.1        .3

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..          77           5         3
                                    RATE..         2.8          .2        .1


 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

              WHITE
       2,500 GRAMS OR MORE
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..          35          33       256
                                    RATE..         1.3         1.2       9.4

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..         120          77       488
                                    RATE..         4.4         2.8      17.8


 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

              WHITE
      NOT STATED BIRTH WEIGHT

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..     4,147           732        684
                                    RATE..                17,651.3   16,493.9

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..                     184        167
                                    RATE..                 4,436.9    4,027.0

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..                       3          -
                                    RATE..                    72.3          -

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..                      52         51
                                    RATE..                 1,253.9    1,229.8

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..                     117        117
                                    RATE..                 2,821.3    2,821.3

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..                      77         77
                                    RATE..                 1,856.8    1,856.8

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..                      40         38
                                    RATE..                   964.6      916.3

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..                       3          3
                                    RATE..                    72.3       72.3

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..                       8          8
                                    RATE..                   192.9      192.9

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..                      35         35
                                    RATE..                   844.0      844.0



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

              WHITE
      NOT STATED BIRTH WEIGHT

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..                       3          1
                                    RATE..                    72.3       24.1

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..                      12          7
                                    RATE..                   289.4      168.8



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

              WHITE
      NOT STATED BIRTH WEIGHT
           (CONTINUED)

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..           642         42         48
                                    RATE..      15,481.1    1,012.8    1,157.5

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..           156         11         17
                                    RATE..       3,761.8      265.3      409.9

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..             -          -          3
                                    RATE..             -          -       72.3

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..            46          5          1
                                    RATE..       1,109.2      120.6       24.1

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..           116          1          -
                                    RATE..       2,797.2       24.1          -

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..            77          -          -
                                    RATE..       1,856.8          -          -

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..            34          4          2
                                    RATE..         819.9       96.5       48.2

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..             3          -          -
                                    RATE..          72.3          -          -

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..             7          1          -
                                    RATE..         168.8       24.1          -

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..            34          1          -
                                    RATE..         819.9       24.1          -



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

              WHITE
      NOT STATED BIRTH WEIGHT
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..           1           -         2
                                    RATE..        24.1           -      48.2

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..           6           1         5
                                    RATE..       144.7        24.1     120.6



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

              BLACK
        ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..     586,085      11,087      7,202
                                    RATE..                 1,891.7    1,228.8

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..                   1,455      1,030
                                    RATE..                   248.3      175.7

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..                   1,480        122
                                    RATE..                   252.5       20.8

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..                     928        853
                                    RATE..                   158.3      145.5

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..                   1,328      1,312
                                    RATE..                   226.6      223.9

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..                     425        422
                                    RATE..                    72.5       72.0

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..                     332        314
                                    RATE..                    56.6       53.6

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..                     263         24
                                    RATE..                    44.9        4.1

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..                     218        208
                                    RATE..                    37.2       35.5

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..                     212        212
                                    RATE..                    36.2       36.2


 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

              BLACK
        ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..                     252         52
                                    RATE..                    43.0        8.9

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..                     539        144
                                    RATE..                    92.0       24.6


 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

              BLACK
        ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS
           (CONTINUED)

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..        6,151      1,051     3,885
                                    RATE..      1,049.5      179.3     662.9

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..          827        203       425
                                    RATE..        141.1       34.6      72.5

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..           12        110     1,358
                                    RATE..          2.0       18.8     231.7

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..          739        114        75
                                    RATE..         126.1      19.5      12.8

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..        1,301         11        16
                                    RATE..        222.0        1.9       2.7

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..          420          2         3
                                    RATE..         71.7         .3        .5

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..          272         42        18
                                    RATE..         46.4        7.2       3.1

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..            8         16       239
                                    RATE..          1.4        2.7      40.8

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..          141         67        10
                                    RATE..         24.1       11.4       1.7

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..          206          6         -
                                    RATE..         35.1        1.0         -



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

              BLACK
        ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..           27         25        200
                                    RATE..          4.6        4.3       34.1

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..           88         56        395
                                    RATE..         15.0        9.6       67.4



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

              BLACK
      LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..     73,653        7,214      5,620
                                    RATE..                 9,794.6    7,630.4

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..                     700        517
                                    RATE..                   950.4      701.9

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..                     425         26
                                    RATE..                   577.0       35.3

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..                     868        798
                                    RATE..                 1,178.5    1,083.5

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..                   1,175      1,160
                                    RATE..                 1,595.3    1,575.0
   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..                     377        375
                                    RATE..                   511.9      509.1

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..                     220        210
                                    RATE..                   298.7      285.1

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..                      58          8
                                    RATE..                    78.7       10.9

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..                     171        162
                                    RATE..                   232.2      220.0

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..                     166        166
                                    RATE..                   225.4      225.4


 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

              BLACK
      LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..                     108         32
                                    RATE..                   146.6       43.4

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..                     274         89
                                    RATE..                   372.0      120.8



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

              BLACK
      LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS
           (CONTINUED)

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..        4,976        644     1,594
                                    RATE..      6,756.0      874.4   2,164.2

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..          432         85       183
                                    RATE..        586.5      115.4     248.5

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..            2         24       399
                                    RATE..          2.7       32.6     541.7

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..          694        104        70
                                    RATE..        942.3      141.2      95.0

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..        1,151          9        15
                                    RATE..      1,562.7       12.2      20.4

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..          373          2         2
                                    RATE..        506.4        2.7       2.7

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..          192         18        10
                                    RATE..        260.7       24.4      13.6

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..            3          5        50
                                    RATE..          4.1        6.8      67.9

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..          108         54         9
                                    RATE..        146.6       73.3      12.2

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..          165          1         -
                                    RATE..        224.0        1.4         -



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

              BLACK
      LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..           18         14        76
                                    RATE..         24.4       19.0     103.2

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..           54         35       185
                                    RATE..         73.3       47.5     251.2



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

              BLACK
       2,500 GRAMS OR MORE

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..     511,416       3,485      1,210
                                    RATE..                   681.4      236.6

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..                     721        481
                                    RATE..                   141.0       94.1

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..                   1,053         96
                                    RATE..                   205.9       18.8

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..                      42         37
                                    RATE..                     8.2        7.2

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..                      31         30
                                    RATE..                     6.1        5.9

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..                      11         10
                                    RATE..                     2.2        2.0

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..                      97         89
                                    RATE..                    19.0       17.4

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..                     205         16
                                    RATE..                    40.1        3.1

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..                      44         43
                                    RATE..                     8.6        8.4

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..                      31         31
                                    RATE..                     6.1        6.1



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

              BLACK
       2,500 GRAMS OR MORE
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..                     142         19
                                    RATE..                    27.8        3.7

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..                     260         52
                                    RATE..                    50.8       10.2



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

              BLACK
       2,500 GRAMS OR MORE
           (CONTINUED)

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..          816        394     2,275
                                    RATE..        159.6       77.0     444.8

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..          364        117       240
                                    RATE..         71.2       22.9      46.9

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..           10         86       957
                                    RATE..          2.0       16.8     187.1

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..           30          7         5
                                    RATE..          5.9        1.4       1.0

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..           28          2         1
                                    RATE..          5.5         .4        .2

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..           10          -         1
                                    RATE..          2.0          -        .2

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..           67         22         8
                                    RATE..         13.1        4.3       1.6

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..            5         11       189
                                    RATE..          1.0        2.2      37.0

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..           30         13         1
                                    RATE..          5.9        2.5        .2

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..           26          5         -
                                    RATE..          5.1        1.0         -



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

              BLACK
       2,500 GRAMS OR MORE
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..            8         11        123
                                    RATE..          1.6        2.2       24.1

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..           32         20        208
                                    RATE..          6.3        3.9       40.7



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

              BLACK
      NOT STATED BIRTH WEIGHT

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..     1,016           388        372
                                    RATE..                38,189.0   36,614.2

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..                      34         32
                                    RATE..                 3,346.5    3,149.6

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..                       2          -
                                    RATE..                   196.9          -

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..                      18         18
                                    RATE..                 1,771.7    1,771.7

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..                     122        122
                                    RATE..                12,007.9   12,007.9

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..                      37         37
                                    RATE..                 3,641.7    3,641.7

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..                      15         15
                                    RATE..                 1,476.4    1,476.4

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..                       -          -
                                    RATE..                       -          -

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..                       3          3
                                    RATE..                   295.3      295.3

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..                      15         15
                                    RATE..                 1,476.4    1,476.4



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

              BLACK
      NOT STATED BIRTH WEIGHT

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..                       2          1
                                    RATE..                   196.9       98.4

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..                       5          3
                                    RATE..                   492.1      295.3



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

              BLACK
      NOT STATED BIRTH WEIGHT
           (CONTINUED)

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..           359         13         16
                                    RATE..      35,334.6    1,279.5    1,574.8

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..            31          1          2
                                    RATE..       3,051.2       98.4      196.9

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..             -          -          2
                                    RATE..             -          -      196.9

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..            15          3          -
                                    RATE..       1,476.4      295.3          -

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..           122          -          -
                                    RATE..      12,007.9          -          -

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..            37          -          -
                                    RATE..       3,641.7          -          -

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..            13          2          -
                                    RATE..       1.279.5      196.9          -

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..             -          -          -
                                    RATE..             -          -          -

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..             3          -          -
                                    RATE..         295.3          -          -

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..            15          -          -
                                    RATE..       1,476.4          -          -



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

              BLACK
      NOT STATED BIRTH WEIGHT
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..           1           -         1
                                    RATE..        98.4           -      98.4

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..           2           1         2
                                    RATE..       196.9        98.4     196.9


  1 INCLUDES RACES OTHER THAN WHITE AND BLACK.


 1984 Documentation Tables

 1. Live Births/Infant Deaths by State of Occurrence/Residence
                        1984 DOCUMENTATION TABLE 1

          LIVE BIRTHS BY STATE OF OCCURRENCE AND BY STATE OF RESIDENCE
                                      AND
         INFANT DEATHS BY STATE OF OCCURRENCE AND BY STATE OF RESIDENCE
                                 1984 BIRTH COHORT
  (RESIDENCE AT BIRTH IS OF THE MOTHER; RESIDENCE AT DEATH IS OF THE DECEDENT)


                                                        LIVE BIRTHS
       AREA                                 OCCURRENCE               RESIDENCE

    UNITED STATES .........................  3,673,694               3,669,268

 ALABAMA ..................................     58,170                  59,216
 ALASKA ...................................     12,324                  12,455
 ARIZONA ..................................     54,862                  54,999
 ARKANSAS .................................     34,335                  34,844
 CALIFORNIA ...............................    447,609                 447,754

 COLORADO .................................     54,569                  54,364
 CONNECTICUT ..............................     42,078                  42,232
 DELAWARE .................................      9,550                   9,268
 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA .....................     19,628                   9,687
 FLORIDA ..................................    155,199                 155,399

 GEORGIA ..................................     93,774                  92,023
 HAWAII ...................................     18,756                  18,707
 IDAHO ....................................     17,805                  18,030
 ILLINOIS .................................    176,088                 179,275
 INDIANA ..................................     80,099                  80,088

 IOWA .....................................     42,921                  42,367
 KANSAS ...................................     38,935                  40,012
 KENTUCKY .................................     52,121                  53,289
 LOUISIANA ................................     81,496                  81,471
 MAINE ....................................     16,136                  16,772

 MARYLAND .................................     59,304                  65,406
 MASSACHUSETTS ............................     79,755                  78,281
 MICHIGAN .................................    134,885                 136,089
 MINNESOTA ................................     67,040                  66,718
 MISSISSIPPI ..............................     43,358                  43,841
 MISSOURI .................................     76,305                  74,745

 MONTANA ..................................     13,866                  14,141
 NEBRASKA .................................     26,449                  26,127
 NEVADA ...................................     14,769                  14,804
 NEW HAMPSHIRE ............................     14,075                  14,250
 NEW JERSEY ...............................     98,214                 101,333
 NEW MEXICO ...............................     27,088                  27,378

 NEW YORK .................................    251,863                 251,054
   UPSTATE ................................    138,670                 141,446
   CITY ...................................    113,193                 109,608
 NORTH CAROLINA ...........................     86,627                  86,041
 NORTH DAKOTA .............................     12,729                  11,824

 OHIO .....................................    159,222                 158,534
 OKLAHOMA .................................     53,081                  54,477
 OREGON ...................................     40,842                  39,563
 PENNSYLVANIA .............................    158,559                 157,117
 RHODE ISLAND .............................     13,290                  12,659

 SOUTH CAROLINA ...........................     48,296                  50,663
 SOUTH DAKOTA .............................     12,328                  12,445
 TENNESSEE ................................     69,713                  65,006
 TEXAS ....................................    303,579                 299,036
 UTAH .....................................     39,390                  38,300

 VERMONT ..................................      7,805                   8,020
 VIRGINIA .................................     79,365                  82,712
 WASHINGTON ...............................     68,081                  68,926
 WEST VIRGINIA ............................     25,504                  24,585
 WISCONSIN ................................     72,763                  73,187
 WYOMING ..................................      9,094                   9,754

 FOREIGN RESIDENTS ........................        ...                   4,426


                                                INFANT DEATHS
                                      AT BIRTH                 AT DEATH
       AREA                    OCCURRENCE   RESIDENCE   OCCURRENCE   RESIDENCE

    UNITED STATES ............     38,314      38,292       38,314      38,294

 ALABAMA .....................        735         740          753         744
 ALASKA ......................        134         137          126         136
 ARIZONA .....................        511         515          505         512
 ARKANSAS ....................        365         397          358         397
 CALIFORNIA ..................      4,037       4,044        4,042       4,039

 COLORADO ....................        540         524          564         522
 CONNECTICUT .................        411         411          410         411
 DELAWARE ....................         97          95           90          93
 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA ........        310         200          380         197
 FLORIDA .....................      1,701       1,698        1,702       1,697

 GEORGIA .....................      1,149       1,144        1,152       1,154
 HAWAII ......................        189         186          187         183
 IDAHO .......................        162         180          137         177
 ILLINOIS ....................      2,088       2,129        2,046       2,123
 INDIANA .....................        853         843          840         851

 IOWA ........................        354         365          331         367
 KANSAS ......................        370         390          337         390
 KENTUCKY ....................        562         603          544         604
 LOUISIANA ...................        914         913          919         913
 MAINE .......................        124         136          125         135

 MARYLAND ....................        650         724          606         729
 MASSACHUSETTS ...............        665         661          676         660
 MICHIGAN ....................      1,562       1,572        1,553       1,569
 MINNESOTA ...................        615         599          642         603
 MISSISSIPPI .................        600         617          581         619
 MISSOURI ....................        817         774          882         765

 MONTANA .....................        121         123           99         122
 NEBRASKA ....................        257         249          269         249
 NEVADA ......................        152         148          154         149
 NEW HAMPSHIRE ...............        113         121          115         125
 NEW JERSEY ..................      1,008       1,061          955       1,050
 NEW MEXICO ..................        234         247          232         249

 NEW YORK .....................     2,681       2,683        2,685       2,684
   UPSTATE ....................     1,267       1,322        1,240       1,307
   CITY .......................     1,414       1,361        1,445       1,377
 NORTH CAROLINA ...............     1,080       1,063        1,093       1,060
 NORTH DAKOTA .................       107          90          114          92

 OHIO .........................     1,560       1,552        1,576       1,549
 OKLAHOMA .....................       568         581          557         575
 OREGON .......................       396         373          405         372
 PENNSYLVANIA .................     1,646       1,599        1,695       1,602
 RHODE ISLAND .................       142         113          147         117

 SOUTH CAROLINA ...............       701         735          692         735
 SOUTH DAKOTA .................       120         115          108         116
 TENNESSEE ....................       856         763          882         756
 TEXAS ........................     2,994       2,962        3,009       2,969
 UTAH .........................       355         340          396         346

 VERMONT ......................        66          66           59          65
 VIRGINIA .....................       932         976          909         981
 WASHINGTON ...................       643         651          648         652
 WEST VIRGINIA ................       280         263          274         266
 WISCONSIN ....................       689         712          677         709
 WYOMING ......................        98         109           76         114

 FOREIGN RESIDENTS ............       ...          22          ...          20

 2. Live Births/Infant Deaths/Mort. Rates by Race, Sex, Birth Wt.
                       1984  DOCUMENTATION TABLE 2

             LIVE BIRTHS, INFANT DEATHS, AND INFANT MORTALITY RATES
            BY RACE OF CHILD, SEX, AND BIRTH WEIGHT:  UNITED STATES
                               1984 BIRTH COHORT
                        (RATES ARE PER 1000 LIVE BIRTHS)


                                            500    500-749  750-999  1000-1249
 RACE OF CHILD AND SEX          TOTAL      GRAMS    GRAMS    GRAMS     GRAMS


 ALL RACES1
   BOTH SEXES
     LIVE BIRTHS              3,669,268    4,471    7,888    8,927    10,307
     INFANT DEATHS               38,292    3,936    5,899    3,578     1,987
     INF. MORT. RATE               10.4    880.3    747.8    400.8     192.8
   MALE
     LIVE BIRTHS              1,879,750    2,223    4,009    4,662     5,264
     INFANT DEATHS               21,604    1,958    3,195    2,163     1,214
     INF. MORT. RATE               11.5    880.8    797.0    464.0     230.6
   FEMALE
     LIVE BIRTHS              1,789,518    2,248    3,879    4,265     5,043
     INFANT DEATHS               16,688    1,978    2,704    1,415       773
     INF. MORT. RATE                9.3    879.9    697.1    331.8     153.3

 WHITE
   BOTH SEXES
     LIVE BIRTHS              2,923,627    2,559    4,663    5,469     6,632
     INFANT DEATHS               26,158    2,252    3,595    2,373     1,413
     INF. MORT. RATE                8.9    880.0    771.0    433.9     213.1
   MALE
     LIVE BIRTHS              1,500,551    1,258    2,420    2,878     3,411
     INFANT DEATHS               14,978    1,111    1,980    1,433       877
     INF. MORT. RATE               10.0    883.1    818.2    497.9     257.1
   FEMALE
     LIVE BIRTHS              1,423,076    1,301    2,243    2,591     3,221
     INFANT DEATHS               11,180    1,141    1,615      940       536
     INF. MORT. RATE                7.9    877.0    720.0    362.8     166.4

 BLACK
   BOTH SEXES
     LIVE BIRTHS                592,760    1,786    2,949    3,198     3,339
     INFANT DEATHS               10,630    1,573    2,110    1,105       509
     INF. MORT. RATE               17.9    880.7    715.5    345.5     152.4
   MALE
     LIVE BIRTHS                300,979      898    1,451    1,639     1,675
     INFANT DEATHS                5,804      791    1,118      666       301
     INF. MORT. RATE               19.3    880.8    770.5    406.3     179.7
   FEMALE
     LIVE BIRTHS                291,781      888    1,498    1,559     1,664
     INFANT DEATHS                4,826      782      992      439       208
     INF. MORT. RATE               16.5    880.6    662.2    281.6     125.0


  1 INCLUDES RACES OTHER THAN WHITE AND BLACK.


                           1250-1499  1500-1999  2000-2499  2500 GRAMS    NOT
 RACE OF CHILD AND SEX       GRAMS      GRAMS      GRAMS      OR MORE   STATED


 ALL RACES1
   BOTH SEXES
     LIVE BIRTHS             11,961     47,064    155,552   3,418,022   5,076
     INFANT DEATHS            1,301      2,627      3,228      14,577   1,159
     INF. MORT. RATE          108.8       55.8       20.8         4.3   228.3
   MALE
     LIVE BIRTHS              6,115     23,186     70,924   1,760,765   2,602
     INFANT DEATHS              795      1,487      1,751       8,428     613
     INF. MORT. RATE          130.0       64.1       24.7         4.8   235.6
   FEMALE
     LIVE BIRTHS              5,846     23,878     84,628   1,657,257   2,474
     INFANT DEATHS              506      1,140      1,477       6,149     546
     INF. MORT. RATE           86.6       47.7       17.5         3.7   220.7

 WHITE
   BOTH SEXES
     LIVE BIRTHS              7,674     31,192    105,028   2,756,485   3,925
     INFANT DEATHS              930      1,908      2,288      10,671     728
     INF. MORT. RATE          121.2       61.2       21.8         3.9   185.5
   MALE
     LIVE BIRTHS              3,979     15,538     48,382   1,420,688   1,997
     INFANT DEATHS              574      1,112      1,284       6,222     385
     INF. MORT. RATE          144.3       71.6       26.5         4.4   192.8
   FEMALE
     LIVE BIRTHS              3,695     15,654     56,646   1,335,797   1,928
     INFANT DEATHS              356        796      1,004       4,449     343
     INF. MORT. RATE           96.3       50.8       17.7         3.3   177.9

 BLACK
   BOTH SEXES
     LIVE BIRTHS              3,843     14,163     43,878     518,692     912
     INFANT DEATHS              322        631        790       3,212     378
     INF. MORT. RATE           83.8       44.6       18.0         6.2   414.5

   MALE
     LIVE BIRTHS              1,912      6,785     19,441     266,713     465
     INFANT DEATHS              193        333        401       1,807     194
     INF. MORT. RATE          100.9       49.1       20.6         6.8   417.2
   FEMALE
     LIVE BIRTHS              1,931      7,378     24,437     251,979     447
     INFANT DEATHS              129        298        389       1,405     184
     INF. MORT. RATE           66.8       40.4       15.9         5.6   411.6


  1 INCLUDES RACES OTHER THAN WHITE AND BLACK.

 3. Live Birth/Infant Death/Mort Rate by Birth Wt.,Race,Gest. Age
                        1984 DOCUMENTATION TABLE 3

             LIVE BIRTHS, INFANT DEATHS, AND INFANT MORTALITY RATES
      BY BIRTH WEIGHT, RACE OF CHILD, AND GESTATIONAL AGE:  UNITED STATES
                               1984 BIRTH COHORT
                        (RATES ARE PER 1000 LIVE BIRTHS)

                                                  GESTATION
 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE                       <28     28-31    32-35      36
      OF CHILD                   TOTAL      WEEKS    WEEKS    WEEKS    WEEKS


 ALL RACES1

 TOTAL
   LIVE BIRTHS                3,669,268    25,972   38,354   157,768  108,341
   INFANT DEATHS                 38,292    11,256    3,509     3,653    1,204
   INF. MORT. RATE                 10.4     433.4     91.5      23.2     11.1

 LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                  246,170    19,532   25,505    65,817   21,788
   INFANT DEATHS                 22,556    10,545    3,238     2,677      592
   INF. MORT. RATE                 91.6     539.9    127.0      40.7     27.2

   LESS THAN 500 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                  4,471     3,340      153        68       15
     INFANT DEATHS                3,936     3,066      123        41        7
     INF. MORT. RATE              880.3     918.0    803.9     602.9    466.7

   500-749 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                  7,888     5,475      786       208       40
     INFANT DEATHS                5,899     4,337      501       138       18
     INF. MORT. RATE              747.8     792.1    637.4     663.5    450.0

   750-999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                  8,927     4,853    2,062       559       59
     INFANT DEATHS                3,578     2,182      646       164       23
     INF. MORT. RATE              400.8     449.6    313.3     293.4    389.8

   1,000-1,249 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                 10,307     2,361    4,636     1,569      162
     INFANT DEATHS                1,987       636      755       267       30
     INF. MORT. RATE              192.8     269.4    162.9     170.2    185.2

   1,250-1,499 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                 11,961       958    5,315     3,176      319
     INFANT DEATHS                1,301       163      535       303       37
     INF. MORT. RATE              108.8     170.1    100.7      95.4    116.0

   1,500-1,999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                 47,064     1,327    8,502    19,603    3,524
     INFANT DEATHS                2,627       103      514       913      169
     INF. MORT. RATE               55.8      77.6     60.5      46.6     48.0


                                                  GESTATION
 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE                       <28     28-31    32-35      36
      OF CHILD                   TOTAL      WEEKS    WEEKS    WEEKS    WEEKS


 ALL RACES1 CONTINUED

   2,000-2,499 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                155,552     1,218    4,051    40,634   17,669
     INFANT DEATHS                3,228        58      164       851      308
     INF. MORT. RATE               20.8      47.6     40.5      20.9     17.4

 2,500-2,999 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                  583,512     1,837    4,454    40,183   37,590
   INFANT DEATHS                  4,547        44       89       477      322
   INF. MORT. RATE                  7.8      24.0     20.0      11.9      8.6

 3,000-3,499 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                1,345,139     2,294    5,058    32,635   32,190
   INFANT DEATHS                  5,548        49       44       281      182
   INF. MORT. RATE                  4.1      21.4      8.7       8.6      5.7

 3,500-3,999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS              1,083,116     1,229    2,505    14,966   13,028
     INFANT DEATHS                3,150        28       28       104       65
     INF. MORT. RATE                2.9      22.8     11.2       6.9      5.0

 4,000-4,499 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                335,176       299      523     3,287    3,027
     INFANT DEATHS                  961        18        7        22       17
     INF. MORT. RATE                2.9      60.2     13.7       6.7      5.6

 4,500-4,999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                 62,629        78      109       521      544
     INFANT DEATHS                  215        22        4         3        2
     INF. MORT. RATE                3.4     282.1     36.7       5.8      3.7

 5,000 GRAMS OR MORE
     LIVE BIRTHS                  8,450        96       20        94       77
     INFANT DEATHS                  156        63        4         7        2
     INF. MORT. RATE               18.5     656.3    200.0      74.5     26.0

 NOT STATED
     LIVE BIRTHS                  5,076       607      180       265       97
     INFANT DEATHS                1,159       487       95        82       22
     INF. MORT. RATE              228.3     802.3    527.8     309.4    226.8



                                                  GESTATION
 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE         37-39      40        41       42 WEEKS    NOT
      OF CHILD                 WEEKS     WEEKS     WEEKS     OR MORE    STATED


 ALL RACES1 CONTINUED

 TOTAL
   LIVE BIRTHS               1,319,030  785,108   546,353    530,692   157,650
   INFANT DEATHS                 6,856    3,004     2,296      2,917     3,597
   INF. MORT. RATE                 5.2      3.8       4.2        5.5      22.8

 LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                  62,626   14,328     8,302     11,471    16,801
   INFANT DEATHS                 1,638      457       367        528     2,514
   INF. MORT. RATE                26.2     31.9      44.2       46.0     149.6

   LESS THAN 500 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                    72       38        58         42       685
     INFANT DEATHS                  27       11        37         19       605
     INF. MORT. RATE             375.0    289.5     637.9      452.4     883.2

   500-749 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                   166       93        65        117       938
     INFANT DEATHS                  55       36        29         56       729
     INF. MORT. RATE             331.3    387.1     446.2      478.6     777.2

   750-999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                   189      107        74        104       920
     INFANT DEATHS                  72       25        24         34       408
     INF. MORT. RATE             381.0    233.6     324.3      326.9     443.5

   1,000-1,249 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                   331      112        90        148       898
     INFANT DEATHS                  44       20        17         22       196
     INF. MORT. RATE             132.9    178.6     188.9      148.6     218.3

   1,250-1,499 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                   738      148       110        201       996
     INFANT DEATHS                  91       14        20         23       115
     INF. MORT. RATE             123.3     94.6     181.8      114.4     115.5

   1,500-1,999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                 7,100    1,286       890      1,416     3,416
     INFANT DEATHS                 405       91        71        121       240
     INF. MORT. RATE              57.0     70.8      79.8       85.5      70.3



                                                  GESTATION
 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE         37-39      40        41       42 WEEKS    NOT
      OF CHILD                 WEEKS     WEEKS     WEEKS     OR MORE    STATED


 ALL RACES1 CONTINUED

   2,000-2,499 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                54,030   12,544     7,015      9,443     8,948
     INFANT DEATHS                 944      260       169        253       221
     INF. MORT. RATE              17.5     20.7      24.1       26.8      24.7

 2,500-2,999 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                 269,815   90,783    51,111     59,297    28,442
   INFANT DEATHS                 1,780      596       406        556       277
   INF. MORT. RATE                 6.6      6.6       7.9        9.4       9.7

 3,000-3,499 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                 553,510  298,417   185,254    179,884    55,897
   INFANT DEATHS                 2,102      993       714        877       306
   INF. MORT. RATE                 3.8      3.3       3.9        4.9       5.5

 3,500-3,999 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                 341,018  278,523   205,060    186,649    40,138
   INFANT DEATHS                   948      666       537        615       159
   INF. MORT. RATE                 2.8      2.4       2.6        3.3       4.0

 4,000-4,499 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                  77,962   86,363    78,077     74,003    11,635
   INFANT DEATHS                   228      206       189        228        46
   INF. MORT. RATE                 2.9      2.4       2.4        3.1       4.0

 4,500-4,999 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                  11,703   14,607    16,197     16,658     2,212
   INFANT DEATHS                    46       40        35         45        18
   INF. MORT. RATE                 3.9      2.7       2.2        2.7       8.1

 5,000 GRAMS OR MORE
   LIVE BIRTHS                   1,597    1,697     2,067      2,440       362
   INFANT DEATHS                    11       10        18         22        19
   INF. MORT. RATE                 6.9      5.9       8.7        9.0      52.5

 NOT STATED
   LIVE BIRTHS                     799      390       285        290     2,163
   INFANT DEATHS                   103       36        30         46       258
   INF. MORT. RATE               128.9     92.3     105.3      158.6     119.3



                                                  GESTATION
 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE                      < 28     28-31    32-35      36
      OF CHILD                   TOTAL      WEEKS    WEEKS    WEEKS    WEEKS


 WHITE

 TOTAL
   LIVE BIRTHS                2,923,627    15,066   23,545   104,986   77,487
   INFANT DEATHS                 26,158     6,933    2,392     2,519      869
   INF. MORT. RATE                  8.9     460.2    101.6      24.0     11.2

 LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                  163,217    11,393   16,161    44,965   14,844
   INFANT DEATHS                 14,759     6,540    2,235     1,886      424
   INF. MORT. RATE                 90.4     574.0    138.3      41.9     28.6

   LESS THAN 500 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                  2,559     1,923       79        40        9
     INFANT DEATHS                2,252     1,779       66        24        4
     INF. MORT. RATE              880.0     925.1    835.4     600.0    444.4

   500-749 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                  4,663     3,263      460       111       20
     INFANT DEATHS                3,595     2,658      317        77        9
     INF. MORT. RATE              771.0     814.6    689.1     693.7    450.0

   750-999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                  5,469     2,994    1,238       365       25
     INFANT DEATHS                2,373     1,463      422       114       15
     INF. MORT. RATE              433.9     488.6    340.9     312.3    600.0

   1,000-1,249 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                  6,632     1,484    2,998     1,039      119
     INFANT DEATHS                1,413       438      545       195       21
     INF. MORT. RATE              213.1     295.1    181.8     187.7    176.5

   1,250-1,499 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                  7,674       507    3,511     2,065      212
     INFANT DEATHS                  930       114      395       214       30
     INF. MORT. RATE              121.2     224.9    112.5     103.6    141.5

   1,500-1,999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                 31,192       627    5,676    13,132    2,347
     INFANT DEATHS                1,908        57      380       650      131
     INF. MORT. RATE               61.2      90.9     66.9      49.5     55.8



                                                  GESTATION
 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE                      < 28     28-31    32-35      36
      OF CHILD                   TOTAL      WEEKS    WEEKS    WEEKS    WEEKS


 WHITE CONTINUED

   2,000-2,499 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                105,028       595    2,199    28,213   12,112
     INFANT DEATHS                2,288        31      110       612      214
     INF. MORT. RATE               21.8      52.1     50.0      21.7     17.7

 2,500-2,999 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                  413,512       925    2,232    26,161   26,850
   INFANT DEATHS                  3,120        19       44       305      219
   INF. MORT. RATE                  7.5      20.5     19.7      11.7      8.2

 3,000-3,499 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                1,055,523     1,271    2,895    20,352   23,106
   INFANT DEATHS                  3,993        23       28       166      142
   INF. MORT. RATE                  3.8      18.1      9.7       8.2      6.1

 3,500-3,999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS              1,083,116     1,229    2,505    14,966   13,028
     INFANT DEATHS                3,150        28       28       104       65
     INF. MORT. RATE                2.9      22.8     11.2       6.9      5.0

 4,000-4,499 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                335,176       299      523     3,287    3,027
     INFANT DEATHS                  961        18        7        22       17
     INF. MORT. RATE                2.9      60.2     13.4       6.7      5.6

 4,500-4,999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                 62,629        78      109       521      544
     INFANT DEATHS                  215        22        4         3        2
     INF. MORT. RATE                3.4     282.1     36.7       5.8      3.7

 5,000 GRAMS OR MORE
     LIVE BIRTHS                  8,450        96       20        94       77
     INFANT DEATHS                  156        63        4         7        2
     INF. MORT. RATE               18.5     656.3    200.0      74.5     26.0

 NOT STATED
     LIVE BIRTHS                  5,076       607      180       265       97
     INFANT DEATHS                1,159       487       95        82       22
     INF. MORT. RATE              228.3     802.3    527.8     309.4    226.8



                                                  GESTATION
 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE         37-39      40        41       42 WEEKS    NOT
      OF CHILD                 WEEKS     WEEKS     WEEKS     OR MORE    STATED


 WHITE CONTINUED

 TOTAL
   LIVE BIRTHS               1,028,531  651,003   463,577    438,702   120,730
   INFANT DEATHS                 4,922    2,220     1,772      2,203     2,328
   INF. MORT. RATE                 4.8      3.4       3.8        5.0      19.3

 LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                  41,846    9,735     5,710      7,565    10,998
   INFANT DEATHS                 1,144      328       260        365     1,577
   INF. MORT. RATE                27.3     33.7      45.5       48.2     143.4

   LESS THAN 500 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                    43       25        32         26       382
     INFANT DEATHS                  15        4        17         11       332
     INF. MORT. RATE             348.8    160.0     531.3      423.1     869.1

   500-749 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                   101       49        39         75       545
     INFANT DEATHS                  29       20        14         30       441
     INF. MORT. RATE             287.1    408.2     359.0      400.0     809.2

   750-999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                   115       59        40         63       570
     INFANT DEATHS                  47       15        13         22       262
     INF. MORT. RATE             408.7    254.2     325.0      349.2     459.6

   1,000-1,249 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                   210       66        64         84       568
     INFANT DEATHS                  33       11        15         15       140
     INF. MORT. RATE             157.1    166.7     234.4      178.6     246.5

   1,250-1,499 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                   440      104        80        125       630
     INFANT DEATHS                  57       11        19         17        73
     INF. MORT. RATE             129.5    105.8     237.5      136.0     115.9

   1,500-1,999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                 4,713      854       580        966     2,297
     INFANT DEATHS                 297       67        57         88       181
     INF. MORT. RATE              63.0     78.5      98.3       91.1      78.8



                                                  GESTATION
 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE         37-39      40        41       42 WEEKS    NOT
      OF CHILD                 WEEKS     WEEKS     WEEKS     OR MORE    STATED


 WHITE CONTINUED

   2,000-2,499 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                36,224    8,578     4,875      6,226     6,006
     INFANT DEATHS                 666      200       125        182       148
     INF. MORT. RATE              18.4     23.3      25.6       29.2      24.6

 2,500-2,999 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                 190,864   66,427    37,630     42,534    19,889
   INFANT DEATHS                 1,205      418       302        409       199
   INF. MORT. RATE                 6.3      6.3       8.0        9.6      10.0

 3,000-3,499 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                 430,016  240,569   152,048    142,769    42,497
   INFANT DEATHS                 1,518      714       536        660       206
   INF. MORT. RATE                 3.5      3.0       3.5        4.6       4.8

 3,500-3,999 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                 285,630  241,616   180,074    161,370    33,135
   INFANT DEATHS                   744      519       448        494       117
   INF. MORT. RATE                 2.6      2.1       2.5        3.1       3.5

 4,000-4,499 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                  68,028   77,715    71,094     66,694    10,088
   INFANT DEATHS                   184      175       161        194        41
   INF. MORT. RATE                 2.7      2.3       2.3        2.9       4.1

 4,500-4,999 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                  10,236   13,158    14,901     15,321     1,975
   INFANT DEATHS                    37       34        28         36        12
   INF. MORT. RATE                 3.6      2.6       1.9        2.3       6.1

 5,000 GRAMS OR MORE
   LIVE BIRTHS                   1,306    1,479     1,890      2,216       307
   INFANT DEATHS                    10        8        16         16        11
   INF. MORT. RATE                 7.7      5.4       8.5        7.2      35.8

 NOT STATED
   LIVE BIRTHS                     605      304       230        233     1,841
   INFANT DEATHS                    80       24        21         29       165
   INF. MORT. RATE               132.2     78.9      91.3      124.5      89.6



                                                  GESTATION
 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE                      < 28     28-31    32-35      36
      OF CHILD                     TOTAL    WEEKS    WEEKS    WEEKS    WEEKS


 BLACK

 TOTAL
   LIVE BIRTHS                   592,760   10,117   13,354   45,905   26,251
   INFANT DEATHS                  10,630    3,990      998      986      279
   INF. MORT. RATE                  17.9    394.4     74.7     21.5     10.6

 LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                    73,156    7,574    8,472   18,458    6,054
   INFANT DEATHS                   7,040    3,697      895      700      139
   INF. MORT. RATE                  96.2    488.1    105.6     37.9     23.0

   LESS THAN 500 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                   1,786    1,330       70       25        6
     INFANT DEATHS                 1,573    1,203       54       14        3
     INF. MORT. RATE               880.7    904.5    771.4    560.4    500.0

   500-749 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                   2,949    2,051      298       83       20
     INFANT DEATHS                 2,110    1,547      167       54        9
     INF. MORT. RATE               715.5    754.3    560.4    650.6    450.0

   750-999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                   3,198    1,725      762      185       33
     INFANT DEATHS                 1,105      661      202       49        8
     INF. MORT. RATE               345.5    383.2    265.1    264.9    242.4

   1,000-1,249 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                   3,339      799    1,499      484       35
     INFANT DEATHS                   509      176      186       64        8
     INF. MORT. RATE               152.4    220.3    124.1    132.2    228.6

   1,250-1,499 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                   3,843      422    1,625    1,007       95
     INFANT DEATHS                   322       45      118       81        6
     INF. MORT. RATE                83.8    106.6     72.6     80.4     63.2

   1,500-1,999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                  14,163      653    2,540    5,772    1,040
     INFANT DEATHS                   631       41      124      233       31
     INF. MORT. RATE                44.6     62.8     48.8     40.4     29.8



                                                  GESTATION
 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE                      < 28     28-31    32-35      36
      OF CHILD                     TOTAL    WEEKS    WEEKS    WEEKS    WEEKS


 BLACK CONTINUED

   2,000-2,499 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                  43,878      594    1,678   10,902    4,825
     INFANT DEATHS                   790       24       44      205       74
     INF. MORT. RATE                18.0     40.4     26.2     18.8     15.3

 2,500-2,999 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                   140,269      859    2,016   12,270    9,079
   INFANT DEATHS                   1,203       23       40      150       84
   INF. MORT. RATE                   8.6     26.8     19.8     12.2      9.3

 3,000-3,499 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                   227,559      944    1,934   10,511    7,753
   INFANT DEATHS                   1,277       26       15       94       36
   INF. MORT. RATE                   5.6     27.5      7.8      8.9      4.6

 3,500-3,999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                 119,608      364      724    3,856    2,708
     INFANT DEATHS                   538       18       13       22       11
     INF. MORT. RATE                 4.5     49.5     18.0      5.7      4.1

 4,000-4,499 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                  26,274       82      112      624      551
     INFANT DEATHS                   115        4        2        2        2
     INF. MORT. RATE                 4.4     48.8     17.9      3.2      3.6

 4,500-4,999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                   4,229       21       19       97       88
     INFANT DEATHS                    38       10        1        1        -
     INF. MORT. RATE                 9.0    476.2     52.6     10.3        -

 5,000 GRAMS OR MORE
     LIVE BIRTHS                     753       27       11       25        6
     INFANT DEATHS                    41       19        3        2        -
     INF. MORT. RATE                54.4    703.7    272.7     80.0        -

 NOT STATED
     LIVE BIRTHS                     912      246       66       64       12
     INFANT DEATHS                   378      193       29       15        7
     INF. MORT. RATE               414.5    784.6    439.4    234.4    583.3



                                                  GESTATION
 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE         37-39      40        41       42 WEEKS    NOT
      OF CHILD                 WEEKS     WEEKS     WEEKS     OR MORE    STATED


 BLACK CONTINUED

 TOTAL
   LIVE BIRTHS                230,912   103,751    64,059     73,656    24,755
   INFANT DEATHS                1,607       662       436        582     1,090
   INF. MORT. RATE                7.0       6.4       6.8        7.9      44.0

 LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                 18,072     3,995     2,244      3,481     4,806
   INFANT DEATHS                  426       120        98        145       820
   INF. MORT. RATE               23.6      30.0      43.7       41.7     170.6

   LESS THAN 500 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                   24        12        23         14       282
     INFANT DEATHS                 11         6        20          7       255
     INF. MORT. RATE            458.3     500.0     869.6      500.0     904.3

   500-749 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                   52        35        22         35       353
     INFANT DEATHS                 23        16        15         23       256
     INF. MORT. RATE            442.3     457.1     681.8      657.1     725.2

   750-999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                   67        40        31         39       316
     INFANT DEATHS                 24         9        11         12       129
     INF. MORT. RATE            358.2     225.0     354.8      307.7     408.2

   1,000-1,249 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                  111        43        24         57       287
     INFANT DEATHS                 10         8         2          7        48
     INF. MORT. RATE             90.1     186.0      83.3      122.8     167.2

   1,250-1,499 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                  265        43        23         66       297
     INFANT DEATHS                 30         3         1          5        33
     INF. MORT. RATE            113.2      69.8      43.5       75.8     111.1

   1,500-1,999 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS                2,151       391       272        406       938
     INFANT DEATHS                 92        23        10         28        49
     INF. MORT. RATE             42.8      58.8      36.8       69.0      52.2



                                                  GESTATION
 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE         37-39      40        41       42 WEEKS    NOT
      OF CHILD                 WEEKS     WEEKS     WEEKS     OR MORE    STATED


 BLACK CONTINUED

   2,000-2,499 GRAMS
     LIVE BIRTHS               15,402     3,431     1,849      2,864     2,333
     INFANT DEATHS                236        55        39         63        50
     INF. MORT. RATE             15.3      16.0      21.1       22.0      21.4

 2,500-2,999 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                 64,690    19,908    11,146     14,270     6,031
   INFANT DEATHS                  485       148        82        126        65
   INF. MORT. RATE                7.5       7.4       7.4        8.8      10.8

 3,000-3,499 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                 96,968    44,805    26,004     30,091     8,549
   INFANT DEATHS                  476       235       148        174        73
   INF. MORT. RATE                4.9       5.2       5.7        5.8       8.5

 3,500-3,999 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                 42,456    27,479    18,551     19,363     4,107
   INFANT DEATHS                  165       118        70         91        30
   INF. MORT. RATE                3.9       4.3       3.8        4.7       7.3

 4,000-4,499 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                  7,341     6,300     5,027      5,373       864
   INFANT DEATHS                   31        24        22         25         3
   INF. MORT. RATE                4.2       3.8       4.4        4.7       3.5

 4,500-4,999 GRAMS
   LIVE BIRTHS                  1,039     1,018       925        883       139
   INFANT DEATHS                    5         4         7          5         5
   INF. MORT. RATE                4.8       3.9       7.6        5.7      36.0

 5,000 GRAMS OR MORE
   LIVE BIRTHS                    198       178       129        151        28
   INFANT DEATHS                    1         2         2          4         8
   INF. MORT. RATE                5.1      11.2      15.5       26.5     285.7

 NOT STATED
   LIVE BIRTHS                    148        68        33         44       231
   INFANT DEATHS                   18        11         7         12        86
   INF. MORT. RATE              121.6     161.8     212.1      272.7     372.3


  1 INCLUDES RACES OTHER THAN WHITE AND BLACK.

 4. Live Birth/Infant Death/Mort Rate by Birth Wt,Race,Age at Dea
                        1984 DOCUMENTATION TABLE 4

             LIVE BIRTHS, INFANT DEATHS, AND INFANT MORTALITY RATES
        BY BIRTH WEIGHT, RACE OF CHILD, AND AGE AT DEATH:  UNITED STATES
                               1984 BIRTH COHORT

      (INFANT DEATHS ARE UNDER 1 YEAR.  NEONATAL DEATHS ARE UNDER 28 DAYS;
              EARLY NEONATAL, 0-6 DAYS; LATE NEONATAL, 7-27 DAYS;
                  AND POSTNEONATAL, 28 DAYS THROUGH 11 MONTHS)

                        (RATES ARE PER 1000 LIVE BIRTHS)


 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE                         LIVE         INFANT     TOTAL
      OF CHILD                                BIRTHS        DEATHS    NEONATAL

     ALL RACES1

 TOTAL (ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS)...NUMBER..        3,669,268      38,292     24,995
                               RATE..                         10.4        6.8

 LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS.......NUMBER..          246,170      22,556     18,327
                               RATE..                         91.6       74.4

   LESS THAN 500 GRAMS.......NUMBER..            4,471       3,936      3,902
                               RATE..                        880.3      872.7

   500-749 GRAMS.............NUMBER..            7,888       5,899      5,472
                               RATE..                        747.8      693.7

   750-999 GRAMS.............NUMBER..            8,927       3,578      2,925
                               RATE..                        400.8      327.7

   1,000-1,249 GRAMS.........NUMBER..           10,307       1,987      1,497
                               RATE..                        192.8      145.2

   1,250-1,499 GRAMS.........NUMBER..           11,961       1,301        956
                               RATE..                        108.8       79.9

   1,500-1,999 GRAMS.........NUMBER..           47,064       2,627      1,769
                               RATE..                         55.8       37.6

   2,000-2,499 GRAMS.........NUMBER..          155,552       3,228      1,806
                               RATE..                         20.8       11.6

 2,500-2,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..          583,512       4,547      1,837
                               RATE..                          7.8        3.1

 3,000-3,499 GRAMS...........NUMBER..        1,345,139       5,548      1,963
                               RATE..                          4.1        1.5



 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE                         LIVE         INFANT     TOTAL
      OF CHILD                                BIRTHS        DEATHS    NEONATAL


 ALL RACES1 CONTINUED

 3,500-3,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..        1,083,116       3,150      1,152
                               RATE..                          2.9        1.1

 4,000-4,499 GRAMS...........NUMBER..          335,176         961        400
                               RATE..                          2.9        1.2

 4,500-4,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..           62,629         215        113
                               RATE..                          3.4        1.8

 5,000 GRAMS OR MORE.........NUMBER..            8,450         156        120
                               RATE..                         18.5       14.2

 NOT STATED..................NUMBER..            5,076       1,159      1,083
                               RATE..                        228.3      213.4



 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE                         EARLY        LATE        POST
      OF CHILD                                NEONATAL    NEONATAL    NEONATAL

 ALL RACES1 CONTINUED

 TOTAL (ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS)...NUMBER..          20,977       4,018      13,297
                               RATE..             5.7         1.1         3.6

 LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS.......NUMBER..          16,035       2,292       4,229
                               RATE..            65.1         9.3        17.2

   LESS THAN 500 GRAMS.......NUMBER..           3,876          26          34
                               RATE..           866.9         5.8         7.6

   500-749 GRAMS.............NUMBER..           5,055         417         427
                               RATE..           640.8        52.9        54.1

   750-999 GRAMS.............NUMBER..           2,387         538         653
                               RATE..           267.4        60.3        73.1

   1,000-1,249 GRAMS.........NUMBER..           1,144         353         490
                               RATE..           111.0        34.2        47.5

   1,250-1,499 GRAMS.........NUMBER..             742         214         345
                               RATE..            62.0        17.9        28.8

   1,500-1,999 GRAMS.........NUMBER..           1,443         326         858
                               RATE..            30.7         6.9        18.2

   2,000-2,499 GRAMS.........NUMBER..           1,388         418       1,422
                               RATE..             8.9         2.7         9.1

 2,500-2,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..           1,283         554       2,710
                               RATE..             2.2          .9         4.6

 3,000-3,499 GRAMS...........NUMBER..           1,346         617       3,585
                               RATE..             1.0          .5         2.7

 3,500-3,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..             794         358       1,998
                               RATE..              .7          .3         1.8



 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE                         EARLY        LATE        POST
      OF CHILD                                NEONATAL    NEONATAL    NEONATAL

 ALL RACES1 CONTINUED

 4,000-4,499 GRAMS...........NUMBER..             299         101         561
                               RATE..              .9          .3         1.7

 4,500-4,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..              90          23         102
                               RATE..             1.4          .4         1.6

 5,000 GRAMS OR MORE.........NUMBER..             103          17          36
                               RATE..            12.2         2.0         4.3

 NOT STATED..................NUMBER..           1,027          56          76
                               RATE..           202.3        11.0        15.0



 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE                         LIVE         INFANT     TOTAL
      OF CHILD                                BIRTHS        DEATHS    NEONATAL

            WHITE

 TOTAL (ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS)...NUMBER..        2,923,627      26,158     17,178
                               RATE..                          8.9        5.9

 LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS.......NUMBER..          163,217      14,759     12,233
                               RATE..                         90.4       74.9

   LESS THAN 500 GRAMS.......NUMBER..            2,559       2,252      2,235
                               RATE..                        880.0      873.4

   500-749 GRAMS.............NUMBER..            4,663       3,595      3,371
                               RATE..                        771.0      722.9

   750-999 GRAMS.............NUMBER..            5,469       2,373      2,035
                               RATE..                        433.9      372.1

   1,000-1,249 GRAMS.........NUMBER..            6,632       1,413      1,118
                               RATE..                        213.1      168.6

   1,250-1,499 GRAMS.........NUMBER..            7,674         930        711
                               RATE..                        121.2       92.7

   1,500-1,999 GRAMS.........NUMBER..           31,192       1,908      1,371
                               RATE..                         61.2       44.0

   2,000-2,499 GRAMS.........NUMBER..          105,028       2,288      1,392
                               RATE..                         21.8       13.3

 2,500-2,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..          413,512       3,120      1,350
                               RATE..                          7.5        3.3

 3,000-3,499 GRAMS...........NUMBER..        1,055,523       3,993      1,505
                               RATE..                          3.8        1.4

 3,500-3,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..          924,435       2,474        908
                               RATE..                          2.7        1.0



 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE                         LIVE         INFANT     TOTAL
      OF CHILD                                BIRTHS        DEATHS    NEONATAL


         WHITE CONTINUED

 4,000-4,499 GRAMS...........NUMBER..          299,072         806        336
                               RATE..                          2.7        1.1

 4,500-4,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..           56,538         165         81
                               RATE..                          2.9        1.4

 5,000 GRAMS OR MORE.........NUMBER..            7,405         113         86
                               RATE..                         15.3       11.6

 NOT STATED..................NUMBER..            3,925         728        679
                               RATE..                        185.5      173.0



 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE                         EARLY        LATE        POST
      OF CHILD                                NEONATAL    NEONATAL    NEONATAL

         WHITE CONTINUED

 TOTAL (ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS)...NUMBER..          14,304       2,874       8,980
                               RATE..             4.9         1.0         3.1

 LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS.......NUMBER..          10,681       1,552       2,526
                               RATE..            65.4         9.5        15.5

   LESS THAN 500 GRAMS.......NUMBER..           2,217          18          17
                               RATE..           866.4         7.0         6.6

   500-749 GRAMS.............NUMBER..           3,130         241         224
                               RATE..           671.2        51.7        48.0

   750-999 GRAMS.............NUMBER..           1,667         368         338
                               RATE..           304.8        67.3        61.8

   1,000-1,249 GRAMS.........NUMBER..             876         242         295
                               RATE..           132.1        36.5        44.5

   1,250-1,499 GRAMS.........NUMBER..             563         148         219
                               RATE..            73.4        19.3        28.5

   1,500-1,999 GRAMS.........NUMBER..           1,138         233         537
                               RATE..            36.5         7.5        17.2

   2,000-2,499 GRAMS.........NUMBER..           1,090         302         896
                               RATE..            10.4         2.9         8.5

 2,500-2,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..             953         397       1,770
                               RATE..             2.3         1.0         4.3

 3,000-3,499 GRAMS...........NUMBER..           1,032         473       2,488
                               RATE..             1.0          .4         2.4

 3,500-3,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..             622         286       1,566
                               RATE..              .7          .3         1.7



 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE                         EARLY        LATE        POST
      OF CHILD                                NEONATAL    NEONATAL    NEONATAL

         WHITE CONTINUED

 4,000-4,499 GRAMS...........NUMBER..             248          88         470
                               RATE..              .8          .3         1.6

 4,500-4,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..              62          19          84
                               RATE..             1.1          .3         1.5

 5,000 GRAMS OR MORE.........NUMBER..              71          15          27
                               RATE..             9.6         2.0         3.6

 NOT STATED..................NUMBER..             635          44          49
                               RATE..           161.8        11.2        12.5



 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE                          LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      OF CHILD                                 BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

            BLACK

 TOTAL (ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS)...NUMBER..          592,760      10,630      6,927
                               RATE..                         17.9       11.7

 LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS.......NUMBER..           73,156       7,040      5,490
                               RATE..                         96.2       75.0

   LESS THAN 500 GRAMS.......NUMBER..            1,786       1,573      1,557
                               RATE..                        880.7      871.8

   500-749 GRAMS.............NUMBER..            2,949       2,110      1,922
                               RATE..                        715.5      651.7

   750-999 GRAMS.............NUMBER..            3,198       1,105        809
                               RATE..                        345.5      253.0

   1,000-1,249 GRAMS.........NUMBER..            3,339         509        328
                               RATE..                        152.4       98.2

   1,250-1,499 GRAMS.........NUMBER..            3,843         322        207
                               RATE..                         83.8       53.9

   1,500-1,999 GRAMS.........NUMBER..           14,163         631        339
                               RATE..                         44.6       23.9

   2,000-2,499 GRAMS.........NUMBER..           43,878         790        328
                               RATE..                         18.0        7.5

 2,500-2,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..          140,269       1,203        400
                               RATE..                          8.6        2.9

 3,000-3,499 GRAMS...........NUMBER..          227,559       1,277        371
                               RATE..                          5.6        1.6

 3,500-3,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..          119,608         538        203
                               RATE..                          4.5        1.7



 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE                          LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      OF CHILD                                 BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL


         BLACK CONTINUED

 4,000-4,499 GRAMS...........NUMBER..           26,274         115         49
                               RATE..                          4.4        1.9

 4,500-4,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..            4,229          38         26
                               RATE..                          9.0        6.1

 5,000 GRAMS OR MORE.........NUMBER..              753          41         34
                               RATE..                         54.4       45.2

 NOT STATED..................NUMBER..              912         378        354
                               RATE..                        414.5      388.2



 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE                         EARLY        LATE        POST
      OF CHILD                                NEONATAL    NEONATAL    NEONATAL

         BLACK CONTINUED

 TOTAL (ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS)...NUMBER..          5,946          981       3,703
                               RATE..           10.0          1.7         6.2

 LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS.......NUMBER..          4,840          650       1,550
                               RATE..           66.2          8.9        21.2

   LESS THAN 500 GRAMS.......NUMBER..          1,551            6          16
                               RATE..          868.4          3.4         9.0

   500-749 GRAMS.............NUMBER..          1,759          163         188
                               RATE..          596.5         55.3        63.8

   750-999 GRAMS.............NUMBER..            658          151         296
                               RATE..          205.8         47.2        92.6

   1,000-1,249 GRAMS.........NUMBER..            230           98         181
                               RATE..           68.9         29.4        54.2

   1,250-1,499 GRAMS.........NUMBER..            150           57         115
                               RATE..           39.0         14.8        29.9

   1,500-1,999 GRAMS.........NUMBER..            259           80         292
                               RATE..           18.3          5.6        20.6

   2,000-2,499 GRAMS.........NUMBER..            233           95         462
                               RATE..            5.3          2.2        10.5

 2,500-2,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..            272          128         803
                               RATE..            1.9           .9         5.7

 3,000-3,499 GRAMS...........NUMBER..            251          120         906
                               RATE..            1.1           .5         4.0

 3,500-3,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..            144           59         335
                               RATE..            1.2           .5         2.8



 BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE                         EARLY        LATE        POST
      OF CHILD                                NEONATAL    NEONATAL    NEONATAL

         BLACK CONTINUED

 4,000-4,499 GRAMS...........NUMBER..             39           10          66
                               RATE..            1.5           .4         2.5

 4,500-4,999 GRAMS...........NUMBER..             23            3          12
                               RATE..            5.4           .7         2.8

 5,000 GRAMS OR MORE.........NUMBER..             32            2           7
                               RATE..           42.5          2.7         9.3

 NOT STATED..................NUMBER..            345            9          24
                               RATE..          378.3          9.9        26.3


  1 INCLUDES RACES OTHER THAN WHITE AND BLACK.

 5. Live Birth/Infant Mort Rate for 10 Leading Causes Infant Deat
                        1984 DOCUMENTATION TABLE 5

      LIVE BIRTHS BY BIRTH WEIGHT AND RACE OF CHILD AND INFANT DEATHS AND
    INFANT MORTALITY RATES BY AGE AT DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT, AND RACE OF CHILD
    FOR 10 LEADING CAUSES OF INFANT DEATH:  UNITED STATES, 1984 BIRTH COHORT

      (INFANT DEATHS ARE UNDER 1 YEAR.  NEONATAL DEATHS ARE UNDER 28 DAYS;
              EARLY NEONATAL, 0-6 DAYS; LATE NEONATAL, 7-27 DAYS;
                  AND POSTNEONATAL, 28 DAYS THROUGH 11 MONTHS)

                      (RATES ARE PER 100,000 LIVE BIRTHS)


 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

           ALL RACES1
        ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..    3,669,268     38,292     24,995
                                    RATE..                 1,043.6      681.2

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..                   8,267      6,134
                                    RATE..                   225.3      167.2

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..                   5,007        331
                                    RATE..                   136.5        9.0

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..                   3,519      3,252
                                    RATE..                    95.9       88.6

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..                   3,174      3,142
                                    RATE..                    86.5       85.6

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..                   1,373      1,354
                                    RATE..                    37.4       36.9

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..                   1,144      1,073
                                    RATE..                    31.2       29.2

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..                     806         63
                                    RATE..                    22.0        1.7

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..                     892        852
                                    RATE..                    24.3       23.2

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..                     857        847
                                    RATE..                    23.4       23.1



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

           ALL RACES1
        ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..                     640        141
                                    RATE..                    17.4        3.8

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..                   1,832        614
                                    RATE..                    49.9       16.7



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

           ALL RACES1
        ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS
           (CONTINUED)

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..       20,977      4,018     13,297
                                    RATE..        571.7      109.5      362.4

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..        4,994      1,140      2,133
                                    RATE..        136.1       31.1       58.1

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..           37        294      4,676
                                    RATE..          1.0        8.0      127.4

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..        2,735        517        267
                                    RATE..         74.5       14.1        7.3

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..        3,116         26         32
                                    RATE..         84.9         .7         .9

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..        1,342         12         19
                                    RATE..         36.6         .3         .5

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..          937        136         71
                                    RATE..         25.5        3.7        1.9

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..           20         43        743
                                    RATE..           .5        1.2       20.2

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..          562        290         40
                                    RATE..         15.3        7.9        1.1

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..          825         22         10
                                    RATE..         22.5         .6         .3



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

           ALL RACES1
        ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..           72         69        499
                                    RATE..          2.0        1.9       13.6

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..          378        236      1,218
                                    RATE..         10.3        6.4       33.2



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

           ALL RACES1
      LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..    246,170       22,556     18,327
                                    RATE..                 9,162.8    7,444.9

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..                   3,738      3,042
                                    RATE..                 1,518.5    1,235.7

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..                     941         46
                                    RATE..                   382.3       18.7

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..                   3,319      3,077
                                    RATE..                 1,348.3    1,249.9

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..                   2,865      2,839
                                    RATE..                 1,163.8    1,153.3

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..                   1,221      1,208
                                    RATE..                   496.0      490.7

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..                     633        608
                                    RATE..                   257.1      247.0

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..                     133         17
                                    RATE..                    54.0        6.9

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..                     642        611
                                    RATE..                   260.8      248.2

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..                     681        680
                                    RATE..                   276.6      276.2



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

           ALL RACES1
      LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..                     242         63
                                    RATE..                    98.3       25.6

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..                     821        361
                                    RATE..                   333.5      146.6



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

           ALL RACES1
      LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS
           (CONTINUED)

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..       16,035      2,292     4,229
                                    RATE..      6,513.8      931.1   1,717.9

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..        2,643        399       696
                                    RATE..      1,073.6      162.1     282.7

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..            5         41       895
                                    RATE..          2.0       16.7     363.6

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..        2,584        493       242
                                    RATE..      1,049.7      200.3      98.3

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..        2,816         23        26
                                    RATE..      1,143.9        9.3      10.6

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..        1,198         10        13
                                    RATE..        486.7        4.1       5.3

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..          551         57        25
                                    RATE..        223.8       23.2      10.2

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..           10          7       116
                                    RATE..          4.1        2.8      47.1

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..          405        206        31
                                    RATE..        164.5       83.7      12.6

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..          668         12         1
                                    RATE..        271.4        4.9        .4



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

           ALL RACES1
      LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..           38         25       179
                                    RATE..         15.4       10.2      72.7

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..          226        135       460
                                    RATE..         91.8       54.8     186.9



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

           ALL RACES1       2,500 GRAMS OR MORE

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..    3,418,022     14,577     5,585
                                    RATE..                   426.5     163.4

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..                   4,318     2,896
                                    RATE..                   126.3      84.7

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..                   4,056       285
                                    RATE..                   118.7       8.3

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..                     117        96
                                    RATE..                     3.4       2.8

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..                      79        73
                                    RATE..                     2.3       2.1

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..                      40        34
                                    RATE..                     1.2       1.0

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..                     442       400
                                    RATE..                    12.9      11.7

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..                     668        44
                                    RATE..                    19.5       1.3

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..                     241       232
                                    RATE..                     7.1       6.8

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..                     129       121
                                    RATE..                     3.8       3.5



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

           ALL RACES1
       2,500 GRAMS OR MORE
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..                     389        76
                                    RATE..                    11.4       2.2

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..                     985       240
                                    RATE..                    28.8       7.0



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

           ALL RACES1
       2,500 GRAMS OR MORE
           (CONTINUED)

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..       3,915       1,670     8,992
                                    RATE..       114.5        48.9     263.1

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..       2,171         725     1,422
                                    RATE..        63.5        21.2      41.6

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..          32         253     3,771
                                    RATE..          .9         7.4     110.3

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..          83          13        21
                                    RATE..         2.4          .4        .6

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..          70           3         6
                                    RATE..         2.0          .1        .2

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..          32           2         6
                                    RATE..          .9          .1        .2

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..         326          74        42
                                    RATE..         9.5         2.2       1.2

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..           8          36       624
                                    RATE..          .2         1.1      18.3

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..         149          83         9
                                    RATE..         4.4         2.4        .3

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..         112           9         8
                                    RATE..         3.3          .3        .2



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

           ALL RACES1
       2,500 GRAMS OR MORE
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..          33          43       313
                                    RATE..         1.0         1.3       9.2

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..         143          097      745
                                    RATE..         4.2         2.8      21.8



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

           ALL RACES1
      NOT STATED BIRTH WEIGHT

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..     5,076         1,159      1,083
                                    RATE..                22,832.9   21,335.7

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..                     211        196
                                    RATE..                 4,156.8    3,861.3

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..                       10         -
                                    RATE..                    197.0         -

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..                      83         79
                                    RATE..                 1,635.1    1,556.3

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..                     230        230
                                    RATE..                 4,531.1    4,531.1

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..                     112        112
                                    RATE..                 2,206.5    2,206.5

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..                      69         65
                                    RATE..                 1,359.3    1,280.5

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..                       5          2
                                    RATE..                    98.5       39.4

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..                       9          9
                                    RATE..                   177.3      177.3

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..                      47         46
                                    RATE..                   925.9      906.2



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

           ALL RACES1
      NOT STATED BIRTH WEIGHT

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..                       9          2
                                    RATE..                   177.3       39.4

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..                      26         13
                                    RATE..                   512.2      256.1



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

           ALL RACES1
      NOT STATED BIRTH WEIGHT
           (CONTINUED)

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..         1,027         56         76
                                    RATE..      20,232.5    1,103.2    1,497.2

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..           180         16         15
                                    RATE..       3,546.1      315.2      295.5

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..             -          -         10
                                    RATE..             -          -      197.0

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..            68         11          4
                                    RATE..       1,339.6      216.7       78.8

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..           230          -          -
                                    RATE..       4,531.1          -          -

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..           112          -          -
                                    RATE..       2,206.5          -          -

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..            60          5          4
                                    RATE..       1,182.0       98.5       78.8

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..             2          -          3
                                    RATE..          39.4          -       59.1

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..             8          1          -
                                    RATE..         157.6       19.7          -

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..            45          1          1
                                    RATE..         886.5       19.7       19.7



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

           ALL RACES1
      NOT STATED BIRTH WEIGHT
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..           1           1         7
                                    RATE..        19.7        19.7     137.9

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..           9           4        13
                                    RATE..       177.3        78.8     256.1



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

              WHITE
        ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..    2,923,627     26,158     17,178
                                    RATE..                   894.7      587.6

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..                   6,546      4,910
                                    RATE..                   223.9      167.9

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..                   3,420        215
                                    RATE..                   117.0        7.4

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..                   2,508      2,338
                                    RATE..                    85.8       80.0

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..                   1,815      1,797
                                    RATE..                    62.1       61.5

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..                     941        932
                                    RATE..                    32.2       31.9

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..                     744        697
                                    RATE..                    25.4       23.8

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..                     560         48
                                    RATE..                    19.2        1.6

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..                     625        601
                                    RATE..                    21.4       20.6

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..                     616        610
                                    RATE..                    21.1       20.9



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

              WHITE
        ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..                     394         91
                                    RATE..                    13.5        3.1

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..                   1,201        427
                                    RATE..                    41.1       14.6



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

              WHITE
        ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS
           (CONTINUED)

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..       14,304      2,874     8,980
                                    RATE..        489.3       98.3     307.2

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..        4,020        890     1,636
                                    RATE..        137.5       30.4      56.0

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..           25        190     3,205
                                    RATE..           .9        6.5     109.6

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..        1,944        394       170
                                    RATE..         66.5       13.5       5.8

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..        1,782         15        18
                                    RATE..         61.0         .5        .6

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..          924          8         9
                                    RATE..         31.6         .3        .3

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..          605         92        47
                                    RATE..         20.7        3.1       1.6

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..           13         35       512
                                    RATE..           .4        1.2      17.5

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..          405        196        24
                                    RATE..         13.9        6.7        .8

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..          595         15         6
                                    RATE..         20.4         .5        .2



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

              WHITE
        ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..           51         40        303
                                    RATE..          1.7        1.4       10.4

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..          255        172        774
                                    RATE..          8.7        5.9       26.5



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

              WHITE
      LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..    163,217       14,759     12,233
                                    RATE..                 9,042.6    7,494.9

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..                   2,916      2,415
                                    RATE..                 1,786.6    1,479.6

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..                     545         28
                                    RATE..                   333.9       17.2

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..                   2,359      2,207
                                    RATE..                 1,445.3    1,352.2

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..                   1,654      1,638
                                    RATE..                 1,013.4    1,003.6
   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..                     845        839
                                    RATE..                   517.7      514.0

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..                     381        363
                                    RATE..                   233.4      222.4

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..                      78         10
                                    RATE..                    47.8        6.1

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..                     436        418
                                    RATE..                   267.1      256.1

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..                     486        486
                                    RATE..                   297.8      297.8



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

              WHITE
      LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..                     132         37
                                    RATE..                    80.9       22.7

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..                     496        247
                                    RATE..                   303.9      151.3



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

              WHITE
      LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS
           (CONTINUED)

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..       10,681      1,552     2,526
                                    RATE..      6,544.0      950.9   1,547.6

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..        2,125        290       501
                                    RATE..      1,301.9      177.7     307.0

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..            4         24       517
                                    RATE..          2.5       14.7     316.8

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..        1,832        375       152
                                    RATE..      1,122.4      229.8      93.1

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..        1,625         13        16
                                    RATE..        995.6        8.0       9.8

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..          833          6         6
                                    RATE..        510.4        3.7       3.7

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..          330         33        18
                                    RATE..        202.2       20.2      11.0

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..            5          5        68
                                    RATE..          3.1        3.1      41.7

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..          290        128        18
                                    RATE..        177.7       78.4      11.0

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..          478          8         -
                                    RATE..        292.9        4.9         -



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

              WHITE
      LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..           26         11        95
                                    RATE..         15.9        6.7      58.2

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..          148         99       249
                                    RATE..         90.7       60.7     152.6



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

              WHITE
       2,500 GRAMS OR MORE

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..    2,756,485     10,671     4,266
                                    RATE..                   387.1     154.8

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..                   3,459     2,335
                                    RATE..                   125.5      84.7

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..                   2,867       187
                                    RATE..                   104.0       6.8

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..                      92        77
                                    RATE..                     3.3       2.8

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..                      45        43
                                    RATE..                     1.6       1.6

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..                      29        26
                                    RATE..                     1.1        .9

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..                     326       299
                                    RATE..                    11.8      10.8

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..                     479        36
                                    RATE..                    17.4       1.3

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..                     182       176
                                    RATE..                     6.6       6.4

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..                      94        88
                                    RATE..                     3.4       3.2



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

              WHITE
       2,500 GRAMS OR MORE
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..                     258        53
                                    RATE..                     9.4       1.9

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..                     689       173
                                    RATE..                    25.0       6.3



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

              WHITE
       2,500 GRAMS OR MORE
           (CONTINUED)

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..       2,988       1,278     6,405
                                    RATE..       108.4        46.4     232.4

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..       1,750         585     1,124
                                    RATE..        63.5        21.2      40.8

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..          21         166     2,680
                                    RATE..          .8         6.0     97.2

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..          66          11        15
                                    RATE..         2.4          .4        .5

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..          41           2         2
                                    RATE..         1.5          .1        .1

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..          24           2         3
                                    RATE..          .9          .1        .1

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..         243          56        27
                                    RATE..         8.8         2.0       1.0

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..           6          30       443
                                    RATE..          .2         1.1      16.1

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..         109          67         6
                                    RATE..         4.0         2.4        .2

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..          82           6         6
                                    RATE..         3.0          .2        .2



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

              WHITE
       2,500 GRAMS OR MORE
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..          25          28       205
                                    RATE..          .9         1.0       7.4

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..         102          71       516
                                    RATE..         3.7         2.6      18.7



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

              WHITE
      NOT STATED BIRTH WEIGHT

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..     3,925           728        679
                                    RATE..                18,547.8   17,299.4

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..                     171        160
                                    RATE..                 4,356.7    4,076.4

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..                       8          -
                                    RATE..                   203.8          -

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..                      57         54
                                    RATE..                 1,452.2    1,375.8

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..                     116        116
                                    RATE..                 2,955.4    2,955.4

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..                      67         67
                                    RATE..                 1,707.0    1,707.0

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..                      37         35
                                    RATE..                   942.7      891.7

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..                       3          2
                                    RATE..                    76.4       51.0

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..                       7          7
                                    RATE..                   178.3      178.3

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..                      36         36
                                    RATE..                   917.2      917.2



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

              WHITE
      NOT STATED BIRTH WEIGHT

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..                       4          1
                                    RATE..                   101.9       25.5

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..                      16          7
                                    RATE..                   407.6      178.3



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

              WHITE
      NOT STATED BIRTH WEIGHT
           (CONTINUED)

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..           635         44         49
                                    RATE..      16,178.3    1,121.0    1,248.4

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..           145         15         11
                                    RATE..       3,694.3      382.2      280.3

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..             -          -          8
                                    RATE..             -          -      203.8

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..            46          8          3
                                    RATE..       1,172.0      203.8       76.4

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..           116          -          -
                                    RATE..       2,955.4          -          -

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..            67          -          -
                                    RATE..       1,707.0          -          -

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..            32          3          2
                                    RATE..         815.3       76.4       51.0

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..             2          -          1
                                    RATE..          51.0          -        25.5

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..             6          1          -
                                    RATE..         152.9       25.5          -

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..            35          1          -
                                    RATE..         891.7       25.5          -



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

              WHITE
      NOT STATED BIRTH WEIGHT
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..           -           1         3
                                    RATE..           -        25.5      76.4

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..           5           2         9
                                    RATE..       127.4        51.0     229.3



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

              BLACK
        ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..     592,760      10,630      6,927
                                    RATE..                 1,793.3    1,168.6

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..                   1,354        964
                                    RATE..                   228.4      162.6

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..                   1,349        101
                                    RATE..                   227.6       17.0

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..                     892        805
                                    RATE..                   150.5      135.8

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..                   1,264      1,253
                                    RATE..                   213.2      211.4

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..                     388        381
                                    RATE..                    65.5       64.3

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..                     349        328
                                    RATE..                    58.9       55.3

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..                     200         14
                                    RATE..                    33.7        2.4

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..                     232        216
                                    RATE..                    39.1       36.4

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..                     208        204
                                    RATE..                    35.1       34.4



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

              BLACK
        ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..                     218         42
                                    RATE..                    36.8        7.1

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..                     560        163
                                    RATE..                    94.5       27.5



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

              BLACK
        ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS
           (CONTINUED)

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..        5,946        981     3,703
                                    RATE..      1,003.1      165.5     624.7

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..          761        203       390
                                    RATE..        128.4       34.2      65.8

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..            9         92     1,248
                                    RATE..          1.5       15.5     210.5

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..          704        101        87
                                    RATE..         118.8      17.0      14.7

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..        1,243         10        11
                                    RATE..        209.7        1.7       1.9

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..          377          4         7
                                    RATE..         63.6         .7       1.2

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..          292         36        21
                                    RATE..         49.3        6.1       3.5

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..            7          7       186
                                    RATE..          1.2        1.2      31.4

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..          133         83        16
                                    RATE..         22.4       14.0       2.7

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..          198          6         4
                                    RATE..         33.4        1.0        .7



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

              BLACK
        ALL BIRTH WEIGHTS
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..           19         23        176
                                    RATE..          3.2        3.9       29.7

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..          113         50        397
                                    RATE..         19.1        8.4       67.0



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

              BLACK
      LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..     73,156        7,040      5,490
                                    RATE..                 9,623.3    7,504.5

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..                     655        493
                                    RATE..                   895.3      673.9

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..                     364         16
                                    RATE..                   497.6       21.9

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..                     850        768
                                    RATE..                 1,161.9    1,049.8

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..                   1,126      1,117
                                    RATE..                 1,539.2    1,526.9
   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..                     340        335
                                    RATE..                   464.8      457.9

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..                     234        227
                                    RATE..                   319.9      310.3

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..                      48          6
                                    RATE..                    65.6        8.2

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..                     185        172
                                    RATE..                   252.9      235.1

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..                     171        170
                                    RATE..                   233.7      232.4



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

              BLACK
      LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..                     103         24
                                    RATE..                   140.8       32.8

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..                     295        100
                                    RATE..                   403.2      136.7



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

              BLACK
      LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS
           (CONTINUED)

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..        4,840        650     1,550
                                    RATE..      6,616.0      888.5   2,118.8

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..          400         93       162
                                    RATE..        546.8      127.1     221.4

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..            1         15       348
                                    RATE..          1.4       20.5     475.7

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..          670         98        82
                                    RATE..        915.9      134.0     112.1

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..        1,108          9         9
                                    RATE..      1,514.6       12.3      12.3

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..          331          4         5
                                    RATE..        452.5        5.5       6.8

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..          206         21         7
                                    RATE..        281.6       28.7       9.6

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..            5          1        42
                                    RATE..          6.8        1.4      57.4

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..          101         71        13
                                    RATE..        138.1       97.1      17.8

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..          166          4         1
                                    RATE..        226.9        5.5       1.4



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

              BLACK
      LESS THAN 2,500 GRAMS
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..           12         12        79
                                    RATE..         16.4       16.4     108.0

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..           72         28       195
                                    RATE..         98.4       38.3     266.6



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

              BLACK
       2,500 GRAMS OR MORE

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..     518,692       3,212      1,083
                                    RATE..                   619.2      208.8

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..                     671        445
                                    RATE..                   129.4       85.8

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..                     983         85
                                    RATE..                   189.5       16.4

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..                      18         14
                                    RATE..                     3.5        2.7

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..                      31         29
                                    RATE..                     6.0        5.6

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..                      10          8
                                    RATE..                     1.9        1.5

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..                      92         80
                                    RATE..                    17.7       15.4

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..                     150          8
                                    RATE..                    28.9        1.5

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..                      45         42
                                    RATE..                     8.7        8.1

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..                      27         25
                                    RATE..                     5.2        4.8


 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

              BLACK
       2,500 GRAMS OR MORE
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..                     110         17
                                    RATE..                    21.2        3.3

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..                     256         57
                                    RATE..                    49.4       11.0



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

              BLACK
       2,500 GRAMS OR MORE
           (CONTINUED)

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..          761        322     2,129
                                    RATE..        146.7       62.1     410.5

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..          336        109       226
                                    RATE..         64.8       21.0      43.6

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..            8         77       898
                                    RATE..          1.5       14.8     173.1

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..           13          1         4
                                    RATE..          2.5         .2        .8

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..           28          1         2
                                    RATE..          5.4         .2        .4

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..            8          -         2
                                    RATE..          1.5          -        .4

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..           66         14        12
                                    RATE..         12.7        2.7       2.3

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..            2          6       142
                                    RATE..           .4        1.2      27.4

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..           30         12         3
                                    RATE..          5.8        2.3        .6

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..           23          2         2
                                    RATE..          4.4         .4        .4



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

              BLACK
       2,500 GRAMS OR MORE
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..            6         11         93
                                    RATE..          1.2        2.1       17.9

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..           37         20        199
                                    RATE..          7.1        3.9       38.4



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

              BLACK
      NOT STATED BIRTH WEIGHT

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..       912           378        354
                                    RATE..                41,447.4   38,815.8

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..                      28         26
                                    RATE..                 3,070.2    2,850.9

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..                       2          -
                                    RATE..                   219.3          -

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..                      24         23
                                    RATE..                 2,631.6    2,521.9

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..                     107        107
                                    RATE..                11,732.5   11,732.5

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..                      38         38
                                    RATE..                 4,166.7    4,166.7

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..                      23         21
                                    RATE..                 2,521.9    2,302.6

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..                       2          -
                                    RATE..                   219.3          -

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..                       2          2
                                    RATE..                   219.3      219.3

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..                      10          9
                                    RATE..                 1,096.5      986.8



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                  LIVE        INFANT     TOTAL
      AND RACE OF CHILD                        BIRTHS       DEATHS    NEONATAL

              BLACK
      NOT STATED BIRTH WEIGHT

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..                       5          1
                                    RATE..                   548.2      109.6

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..                       9          6
                                    RATE..                   986.8      657.9



 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

              BLACK
      NOT STATED BIRTH WEIGHT
           (CONTINUED)

 ... ALL CAUSES...................NUMBER..           345          9         24
                                    RATE..      37,828.9      986.8    2,631.6

   1 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
     (740-759)....................NUMBER..            25          1          2
                                    RATE..       2,741.2      109.6      219.3

   2 SUDDEN INFANT DEATH
     SYNDROME (798.0).............NUMBER..             -          -          2
                                    RATE..             -          -      219.3

   3 RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
     SYNDROME (769)...............NUMBER..            21          2          1
                                    RATE..       2,302.6      219.3      109.6

   4 PREMATURITY (765)............NUMBER..           107          -          -
                                    RATE..      11,732.5          -          -

   5 MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS
     (761)........................NUMBER..            38          -          -
                                    RATE..       4,166.7          -          -

   6 HYPOXIA AND ASPHYXIA (768)...NUMBER..            20          1          2
                                    RATE..       2,193.0      109.6      219.3

   7 ACCIDENTS (E800-E949)........NUMBER..             -          -          2
                                    RATE..             -          -      219.3

   8 INFECTIONS (771).............NUMBER..             2          -          -
                                    RATE..         219.3          -          -

   9 COMPLICATIONS OF
     PLACENTA, ETC. (762).........NUMBER..             9          -          1
                                    RATE..         986.8          -      109.6




 CAUSE OF DEATH, BIRTH WEIGHT,                   EARLY       LATE      POST-
      AND RACE OF CHILD                         NEONATAL   NEONATAL   NEONATAL

              BLACK
      NOT STATED BIRTH WEIGHT
           (CONTINUED)

   10 PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA
     (480-487)....................NUMBER..           1           -         4
                                    RATE..       109.6           -     438.6

 ... ALL OTHER CAUSES (RESIDUAL)..NUMBER..           4           2         3
                                    RATE..       438.6       219.3     328.9


  1 INCLUDES RACES OTHER THAN WHITE AND BLACK.


 TECHNICAL APPENDIX, 1983-84 NATALITY FILES

 Definition of Live Birth
 
    Every product of conception that gives a sign of life after birth,
 regardless of the length of the pregnancy, is considered a live birth.  This
 concept is included in the definition set forth by the World Health
 Organization1 as follows:

     Live birth is the complete expulsion of extraction from its mother
     of a product of conception, irrespective of the duration of
     pregnancy, which, after such separation, breathes or shows any
     other evidence of life, such as beating of the heart, pulsation of
     the umbilical cord, or definite movement of voluntary muscles,
     whether or not the umbilical cord has been cut or the placenta is
     attached; each product of such a birth is considered liveborn.

     This definition distinguishes in precise terms a live birth from a fetal
 death (see section on fetal deaths in the Technical Appendix of volume II of
 this report).  In the interest of comparable natality statistics, both the
 Statistical Commission of the United Nations and the National Center for
 Health Statistics have adopted this definition.2,3

 History of Birth-Registration Area

     The national birth-registration area was proposed in 1850 and
 established in 1915.  By 1933 all 48 States and the District of Columbia
 were participating in the registration system.  The organized territories of
 Hawaii and Alaska were admitted in 1929 and 1950, respectively; data from
 these areas were prepared separately until they became States--Alaska in
 1959 and Hawaii in 1960.  At present the birth-registration system of the
 United States covers the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the
 independent registration area of New York City, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin
 Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific
 Islands.  However, in the statistical tabulations, "United States" refers
 only to the aggregate of the 50 States (including New York City) and the
 District of Columbia.  Tabulations for Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and
 Guam are shown separately in section 3 of this volume.

     The original birth-registration area of 1915 consisted of 10 States and
 the District of Columbia.  The growth of this area is indicated in table
 4-1.  This table also presents for each year through 1932 the estimated
 midyear population of the United States and of those States included in the
 registration system.

     Because of the growth of the area for which data have been collected and
 tabulated, a national series of geographically comparable data before 1933
 can be obtained only by estimation.  Annual estimates of births have been
 prepared by P. K. Whelpton for the period 1909-344 (table 1-1).  These
 estimates include adjustments both for underregistration and for States that
 were not part of the birth-registration area before 1933.

 Sources of Data

 Natality Statistics

     Natality statistics for 19-3/4 are based on information from two sources.
 Statistics for 46 States are based on the total file of records received on
 computer data tapes coded by the States and provided to the National Center
 for Health Statistics (NCHS) through the Vital Statistics Cooperative
 Program.  Statistics for the remaining States (Arizona, California,
 Delaware, and Georgia) and the District of Columbia are based on information
 obtained from a 50-percent sample of microfilm copies of all live-birth
 certificates filed in these States.  NCHS receives these tapes and microfilm
 copies from the registration offices of each State, the District of
 Columbia, and New York City.

     Records from the Virgin Islands are received in the form of microfilm
 copies of birth certificates; those from Guam are received as photocopies of
 original birth certificates; and those from Puerto Rico are received as
 computer tapes through the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program.  Natality
 data for 1983/4 for these areas are based on the total file of records.
 Before 1977 Puerto Rican records were sampled on a 50-percent basis.
 Information for previous years for these three areas is published in the
 annual vital statistics reports of the Department of Health of the
 Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Department of Public Health of the virgin
 Islands, the Department of Public Health and Social Services of the
 Government of Guam, and in selected Vital Statistics of the United States
 annual reports.

     When the microfilmed data are received from the various registration
 offices, the information on the sampled microfilm records is coded onto
 magnetic tape for the computer, which then edits all the taped records and
 produces tabulations of natality statistics adjusted for sampling factors.

     U.S. natality data are limited to births occurring within the United
 States, including those occurring to U.S. residents and nonresidents.
 Births to nonresidents of the United States are excluded from all
 tabulations by place of residence beginning in 1970.  (See "Classification
 by occurrence and residence" for further discussion.)  Births occurring to
 U.S. citizens outside the United States are not included in any tabulations
 in this report.  Similarly the data for Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and
 Guam are limited to births registered in these areas.

 Standard Certificate of Live Birth

     The U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth, issued by the Public Health
 Service, has served for many years as the principal means of attaining
 uniformity in the content of the documents used to collect information on
 births in the United States.  It has been modified in each State to the
 extent required by the particular State's needs or by special provisions of
 the State's vital statistics law.  However, most State certificates conform
 closely in content to the standard certificate.

     The first standard certificate of birth was developed in 1900.  Since
 then it has been revised periodically by the national vital statistics
 agency through consultation with State health officers and registrars,
 Federal agencies concerned with vital statistics; national, State, and
 county medical societies; and other working in the fields of public health,
 social welfare, demography, and insurance.  This procedure has assured
 careful evaluation of each item for its current and future usefulness for
 legal, medical, demographic, and research purposes.  New items have been
 added when necessary, and old items have been modified to ensure better
 reporting or, in some cases, dropped when their usefulness appeared to be
 limited.

     1978 revision -- Effective January 1, 1978, a revised U.S. Standard
 Certificate of Live Birth replaced the 1968 revision.  Changes on the 1978
 standard certificate include a new item on 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores, the
 deletion of the item on birth injuries, and revisions of the items on
 legitimacy status and previous pregnancies.

     The item on legitimacy status was changed to read "Is mother married?"
 This is now a factual piece of information about the mother rather than an
 attribute ascribed to the child, and the person completing the record does
 not have the responsibility for making what may be a legal determination.

     The item on previous deliveries was changed to pregnancy history and
 expanded to include two categories of fetal loss, before and after 20
 completed weeks of gestation.  This change provides information on two
 groups that are of interest in medical research and emphasizes the fact that
 all previous fetal losses should be included, both spontaneous and induced,
 regardless of length of gestation.  For further discussion see individual
 sections for each item.

 Classification of Data

 General Information

     One of the principal values of vital statistics data is realized through
 the presentation of rates that are computed by relating the vital events of
 a class to the population of a similarly defined class.  Vital statistics
 and population statistics must therefore be classified according to
 similarly defined systems and tabulated in comparable groups.  Even when the
 variables common to both, such as geographic area, age, race, and sex, have
 been similarly classified and tabulated, differences between the enumeration
 method of obtaining population data and the registration method of obtaining
 vital statistics data may result in significant discrepancies.

     The general rules used to classify geographic and personal items for
 live births are set forth in "Vital Statistics Classification and Coding
 Instructions for Live Birth Records, 1983," NCHS Instruction Manual, Part
 3a.  The classification of certain important items is discussed in the
 following pages.

 Classification by Occurrence and Residence
 
    All but three tabulations for States and other areas within the United
 States are by place of mother's residence.  These three tabulations (1-49,
 1-50, and 2-1) show births by place of occurrence.  Births to U.S. residents
 occurring outside this country are not reallocated to the United States.  In
 tabulations by place of residence, births occurring within the United States
 to U.S. citizens and to resident aliens are allocated to the usual place of
 residence of the mother in the United States as reported on the birth
 certificate.  Beginning in 1970, births to nonresidents of the United States
 occurring in the United States are excluded from these tabulations.  From
 1966 to 1969, births occurring in the United States to mothers who were
 nonresidents of the United States were considered as births to residents of
 the exact place of occurrence; in 1964 and 1965 all such births were
 allocated to "balance of county" of occurrence even if the birth had
 occurred in a city.

     The change in coding beginning in 1970 to exclude births to nonresidents
 of the United States from residence data significantly affects the
 comparability of data with years before 1970 only for Texas.  In 1983 births
 to residents of Mexico constituted 84.7 percent of the 3,888 nonresident
 births in the United States.  No evaluation of the effect of the change in
 procedure between 1965 and 1966 has been made.

     For the total United States the tabulations by place of residence and by
 place of occurrence are not identical.  Births to nonresidents of the United
 States are included in data by place of occurrence but excluded from data by
 place of residence, as previously indicated.

     Residence error--A nationwide test of birth-registration completeness in
 1950 provided measures of residence error for natality statistics.
 According to this test, errors in residence reporting for the country as a
 whole tend to overstate the number of births to residents of urban areas and
 to understate the number of births to residents of other areas.  This
 tendency has assumed special importance because of a concomitant
 development--the increased utilization of hospitals in cities by residents
 of nearby places--with the result that a number of births are erroneously
 reported as having occurred to residents of urban areas.  Another factor
 that contributes to this overstatement of urban births is the customary
 procedure of using "city" addresses for persons living outside the city
 limits.

     Incomplete residence--Beginning in 1973 where only the State of
 residence is reported with no city or county specified, and the State named
 is different from the State of occurrence, the birth is allocated to the
 largest city of the State of residence.  Before 1973 such births were
 allocated to the exact place of occurrence.

 Geographic Classification
 
    The rules followed in the classification of geographic areas for live
 births are contained in the instruction manual mentioned previously.  The
 geographic code structure for 1983 is given in another manual, "Vital
 Records Geographic Classification, 1982."

     United States--In the statistical tabulations, "United States" refers
 only to the aggregate of the 50 States and the District of Columbia.  Alaska
 has been included in the U.S. tabulations since 1959 and Hawaii since 1960.

     Standard metropolitan statistical areas--The standard metropolitan
 statistical areas (SMSA's) used in this report are those established by the
 U.S. Office of Management and Budget from final 1980 census population
 counts5 and used by the U.S. Bureau of the Census except in the New England
 States.

     Except in the New England States, an SMSA is a county or a group of
 contiguous counties containing either a city of 50,000 inhabitants or more
 or an urbanized area of 50,000 with a total metropolitan population of at
 least 100,000.  In addition to the county or counties containing such a city
 or urbanized area, contiguous counties are included in an SMSA if, according
 to specified criteria, they are essentially metropolitan in character and
 are socially and economically integrated with the central city or urbanized
 area.6

     In the New England States the U.S. Office of Management and Budget uses
 towns and cities rather than counties as geographic components of SMSA's.
 The National Center for Health Statistics cannot, however, use the SMSA
 classification for these States because its data are not coded to identify
 all towns.  Instead, the New England County Metropolitan Areas (NECMA's) are
 used.  These areas are established by the U.S. Office of Management and
 Budget and are made up of county units.6,7

     Metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties--Independent cities and
 counties included in SMSA's or NECMA's are included in data for metropolitan
 counties; all other counties are classified as nonmetropolitan.

     Population-size groups--Beginning in 1982 vital statistics data for
 cities and certain other urban places are classified according to the
 population enumerated in the 1980 Census of Population.  Data are available
 for individual cities and other urban places of 10,000 or more population.
 Data for the remaining areas not separately identified are shown in the
 tables under the heading "Balance of area" or "Balance of county."
 Classification of areas for the years 1970-81 was determined by the
 population enumerated in the 1970 Census of Population.  As a result of
 changes in the enumerated population between 1970 and 1980, some urban
 places identified in previous reports are no longer included, and a number
 of other urban places have been added.

     Urban places other than incorporated cities for which vital statistics
 data are shown in this report include the following:

     *  Each town in New England, New York, and Wisconsin and each township
        in Michigan, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania that had no incorporated
        municipality as a subdivision and had either 25,000 inhabitants or
        more or a population of 10,000 to 25,000 and a density of 1,000
        persons or more per square mile.

     *  Each county in States other than those indicated above that had no
        incorporated municipality within its boundary and had a density of
        1,000 persons or more per square mile.  (Arlington County, Virginia,
        is the only county classified as urban under this rule.)

     *  Each place in Hawaii with 10,000 or more population, as there are no
        incorporated cities in the State.

 Race or National Origin

     The race or national origin shown in a tabulation is that of the newborn
 child.  Classification of the Child's race or national origin for
 statistical purposes is based on the race or national origin of the
 parents.  The categories are "White," "Black," "American Indian," "Chinese,"
 "Japanese," "Hawaiian," "Filipino," "Other Asian or Pacific Islander," and
 "Other."  Before 1978 the category "Other Asian or Pacific Islander" was not
 identified separately but included with "Other" races.  The separation of
 this category allows identification of the category "Asian or Pacific
 Islander" with Chinese, Japanese, Hawaiian, and Filipino.

     If the parents are of different races or national origins, the following
 rules are used to assign race or national origin to the newborn child.  When
 only one parent is white, the child is assigned the other parent's race or
 national origin.  When neither parent is white, the child is assigned the
 father's race or national origin with one exception; if the mother is
 Hawaiian or part-Hawaiian, the child is assigned to Hawaiian.  If race is
 missing for one parent, the child is assigned the race of the parent for
 whom race is given.  When information on race is missing for both parents,
 the race of the child is considered not stated and the birth is allocated
 according to rules discussed in the section "Race or national origin not
 stated."

     White--The category "White" comprises births reported as white, and
 births where race is reported as Hispanic.  Before 1964, all births for
 which race or national origin was not stated were classified as white.
 Beginning in 1964 changes in the procedures for allocating race when race or
 national origin is not stated have changed the composition of this
 category.  (See discussion on "Race or national origin not stated.")

     All other--The category "All Other" comprises black, American Indian,
 Chinese, Japanese, Hawaiian and part-Hawaiian, Filipino, other Asian or
 Pacific Islander including Asian Indian, and "Other."  Aleuts and Eskimos
 are included in "American Indian."

     If the race or naional origin of an Asian parent is ill-defined or not
 clearly identifiable with one of the categories used in the classification
 (for example, if "Oriental" is entered), an attempt is made to determine the
 specific race from the entry for place of birth.  If the birthplace is
 China, Japan, or the Philippines, the parent's race is assigned to that
 category.  When race cannot be determined from birthplace, it is assigned to
 the category "Other Asian or Pacific Islander."

     Race or national origin not stated--The race of a child is considered
 not stated in those cases in which information for both parents is missing.
 Before 1964 all such cases were tabulated as white.  From 1964 through 1968
 the race of the child was allocated by the computer as follows.  If the race
 on the preceding record were white the assignment was to white; otherwise
 the assignment was to black.  Beginning in 1969 the race of the child has
 been allocated electronically according to the specific race of the child on
 the preceding record.  Consequently, some of the not-stated frequencies that
 had previously been assigned to the black category may now be assigned to
 one of the other race or national origin categories.

     Nearly all statistics by race or national origin for the United States
 as a whole in 1962 and 1963 are affected by a lack of information for New
 Jersey, which did not report parents' race in those years.  Birth rates by
 race for those years are computed on a population base that excludes New
 Jersey.  (For the method of estimating the U.S. population by age, sex, and
 race excluding New Jersey in 1962 and 1963, see Vital Statistics of the
 United States, 1963, Volume I, page 4-8).  Estimates of births to unmarried
 mothers by race for the United States, which include special estimates for
 New Jersey for 1962 and 1963, have been prepared and are shown in table
 1-31.)

 Interracial parentage--The number of births for each racial or national
 origin group classified according to the child's race by the preceding rules
 differs from the number of births if classification were by the mother's
 race because of interracial parentage.  For white and black births, the
 differences are relatively small.  In 1983 there were 1.4 percent more white
 mothers than there were births classified as white and 4.0 percent fewer
 black mothers than births classified as black.  The number of mothers of
 other racial and national origin groups was considerably lower than the
 number of births classified according to the child's race; American Indian,
 20.6 percent; Chinese, 8.4 percent; Japanese, 17.3 percent; Hawaiian, 31.0
 percent; Filipino, 6.9 percent; Other Asian and Pacific Islander, 6.4
 percent; and Other, 24.3 percent.

 Age of Mother

     The birth certificate asks for "Age (at time of this birth)."  The age
 of the mother is edited for upper and lower limits.  When mothers are
 reported to be under 10 years of age or 50 years and over, the age of the
 mother is considered not stated and is assigned as described below.

     Age-specific birth rates shown in this report are based on populations
 of women by age, which are prepared by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.  In
 census years the decennial census counts are used.  In intercensal years,
 estimates of the population by women by age are published by the U.S. Bureau
 of the Census in Current Population Reports.

     The 1980 Census of Population derived age in completed years as of April
 1, 1980, from the responses to questions on age at last birthday and month
 and year of birth, with the latter given preference.  In the 1960 and the
 1970 Census of Population, age was also derived from month and year of
 birth.  "Age in completed years" was asked in censuses before 1960.  This
 was nearly the equivalent of the birth certificate question, which the 1950
 test of matched birth and census records confirms by showing a high degree
 of consistency in the reporting of age in these two sources.8

     Median age of mother--Median age is the value that divides an age
 distribution into two equal parts, one-half of the values being less and
 one-half being greater.  Median ages of mothers for 1960 to the present have
 been computed from birth rates for 5-year age groups rather than from birth
 frequencies.  This method eliminates the effects of changes in the age
 composition of the childbearing population over time.  Changes in the median
 ages from year to year can thus be attributed solely to changes in the
 age-specific birth rates.

     Not stated age of mother--Beginning in 1964 birth records with age of
 mother not stated have been allocated according to the age appearing on the
 record previously processed for a mother of identical race and having the
 same total-birth order (total of fetal deaths and live births).  In 1963
 birth records with age not stated were allocated according to the age
 appearing on the record previously processed for a mother of identical race
 and parity (number of live births).  For 1960-62, not stated and unknown
 ages were distributed in proportion to the known ages for each racial
 group.  Before 1960 this was done for age-specific birth rates but not for
 the birth frequency tables, which showed a separate category for age not
 stated.

 Age of Father
 
    Age of father is coded as stated on the birth certificate.  If the age
 is under 10 years, it is considered not stated and grouped with those cases
 for which age is not stated on the certificate.  Information on father's age
 is often missing on birth certificates of children born to unwed mothers,
 greatly inflating the number of "not stated" in all tabulations by age of
 father.  In computing birth rates by age of father, births tabulated as age
 of father not stated are distributed in the same proportions as births with
 known age within each 5-year age classification of the mother.  This
 procedure is done separately by race.  The resulting distributions are
 summed to form a composite frequency distribution which is the basis for
 computing birth rates by age of father.  This procedure avoids the
 distortion in rates that would result if the relationship between age of
 mother and age of father were disregarded.

 Live-Birth Order and Parity

     Birth order and parity classifications shown in this volume refer to the
 total number of live births the mother has had including the 1983 birth.
 Fetal deaths are excluded.

     Birth order indicates what number the present birth represents; for
 example, a baby born to a mother who has had two previous live births (even
 if one or both are not now living) has a birth order of three.

     Parity indicates how many live births a mother has had.  Before delivery
 a mother having her first baby has a parity of zero and a mother having her
 third baby has a parity of two.  After delivery the mother of a baby who is
 a first live birth has a parity of one and the mother of a baby who is a
 third live birth has a parity of three.

     Birth order and parity are determined from two items on the birth
 certificate, "Live births--now living" and "Live Births--now dead."

     Not stated birth order--Before 1969 if both of these items were blank,
 the birth was considered a first birth.  Beginning in 1969, births for which
 the pregnancy history items were not completed have been tabulated as birth
 order not stated.  As a result of this revised procedure, 22,686 births in
 1969 that would have been assigned to the "First birth order" category under
 the old rules were assigned to the "Not Stated" category.

     All births tabulated in the "Not stated birth order" category are
 excluded from the computation of percents.  In computing birth rates by
 live-birth order, births tabulated as birth order not stated are distributed
 in the same proportion as births of known live-birth order.

 Dates of Last Live Birth and Last Fetal Death

     Date of last live birth and date of last fetal death were added to the
 U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth in 1968 for the purpose of providing
 information on child spacing and pregnancy intervals.  Tabulations of these
 items were presented for the first time in 1969.  In 1978 the item "Date of
 last fetal death" was reworded to "Date of last other termination" to ensure
 inclusion of both spontaneous fetal deaths and induced terminations of
 pregnancy.  In 1983 this information was obtained from all States except
 Texas.

     Intervals since last live birth and last other termination--These data
 are computed from the date of birth, date of last live birth, and date of
 last other termination.  The interval since last live birth is the
 difference between the date of last live birth and the date of present
 birth; the interval since last other termination is the difference between
 the date of last other termination and the date of present birth.  For an
 interval to be computed, both the month and year of the last live birth or
 the last other termination must be valid.  These intervals are computed only
 for events to mothers who have had at least one previous delivery.

     Births for which the interval since last birth or last other termination
 is not stated are excluded from the computation of percents and means.

     Interval since last pregnancy and outcome of last pregnancy--These data
 are derived from the computed intervals since the last live birth and the
 last other termination.

     Before 1982, the outcome of the last pregnancy was considered not stated
 if the interval since either the last live birth or the last fetal death was
 not computed because only the year of the event was recorded.  Beginning in
 1982, the outcome of the last pregnancy was derived for such records if the
 year of the last live birth and the year of the last fetal death were not
 the same.  The effect of this revised procedure is to reduce substantially
 the number of records with outcome of last pregnancy not stated.

     In addition, for such records, the interval since the termination of the
 last pregnancy was determined if both the month and year were reported for
 the event immediately preceding the current live birth.  Before 1982, the
 interval since the termination of the last pregnancy was considered not
 stated for such births.

     Births for which the interval since last pregnancy is not stated are
 excluded from the computation of percents and means.

     Zero interval--An interval of zero months since the last live birth or
 fetal death indicates the second born of a set of twins, the second or third
 born of a set of twins, the second or third born of a set of triplets, and
 so forth.  Births with an interval of zero months are excluded from the
 computation of mean intervals.

 Educational Attainment
 
    Data on the educational attainment of both parents were collected
 beginning in 1968 and tabulated for publication in 1969 for the first time.
 In 1983, data on education were obtained from 47 States and the District of
 Columbia, as indicated in table A.

     The educational attainment of either parent is defined as "the number of
 years of school completed."  Only those years completed in "regular"
 schools, that is, a formal educational system of public schools or the
 equivalent in accredited private or parochial schools, are counted.
 Business or trade schools, such as beauty and barber schools, are not
 considered "regular" schools for the purposes of this item.  No attempt has
 been made to convert years of school completed in foreign school systems,
 ungraded school systems, and so forth, to equivalent grades in the American
 school system.  Such entries are included in the category "Not stated."

     Persons who have completed only a partial year in high school or college
 are tabulated as having completed the highest preceding grade.  For those
 certificates on which a specific degree is stated, years of school completed
 is coded to the level at which the degree is most commonly attained; for
 example, persons reporting B.A., A.B., or B.S. degrees are considered to
 have completed 16 years of school.

     Education not stated--The category "Not stated" includes all records in
 reporting areas for which there is no information on years of school
 completed as well as all records for which the information provided is not
 compatible with coding specifications.

     Births tabulated as education not stated are excluded from the
 computations of percents.

 Marital Status

     Beginning with 1980 data, national estimates of births to unmarried
 women are derived from two sources.  For 41 States and the District of
 Columbia marital status of the mother was reported directly on the birth
 certificate in 1983 (see table A); for the remaining 9 States that lack this
 item, marital status was inferred from a comparison of the child's and
 parents' surnames.  This procedure represents a substantial departure from
 the previous method used to prepare national estimates, which assumed that
 the incidence of births to unmarried women in States with no direct question
 on marital status was the same as the incidence in reporting States in the
 same geographic division.  Ratios of births to unmarried women were computed
 by race for the reporting States in each geographic division, applied to all
 births in the division, and then summed to obtain national estimates by
 race.  The figures by race were summed to yield the totals for the United
 States.

     The new method attempts to use related information on the birth
 certificate to improve the quality of national data on this topic, as well
 as to provide data for the individual nonreporting States.  Beginning in
 1980, a birth in a nonreporting State is classified as occurring to a
 married woman if the parents' surnames are the same or if the child's and
 father's surnames are the same and the mother's current surname cannot be
 obtained from the informant item of the birth certificate.  A birth is
 classified as occurring to an unmarried woman if the father's name is
 missing, if the parents' surnames are different, or if the father's and
 child's surnames are different and the mother's current surname is missing.

     No adjustments are made during the data processing for errors in the
 reporting of marital status on the birth records of the 41 reporting States
 and the District of Columbia because the extent of this reporting problem is
 unknown.  When marital status is not stated on the birth certificate of a
 reporting area, the mother is considered married.

     When out-of-wedlock births are reported as second or higher order
 births, it is not known whether the mother's previous deliveries occurred
 out of wedlock, because her marital status at the time of these earlier
 births is not available from the birth record.

     Rates for 1940 and 1950 are based on decennial cnsus counts.  In this
 volume, rates for 1955-83 are based on a smoothed series of population
 estimates.9  Because of sampling error, the original Bureau of the Census
 population estimates fluctuate erratically from year to year; therefore,
 they have been smoothed so that the rates do not show similar variations.
 The rates shown in this volume differ from those published in issues of
 Vital Statistics of the United States before 1969, which were based on the
 original estimates provided annually by the Bureau of the Census.  Birth
 rates by marital status for 1971-79 have been revised and differ from rates
 published before 1980 in issues of Vital Statistics of the United States
 (see "Computation of Rates and Other Measures").

    Table A.  Areas reporting selected items on the live-birth certificate:
                                Each State, 1982

                                                         Date last
                                                          normal
                                           Dates of      menstrual     Number
                          Educational      last live      period         of
                          attainment       birth and      began       prenatal
                          of parents      fetal death     (LMP)        visits

 Alabama                      X                X            X             X
 Alaska                       X                X            X             X
 Arizona                      X                X            X             X
 Arkansas                     X                X            X             X
 California                                    X            X
 Colorado                     X                X            X             X
 Connecticut                  X                X            X             X
 Delaware                     X                X            X             X
 District of Columbia         X                X            X             X
 Florida                      X                X            X             X
 Georgia                      X                X            X             X
 Hawaii                       X                X            X             X
 Idaho                        X                X            X             X
 Illinois                     X                X            X             X
 Indiana                      X                X            X             X
 Iowa                         X                X            X             X
 Kansas                       X                X            X             X
 Kentucky                     X                X            X             X
 Louisiana                    X                X            X             X
 Maine                        X                X            X             X
 Maryland                     X                X            X             X
 Massachusetts                X                X            X             X
 Michigan                     X                X            X             X
 Minnesota                    X                X            X             X
 Mississippi                  X                X            X             X
 Missouri                     X                X            X             X
 Montana                      X                X            X             X
 Nebraska                     X                X            X             X
 Nevada                       X                X            X             X
 New Hampshire                X                X            X             X
 New Jersey                   X                X            X             X
 New Mexico                   X                X                          X
 New York                     X                X            X             X
 North Carolina               X                X            X             X
 North Dakota                 X                X            X             X
 Ohio                         X                X            X             X
 Oklahoma                     X                X            X             X
 Oregon                       X                X            X             X
 Pennsylvania                 X                X            X             X
 Rhode Island                 X                X            X             X
 South Carolina               X                X            X             X
 South Dakota                 X                X            X             X
 Tennessee                    X                X            X             X
 Texas                                                      X             X
 Utah                         X                X            X             X
 Vermont                      X                X            X             X
 Virginia                     X                X            X             X
 Washington                                    X            X             X
 West Virginia                X                X            X             X
 Wisconsin                    X                X            X             X
 Wyoming                      X                X            X             X


                             Marital
                             status   1-Minute   5-Minute
                               of       Apgar      Apgar     Ethnic   Hispanic
                             mother     score      score     origin    origin

 Alabama                       X          X          X
 Alaska                        X          X          X
 Arizona                       X          X          X                   X
 Arkansas                      X          X          X                   X
 California                                                        X
 Colorado                      X          X          X         X
 Connecticut                              X          X
 Delaware                      X
 District of Columbia          X          X          X                   X
 Florida                       X          X          X         X
 Georgia                       X          X          X         X
 Hawaii                        X          X          X                   X
 Idaho                         X          X          X
 Illinois                      X          X          X         X
 Indiana                       X          X          X                   X
 Iowa                          X          X          X
 Kansas                        X          X          X         X
 Kentucky                      X          X          X
 Louisiana                     X          X          X
 Maine                         X          X          X         X
 Maryland                                 X          X
 Massachusetts                 X          X          X
 Michigan                                 X          X
 Minnesota                     X          X          X
 Mississippi                   X          X          X         X
 Missouri                      X          X          X
 Montana                                  X          X
 Nebraska                      X          X          X         X
 Nevada                                   X          X         X
 New Hampshire                 X          X          X
 New Jersey                    X          X          X         X
 New Mexico                    X          X          X                   X
 New York                                 X          X         X1        X2
 North Carolina                X          X          X
 North Dakota                  X          X          X         X
 Ohio                                     X          X         X
 Oklahoma                      X
 Oregon                        X          X          X
 Pennsylvania                  X          X          X
 Rhode Island                  X          X          X
 South Carolina                X          X          X
 South Dakota                  X          X          X
 Tennessee                     X          X          X                   X
 Texas                                                           X
 Utah                          X          X          X                   X
 Vermont                       X          X          X
 Virginia                      X          X          X
 Washington                    X          X          X
 West Virginia                 X          X          X
 Wisconsin                     X          X          X
 Wyoming                       X          X          X         X


 1New York City only.
 2Excludes New York City.


                                                         Date last
                                                          normal
                                           Dates of      menstrual     Number
                          Educational      last live      period         of
                          attainment       birth and      began       prenatal
                          of parents      fetal death     (LMP)        visits

 Alabama                      X                X            X             X
 Alaska                       X                X            X             X
 Arizona                      X                X            X             X
 Arkansas                     X                X            X             X
 California                                    X            X
 Colorado                     X                X            X             X
 Connecticut                  X                X            X             X
 Delaware                     X                X            X             X
 District of Columbia         X                X            X             X
 Florida                      X                X            X             X
 Georgia                      X                X            X             X
 Hawaii                       X                X            X             X
 Idaho                        X                X            X             X
 Illinois                     X                X            X             X
 Indiana                      X                X            X             X
 Iowa                         X                X            X             X
 Kansas                       X                X            X             X
 Kentucky                     X                X            X             X
 Louisiana                    X                X            X             X
 Maine                        X                X            X             X
 Maryland                     X                X            X             X
 Massachusetts                X                X            X             X
 Michigan                     X                X            X             X
 Minnesota                    X                X            X             X
 Mississippi                  X                X            X             X
 Missouri                     X                X            X             X
 Montana                      X                X            X             X
 Nebraska                     X                X            X             X
 Nevada                       X                X            X             X
 New Hampshire                X                X            X             X
 New Jersey                   X                X            X             X
 New Mexico                   X                X                          X
 New York                     X                X            X             X
 North Carolina               X                X            X             X
 North Dakota                 X                X            X             X
 Ohio                         X                X            X             X
 Oklahoma                     X                X            X             X
 Oregon                       X                X            X             X
 Pennsylvania                 X                X            X             X
 Rhode Island                 X                X            X             X
 South Carolina               X                X            X             X
 South Dakota                 X                X            X             X
 Tennessee                    X                X            X             X
 Texas                                                      X             X
 Utah                         X                X            X             X
 Vermont                      X                X            X             X
 Virginia                     X                X            X             X
 Washington                                    X            X             X
 West Virginia                X                X            X             X
 Wisconsin                    X                X            X             X
 Wyoming                      X                X            X             X


                             Marital
                             status   1-Minute   5-Minute
                               of       Apgar      Apgar     Ethnic   Hispanic
                             mother     score      score     origin    origin

 Alabama                       X          X          X
 Alaska                        X          X          X
 Arizona                       X          X          X                   X
 Arkansas                      X          X          X                   X
 California                                                        X
 Colorado                      X          X          X         X
 Connecticut                              X          X
 Delaware                      X
 District of Columbia          X          X          X                   X
 Florida                       X          X          X         X
 Georgia                       X          X          X         X
 Hawaii                        X          X          X                   X
 Idaho                         X          X          X
 Illinois                      X          X          X         X
 Indiana                       X          X          X                   X
 Iowa                          X          X          X
 Kansas                        X          X          X         X
 Kentucky                      X          X          X
 Louisiana                     X          X          X
 Maine                         X          X          X         X
 Maryland                                 X          X
 Massachusetts                 X          X          X
 Michigan                                 X          X
 Minnesota                     X          X          X
 Mississippi                   X          X          X         X
 Missouri                      X          X          X
 Montana                                  X          X
 Nebraska                      X          X          X         X
 Nevada                                   X          X         X
 New Hampshire                 X          X          X
 New Jersey                    X          X          X         X
 New Mexico                    X          X          X                   X
 New York                                 X          X         X1        X2
 North Carolina                X          X          X
 North Dakota                  X          X          X         X
 Ohio                                     X          X         X
 Oklahoma                      X
 Oregon                        X          X          X
 Pennsylvania                  X          X          X
 Rhode Island                  X          X          X
 South Carolina                X          X          X
 South Dakota                  X          X          X
 Tennessee                     X          X          X         X
 Texas                                                           X
 Utah                          X          X          X                   X
 Vermont                       X          X          X
 Virginia                      X          X          X
 Washington                    X          X          X
 West Virginia                 X          X          X
 Wisconsin                     X          X          X
 Wyoming                       X          X          X         X


   1 New York City only.
   2 Excludes New York City.

 
 Place of Delivery and Attendant at Birth

     Births occurring in hospitals, institutions, clinics, centers, or homes
 are included in the category "In hospital."  In this context the word
 "homes" does not refer to the mother's residence but to an institution such
 as a home for unwed mothers.  Beginning in 1975, the attendant at birth and
 place of delivery items were coded independently, primarily to permit the
 identification of the person in attendance at hospital deliveries.  Tables
 1-37 and 1-38 of this report present this more detailed information for the
 years 1975-83.

     Data shown in this volume for the "In hospital" category for the years
 1975-83 include all births in clinics or maternity centers, regardless of
 the attendant.  Data for 1975-77 published before 1980 included clinic and
 center births in the category "In hospital" only when the attendant was a
 physician.  Data shown for 1975-77 in tables 1-37 and 1-38 therefore differ
 from data published before 1980.  As a result of this change, for 1975 an
 additional 12,352 births are now classified as occurring in hospitals,
 raising the percent of births occurring in hospitals from 98.7 to 99.1.
 Similarly, for 1976 the number of births occurring in hospitals is increased
 by 14,133 and the percent in hospitals raised from 98.6 to 99.1; for 1977,
 the increase is 15,937 and the percent in hospitals raised from 98.5 to
 99.0.  For 1974 and earlier, the "In hospital" category includes all births
 in hospitals or institutions and births in clinics, centers, or maternity
 homes only when attended by physicians.

     For births occurring outside of hospitals, separate classifications are
 shown for physicians, midwives, and "Other" attendants.  The
 "Out-of-hospital" category also includes births for which no information is
 reported on place of birth.  Before 1975, the category "In hospital"
 included births for which the stated place of birth was a doctor's office"
 and delivery was by a physician.  Beginning in 1975, births that were
 delivered by physicians in a "doctor's office" were tabulated as "Not in
 hospital" and included with births delivered by physicians in this
 category.  Although the actual number of such births is unknown, the effect
 of the change is minimal.  In 1974, 0.3 percent of all births were delivered
 by physicians outside of hospitals; in 1975 this proportion was 0.4 percent.

     Babies born on the way to or on arrival at the hospital was classified
 as having been born in the hospital.  This may account for some of the
 hospital births not delivered by physicians or midwives.

     The percent distributions by attendant at birth for 1975-81 shown in
 table 1-38 have been revised to exclude births for which the attendant was
 unspecified.  In recent years, the number of births with unspecified
 attendant has fluctuated substantially.  Excluding these births from the
 percent distributions allows for a more meaningful year-to-year comparison
 in the proportion of births for each specified attendant.

 Birth Weight

     Birth weight is reported in some areas in pounds and ounces rather than
 in grams.  However, the metric system has been used in tabulating and
 presenting the statistics to facilitate comparison with data published by
 other groups.

     The categories for birth weight were changed in 1979 to be consistent
 with the recommendations in the Ninth Revision of the International
 Classification of Diseases (ICD-9).  The revised categories in gram
 intervals and their equivalents in pounds and ounces are as follows:

     Less than 500 grams =   1 lb  1 oz or less
       500-  999   grams =   1 lb  2 oz-  2 lb  3 oz
     1,000-1,499   grams =   2 lb  4 oz-  3 lb  4 oz
     1,500-1,999   grams =   3 lb  5 oz-  4 lb  6 oz
     2,000-2,499   grams =   4 lb  7 oz-  5 lb  8 oz
     2,500-2,999   grams =   5 lb  9 oz-  6 lb  9 oz
     3,000-3,499   grams =   6 lb 10 oz-  7 lb 11 oz
     3,500-3,999   grams =   7 lb 12 oz-  8 lb 13 oz
     4,000-4,499   grams =   8 lb 14 oz-  9 lb 14 oz
     4,500-4,999   grams =   9 lb 15 oz- 11 lb  0 oz
     5,000 grams or more =  11 lb  1 oz or more

     The ICD-9 defines low birth weight as less than 2,500 grams.  This is a
 shift of 1 gram from the previous criterion of 2,500 grams or less, which
 was recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 1935 and adopted by
 the World Health Organization in the Sixth Revision of the International
 Lists of Diseases and Causes of Death (1948).

     After data classified by pounds and ounces are converted to grams,
 median weights are computed and rounded before publication.  To establish
 the continuity of class intervals needed to convert pounds and ounces to
 grams, the end points of these intervals are assumed to be half an ounce
 less at the lower end and half an ounce more at the upper end.  For example,
 2 lb 4 oz-3 lb 4 oz is interpreted as 2 lb 3 1/2 oz-3 lb 4 1/2 oz.

    Births for which birth weight is not reported are excluded from the
 computation of percents and medians.

 Period of Gestation

    The period of gestation is defined as beginning with the first day of
 the last normal menstrual period (LMP) and ending with the day of the
 birth.  The LMP is used as the initial date as it can be more accurately
 determined than the date of conception, which usually occurs 2 weeks after
 the LMP.

     For 1983 the computation of period of gestation is based entirely on LMP
 data from the 49 States and the District of Columbia reporting LMP;
 gestation data for New Mexico, which reports period of gestation in terms of
 weeks or months, are excluded from the tabulations in this report.

     Births occurring before 37 weeks of gestation are considered to be
 "preterm" or "premature" for purposes of classification.  At 37-41 weeks
 gestation, births are considered to be "term," and at 42 weeks and over,
 "post term."  These distinctions are according to the ICD-9 definitions.

     Before 1981, the period of gestation was computed only when there was a
 valid month, day, and year of LMP.  However, length of gestation could not
 be determined from a substantial number of live birth certificates each year
 because the day of LMP was missing.  Beginning in 1981 weeks of gestation
 have been imputed for records with missing day of LMP when there is a valid
 month and year.  Each such record is assigned the gestational period in
 weeks of the preceding record that has a complete LMP date with the same
 computed months of gestation and the same 500-gram birth weight interval.
 The effect of the imputation procedure is to increase slightly the
 proportion of premature births and to lower the proportion of births at 39,
 40, 41, and 42 weeks of gestation.  A more complete discussion of this
 procedure and its implications is presented in a previous report.10

     The calculated period of gestation in completed weeks is edited for
 upper and lower limits.  If the interval between date of last normal
 menstrual period and date of birth is 16 weeks or less, or 53 weeks or more,
 the period of gestation is considered not stated.

     Because of post-conception bleeding or menstrual irregularities, the
 presumed date of LMP may be in error.  In these instances the computed
 gestational period may be longer or shorter than the true gestational
 period, but the extent of such errors is unknown.

 Month of Pregnancy Prenatal Care Began
 
    For those records in which the name of the month is entered for this
 item, instead of first, second, third, and so forth, the month of pregnancy
 in which prenatal care began is determined from the month named and the
 month last normal menses began.  For these births, if the item "Date last
 normal menses began" is not on the certificate or is not stated, the month
 of pregnancy in which prenatal care began is tabulated as not stated.

 Number of Prenatal Visits
 
    Tabulations of the number of prenatal visits were presented for the
 first time in 1972.  In 1983 these data were collected from the birth
 certificate of 49 States and the District of Columbia (see table A).

 Apgar Score

     One-and 5-minute Apgar scores were added to the U.S. Standard
 Certificate of Live Birth in 1978 to evaluate the condition of the newborn
 infant at 1 and 5 minutes after birth.  The Apgar score is a useful measure
 of the need for resuscitation and a predictor of the infant's chances of
 surviving the first year of life.  It is a summary measure of the infant's
 condition based on heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex
 irritability, and color.  Each of these factors is given a score of 0, 1, or
 2; the sum of these 5 values is the Apgar score, which ranges from 0 to 10.
 A score of 10 is optimum, and a low score raises some doubts about the
 survival and subsequent health of the infant.  In 1983 the 1- and 5-minute
 Apgar scores were included on the birth certificates of 46 States and the
 District of Columbia.  See table A for a listing of reporting areas.

 Hispanic Parentage

     Concurrent with the 1978 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of
 Live Birth, NCHS recommended that States add items to identify the Hispanic
 or ethnic origin of the newborn's parents.  Two formats were used:  An
 open-ended item to obtain the specific origin or descent of each parent, for
 example, Italian, Mexican, or English; and an item directed toward the
 Hispanic population, requesting only the specific Hispanic origin (Mexican,
 Puerto Rican, Cuban, and so forth).  In 1983 items requesting Hispanic or
 ethnic origin were included on the birth certificates of 23 States and the
 District of Columbia (see table A).

 Quality of Data

 General Information

     Although vital statistics data are useful for a variety of
 administrative and scientific purposes, they cannot be correctly interpreted
 unless various qualifying factors and methods of classification are taken
 into account.  The factors to be considered depend on the specific purposes
 for which the data are to be used.  It is not feasible to discuss all the
 pertinent factors in the use of vital statistics tabulations, but some of
 the more important ones should be mentioned.

     Most of the factors limiting the use of data arise from imperfections in
 the original records or from the impracticability of tabulating these data
 in very detailed categories.  These limitations should not be ignored, but
 their existence does not vitiate the value of the data for most general
 purposes.

 Completeness of Registration

     An estimated 99.3 percent of all births occurring in the United States
 in 1983 were registered; for white births registration was 99.4 percent
 complete and for all other births, 98.6 percent complete.  These estimates
 are based on the results of the 1964-68 test of birth registration
 completeness according to place of delivery (in or out of hospital) and race
 and on the 1983 proportions of births in these categories.  The primary
 purpose of the test was to obtain current measures of registration
 completeness for births in and out of hospital by race on a national basis.
 Data for States were not available as they had been from the previous
 birth-registration tests in 1940 and 1950.  A detailed discussion of the
 method and results of the 1964-68 birth registration test is available.11

     The 1964-68 test has provided an opportunity to revise the estimates of
 birth-registration completeness for the years since the previous test in
 1950 to reflect the improvement in registration.  This has been done using
 registration completeness figures from the two tests by place of delivery
 and race.  Estimates of registration completeness for four groups (based on
 place of delivery and race) for 1951-65 were computed by interpolation
 between the test results.  (It was assumed that the data from the more
 recent test are for 1966, the midpoint of the test period.)  The results of
 the 1964-68 test are assumed to prevail for 1966 and later years.  These
 estimates were used with the proportions of births registered in these
 categories to obtain revised numbers of births adjusted for
 underregistration for each year.  The overall percent of birth-registration
 completeness by race was then computed.  The figures for 1951-68 shown in
 table 1-21 differ slightly from those shown in annual reports for years
 prior to 1969.

     Dated adjusted for underregistration for 1951-59 shown in tables 1-1,
 1-3, 1-4, 1-6, and 1-8 have been revised to be consistent with the 1964-68
 test results and differ slightly from data shown in annual reports for years
 before 1969.  For these years the published number of births and birth rates
 for both racial groups have been revised slightly downward because the
 1964-68 test indicated that previous adjustments to registered births were
 slightly inflated.  Because registration completeness figures by age of
 mother and by live-birth order are not available from the 1964-68 test, it
 must be assumed that the relationships among these variables have not
 changed since 1950.

     Discontinuation of adjustment for underregistration, 1960--Adjustment
 for underregistration of births was discontinued in 1960, when birth
 registration for the United States was estimated to be 99.1 percent
 complete.  This removed a bias introduced into age-specific rates when
 adjusted births classified by age were used.  Age-specific rates are
 calculated by dividing the number of births to an age group of mothers by
 the population of women in that age group.  Tests have shown that population
 figures are likely to be understated through census undercounts; these
 errors compensate for underregistration of births.  Adjustment for
 underregistration of births, therefore, reoved the compensating effect of
 underenumeration, biasing the age-specific rates more than when uncorrected
 birth and population data are used.  (For further details see Vital
 Statistics of the United States, 1963, Volume I, page 4-11.)

     The age-specific rates used in the cohort fertility tables (tables 1-12
 through 1-19) are an exception to the above statement.  These rates are
 computed from births corrected for underregistration and population
 estimates adjusted for underenumeration and misstatement of age.  Adjusted
 births and population estimates are used for the cohort rates because they
 are an integral part of a series of rates, estimated with a consistent
 methodology.  It was considered desirable to maintain consistency with
 respect to the cohort rates, even though it means that they will not be
 precisely comparable with other rates shown for 5-year age groups.

 Quality Control Procedures

     Natality data coded by NCHS are simultaneously coded and entered onto
 magnetic tape for input to the computer.  Errors are controlled by an
 independent replication of the original coding by verification clerks and by
 resolution of any discrepancies.  Original coding entries are subject to
 total verification except for work by coders who maintain an error rate of
 2.5 percent or less.  For these qualified coders the original coding is
 verified on the basis of a 10-percent sample of the coded natality records
 until the allowable rate is exceeded.  Then their coding is verified on a
 100-percent basis until it requalifies for sample verification.  Errors
 detected by any method of verification are reviewed to determine coding bias.

     States in the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program are required to have
 an error rate of less than 2.0 percent fo each item for 3 consecutive data
 months during the initial qualifying period.  Once a State is qualified,
 NCHS monitors the quality of data received through independent verification
 of a sample of records to ensure that the item error rate is not more than
 approximately 4 percent.  In addition, there is verification at the State
 level before NCHS is sent the data.

     After completion of coding, counts of the taped records are balanced
 against control totals for each shipment of records from a registration
 area.  Impossible codes are eliminated during the editing processes on the
 computer and corrected on the basis of reference to the source record or
 adjusted by arbitrary code assignment.  All subsequent operations involved
 in tabulation and table preparation are verified during the computer
 processing or by statistical clerks.

 Small Frequencies

     The numbers of births reported for an area represent complete counts
 except for those States where data are based on a 50-percent sample.  As
 such, they are not subject to sampling error, although they are subject to
 errors in the registration process.  However, when the figures are used for
 analytical purposes, such as the comparison of rates over a time period or
 for different areas, the number of events that actually occurred may be
 considered as one of a large series of possible results that could have
 arisen under the same circumstances.  The probable range of values may be
 estimated from the actual figures according to certain statistical
 assumptions.

     In general, distributions of vital evnts may be assumed to follow the
 binomial distribution.  Estimates of standard errors and tests of
 significance under this assumption are described in most standard statistic
 tests.  When the number of events is large, the standard error, expressed as
 a percent of the number or rate, is usually small.

     When the number of events is small (perhaps less than 100) and the
 probability of such an event is small, considerable caution must be observed
 in interpreting the conditions described by the figures.  Events of rare
 nature may be assumed to follow a Poisson probability distribution.  For
 this distribution, a simple approximation may be used to estimate the error
 as follows:

     If N is the number of birthsa and R is the corresponding rate, the
 changes are 19 in 20 that:



 aFor States for which birth data are based on a 50-percent sample of births,
 N should be taken as one-half of the number of births given in the tables.


     1.  The "true" number of events lies between

         N - 2  N and N + 2  N

     2.  The "true" rate lies between

                R             R
         R - 2     and R + 2
                N             N

     If the rate R corresponding to N events is compared with the rate S
 corresponding to M events, the difference between the two rates may be
 regarded as statistically significant if it exceeds


              R2    S2
         2       +
             N      M

     For example, suppose that the observed birth rate for area A was 15.0
 per 1,000 population and that this rate was based on 50 recorded births.
 Given prevailing conditions, the chances are 19 in 20 that the "true" or
 underlying birth rate for that area lies between 10.8 and 19.2 per 1,000
 population.  Let it be further supposed that the birth rate for area A of
 15.0 per 1,000 population is being compared with a rate of 20.0 per 1,000
 population for area B, which is based on 40 recorded births.

     Although the difference between the rates for the two areas is 5.0, this
 difference is less than twice the standard error of the difference


              (15.0)2   (20.0)2
         2           +
               50      40

 of the two rates that is computed to be 7.6.  From this, it is concluded
 that the difference between the rates for the two areas is not statistically
 significant.

 Sampling of Birth Records

     Birth statistics presented in this report for years before 1951 and for
 1955 are based on the total file of birth records.  Statistics for 1951-54,
 1956-66, and 1968-71 are based on 50-percent samples with the exception of
 data for Guam and the Virgin Islands, which are based on all the records
 filed.  During the course of processing the 1967 data, the sampling rate was
 reduced from 50 percent to 20 percent.  For details of this procedure and
 its consequences for the 1967 data, see Vital Statistics of the United
 States, 1967, Volume I, pages 3-9 to 3-11.

     Beginning in 1972 statistics are based on all records filed in the
 States submitting computer tapes and on a 50-percent sample of records in
 all other States.  In 1983 the total file of birth records was used for 46
 States (see "Sources of Data"), which accounted for 84 percent of all births
 in the country.  The total file of records was also used for Puerto Rico,
 the Virgin Islands, and Guam.

     In the four States (Arizona, California, Delaware, and Georgia) and the
 District of Columbia where a sample was used, the sampling design is
 essentially a stratified random sample.  The sampling frame consists of
 births that occur in the State during a calendar year and that are
 rerecorded by State registrars of vital statistics.  Each month the birth
 certificates that have been filed during the month are sent by local
 registrars to the State registrars, where the records are numbered
 sequentially as they are received.  Therefore, the records for each local
 registration area, usually a county, are numbered sequentially, and births
 in the total file for each State are grouped by month of filing and county
 of occurrence.  Microfilm copies of the birth records filed in the State are
 forwarded to the National Center for Health Statistics, where even-numbered
 records are selected for the 50-percent sampling rate.

 Reliability of Estimates

     There is no sampling error in the total number of births occurring in a
 State, whether the total file or a 50-percent sample is used.
 Characteristics such as race and month of birth when shown by place of
 occurrence are subject to sampling error only for the sampled States.  All
 data by place of residence, for all States, are subject to sampling error.

     Sampling error is the difference between an estimate based on a sample
 and the true value (assuming there is no measurement error).  As calculated
 for this report the standard error reflects this error as well as random
 measurement errors that may have been made in data collection and
 processing.  However, it does not include any systematic biases in the
 data.  The chances are about 2 out of 3 that the difference between the
 estimate and the value that would have been obtained from all births is less
 than 1 standard error.  The chances are about 19 out of 20 that the
 difference is less than twice the standard error and about 99 out of 100
 that it is less than 2 1/2 times as large.

     The approximate standard errors for 1983 for total births in an area and
 for numbers of births with a specific characteristic can be obtained using
 table B in conjunction with table C.  To use table B, both the total number
 of births in the area and the estimated number of births with a specific
 characteristic must be known.  For estimated births with a specified
 characteristic other than geographic area, the appropriate "Total births in
 the area" in table B is the number in the relevant area--for example, city,
 county, State, or United States.  When the specified characteristic is a
 substate geographic area, the number of births in the State is used as the
 "Total births in the area."  Linear interpolation may be used to obtain
 standard errors for estimated numbers of births not shown in table B.  After
 the standard error is determined from table B, it is multiplied by the
 appropriate factor from table C.  If the multiplier is zero ("-"), then
 there is no standard error.  For substate geographic areas, the multiplier
 shown for the State should be used.

     For example, consider an estimate of 10,000 births to women with a
 particular characteristic residing in Oregon, which has a total of 39,977
 births to residents.  Table B shows that the standard error for an estimate
 of 10,000 births is 70.7 for an area having 20,000 total births and 89.4 for
 an area having 50,000 total births.  Linear interpolation yields a value of
 83.2 for the appropriate standard error for an area having 39,977 births.
 According to table C, the multiplier for resident births for Oregon is
 0.28.  Hence, the standard error for the estimate of 10,000 births to women
 with a particular characteristic residing in Oregon is approximately 23.3 =
 (83.2)(0.28).

     The multiplier in table C for a nonsampled State is based on the
 estimated proportion of births to that State's residents occurring in
 adjacent sampled States.  When the multiplier is zero ("-"), there are no
 adjacent sampled States.  The proportion of births to that State's residents
 occurring in nonadjacent sampled States is small, with only a negligible
 effect on the standard error.

      Table B.  Standard errors of estimated births for specified size of
                     estimate and total births in the area

            (Standard errors shown must be used in conjunction with
                      multipliers in table C.  See text.)


     Number of Births With a                Total Births in the Area (B)
   Specified Characteristic(X)1    250      500      1,000    2,000    5,000


 10 ------------------------------   3.1      3.1        3.1      3.2      3.2
 20 ------------------------------   4.3      4.4        4.4      4.5      4.5
 30 ------------------------------   5.2      5.3        5.4      5.4      5.5
 50 ------------------------------   6.4      6.7        6.9      7.0      7.0
 125 -----------------------------   7.9      9.7       10.5     10.8     11.0
 250 -----------------------------   0.0     11.2       13.7     14.8     15.4
 500 -----------------------------     -      0.0       15.8     19.4     21.2
 1,000 ---------------------------     -        -        0.0     22.4     28.3
 2,500 ---------------------------     -        -          -      0.0     35.4
 5,000 ---------------------------     -        -          -        -      0.0
 10,000 --------------------------     -        -          -        -        -
 25,000 --------------------------     -        -          -        -        -
 50,000 --------------------------     -        -          -        -        -
 100,000 -------------------------     -        -          -        -        -
 250,000 -------------------------     -        -          -        -        -
 500,000 -------------------------     -        -          -        -        -
 1,000,000 -----------------------     -        -          -        -        -
 2,000,000 -----------------------     -        -          -        -        -
 3,000,000 -----------------------     -        -          -        -        -


            (Standard errors shown must be used in conjunction with
                      multipliers in table C.  See text.)

   Number of Births
   With a Specified                       Total Births in the Area (B)
   Characteristic(X)1           10,000  20,000   50,000   500,000  3,600,000


 10 -----------------------------    3.2     3.2      3.2       3.2        3.2
 20 -----------------------------    4.5     4.5      4.5       4.5        4.5
 30 -----------------------------    5.5     5.5      5.5       5.5        5.5
 50 -----------------------------    7.1     7.1      7.1       7.1        7.1
 125 ----------------------------   11.1    11.1     11.2      11.2       11.2
 250 ----------------------------   15.6    15.7     15.8      15.8       15.8
 500 ----------------------------   21.8    22.1     22.2      22.3       22.4
 1,000 --------------------------   30.0    30.8     31.3      31.6       31.6
 2,500 --------------------------   43.3    46.8     48.7      49.9       50.0
 5,000 --------------------------   50.0    81.2     67.1      70.4       70.7
 10,000 -------------------------    0.0    70.7     89.4      99.0       99.9
 25,000 -------------------------      -     0.0    111.8     154.1      157.6
 50,000 -------------------------      -       -      0.0     212.1      222.0
 100,000 ------------------------      -       -        -     282.8      311.8
 250,000 ------------------------      -       -        -     353.6      482.3
 500,000 ------------------------      -       -        -       0.0      656.2
 1,000,000 ----------------------      -       -        -         -      849.8
 2,000,000 ----------------------      -       -        -         -      942.8
 3,000,000 ----------------------      -       -        -         -      707.1


 1Standard errors for B minus X are the same as those shown for X.


        Table C.  Multipliers for approximating maximum standard errors,
                 by place of occurrence and place of residence:
                  United States, each division and State, 1983

                                            Place of                 Place of
      Division and State                   Occurrence               Residence

 United States ------------------------       0.41                     0.41

 Geographic divisions:
   New England ------------------------         -                        -
   Middle Atlantic --------------------         -                      0.08
   East North Central -----------------         -                        -
   West North Central -----------------         -                        -
   South Atlantic ---------------------       0.46                     0.48
   East South Central -----------------         -                      0.24
   West South Central -----------------         -                        -
   Mountain ---------------------------       0.48                     0.49
   Pacific ----------------------------       0.87                     0.87

 New England:
   Maine ------------------------------         -                        -
   New Hampshire ----------------------         -                        -
   Vermont ----------------------------         -                        -
   Massachusetts ----------------------         -                        -
   Rhode Island -----------------------         -                        -
   Connecticut ------------------------         -                        -
 Middle Atlantic:
   New York ---------------------------         -                        -
   New Jersey--------------------------         -                      0.18
   Pennsylvania------------------------         -                      0.14
 East North Central:
   Ohio -------------------------------         -                        -
   Indiana ----------------------------         -                        -
   Illinois ---------------------------         -                        -
   Michigan ---------------------------         -                        -
   Wisconsin --------------------------         -                        -
 West North Central:
   Minnesota --------------------------         -                        -
   Iowa -------------------------------         -                        -
   Missouri ---------------------------         -                        -
   North Dakota -----------------------         -                        -
   South Dakota -----------------------         -                        -
   Nebraska ---------------------------         -                        -
   Kansas -----------------------------         -                        -
 South Atlantic:
   Delaware --------------------------        1.00                     1.00
   Maryland --------------------------          -                      0.62
   District of Columbia --------------        1.00                     1.00
   Virginia --------------------------          -                      0.50
   West Virginia ---------------------          -                        -
   North Carolina --------------------          -                      0.39
   South Carolina --------------------          -                      0.51
   Georgia ---------------------------        1.00                     1.00
   Florida ---------------------------          -                      0.29
 East South Central:
   Kentucky --------------------------          -                        -
   Tennessee -------------------------          -                      0.42
   Alabama ---------------------------          -                      0.47
   Mississippi -----------------------          -                        -
 West South Central:
   Arkansas --------------------------          -                        -
   Louisiana -------------------------          -                        -
   Oklahoma --------------------------          -                        -
   Texas -----------------------------          -                        -
 Mountain:
   Montana ---------------------------          -                        -
   Idaho -----------------------------          -                        -
   Wyoming ---------------------------          -                        -
   Colorado --------------------------          -                      0.20
   New Mexico ------------------------          -                      0.29
   Arizona ---------------------------        1.00                     1.00
   Utah ------------------------------          -                      0.24
   Nevada ----------------------------          -                      0.63
 Pacific:
   Washington ------------------------          -                        -
   Oregon ----------------------------          -                      0.28
   California ------------------------        1.00                     1.00
   Alaska ----------------------------          -                        -
   Hawaii ----------------------------          -                        -


        Table C.  Multipliers for approximating maximum standard errors,
                 by place of occurrence and place of residence:
                  United States, each division and State, 1984

                                            Place of                 Place of
      Division and State                   Occurrence               Residence

 United States ------------------------       0.40                     0.41

 Geographic divisions:
   New England ------------------------         -                        -
   Middle Atlantic --------------------         -                      0.08
   East North Central -----------------         -                        -
   West North Central -----------------         -                        -
   South Atlantic ---------------------       0.46                     0.46
   East South Central -----------------         -                      0.24
   West South Central -----------------         -                        -
   Mountain ---------------------------       0.49                     0.50
   Pacific ----------------------------       0.87                     0.87

 New England:
   Maine ------------------------------         -                        -
   New Hampshire ----------------------         -                        -
   Vermont ----------------------------         -                        -
   Massachusetts ----------------------         -                        -
   Rhode Island -----------------------         -                        -
   Connecticut ------------------------         -                        -
 Middle Atlantic:
   New York ---------------------------         -                        -
   New Jersey--------------------------         -                      0.18
   Pennsylvania------------------------         -                      0.14
 East North Central:
   Ohio -------------------------------         -                        -
   Indiana ----------------------------         -                        -
   Illinois ---------------------------         -                        -
   Michigan ---------------------------         -                        -
   Wisconsin --------------------------         -                        -
 West North Central:
   Minnesota --------------------------         -                        -
   Iowa -------------------------------         -                        -
   Missouri ---------------------------         -                        -
   North Dakota -----------------------         -                        -
   South Dakota -----------------------         -                        -
   Nebraska ---------------------------         -                        -
   Kansas -----------------------------         -                        -
 South Atlantic:
   Delaware --------------------------        1.00                     1.00
   Maryland --------------------------          -                      0.62
   District of Columbia --------------        1.00                     1.00
   Virginia --------------------------          -                      0.50
   West Virginia ---------------------          -                        -
   North Carolina --------------------          -                      0.39
   South Carolina --------------------          -                      0.52
   Georgia ---------------------------        1.00                     1.00
   Florida ---------------------------          -                      0.29
 East South Central:
   Kentucky --------------------------          -                        -
   Tennessee -------------------------          -                      0.44
   Alabama ---------------------------          -                      0.48
   Mississippi -----------------------          -                        -
 West South Central:
   Arkansas --------------------------          -                        -
   Louisiana -------------------------          -                        -
   Oklahoma --------------------------          -                        -
   Texas -----------------------------          -                        -
 Mountain:
   Montana ---------------------------          -                        -
   Idaho -----------------------------          -                        -
   Wyoming ---------------------------          -                        -
   Colorado --------------------------          -                      0.20
   New Mexico ------------------------          -                      0.28
   Arizona ---------------------------        1.00                     1.00
   Utah ------------------------------          -                      0.23
   Nevada ----------------------------          -                      0.58
 Pacific:
   Washington ------------------------          -                        -
   Oregon ----------------------------          -                      0.26
   California ------------------------        1.00                     1.00
   Alaska ----------------------------          -                        -
   Hawaii ----------------------------          -                        -


     The appropriate relative standard error for rates is equivalent to the
 relative standard error of the numerator obtained using tables B and C.
 This is because the denominators are estimates that are considered to be
 without sampling errors (for example, populations by age, race, and sex or
 by month for the United States; or populations for States or for SMSA's).

     The standard error for estimates of the difference between two estimates
 X1 and X2 may be calculated using


     SE(d)  =  SE2(X1)  +  SE2(X2)

 This formula represents the standard error quite accurately for the
 difference between separate and uncorrelated characteristics.  When the
 characteristics are correlated, however, this formula overstates the
 standard error.

     The standard error for an estimate of the ratio R = X/Y may be
 approximated if the sample sizes are large enough for the ratio's variance
 to be valid.  As a working rule, the variance formula may be used if Y
 exceeds 60 and is also large enough that the relative standard errors
 (RSE's) for both X and Y are less than 0.1012 or if RSE(Y) is less than
 0.05.13  The RSE of an estimate (X or Y) is approximated by dividing the
 standard error by the estimate itself.  In the following it is assumed that
 Y exceeds 60 and that at least on of the two conditions of the RSE's is
 satisfied.

     The standard error for percent estimates where X is a subclass of the
 denominator Y may be calculated using


     SE(R)  =  R   RSE2(X)  -  RSE2(Y)

 The standard error for estimates of means and other ratios where the
 numerator X is not a subclass of the denominator Y may be calculated using


     SE(R)  =  R   RSE2(X)  +  RSE2(Y)

                    COMPUTATION OF RATES AND OTHER MEASURES

 Population Bases

     The rates shown in this report were computed on the basis of population
 statistics prepared by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.  Rates for 1940, 1950,
 1960, 1970, and 1980 are based on the population enumerated as of April 1 in
 the censuses of those years.  Rates for all other years are based on the
 estimated midyear (July 1) population for the respective years.  Birth rates
 for the United States, individual States, and SMSA's are based on the total
 resident populations of the respective areas.  Except as noted these
 populations exclude the Armed Forces abroad but include the Armed Forces
 stationed in each area.

     The resident population of the birth- and death-registration States for
 1900-1932 and for the United States for 1900-1983 is shown in table 4-1.  In
 addition, the population including Armed Forces abroad is shown for the
 United States.  Table D shows the sources for these populations.

     Population estimates for 1981-83--The population of the United States by
 age, race, and sex for 1983 is shown in table 4-2.  The population for each
 State is shown in table 4-3 and the monthly population figures were
 published in Current Population Reports, Series P-25, Number 961.
 Comparable data for 1981 and 1982 were shown in tables 4-2 and 4-3 of Vital
 Statistics of the United States, Volume I, for those years and in Current
 Population Reports, Series P-25, Numbers 931 and 949.  Population data by
 race are consistent with the modified 1980 populations by race.

     Populations for 1980--The population of the United States by age, race,
 and sex, and the population for each State are shown in tables 4-2 and 4-3
 of Vital Statistics of the United States, 1980, Volume I.  The figures by
 race have been modified as described below.  Monthly population figures were
 published in Current Population Reports, Series P-25, Nuber 899.

     The racial counts in the 1980 census are affected by changes in racial
 reporting practices, particularly by the Hispanic population, and in coding
 and classifying racial groups in the 1980 census.  One particular change has
 created a major inconsistency between the 1980 census data and historical
 data series, including censuses and vital statistics.  About 40 percent of
 the Hispanic population counted in 1980, over 5.8 million persons, did not
 mark one of the specified races listed on the census questionnaire but
 instead marked the "Other" category.  In the 1980 census, coding procedures
 were modified for persons who marked "Other" race and wrote in a national
 origin designation of a Latin American country or a specific Hispanic origin
 group in response to the racial question.  These persons remained in the
 "Other" racial category in 1980 census data; in previous censuses and in
 vital statistics such responses were almost always coded into the "White"
 category.

     In order to maintain comparability, the "Other" racial category in the
 1980 census was reallocated to be consistent with previous procedures.
 Persons who marked the "Other" racial category and reported any Spanish
 origin on the Spanish origin question (5,840,648 persons) were distributed
 to white and black races in proportion to the distribution of persons of
 Hispanic origin who reported their race to be white or black.  This was done
 for each age-sex group.

     As a result of this procedure, 5,705,155 persons were added to the white
 population and 135,493 persons to the black population.  Persons who marked
 the "Other" racial category and reported that they were not of Spanish
 origin (916,338 persons) were distributed as follows:  20 percent in each
 age-sex group were added to the "Asian and Pacific Islander" category
 (183,268 persons), and 80 percent were added to the "White" category
 (733,070 persons).  The count of American Indians, Eskimos, and Aleuts was
 not affected by these procedures.  Unpublished tabulations of these modified
 census counts were obtained from the Bureau of the Census and used to
 compute the 1980 rates for this report, except for tables 1-12 through 1-19.

     Population estimates for 1971-79--Birth rates for 1971-79 (except those
 for cohorts of women in tables 1-12 through 1-19) have been revised, based
 on revised population estimates that are consistent with the 1980 census
 levels.  The 1980 census counted approximately 5.5 million more persons than
 had earlier been estimated for April 1, 1980.14  The revised estimates for
 the United States by age, race, and sex were published by the Bureau of the
 Census in the Current Population Reports, Series P-25, Number 917.
 Population estimates by month are based on data published in Current
 Population Reports, Series P-25, Number 899.  Unpublished revised estimates
 for States were obtained from the Bureau of the Census.

     Population estimates for 1961-69--Birth Rates in this volume for 1961-69
 (except for those shown in tables 1-4 and 1-5) are based on revised
 estimates of the population and thus may differ slightly from rates
 published before 1976.  The revised estimates used in computing these rates
 were published in Current Population Reports, Series P-25, Number 519.  The
 rates shown in tables 1-4 and 1-5 for 1961-64 are based on revised estimates
 of the population published in Current Population Reports, Series P-25,
 Numbers 321 and 324, and may differ slightly from rates published in those
 years.

     Population estimates for 1951-59--Final intercensal estimates of the
 population by age, race, and sex and total population by State for 1951-59
 are shown in tables 4-4 and 4-5 of Vital Statistics of the United States,
 1966, Volume I.  Beginning with 1963 these final estimates have been used to
 compute birth rates for 1951-59 in all issues of Vital Statistics of the
 United States.

 Net Census Undercounts and Overcounts

     The Bureau of the Census has conducted extensive research to evaluate
 the coverage of the United States population (including undercount and
 overcount and misstatement of age, race, and sex) in the last four decennial
 censuses--1950, 1960, 1970, and 1980.  These studies provide estimates of
 the national population that was not enumerated or overenumerated in the
 respective censuses, by age, race, and sex.15-17  The report for 198017
 includes estimates of net underenumeration and overenumeration for age, sex,
 and racial subgroups of the national population, modified for race
 consistency with previous population counts as described in the section
 Populations for 1980.

       Table D.  Sources for resident population and population including
     Armed Forces abroad:  Birth- and death-registration States, 1900-1932,
                          and United States, 1900-1984


         Year                                Source


 1984-------------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
                    Series P-25, No. 985, April 1986.
 1983-------------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
                    Series P-25, No. 965, Dec. 1984.
 1982-------------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
                    Series P-25, No. 949, May 1984.
 1981-------------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
                    Series P-25, No. 929, May 1983.
 1980-------------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Census of Population:
                    1980, Number of Inhabitants, PC80-1-A1, United States
                    Summary, 1983.
 1971-79----------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
                    Series P-25, No. 917, July 1982.
 1970-------------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Census of Population:
                    1970, Number of Inhabitants, Final Report PC(1)-A1,
                    United States Summary, 1971.
 1961-69----------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
                    Series P-25, No. 519, April 1974.
 1960-------------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Census of Population:
                    1960, Number of Inhabitants, Final Report PC(1)-A1,
                    United States Summary, 1964.
 1951-59----------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
                    Series P-25, No. 310, June 30, 1965.
 1940-50----------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
                    Series P-25, No. 499, May 1973.
 1930-39----------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
                    Series P-25, No. 499, May 1973, and National Office of
                    Vital Statistics, Vital Statistics Raters in the United
                    States, 1900-1940, 1947.
 1920-29----------- National Office of Vital Statistics, Vital Statistics
                    Rates in the United States, 1900-1940, 1947.
 1917-19----------- Same as for 1930-39.
 1900-1916--------- Same as for 1920-29.


     These studies indicate that there is differential coverage in the
 censuses among the population subgroups; that is, some age, race, and sex
 groups are more completely enumerated than others.  To the extent that these
 estimates of over- or undercounts are valid, that they are substantial, and
 that they vary among subgroups and geographic areas, census miscounts can
 have consequences for vital statistics measures.16  However, the effects of
 undercounts in the census are reduced to the extent that there is
 underregistration of births.  If these two factors are of equal magnitude,
 rates based on the unadjusted populations are more accurate than those based
 on adjusted populations since the births have not been adjusted for
 underregistration.

     The impact of net census miscounts on vital statistics measures includes
 the effects on levels of the rates and effects on differentials among groups.

     If adjustments were made for persons who were not counted in the census
 population, the size of the denominators would generally increase and the
 rates would be smaller than without an adjustment.  Adjusted rates for 1980
 can be computed by multiplying the reported rates by ratios of the 1980
 census-level population adjusted for the estimated net census miscounts,
 which are shown in table E.  A ratio of less than 1.0 indicates a net census
 undercount and would result in a corresponding decrease in the rate.  A
 ratio in excess of 1.0 indicates a net census overcount and would result in
 a corresponding increase in the rate.

     Enumeration of females in the childbearing ages was at least 99 percent
 complete for all ages; the underenumerated age groups were 25-29 years,
 35-39 years, and 45-49 years.  Only one white female age group was
 underenumerated (35-39 years).  Among women of races other than white, all
 age groups but one (15-19 years) were underenumerated, with undercounts
 ranging up to 4 percent.  Generally, females in the childbearing ages were
 more completely enumerated than males for similar race-age groups.

     If vital statistics measures were calculated with adjustments for net
 census miscounts for each of these subgroups, the resulting rates would have
 been differentially changed from their original levels; that is, rates for
 those groups with the greatest estimated overcounts or undercounts would
 show the greatest relative changes due to these adjustments.  Thus the
 racial differential in fertility between the white and the all other
 population can be affected by such adjustments.


                 Table E. provided for 1983 Birth Cohort
       Table E.  Ratio of census-level population to population adjusted
          for estimated net census undercount, by age, sex, and race:
                                 April 1, 1980

                                   All Races                    White
           Age             Both                       Both
                           Sexes    Male     Female   Sexes    Male     Female

 All ages ---------------  0.9912   0.9822   0.9999   0.9960   0.9888   1.0029

 10-14 years ------------  1.0047   1.0052   1.0042   1.0071   1.0077   1.0066
 15-19 years ------------  1.0082   1.0070   1.0094   1.0068   1.0052   1.0084
 20-24 years ------------  0.9970   0.9876   1.0067   1.0004   0.9924   1.0088
 25-29 years ------------  0.9840   0.9694   0.9989   0.9885   0.9767   1.0007
 30-34 years ------------  0.9908   0.9739   1.0079   0.9964   0.9828   1.0104
 35-39 years ------------  0.9722   0.9535   0.9910   0.9815   0.9673   0.9961
 40-44 years ------------  0.9843   0.9646   1.0041   0.9933   0.9784   1.0083
 45-49 years ------------  0.9788   0.9600   0.9974   0.9891   0.9751   1.0029
 50-54 years ------------     ...   0.9678      ...      ...   0.9778      ...
 55 years and older------     ...   0.9896      ...      ...   0.9892      ...

 15-44 years ------------     ...      ...   1.0035      ...      ...   1.0057
 15-54 years ------------     ...   0.9761      ...      ...   0.9838      ...


                                                All Other
                                     Total                      Black
           Age             Both                       Both
                           Sexes    Male     Female   Sexes    Male     Female

 All ages ---------------  0.9628   0.9425   0.9821   0.9458   0.9189   0.9716

 10-14 years ------------  0.9931   0.9932   0.9930   0.9858   0.9855   0.9861
 15-19 years ------------  1.0153   1.0183   1.0143   1.0042   1.0028   1.0056
 20-24 years ------------  0.9786   0.9614   0.9957   0.9504   0.9233   0.9775
 25-29 years ------------  0.9588   0.9269   0.9894   0.9264   0.8816   0.9705
 30-34 years ------------  0.9568   0.9179   0.9935   0.9214   0.8668   0.9746
 35-39 years ------------  0.9149   0.8666   0.9608   0.8828   0.8190   0.9448
 40-44 years ------------  0.9299   0.8783   0.9791   0.8992   0.8334   0.9623
 45-49 years ------------  0.9132   0.8597   0.9629   0.8930   0.8280   0.9548
 50-54 years ------------     ...   0.8920      ...      ...   0.8620      ...
 55 years and older------     ...   0.9935      ...      ...   0.9771      ...

 15-44 years ------------     ...      ...   0.9919      ...      ...   0.9763
 15-54 years ------------     ...   0.9302      ...      ...   0.8939      ...


 SOURCE:  U.S. Bureau of the Census:  Estimates of the population of the
 United States, by age, sex, and race:  1980 to 1984.  Current Population
 Reports.  Series P-25, No. 965.  Washington.  U.S. Government Printing
 Office, March 1985.


            Table E. provided for 1984 Birth Cohort
       Table E.  Ratio of census-level resident population to resident
             population adjusted for estimated net census undercount,
             by age, race, and sex: United States, April 1, 1980

                                   All Races                    White
           Age             Both                       Both
                           Sexes    Male     Female   Sexes    Male     Female

 All ages ---------------  0.9862   0.9763   0.9958   0.9916   0.9839   0.9990

 10-14 years ------------  0.9978   0.9982   0.9974   1.0003   1.0008   0.9998
 15-19 years ------------  1.0011   0.9988   1.0034   1.0003   0.9976   1.0030
 20-24 years ------------  0.9834   0.9706   0.9965   0.9879   0.9769   0.9993
 25-29 years ------------  0.9742   0.9581   0.9908   0.9799   0.9673   0.9929
 30-34 years ------------  0.9850   0.9683   1.0020   0.9905   0.9778   1.0036
 35-39 years ------------  0.9776   0.9597   0.9955   0.9860   0.9730   0.9991
 40-44 years ------------  0.9743   0.9549   0.9937   0.9849   0.9706   0.9992
 45-49 years ------------  0.9734   0.9538   0.9926   0.9828   0.9690   0.9967
 50-54 years ------------     ...   0.9638      ...      ...   0.9755      ...
 55 years and older------     ...   0.9865      ...      ...   0.9875      ...

 15-44 years ------------     ...      ...   0.9973      ...      ...   0.9995
 15-54 years ------------     ...   0.9683      ...      ...   0.9770      ...


                                                All Other
                                     Total                      Black
           Age             Both                       Both
                           Sexes    Male     Female   Sexes    Male     Female

 All ages ---------------  0.9543   0.9309   0.9765   0.9392   0.9103   0.9669

 10-14 years ------------  0.9858   0.9858   0.9859   0.9808   0.9807   0.9816
 15-19 years ------------  1.0051   1.0052   1.0055   0.9980   0.9958   1.0001
 20-24 years ------------  0.9590   0.9354   0.9819   0.9390   0.9076   0.9696
 25-29 years ------------  0.9422   0.9040   0.9786   0.9168   0.8695   0.9628
 30-34 years ------------  0.9519   0.9081   0.9931   0.9197   0.8638   0.9735
 35-39 years ------------  0.9248   0.8743   0.9736   0.8968   0.8322   0.9588
 40-44 years ------------  0.9107   0.8576   0.9614   0.8782   0.8135   0.9401
 45-49 years ------------  0.9124   0.8544   0.9669   0.8833   0.8139   0.9497
 50-54 years ------------     ...   0.8759      ...      ...   0.8413      ...
 55 years and older------     ...   0.9779      ...      ...   0.9578      ...

 15-44 years ------------     ...      ...   0.9848      ...      ...   0.9712
 15-54 years ------------     ...   0.9157      ...      ...   0.8843      ...


 SOURCE:  U.S. Bureau of the Census:  Estimates of the population of the
 United States, by age, sex, and race:  1980 to 1985.  Current Population
 Reports.  Series P-25, No. 985.  Washington.  U.S. Government Printing
 Office, April 1986.


 Cohort Fertility Tables
 
    The various fertility measures shown for cohorts of women in tables 1-12
 through 1-19 are computed from births adjusted for underregistration and
 population estimates corrected for underenumeration and misstatement of
 age.  The data shown in this volume are not consistent with data published
 in annual reports before 1974.  These data use revised population estimates
 prepared by the Bureau of the Census and have been expanded to include data
 for the two major racial groups.  A detailed description of the methods used
 in deriving these measures as well as more detailed data for earlier years
 were published in a separate report.18

 Age-Sex-Adjusted Birth Rates

     The age-sex-adjusted birth rates shown in table 1-3 are computed by the
 direct method.  The age distribution of women aged 10-49 years as enumerated
 in 1940 and the total population of the United States for that year are used
 as the standard populations.  The birth rates by age of mother and race that
 are used to compute these adjusted rates are shown in table 1-6.  The
 age-sex-adjusted birth rates show differences in the level of fertility
 independent of differences in the age and sex composition of the
 population.  It is important not to confuse these adjusted rates with the
 crude rates shown in other tables.

 Total Fertility Rate

     The total fertility rate is the sum of the birth rates by age of mother
 (in 5-year age groups) multiplied by 5.  It is an age-adjusted rate because
 it is based on the assumption that there are the same number of women in
 each age group.  In table 1-6 the rate of 1,803 in 1983, for example, means
 that if a hypothetical group of 1,000 women were to have the same birth
 rates in each group that were observed in the actual childbearing population
 in 1983, they would have a total of 1,803 children by the time they reached
 the end of the reproductive period (taken here as age 50), assuming that all
 of the women survived to that age.

 Intrinsic Vital Rates

     The intrinsic vital rates shown in table 1-5 are calculated from a
 stable population.  A stable population is that hypothetical population,
 closed to external migration, which would become fixed in age-sex structure
 after repeated applications of a constant set of age-sex specific birth and
 death rates.  For the mathematical derivation of intrinsic vital rates, see
 Vital Statistics of the United States, 1962, Volume I, pages 4-13 and 4-14.
 The technique of calculating intrinsic vital rates is described elsewhere.19

 Parity Distribution

     The percent distribution of women by parity (number of children ever
 born alive to mother) shown in tables 1-13 and 1-17 is derived from
 cumulative birth rates by order of birth, which are shown in tables 1-15 and
 1-19.  The percent of zero-parity women is found by subtracting the
 cumulative first birth rate from 1,000 and dividing by 10.  The proportions
 of women at parities one through six are found from the following formula:

     Percent at N parity = (cum. rate, order N)  -  (cum. rate, order N + 1)
                                                   10

     The percent of women at seventh and higher parities is found by dividing
 the cumulative rate for seventh-order births by 10.

 Seasonal Adjustment of Rates

     The seasonally adjusted birth and fertility rates shown in table 1-23
 are computed from the X-11 variant of Census Method II.20  This method of
 seasonal adjustment used since 1964 differs slightly from the U.S. Bureau of
 Labor Statistics Seasonal Factor Method, which was used for Vital Statistics
 of the United States, 1964.  The fundamental technique is the same in that
 it is an adaptation of the ratio-to-moving-average method.  Before 1964 the
 method of seasonal adjustment was based on the X-9 variant and other
 variants of Census Method II.  A comparison of the Census Method II with the
 BLS Seasonal Factor Method shows the differences in the seasonal patterns of
 births to be negligible.

 Computation of Percents, Medians, and Means

     Percent distributions, medians, and means are computed using only events
 for which the characteristic is reported.  The "Not stated" category is
 subtracted from the total before computation of these measures.

 Symbols Used in Tables
                            SYMBOLS USED IN TABLES

    Data not available---------------------------     ---

    Category not applicable----------------------     ...

    Quantity zero--------------------------------       -

    Quantity more than 0 but less than 0.05------     0.0

    Figure does not meet standards of
      reliability or precision-------------------

 References
                                  REFERENCES

 1.  Third World Health Assembly:  Official Records, No. 28 (WHO 3.6).
     Geneva.  World Health Organization.  May 1950, pp. 16-17.

 2.  Statistical Office of the United Nations:  Principles for a Vital
     Statistics System, Recommendations for the Improvement and Standardization
     of Vital Statistics, Doc. ST/STAT/SERM/19.  New York.  United Nations, Aug.
     1953, p. 6.

 3.  National Office of Vital Statistics:  International Recommendations on
     Definitions of Live Birth and Fetal Deaths.  PHS Pub. No. 39.  Public Health
     Service.  Washington.  U.S. Government Printing Office, Oct. 1950, p. 6.

 4.  National Office of Vital Statistics:  Births and birth rates in the
     entire United States, 1909 to 1948.  Vital Statistics--Special Reports, Vol.
     33, No. 8, 1950.  Public Health Service.  Washington.  U.S. Government
     Printing Office, 1954.

 5.  U.S. Office of Management and Budget:  Standard metropolitan
     statistical areas and standard consolidated areas.  Statistical Reporter.
     Washington.  U.S. Government Printing Office, Oct. 1981, pp. 1-20.

 6.  U.S. Office of Management and Budget:  36 new standard metropolitan
     statistical areas.  Statistical Reporter.  Washington.  U.S. Government
     Printing Office, July 1981, p. 420.

 7.  U.S. Office of Management and Budget:  Standard metropolitan
     statistical areas, rev. ed.  Washington.  U.S. Government Printing Office,
     1975, pp. 89-90.

 8.  National Vital Statistics Division, J. Schachter:  Matched record
     comparison of birth certificate and census information in the United States
     1950.  Vital Statistics--Special Reports, Vol. 47, No. 12.  Public Health
     Service.  Washington, D.C., Mar. 1962.

 9.  National Center for Health Statistics, S. J. Ventura:  Trends and
     differentials in births to unmarried women.  United States, 1970-76.  Vital
     and Health Statistics, Series 21, No. 36.  DHHS Pub. No. (PHS) 80-1914.
     Public Health Service.  Washington.  U.S. Government Printing Office, May
     1980.

 10. National Center for Health Statistics, S. Taffel, D. Johnson, and R.
     Heuser:  A method of imputing length of gestation on birth certificates.
     Vital and Health Statistics, Series 2, No. 93.  DHHS Pub. No. (PHS)
     82-1367.  Public Health Service.  Washington.  U.S. Government Printing
     Office, May 1982.

 11. U.S. Bureau of the Census:  Test of birth registration completeness
     1964 to 1968.  1970 Census of Population and Housing.  Evaluation and
     Research Program.  PHC (E)-2.  Washington.  U.S. Government Printing Office,
     1973.

 12. W. G. Cochran:  Sampling Techniques.  New York.  John Wiley & Sons,
     Inc. 1963.

 13. H. Hansen, N. Hurwitz, and G. Madow:  Sample Survey Methods and
     Theory, Vol. 1, New York.  John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1953,

 14. U.S. Bureau of the Census:  Coverage of the national population in the
     1980 census by age, sex, and race.  Preliminary estimates by demographic
     analysis.  Current Population Reports, Series P-23, No. 115.  Washington.
     U.S. Government Printing Office, Feb. 1982.

 15. U.S. Bureau of the Census:  Developmental estimates of the coverage of
     the population of States in the 1970 Census--demographic analysis.  Current
     Population Reports, Series P-23, No. 65.  Washington.  U.S. Government
     Printing Office, Dec. 1977.

 16. U.S. Bureau of the Census:  1970 Census of Population and Housing
     Estimates of coverage of the population by sex, race, and age--demographic
     analysis.  Evaluation and Research Program.  PHC (E)-4.  Washington.  U.S.
     Government Printing Office, 1974.

 17. U.S. Bureau of the Census:  Estimates of the population of the United
     States, by age, sex, and race:  1960 to 1984.  Current Population Reports.
     Series P-25, No. 965.  Washington.  U.S. Government Printing Office, March
     1985.

 18. National Center for Health Statistics, R. Heuser:  Fertility Tables
     for Birth Cohorts by Color:  United States, 1917-73.  DHEW Pub. No. (HRA)
     76-1152. Health Resources Administration.  Washington.  U.S. Government
     Printing Office, 1976.

 19. G. W. Barclay:  Techniques of Population Analysis.  New York, John
     Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1958, pp. 216-222.

 20. U.S. Bureau of the Census:  The X-11 Variant of the Census Method II
     Seasonal Adjustment Program.  Technical Paper No. 13.  Washington.  U.S.
     Government Printing Office, 1963.


 TECHNICAL APPENDIX, 1983 MORTALITY FILE
 Sources of Data

 Death and Fetal-Death Statistics
 
    Mortality statistics for 1983 are, as for all previous years except
 1972, based on information from records of all deaths occurring in the
 United States.  Fetal-death statistics for every year are based on all
 reports of fetal death received by the National Center for Health Statistics
 (NCHS).

     The death-registration system and the fetal-death reporting system of
 the United States encompass the 50 States, the District of Columbia, New
 York City (which is independent of New York State for the purpose of death
 registration), Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and
 the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.  In the statistical tabulations
 of this publication, United States refers only to the aggregate of the 50
 States (including New York City) and the District of Columbia.  Tabulations
 for Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands are shown separately in this
 volume.  No data have ever been included for American Samoa or the Trust
 Territory of the Pacific Islands.

     The Virgin Islands was admitted to the "registration area" for deaths in
 1924; Puerto Rico, in 1932; and Guam, in 1970.  Tabulations of death
 statistics for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands were regularly shown in
 the annual volumes of Vital Statistics of the United States from the year of
 their admission through 1971 except for the years 1967 through 1969, and
 tabulations for Guam were included for 1970 and 1971.  Death statistics for
 Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Guam were not included in the 1972
 volume but have been included in section 8 of the volumes for each of the
 years 1973-78 and in section 9 beginning with 1979.  Information for 1972
 for these three areas was published in the respective annual vital
 statistics reports of the Department of Health of the Commonwealth of Puerto
 Rico, the Department of Health of the Virgin Islands, and the Department of
 Public Health and Social Services of the Government of Guam.

     Procedures used by NCHS to collect death statistics have changed over
 the years.  Before 1971, tabulations of deaths and fetal deaths were based
 solely on information obtained by NCHS from copies of the original
 certificates.  The information from these copies was edited, coded, and
 tabulated.  For 1960-70, all mortality information taken from these records
 was transferred by NCHS to magnetic tape for computer processing.

     Beginning with 1971, an increasing number of States have provided NCHS
 with computer tapes of data coded according to NCHS specifications and
 provided to NCHS through the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program.  The year
 in which State-coded demographic data were first transmitted to NCHS is
 shown below for New York City, Puerto Rico, and each of the 46 States now
 furnishing demographic data.


    1971                                                  1976--Con.

         Florida                                                Minnesota
                                                                Nevada
    1972                                                  Texas
                                                                West Virginia
         Maine
         Missouri                                          1977
         New Hampshire
         Rhode Island                                           Alaska
         Vermont                                                Idaho
                                                                Massachusetts
    1973                                                        New York City
                                                                Ohio
         Colorado                                               Puerto Rico
         Michigan
         New York (except New York City)                   1978

    1974                                                  Indiana
                                                                Utah
         Illinois                                               Washington
         Iowa
         Kansas                                            1979
         Montana
         Nebraska                                               Connecticut
         Oregon                                                 Hawaii
         South Carolina                                         Mississippi
                                                                New Jersey
    1975                                            Pennsylvania
                                                                Wyoming
         Louisiana
         Maryland                                          1980
         North Carolina
         Oklahoma                                               Arkansas
         Tennessee                                              New Mexico
         Virginia                                               South Dakota
         Wisconsin
                                                           1982
    1976
                                                                North Dakota
         Alabama
         Kentucky

     For the remaining four States, the District of Columbia, the Virginia
 Islands, and Guam, mortality statistics for 1983 are based on information
 obtained directly by NCHS from copies of the original certificates received
 from the registration offices.

     In 1974, States began coding medical (cause-of-death) data on computer
 tapes according to NCHS specifications.  The year in which State-coded
 medical data were first transmitted to NCHS is shown below for the 16 States
 now furnishing such data.

    1974                                                1980--Con.

         Iowa                                              Massachusetts
         Michigan                                            Mississippi
                                                             New Hampshire
    1975                                               Pennsylvania
                                                             South Carolina
         Louisiana
         Nebraska                                       1981
         North Carolina
         Virginia                                            Maine
         Wisconsin
                                                        1983
    1980
                                                             Minnesota
         Colorado
         Kansas

     For 1983 and previous years except 1972, NCHS coded the Medical
 information from copies of the original certificates received from the
 registration offices for all deaths occurring in those States that were not
 furnishing NCHS with medical data coded according to NCHS specifications.
 For 1981 and 1982, it was necessary to change these procedures because of a
 backlog in coding and processing that resulted from personnel and budgetary
 restrictions.  To produce the mortality files on a timely basis with reduced
 resources, NCHS used State-coded underlying cause-of-death information
 supplied by 19 States for 50 percent of the records; for the other 50
 percent of the records for these States as well as for 100 percent of the
 records for the remaining 21 registration areas, NCHS coded the medical
 information.

     Mortality statistics for 1972 were based on information obtained from a
 50-percent sample of death records instead of from all records as in other
 years.  The sample resulted from personnel and budgetary restrictions.
 Sampling variation associated with the 50-percent sample is described below
 in the section "Estimates of errors arising from 50-percent sample for 1972."

     Fetal-death data are obtained directly from copies of original reports
 of fetal deaths received by NCHS, except New York State (excluding New York
 City), which began submitting State-coded data in 1980.  Fetal-death data
 are not published by NCHS for the Virgin Islands and Guam.

 Standard Certificates and Reports

     The U.S. Standard Certificate of Death and the U.S. Standard Report of
 Fetal Death, issued by the Public Health Service, have served for many years
 as the principal means of attaining uniformity in the content of documents
 used to collect information on these events.  They have been modified in
 each State to the extent required by the particular needs of the State or by
 special provisions of the State vital statistics law.  However, the
 certificates or reports of most States conform closely in content and
 arrangement to the standards.

     The first issue of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Death appeared in
 1900.  Since then, it has been revised periodically by the national vital
 statistics agency through consultation with State health officers and
 registrars; Federal agencies concerned with vital statistics; national,
 State, and county medical societies; and others working in such fields as
 public health, social welfare, demography, and insurance.  This revision
 procedure has assured careful evaluation of each item in terms of its
 current and future usefulness for legal, medical and health, demographic,
 and research purposes.  New items have been added when necessary, and old
 items have been modified to ensure better reporting, or in some cases have
 been dropped when their usefulness appeared to be limited.

     New revisions of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Death and the U.S.
 Standard Report of Fetal Death were recommended for State use beginning
 January 1, 1978.  The certificate of death is for use by a physician, a
 medical examiner, or a coroner.  Two other forms of the U.S. Standard
 Certificate of Death are available, they are similar except that the section
 on certification is designed for the physician's signature on one, and for
 the medical examiner's or coroner's signature on the other.

     Among the changes in the new revision were the addition of (1) an item
 asking "If Hosp. or Inst., Indicate DOA, OP/Emer. Rm., Inpatient" and (2) an
 item "Was Decedent Ever in U.S. Armed Forces?"  The latter item was
 previously on the certificate but was deleted during 1968 through 1977.  An
 item on whether autopsy findings were considered for determining cause of
 death was dropped.

 History

     The first death statistics published by the Federal Government concerned
 events in 1850 and were based on statistics collected during the decennial
 census of that year.  In 1880 a national "registration area" was created for
 deaths.  Originally consisting of two States (Massachusetts and New Jersey),
 the District of Columbia, and several large cities having efficient systems
 for death registrations, the death-registration area continued to expand
 until 1933, when it included the entire United States for the first time.
 Tables that show data for death-registration States include the District of
 Columbia for all years; registration cities in nonregistration States are
 not included.  For more details on the history of the death-registration
 area see the technical Appendix in Vital Statistics of the United States,
 1979, Volume II, Mortality, Part A, Section 7, pages 3-4, and the section
 "History and Organization of the Vital Statistics System," chapter 1, Vital
 Statistics of the United States, 1950, Volume I, pages 2-19.

     Statistics on fetal deaths were first published for the
 birth-registration area in 1918, and then every year beginning with 1922.

 Classification of Data

 Introduction

     The principal value of vital statistics data is realized through the
 presentation of rates, which are computed by relating the vital events of a
 class to the population of a similarly defined class.  Vital statistics and
 population statistics must therefore be classified according to similarly
 defined systems and tabulated in comparable groups.  Even when the variables
 common to both, such as geographic area, age, sex and race, have been
 similarly classified and tabulated, differences between the enumeration
 method of obtaining population data and the registration method of obtaining
 vital statistics data may result in significant discrepancies.

     The general rules used in the classification of geographic and personal
 items for deaths and fetal deaths are set forth in two NCHS instruction
 manuals.1,2

     A discussion of the classification of certain important items is
 presented below.

 Classification by Occurrence and Residence

     Tabulations for the United States and specified geographic areas in this
 report are by place of residence unless stated as by place of occurrence.
 Before 1970, resident mortality statistics for the United States included
 all deaths occurring in the United States, with deaths of "nonresidents of
 the United States" assigned to place of death.  Deaths of nonresidents of
 the United States" refers to deaths that occur in the United States of
 nonresident aliens, nationals residing abroad, and residents of Puerto Rico,
 the Virgin Islands, Guam, and other territories of the United States.
 Beginning with 1970, deaths of nonresidents of the United States are not
 included in tables by place of residence.

     Tables by place of occurrence, on the other hand, include deaths of both
 residents and nonresidents of the United States.  Consequently, for each
 year beginning with 1970, the total number of deaths in the United States by
 place of occurrence was somewhat greater than the total by place of
 residence.  For 1984 this difference amounted to 2,935 deaths.  Mortality
 statistics by place of occurrence are shown in tables 1-10, 1-18, 1-19,
 1-28, 1-29, 3-1, 3-8, 8-1, and 8-7.

     Before 1970, except for 1964 and 1965, deaths of nonresidents of the
 United States occurring in the United States were treated as deaths of
 residents of the exact place of occurrence, which in most instances was an
 urban area.  In 1964 and 1965, deaths of nonresidents of the United States
 occurring in the United States were allocated as deaths of residents of the
 balance of the county in which they occurred.

     Residence error--Results of a 1960 study showed that the classification
 of residence information on the death certificates corresponded closely to
 the residence classification of the census records for the decedents whose
 records were matched.3

     A comparison of the results of this study of deaths with those for a
 previous matched record study of births4 showed that the quality of
 residence data had considerably improved between 1950 and 1960.  Both
 studies found that events in urban areas were overstated by the NCHS
 classification in comparison with the U.S. Bureau of the Census
 classification.  The magnitude of the difference was substantially less for
 deaths in 1960 than it was for births in 1950.

     The improvement is attributed to an item added in 1956 to the U.S.
 Standard Certificates of Birth and of Death, asking if residence was inside
 or outside city limits.  This new item aided in properly allocating the
 residence of persons living near cities but outside the corporate limits.

 Geographic Classification

     The rules followed in the classification of geographic areas for deaths
 and fetal deaths are contained in the two instruction manuals referred to
 previously.1,2

     The geographic codes assigned by the National Center for Health
 Statistics during data reduction of source information on birth, death, and
 fetal-death records are given in another instruction manual.5  Beginning
 with 1982 data, the geographic codes were modified to reflect results of the
 1980 census.  For 1980-81, codes are based on results of the 1970 census.

     Standard metropolitan statistical areas--The standard metropolitan
 statistical areas (SMSA's) used in this report are those established by the
 U.S. Office of Management and Budget from final 1980 census population
 counts6 and used by the U.S. Bureau of the Census, except in the New England
 States.

     Except in the New England States, an SMSA is a county or a group of
 contiguous counties containing a city of 50,000 inhabitants or more or an
 urbanized area of 50,000 with a total metropolitan population of at least
 100,000.  In addition to the county or counties containing such a city or
 urbanized area, contiguous counties are included in an SMSA if, according to
 specified criteria, they are essentially metropolitan in character and are
 socially and economically integrated with the central city or urbanized
 area.7

     In the New England States the U.S. Office of Management and Budget uses
 towns and cities rather than counties as geographic components of SMSA's.
 The National Center for Health Statistics cannot, however, use the SMSA
 classification for these States because its data are not coded to identify
 all towns.  Instead, NCHS uses New England County Metropolitan Areas
 (NECMA's).  These areas, established by the U.S. Office of Management and
 Budget, are made up of county units.7,8

     Metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties--Independent cities and
 counties included in SMSA's or NECMA's are included in data for metropolitan
 counties; all other counties are classified as nonmetropolitan.

     Population-size groups--Vital statistics data for cities and certain
 other urban places in 1984 are classified according to the population
 enumerated in the 1980 Census of Population.  Data are available for
 individual cities and other urban places of 10,000 or more population.  Data
 for the remaining areas not separately identified are shown in the tables
 under the heading "Balance of area" or "Balance of county."  For the years
 1970-81, classification of areas was determined by the population enumerated
 in the 1970 Census of Population.  Beginning in 1982, as a result of changes
 in the enumerated population between 1970 and 1980, some urban places
 identified in previous reports are no longer included, and a number of other
 urban places have been added.

     Urban places other than incorporated cities for which vital statistics
 data are shown in this report include the following:

    *   Each town in New England, New York, and Wisconsin and each township
        in Michigan, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania that had no incorporated
        municipality as a subdivision and had either 25,000 inhabitants or
        more, or a population of 10,000 to 25,000 and a density of 1,000
        persons or more per square mile.

    *   Each county in States other than those indicated above that had no
        incorporated municipality within its boundary and had a density of
        1,000 persons or more per square mile.  (Arlington County, Virginia,
        is the only county classified as urban under this rule.)

    *   Each place in Hawaii with 10,000 or more population, as there are no
        incorporated cities in the State.

     Before 1964, places were classified as "urban" or "rural."  The
 Technical Appendixes for earlier years discuss the previous classification
 system.

 State or Country of Birth

     Mortality statistics by State or country of birth (table 1-32) became
 available beginning with 1979.  State or country of birth of a decedent is
 assigned to 1 of the 50 States or the District of Columbia; or to Puerto
 Rico, the Virgin Islands, or Guam--if specified on the death certificate.
 The place of birth is also tabulated for Canada, Cuba, Mexico, and for the
 Remainder of the World.  Deaths for which information on State or country of
 birth was unknown, not stated, or not classifiable accounted for a small
 proportion of all deaths in 1984, about 0.5 percent.

     Early mortality reports published by the U.S. Bureau of the Census
 contained tables showing nativity of parents as well as nativity of
 decedent.  Publication of these tables was discontinued in 1933.  Mortality
 data showing nativity of decedent were again published in annual reports for
 1939-41 and for 1950.

 Age

    The age recorded on the death record is the age at last birthday.  With
 respect to the computation of death rates, the age classification used by
 the U.S. Bureau of the Census is also based on the age of the person in
 completed years.

     For computation of age-specific and age-adjusted death rates, deaths
 with age not stated are excluded.  For life table computation, deaths with
 age not stated are distributed proportionately.

 Race

     For vital statistics in the United States in 1984, deaths are classified
 by race--white, black, Indian, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Other Asian or
 Pacific Islander, and other races.  Mortality data for Filipino and Other
 Asian or Pacific Islander were shown for the first time in 1979.

     The white category includes, in addition to persons reported as white,
 those reported as Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, and all other Caucasians.
 The Indian category includes American, Alaskan, Canadian, Eskimo, and
 Aleut.  If the racial entry on the death certificate indicates a mixture of
 Hawaiian and any other race, the entry is coded to Hawaiian.  If the race is
 given as a mixture of white and any other race, the entry is coded to the
 appropriate other race.  If a mixture of races other than white is given
 (except Hawaiian), the entry is coded to the first race listed.  This
 procedure for coding the first race listed has been in use since 1969.
 Before 1969, if the entry for race was a mixture of black and any other race
 except Hawaiian, the entry was coded to black.

     Most of the tables in this report, however, do not show data for this
 detailed classification by race.  In about half of all the tables the
 divisions are white, all other (including black), and black separately.  In
 other tables by race, where the main purpose is to isolate the major groups,
 the classifications are simply white and all other.

     Race not stated--For 1984 the number of death records for which race was
 unknown, not stated, or not classifiable was 3,172, or less than 0.2 percent
 of the total deaths.  Death records with race entry not stated are assigned
 to a racial designation as follows:  If the preceding record is coded white,
 the code assignment is made to white; if the code is other than white, the
 assignment is made to black.  Before 1964 all records with race not stated
 were assigned to white except records of residents of New Jersey for 1962-64.

     New Jersey, 1962-64--New Jersey omitted the race item from its
 certificates of live birth, death, and fetal death in use in the beginning
 of 1962.  The item was restored during the latter part of 1962.  However,
 the certificate revision without the race item was used for most of 1962 as
 well as 1963.  Therefore figures by race for 1962 and 1963 exclude New
 Jersey.  For 1964, 6.8 percent of the death records in use for residents of
 New Jersey did not contain the race item.

     Adjustments made in vital statistics to take into account the omission
 of the race item in New Jersey for part of the certificates filed during
 1962 through 1964 are described in the Technical Appendix of Vital
 Statistics of the United States for each of those data years.

 Hispanic Origin

     Mortality statistics for the Hispanic-origin population are published in
 this report for the first time.  They are based on information for those
 States and the District of Columbia that included items on the death
 certificate to identify Hispanic or ethnic origin of decedents.  Data were
 obtained from the District of Columbia and the following 22 States:
 Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Georgia, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana,
 Kansas, Maine, Mississippi, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New
 York (including New York City), North Dakota, Ohio, Tennessee, Texas, Utah,
 and Wyoming.  Generally, the reporting States used items similar to one of
 two basic formats recommended by NCHS:  the first format is open-ended to
 obtain the specific origin or descent of the decedent (for example, Italian,
 Mexican, Puerto Rican, English, and Cuban).  The second format is directed
 specifically toward the Hispanic population and asks whether the decedent is
 of Spanish origin.  If so, the specific origin--Mexican, Puerto Rican, and
 Cuban--is to be indicated.

     For 1984, mortality data in tables 1-33 and 2-18 are based on deaths to
 residents of all 22 reporting States and the District of Columbia.  In
 tables 1-34, 2-19, 2-20, and 2-21 mortality data for the Hispanic-origin
 population are based on deaths to residents of 15 reporting States whose
 data were at least 90 percent complete and considered to be sufficiently
 comparable to be used for analysis.  The 15 States are as follows:  Arizona,
 Colorado, Georgia, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Mississippi, Nebraska,
 New York (including New York City), North Dakota, Ohio, Texas, Utah, and
 Wyoming.  Excluded from these tables are data for New Mexico because the
 format for the Hispanic item on the New Mexico death certificate departs
 sufficiently from that of other areas to result in non-comparable data.  In
 addition, in tables 1-33 and 1-34 for New Mexico, no deaths are shown for
 the category "not stated" origin.  Because of the way in which the item on
 the death certificate for New Mexico is worded, it was not possible to
 determine if a blank entry represented a response of "non-Hispanic origin"
 or of "unknown origin."  Accordingly, blank entries were coded to
 "non-Hispanic."  Also excluded from the tables are data for California
 because, according to information from registration officials in California,
 coding procedures resulted in undercounts of deaths for the categories total
 "Hispanic origin" and "Mexican origin" as well as overcounts of deaths for
 the categories "Hispanic origins other than Mexican origin" and "not stated
 origin."  The data for five other States--Arkansas, Maine, Nevada, New
 Jersey, and Tennessee--and the District of Columbia are excluded from these
 tables because of the large proportion of deaths (in excess of 10 percent)
 occurring in these States for which Hispanic origin was not stated or
 unknown.

     In 1980 the 15 reporting States accounted for about 45 percent of the
 Hispanic population in the United States, including about 47 percent of the
 Mexican population, 61 percent of the Puerto Rican population, 16 percent of
 the Cuban population, and 38 percent of the "Other Hispanic" population.9
 Accordingly, caution should be exercised in generalizing mortality patterns
 from the reporting area to the Hispanic-origin population (especially
 Cubans) of the entire U.S.  For qualifications regarding infant mortality of
 the Hispanic-origin population, see section Infant Deaths.

 Marital Status

     Mortality statistics by marital status (table 1-31) were published in
 1979 for the first time since 1961.  (Previously they had been published
 only in the annual reports for the years 1949-51 and 1959-61.)  Several
 reports analyzing mortality by marital status have been published, including
 the special study based on 1959-61 data.10  Reference to earlier reports may
 be found in the appendix of part B of the 1959-61 special study.

     Mortality statistics by marital status are tabulated separately for
 never married, married, widowed, and divorced.  Certificates in which the
 marriage is specified as being annulled are classified as never married.
 Where marital status is specified as separated or common-law marriage, it is
 classified as married.  Of the 1,982,817 resident deaths 15 years of age and
 over in 1984, 8,580 certificates (0.4 percent) had marital status not stated.

 Place of Death and Status of Decedent

     Mortality statistics by place of death were published in 1979 for the
 first time since 1958 (tables 1-28 and 1-29).  In addition, mortality data
 were also available for the first time in 1979 for the status of decedent
 when death occurred in a hospital or medical center (table 1-28).  These
 data were obtained from the following two items that appeared on the U.S.
 Standard Certificate of Death:

     *  Item 7c, Hospital or Other Institution--Name (If not in either, give
        street and number)
     *  Item 7d, If Hosp. or Inst. Indicate DOA, OP/Emer. Rm., Inpatient
        (Specify)

     All of the States and the District of Columbia have item 7c (or its
 equivalent) on the death certificate.  For 46 States in the Vital Statistics
 Cooperative Program, NCHS accepts the State definition, classification, or
 codes for hospitals, medical centers, or other institutions.  For the
 remaining four States not in the Program, and the District of Columbia, NCHS
 classifies and codes to a hospital or medical center according to whether
 the terms "hospital" or "medical center" are entered as part of the name in
 item 7c or its equivalent.  If the terms "hospital" or "medical center" are
 not entered as part of the name, the entry is coded to one of the following
 according to the information entered in item 7c on the certificate:  (1)
 other institutions, (2) all other reported entries, or (3) unknown, not
 stated.

     Table 1-28 shows mortality data for the total of the following 42 States
 (including New York City) that have item 7d or its equivalent on their death
 certificates:


     Alaska                             Nevada
     Arizona                            New Hampshire
     Arkansas                           New Jersey
     Colorado                           New Mexico
     Connecticut                        New York
     Florida                            North Carolina
     Georgia                            North Dakota
     Hawaii                             Ohio
     Idaho                              Oregon
     Illinois                           Pennsylvania
     Indiana                            Rhode Island
     Iowa                               South Carolina
     Kansas                             South Dakota
     Kentucky                           Tennessee
     Louisiana                          Utah
     Maine                              Vermont
     Michigan                           Virginia
     Mississippi                        Washington
     Missouri                           West Virginia
     Montana                            Wisconsin
     Nebraska                           Wyoming

     Effective with data for 1980, the coding of place of death and status of
 decedent was changed.  A new coding category was added:  "Dead on
 arrival--hospital, clinic, medical center name not given."  Deaths coded to
 this category are tabulated in table 1-28 as "Dead on arrival" and in table
 1-29 as "Not in hospital or medical center."  Had the 1979 coding categories
 been used, these deaths would have been tabulated as "Place unknown."

 Mortality by Month and Date of Birth

     Deaths by month have been regularly tabulated and published in the
 annual report for each year beginning with data year 1900.  For 1984, deaths
 by month are shown in tables 1-19, 1-20, 1-23, 1-30, 2-12, 2-13, 2-14, and
 3-9.

     Date of death was first published for data year 1972.  In addition,
 unpublished data for selected causes by date of death for 1962 are available
 from NCHS.

     Number of deaths by date of death in this report are shown in table 1-30
 for the total number of deaths and for the number of deaths for the
 following three causes, for which the greatest interest in date of
 occurrence of death has been expressed:  Motor vehicle accidents, Suicide,
 and Homicide and legal intervention.

     These data show the frequency distribution of deaths for the selected
 causes by day of week.  They also make it possible to identify holidays with
 peak numbers of deaths from specified causes.

 Report of Autopsy
 
    Before 1972, the last year for which autopsy data were tabulated was
 1958.  Beginning in 1972, all registration areas requested information on
 the death certificate as to whether autopsies were performed.  For 1984,
 autopsies were reported on 259,187 death certificates, 12.7 percent of the
 total (table 1-27).

     Information as to whether the autopsy findings were used in determining
 the causes of death were tabulated for 1972-73 for all but nine registration
 areas and from 1974-77 for all but eight registration areas.  The item
 "autopsy findings used" was deleted from the 1978 U.S. Standard Certificate
 of Death.

     For five of the cause-of-death categories shown in table 1-27, autopsies
 were reported as performed for 50 percent or more of all deaths
 (Meningococcal infection; Pregnancy with abortive outcome; Other
 complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium; Homicide and
 legal intervention; and All other external causes).

     There were five other categories for which 40 percent or more of the
 death certificates reported autopsies.  Autopsies were reported for only 8.0
 percent of the Major cardiovascular diseases.  Among all causes other than
 major cardiovascular diseases, autopsies were reported for 17.0 percent of
 all deaths.

 Cause of Death

     Cause-of-death classification--Since 1949, cause-of-death statistics
 have been based on the underlying cause of death which is defined as "(a)
 the disease or injury which initiated the train of events leading directly
 to death, or (b) the circumstances of the accident or violence which
 produced the fatal injury."11

     For a given death the underlying cause is selected from an array of
 conditions given in the cause-of-death section on the death certificate.
 These conditions are translated into medical codes through use of the
 classification structure and selection and modification rules contained in
 the applicable revision of the International Classification of Diseases
 (ICD) published by the World Health Organization (WHO).  Selection rules
 provide guidance for systematically identifying the underlying cause of
 death in terms of the format of reported conditions and their causal
 relationship.  Modification rules are intended to improve the usefulness of
 mortality statistics by giving preference to certain classification
 categories over others and/or to consolidate two or more conditions on the
 certificate into a single classification category.

     As a statistical datum, the underlying cause of death is a simple,
 one-dimensional statistic; it is conceptually easy to understand and a
 well-accepted measure of mortality.  It identifies the initiating cause of
 death and is therefore most useful to public health officials in developing
 measures to prevent the start of the chain of events leading to death.  The
 rules for coding underlying causes of death are included with the ICD as a
 means of standardizing classification, which contributes toward uniformity
 in mortality medical statistics among countries.

     Beginning with data year 1979 the cause-of-death statistics published by
 the National Center for Health Statistics have been classified according to
 the Ninth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases
 (ICD-9).11  In addition to specifying that the Classification be used, WHO
 also recommends how the data should be tabulated in order to promote
 international comparability.  The recommended system for tabulating data in
 the Ninth Revision allows countries to construct their own mortality and
 morbidity tabulation lists from the rubrics of the WHO Basic Tabulation List
 as long as rubrics from the WHO mortality and morbidity lists, respectively,
 are included.  This tabulation system for the Ninth Revision is more
 flexible than that of the Eighth Revision in which specific lists were
 recommended for tabulating mortality and morbidity data.

     The Basic Tabulation List (BTL) recommended under the Ninth Revision
 consists of 57 two-digit rubrics that add to the "all causes" total.  Within
 each two-digit rubric, up to 9 three-digit rubrics numbered from 0 to 8 are
 identified, but these do not add to the total of the two-digit rubric.  The
 two-digit rubrics of the BTL 01 through 46 provide for the tabulation of
 nonviolent deaths to ICD categories 001-799.  Rubrics relating to chapter 17
 (nature-of-injury causes 47 through 56) are not used by NCHS for selecting
 underlying cause of death; rather, preference is given to rubrics E47
 through E56.  The 57th two-digit rubric V0 is the Supplementary
 Classification of Factors Influencing Health Status and Contact with Health
 Services and is not appropriate for the tabulation of mortality data.  The
 WHO Mortality List, a subset of the title contained in the BTL, consists of
 50 rubrics which are a minimum for the national display of mortality data.

     Five lists of causes have been developed for tabulation and publication
 of mortality data in this volume.  The Each-Cause List, List of 282 Selected
 Causes, List of 72 Selected Causes, List of 61 Selected Causes of Infant
 Death, and List of 34 Selected Causes of Death.  These lists were designed
 to be as comparable as possible with the NCHS lists more recently in use
 under the Eighth Revision.  However, complete comparability could not always
 be achieved.

     The Each-Cause List is made up of each three-digit category of the WHO
 Detailed List and each four-digit subcategory to which deaths may be validly
 assigned and most four-digit subcategories.  The list is used for tabulation
 for the entire United States.  The published Each-Cause table does not show
 the four-digit subcategories provided for Motor vehicle accidents
 (E810-E825); however, these subcategories, which identify persons injured,
 are shown in the accident tables of this report (section 5).  Special
 fifth-digit subcategories are also used in the accident tables to identify
 place of accident when deaths from nontransport accidents are shown.  These
 are not shown in the Each-Cause table.

     The List of 282 Selected Causes of Death is constructed from BTL rubrics
 01-46 and E47-E56.  Each of the 56 BTL two-digit titles can be obtained
 either directly or by combining titles in the List.  The three-digit level
 of the BTL is modified more extensively.  Where more detail was desired,
 categories not shown in the three-digit rubrics were added to the List of
 282 Selected Causes of Death.  Where less detail was needed, the three-digit
 rubrics were combined.  Moreover, each of the 50 rubrics of the WHO
 Mortality List can be obtained from the List of 282 Selected Causes of Death.

     The List of 72 Selected Causes of Death was constructed by combining
 titles in the List of 282 Selected Causes of Death.  It is used in tables
 published for the United States and each State, and for standard
 metropolitan statistical areas.

     The List of 61 Selected Causes of Infant Death shows more detailed
 titles for Congenital anomalies and Certain conditions originating in the
 perinatal period than any other list except the Each-Cause List.

     The List of 34 Selected Causes of Death was created by combining titles
 in the List of 72 Selected Causes.  A table using this list is published to
 show detailed geographic areas.

     Effect of list revisions--The International Lists, in use in this
 country since 1900, have been revised approximately every 10 years so that
 the disease classification may be consistent with advances in medical
 science and with advances in diagnostic practice.  Each revision of the
 International Lists has produced some break in comparability of
 cause-of-death statistics.  Cause-of-death statistics beginning with 1979
 are classified by NCHS according to the ICD-9.11  For a discussion of each
 of the classifications used with death statistics since 1900, see the
 Technical Appendix in Vital Statistics of the United States, 1979, Volume
 II, Mortality, Part A, section 7, pages 9-14.

     A dual coding study was undertaken between the Ninth and Eighth
 Revisions to measure the extent of discontinuity in cause-of-death
 statistics resulting from introducing the new Revision.  An initial study
 for the List of 72 Selected Causes of Death and the List of 10 Selected
 Causes of Infant Death has been published in the Monthly Vital Statistics
 Report (MVSR)12  The List of 10 Selected Causes of Infant Death is a basic
 NCHS tabulation list but is not used in this volume.  Comparability studies
 were also undertaken between the Eighth and Seventh, Seventh and Sixth, and
 Sixth and Fifth Revisions.  For additional information about these studies,
 again see the 1979 Technical Appendix.

     Significant coding changes during the Ninth Revision--Since the
 implementation of ICD-9 in the United States, effective with mortality data
 for 1979, several coding changes have been introduced.  The more important
 changes will be discussed below.  In early 1983, a change was made in the
 coding of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), which affected data
 from 1981 onward.  Also effective with data year 1981 was a coding change
 for poliomyelitis.  For data year 1982, a change was made in the definition
 of child (which affects the classification of deaths to a number of
 categories, including child battering and other maltreatment); and in
 guidelines for coding deaths to the category Child battering and other
 maltreatment (ICD No. E967).  Detailed discussion of these changes may be
 found in the technical appendix for previous volumes.

     Coding in 1984--The rules for coding the 1984 mortality data remained
 essentially the same as the previous year manuals that contain decisions and
 interpretations that apply each year.

     Medical certification--The use of a standard classification list,
 although essential for State, regional, and international comparison, does
 not assure strict comparability of the tabulated figures.  A high degree of
 comparability between areas could be attained only if all records of cause
 of death were reported with equal accuracy and completeness.  The medical
 certification of cause of death can be made only by a qualified person,
 usually a physician, a medical examiner, or a coroner.  Therefore,
 reliability and accuracy of cause-of-death statistics are, to a large
 extent, governed by the ability of the certifier to make the proper
 diagnosis and by the care with which he or she completes the death
 certificate.

     A number of studies have been undertaken on the quality of medical
 certification on the death certificate.  In general, these have been for
 relatively small samples and for limited geographic areas.  A bibliography,
 prepared by NCHS, covering 128 references over a period of 23 years
 indicates that no definitive conclusions have been reached about the quality
 of medical certification on the death certificate.13  No country has a
 well-defined program for systematically assessing the quality of medical
 certifications reported on death certificates or for measuring the error
 effects on the levels and trends of cause-of-death statistics.

     One index of the quality of reporting causes of death is the proportion
 of death certificates coded to the Ninth Revision Chapter XVI Symptoms,
 signs, and ill-defined conditions (ICD-9 Nos. 780-799).  While there are
 cases for which it is not possible to determine the causes of death, this
 proportion indicates the care and consideration given to the certification
 by the medical certifier.  It may also be used as a rough measure of the
 specificity of the medical diagnoses made by the certifier in various
 areas.  In 1984, 1.5 percent of all reported deaths in the United States
 were assigned to ill-defined or unknown causes.  However, this percentage
 varied among the States, from 0.4 percent to 6.0 percent.

     Automated selection of underlying cause of death--Beginning with data
 year 1968, NCHS began using a computer system for assigning the underlying
 cause of death.  It has been used every year since to select the underlying
 cause of death.  The system is called "Automated Classification of Medical
 Entities" (ACME).

     The ACME system applies the same rules for selecting the underlying
 cause as applied by a nosologist; however, under this system, the computer
 consistently applies the same criteria, thus eliminating intercoder
 variation in this step of the process.

     The ACME computer program requires the coding of all conditions shown on
 the medical certification.  These codes are matched automatically against
 decision tables that consistently select the underlying cause of death for
 each record according to international rules.  The decision tables provide
 not only a comprehensive relationship between the conditions classified by
 ICD when applying the rules of selection and modification.

     The decision tables were developed by NCHS staff on the basis of their
 experience in coding underlying causes of death under the earlier manual
 coding system and as a result of periodic independent validations.  These
 tables are periodically updated to reflect additional new information on the
 relationship among medical conditions.  For 1984, the content of these
 tables was identical to that in the 1983 tables.14

     Cause-of-death ranking--Cause-of-death ranking (except for infants) is
 based on the List of 72 Selected Causes of Death.  Cause-of-death ranking
 for infants is based on the List of 61 Selected Causes of Infant Death.  The
 group titles Major cardiovascular diseases and Symptoms, signs, and
 ill-defined conditions are not ranked from the List of 72 Selected Causes,
 and Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period and Symptoms,
 signs, and ill-defined conditions are not ranked from the List of 61
 Selected Causes of Infant Death.  In addition, category titles that begin
 with the words "Other" or "All other" are not ranked to determine the
 leading causes of death.  When one of the titles that represents a subtotal
 is ranked (such as Tuberculosis), its component parts (in this case,
 Tuberculosis of respiratory system and Other tuberculosis) are not ranked.

 Maternal Deaths

     Maternal deaths are those for which the certifying physician has
 designated a maternal condition as the underlying cause of death.  Maternal
 conditions are those assigned to Complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and
 the puerperium (ICD-9 Nos. 630-676).  In the Ninth Revision, WHO for the
 first time defined a maternal death as follows:

     A maternal death is defined as the death of a woman while pregnant or
     within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration
     and the site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated
     by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental
     causes.11

     Under the Eighth Revision, maternal deaths were assigned to category
 title "Complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium" (ICDA-8
 Nos. 630-678).  Although WHO did not define maternal mortality, there was an
 NCHS classification rule that limited a maternal death to a death within a
 year after termination of pregnancy from any "maternal cause," that is, any
 cause within the range of ICDA-8 Nos. 630-678.  This rule applied only if a
 duration of time for the condition was given.  If no duration was specified
 and the underlying cause of death was a maternal condition, then the
 duration was assumed to be within a year and the death was coded by NCHS as
 a maternal death.  The change from an under-1-year limitation on duration
 used in the Eighth Revision to an under-42-days limitation used in the Ninth
 Revision is not expected to have much effect on the comparability of
 maternal mortality statistics.  However, comparability is affected by the
 following classification change.  Under the Ninth Revision, maternal causes
 have been expanded to include indirect obstetric causes (ICD-9 Nos.
 647-648).  These causes include Infective and parasitic conditions and other
 current conditions in the mother that are classifiable elsewhere but which
 complicate pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium, such as Syphilis,
 Tuberculosis, Diabetes mellitus, Drug dependence, and Congenital
 cardiovascular disorders.

     Maternal mortality rates are computed on the basis of the number of live
 births.  The maternal mortality rate indicates the likelihood that a
 pregnant woman will die from maternal causes.  The number of live births
 used in the denominator is an approximation of the population of pregnant
 women who are at risk of a maternal death.

 Infant Deaths

     Age--An infant death is defined as a death under 1 year of age.  The
 term excludes fetal deaths.  Infant deaths are usually divided into two
 categories according to age, neonatal and postneonatal.  Neonatal deaths are
 those that occur during the first 27 days of life, and postneonatal deaths
 are those that occur between 28 days and 1 year of age.  It has generally
 been believed that different factors influencing the child's survival
 predominate in these two periods:  Factors associated with prenatal
 development, heredity, and the birth process were considered dominant in the
 neonatal period; and environmental factors, such as nutrition, hygiene, and
 accidents, were considered more important in the postneonatal period.
 Recently, however, the distinction between these two periods has blurred due
 in part to advances in neonatology, which have enabled more very small,
 premature infants to survive the neonatal period.

     Rates--Infant mortality rates shown in section 2 and section 8 are the
 most commonly used index for measuring the risk of dying during the first
 year of life; they are calculated by dividing the number of infant deaths in
 a calendar year by the number of live births registered for the same period
 and are presented as rates per 1,000 or per 100,000 live births.  Infant
 mortality rates use the number of live births in the denominator to
 approximate the population at risk of dying before the first birthday.  This
 measure is an approximation of the risk of dying in infancy because some of
 the live births will not have been exposed to a full year's risk of dying
 and some of the infants that die during a year will have been born in the
 previous year.  The error introduced in the infant mortality rate by this
 inexactness is usually small, especially when the birth rate is relatively
 constant from year to year.15,16  Other sources of error in the infant
 mortality rate have been attributed to differences in applying the
 definitions for infant death and fetal death when registering the event.17,18

     In contrast to infant mortality rates based on live births, infant death
 rates shown in section 1 are based on the estimated population under 1 year
 of age.  Infant death rates, which appear in tabulations of age-specific
 death rates, are calculated by dividing the number of infant deaths in a
 calendar year by the estimated midyear population of persons under 1 year of
 age and are presented as rates per 100,000 population in this age group.
 Patterns and trends in the infant death rate may differ somewhat from those
 of the more commonly used "infant mortality rate" mainly because of
 differences in the nature of the denominator and in the time reference
 period.  Whereas the population denominator for the infant death rate is
 estimated using data on births, infant deaths, and migration for the
 12-month period of July through June, the denominator for the infant
 mortality rate is a count of births occurring during the 12 months of
 January through December.  The difference in the time reference period can
 result in different trends between the two indices during periods when birth
 rates are moving up or down markedly.

     In addition, the infant death rate is also subject to greater
 imprecision than is the infant mortality rate because of problems of
 enumerating and estimating the population under 1 year of age.17

     Race--Infant mortality rates for specified races other than white or
 black may be underestimated, based on result of studies in which race on the
 birth and death certificates for the same infant were compared.19  The
 figures should be interpreted with caution because of possible
 inconsistencies in reporting of race between the numerator and denominator
 of the rates.  This reflects differences in the nature of reporting and
 processing race on these two vital records.  On the birth certificate, race
 of parents is reported by the mother at the time of delivery.  On the death
 certificate, race of the deceased infant is reported by the funeral director
 based on observation or on information supplied by an informant, such as a
 parent.  With respect to processing, race of infant at birth is coded using
 coding rules that take account of the race of each parent (see the Technical
 Appendix in Vital Statistics of the United States, 1984, Volume I, Natality,
 section entitled Race or national origin).  For infant deaths, the race of
 child is coded directly from the race reported on the death certificate.

     Hispanic origin--Infant mortality rates for the Hispanic-origin
 population are based on numbers of resident infant deaths reported as of
 Hispanic origin (See section Hispanic origin) and numbers of resident live
 births by Hispanic origin of mother for the 15 reporting States.  In
 computing infant mortality rates, deaths and live births of unknown origin
 are not distributed among the specified Hispanic and non-Hispanic groups.
 Because for 1984 the percent of deaths of unknown origin was 7.0 percent and
 the percent of live births of unknown origin was 3.1 percent, infant
 mortality rates by Hispanic origin may be somewhat underestimated.

     Small numbers of infant deaths to specific Hispanic-origin groups can
 result in imfant mortality rates subject to relatively large random
 variation (See section on Random variation in numbers of deaths, death
 rates, and mortality rates and ratios).

     Tabulation List--Causes of death for infants are tabulated according to
 a list of causes that is different from the list of causes for the
 population of all ages, except for the Each Cause List.  (See section
 "Cause-of-death classification.")

     Infant and neonatal mortality for Wyoming, 1981--The 1981 data on infant
 and neonatal mortality shown in tables 2-8 and 2-9 for Wyoming are incorrect
 because of NCHS processing errors.  The correct numbers for Wyoming are 124
 infant deaths and 76 neonatal deaths; the corresponding infant mortality
 rates are 11.2 and 7.0 deaths under 1 year of age per 1,000 live births.

 Fetal Deaths

     In May 1950 the World Health Organization recommended the following
 definition of fetal death be adopted for international use:

     Death prior to the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a
     product of conception, irrespective of the duration of pregnancy; the
     death is indicated by the fact that after such separation, the fetus
     does not breathe or show any other evidence of life such as beating of
     the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movement of
     voluntary muscles.20

     The term "fetal death" was defined on an all-inclusive basis to end
 confusion arising from use of such terms as stillbirth, abortion, and
 miscarriage.

     Shortly thereafter, this definition of fetal death was adopted by the
 National Center for Health Statistics as the nationally recommended
 standard.  Currently all registration areas except Puerto Rico have
 definitions similar to the standard definition.21  Puerto Rico has no formal
 definition.

     As another step toward increasing the comparability of data on fetal
 deaths for different countries, the World Health Organization recommended
 that for statistical purposes fetal deaths be classified as early,
 intermediate, and late.  These groups are defined as follows:

     Less than 20 completed weeks of gestation
       (early fetal deaths) ............................    Group I

     20 completed weeks of gestation but less
       than 28 (intermediate fetal deaths) .............    Group II

     28 completed weeks of gestation and over
       (late fetal deaths) .............................    Group III

     Gestation period not classifiable in
       groups I, II and III ............................    Group IV

 Note that in table 3-13, group IV consists of fetal deaths with gestation
 not stated but presumed to be 20 weeks or more gestation.

     Until 1939 the nationally recommended procedures for registration of a
 fetal death required the filing of both a live-birth and a death
 certificate.  In 1939 a separate Standard Certificate of Stillbirth (fetal
 death) was created to replace the former procedure.  This was revised in
 1949, 1955, 1956, and 1968.  In 1976 the Standard Certificate of Fetal Death
 was replaced by the Standard Report of Fetal Death (figure 7-B).

     The 1977 revision of the Model State Vital Statistics Act and Model
 State Vital Statistics Regulations22 recommended that spontaneous fetal
 deaths of 20 weeks or more gestation, or a weight of 350 grams or more, and
 all induced terminations of pregnancy regardless of gestational age be
 reported and further that they be reported on separate forms.  These forms
 are to be considered legally required statistical reports rather than legal
 documents.

     Beginning with 1970 fetal deaths, procedures were implemented that
 attempted to separate reports of spontaneous fetal deaths from those of
 induced terminations of pregnancy.  These procedures were implemented
 because the health implications are different for spontaneous fetal deaths
 and induced terminations of pregnancy.  These procedures are still in use.

     Comparability and completeness of data--Registration area requirements
 for reporting fetal deaths vary.  Most of these areas require reporting
 fetal deaths of gestations of 20 weeks or more.  Table 3-1 shows the minimum
 period of gestation required by each State for fetal-death reporting.  There
 is substantial evidence that not all fetal deaths for which reporting is
 required are reported.23

     For registration areas not requiring the reporting of fetal deaths of
 all periods of gestation, underreporting is more likely to occur in the
 earlier gestational periods.  This is illustrated by the fact that for most
 areas requiring reporting of fetal deaths of 20 weeks or more, the total
 number reported for 20-23 weeks is lower than the numbers reported for 24-27
 and 28-31 weeks.  For areas requiring the reporting of all fetal deaths,
 however, the opposite is generally true.

     Another type of reporting problems arises from the inconsistent
 application of the definition of fetal death by individual registration
 areas.  For example, some live-born infants who die shortly after birth,
 particularly those born prematurely who die before the umbilical cord is
 severed or while the placenta is still attached, may be erroneously reported
 as fetal deaths.

     To maximize the comparability of data by year and by State, most of the
 tables in section 3 are based on fetal deaths occurring at gestations of 20
 weeks or more.  These tables also include fetal deaths of not stated
 gestation for those States requiring reporting at 20 weeks or more only.
 Beginning with 1969, fetal deaths of not stated gestation were excluded for
 States requiring reporting of all products of conception except for those
 with a stated birth weight of 500 grams or more.  In 1984 this rule was
 applied to the following States:  Colorado, Georgia, Hawaii, New York
 (including New York City), Rhode Island, and Virginia.  Each year there are
 some exceptions to this procedure.

     The data in table 3-3 include only fetal deaths to residents of those
 areas in the United States that report all periods of gestation.  The areas
 are Colorado, Georgia, Hawaii, New York (including New York City), Rhode
 Island, and Virginia.

     Arkansas--Arkansas has been using two reporting forms for fetal deaths.
 A confidential Spontaneous Abortion form and a Fetal Death Certificate.
 From 1981 through 1983 Arkansas specified that fetal deaths of less than 28
 weeks gestation or weighing less than 1,000 grams could be reported on the
 Spontaneous Abortion form rather than on their report of fetal death; for
 1984 Arkansas specified that fetal deaths of 20 weeks gestation or weighing
 500 grams be reported on its certificate of fetal death.  The National
 Center for Health Statistics receives the Arkansas certificates of fetal
 death, but not the confidential abortion reports.  Accordingly, counts of
 fetal deaths of gestational age 20 to 27 weeks were not comparable between
 Arkansas and other reporting areas for 1981 to 1983.

     District of Columbia--Beginning in 1981, the District of Columbia
 changed its reporting requirements for spontaneous fetal deaths from "passed
 the fifth month of uterogestation" to "20 completed weeks or more or a
 weight of 500 grams or more."

     Idaho--Beginning in 1983, Idaho changed its reporting requirements for
 spontaneous fetal deaths from "after 20 weeks" to "after 20 weeks or a
 weight of 350 grams or more."

     Kentucky--Beginning in 1981, Kentucky changed its reporting requirements
 for spontaneous fetal deaths from "20 weeks gestation or more" to "a weight
 of 350 grams or more or a gestational age of 20 weeks or more."

     Massachusetts-Beginning in 1981, Massachusetts changed its reporting
 requirements for spontaneous fetal deaths from "20 weeks or more" to "20
 weeks or more or a weight of 350 grams or more."

     Michigan--Beginning in 1981, Michigan changed its reporting requirements
 for spontaneous fetal deaths from "advanced through 20th week" to "completed
 20 weeks gestation or weighs at least 400 grams."

     Missouri--Beginning in 1984, Missouri changed its reporting requirements
 for spontaneous fetal deaths from "after 20 weeks" to "after 20 weeks or a
 weight of 350 grams or more."

     New Hampshire--Beginning in 1981, New Hampshire changed its reporting
 requirements for spontaneous fetal deaths from "advanced to 20 weeks" to
 "completed 20 weeks or weighing at least 350 grams."

     New Mexico--Beginning in 1982, New Mexico changed its reporting
 requirements for spontaneous fetal deaths from "20 completed weks" to "500
 grams or more."

     Tennessee--Beginning in 1981, Tennessee changed its reporting
 requirements for spontaneous fetal deaths from "22 weeks or more (500 grams
 weight)" to "a weight of 500 grams or more or if weight is unknown but fetus
 is of 22 completed weeks or more."

     Period of gestation--The period of gestation is the number of completed
 weeks elapsed between the first day of the last normal menstrual period and
 the date of delivery.  The first day of the last normal menstrual period
 (LMP) is used as the initial date because it can be more accurately
 determined than the date of conception, which usually occurs 2 weeks after
 LMP.  Data on period of gestation are computed from information on "date of
 delivery" and "date last normal menses began."  If "date last normal menses
 began" is not on the record or the calculated gestation falls beyond a
 duration considered biologically plausible, "gestation in weeks" or
 "Physician's estimate of gestation" is used.  When the period of gestation
 is reported in months on the report, it is allocated to gestational
 intervals in weeks as follows:

     1-3 months to under 16 weeks
     4 months to 16-19 weeks
     5 months to 20-23 weeks
     6 months to 24-27 weeks
     7 months to 28-31 weeks
     8 months to 32-35 weeks
     9 months to 40 weeks
     10 months and over to 43 weeks and over

 All areas reported LMP in 1984 except Delaware, New Mexico, Puerto Rico, and
 South Dakota.

     Birth weight--Of the 55 registration areas (including the 50 States, the
 District of Columbia New York City, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and
 Guam), 27 do not specify how weight should be given; 16 specify that weight
 should be given in pounds and ounces; 5 specify grams; and the remaining 7
 areas indicate weight can be given either in pounds and ounces or in grams.
 Data on fetal deaths for the Virgin Islands and Guam are not published by
 NCHS.

     In the tabulation and presentation of these data, the metric system
 (grams) has been used to facilitate comparison with other data published in
 the United States and internationally.  The equivalents of the gram
 intervals in pounds and ounces are as follows:

     Less than 350 grams =   0 lb 12 oz or less
       350-  499   grams =   0 lb 13 oz-  1 lb  1 oz
       500-  999   grams =   1 lb  2 oz-  2 lb  3 oz
     1,000-1,499   grams =   2 lb  4 oz-  3 lb  4 oz
     1,500-1,999   grams =   3 lb  5 oz-  4 lb  6 oz
     2,000-2,499   grams =   4 lb  7 oz-  5 lb  8 oz
     2,500-2,999   grams =   5 lb  9 oz-  6 lb  9 oz
     3,000-3,499   grams =   6 lb 10 oz-  7 lb 11 oz
     3,500-3,999   grams =   7 lb 12 oz-  8 lb 13 oz
     4,000-4,499   grams =   8 lb 14 oz-  9 lb 14 oz
     4,500-4,999   grams =   9 lb 15 oz- 11 lb  0 oz
     5,000 grams or more =  11 lb  1 oz or more

     With the introduction of the Ninth Revision, International
 Classification of Diseases, the birth-weight classification intervals for
 perinatal mortality statistics were shifted downward by 1 gram, as shown
 above.  Previously, the intervals were, for example, 1,001-1,500;
 1,501-2,000; etc.

     Race--The race of the fetus is ordinarily classified based on the race
 of the parents.  If the parents are of different races, the following rules
 apply.  (1) When only one parent is white, the fetus is assigned the other
 parent's race.  (2) When neither parent is white, the fetus is assigned the
 father's race with one exception:  If the mother is Hawaiian or
 Part-Hawaiian, the fetus is classified as Hawaiian.

     When the race of one parent is missing or ill defined, the race of the
 other determines that of the fetus.  When race of both parents is missing,
 the race of the fetus is allocated to the specific race of the fetus on the
 preceding record.

     Total-birth order--Total-birth order refers to the sum of the live
 births and other terminations (including both spontaneous fetal deaths and
 induced terminations of pregnancy) that a woman has had including the fetal
 death being recorded.  For example, if a woman has previously given birth to
 two live babies and to one born dead, the next fetal death to occur is
 counted as number four in total-birth order.

     In the 1978 revision of the Standard Report of Fetal Death, total-birth
 order is calculated from four items on pregnancy history:  Number of
 previous live births, now living; number of previous live births, now dead;
 number of other terminations before 20 weeks; and number of other
 terminations after 20 weeks.

     All registration areas use the two standard items pertaining to the
 number of previous live births.  Thirty areas use the two standard items
 pertaining to the number of "other terminations" before and after 20 weeks
 gestation; 4 report "other terminations" of 20 weeks or more; 14 do not
 differentiate "other terminations" by gestational age; 6 areas use other
 criteria for differentiating spontaneous and induced terminations; and 1
 area reports "other terminations" before and after 16 weeks gestation.
 Total-birth order for all areas is calculated from the sum of available
 information.  Thus, information on total-birth order may not be completely
 comparable among the registration areas.

     Marital status--Table 3-4 shows fetal deaths and fetal-death ratios by
 mother's marital status.  States excluded from this table are as follows:
 California, Connecticut, Maryland, Michigan, Montana, New York (including
 New York City), Ohio, Texas, and Vermont.  Because live births comprise the
 denominator of the ratio, marital status must also be reported for mothers
 of live births.  Starting in 1980, marital status of the mother of the live
 birth was inferred for States that did not report it on the birth
 certificate.

     There are no quantitative data on the characteristics of unmarried women
 who may misreport their marital status or who fail to register fetal
 deaths.  Underreporting may be greater for the unmarried group than for the
 married group.

     Age of mother--The fetal-death report asks for the mother's "age (at
 time of delivery)," and the ages are edited in NCHS for upper and lower
 limits.  When mothers are reported to be under 10 years of age or 50 years
 and over, the age of the mother is considered and not stated and is assigned
 as follows:  Age on all fetal-death records with age of mother not stated is
 allocated according to the age appearing on the record previously processed
 for a mother of identical race and having the same total-birth order (total
 of live births and other terminations).

 Perinatal Mortality

     Perinatal definitions--Beginning with data year 1979, perinatal
 mortality data for the United States and each State have been published in
 section 4.  The World Health Organization in the Ninth Revision of the
 International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9) recommended that "national
 perinatal statistics should include all fetuses and infants delivered
 weighing at least 500 grams (or when birth weight is unavailable, the
 corresponding gestational age (22 weeks) or body length (25 cm crown-heel)),
 whether alive or dead...."  It was further recommended that countries should
 present, solely for international comparisons 'standard perinatal
 statistics' in which both the numerator and denominator of all rates are
 restricted to fetuses and infants weighing 1,000 grams or more (or, where
 birth weight is unavailable, the corresponding gestational age (28 weeks) or
 body length (35 cm crown-heel))."  Because birth weight and gestational age
 are not reported on the death certificate in the United States, NCHS was
 unable to recommend adopting these definitions.  Three definitions of
 perinatal mortality are currently used by NCHS.  Perinatal Definition I,
 generally used for international comparisons, which includes fetal deaths of
 28 weeks or more gestation and infant deaths of less than 7 days, Perinatal
 Definition II, which includes fetal deaths of 20 weeks or more gestation and
 infant deaths of less than 28 days; and Perinatal Definition III, which
 includes fetal deaths of 20 weeks or more gestation and infant deaths of
 less than 7 days.

     Variations in fetal death reporting requirements and practices have
 implications for comparing perinatal rates among States.  Since reporting is
 generally poorer near the lower limit of the reporting requirement, States
 that require reporting of all products of pregnancy regardless of gestation
 are likely to have more complete reporting of fetal deaths of 20 weeks or
 more than are other States.  The larger number of fetal deaths reported by
 these "all periods" States may result in higher perinatal rates compared
 with States whose reporting is less complete.  Accordingly, reporting
 completeness may account, in part, for differences among the State perinatal
 rates, particularly differences for Definitions II and III, which use data
 for fetal deaths of 20-27 weeks.

     Not stated--Fetal deaths with gestational age not stated are presumed to
 be of 20 weeks gestation or more if (1) the State requires reporting of all
 fetal deaths of gestational age 20 weeks or more or (2) the fetus weighed
 500 grams or more, in those States requiring reporting of all fetal deaths
 regardless of gestational age.  For Definition I, fetal deaths with
 gestation not stated but presumed to be 20 weeks or more are allocated to
 the category 28 weeks or more, according to the proportion of fetal deaths
 with stated gestational age that falls into that category.  For Definitions
 II and III, fetal deaths with presumed gestation of 20 weeks or more are
 included with those of stated gestation of 20 weeks or more.

     For all three definitions, following the distribution of gestation not-
 stated described above, fetal deaths with nonstated sex are allocated within
 gestational age groups on the basis of the distribution of stated cases.
 The allocation of not-stated gestational age and sex for fetal deaths is
 made individually for each State, for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan
 areas, and separately for the United States as a whole.  Accordingly, the
 sum of perinatal deaths for the areas according to Definition I may not
 equal the total number of perinatal deaths for the United States.

 Completeness of Registration

     All States have adopted laws that require the registration of births and
 deaths, and the reporting of fetal deaths.  It is believed that over 99
 percent of the births and deaths occurring in this country are registered.

     Reporting requirements for fetal deaths vary somewhat from State to
 State (see "Comparability and completeness of data").  Overall reporting
 completeness is not as good for fetal deaths as for births and deaths, but
 it is believed to be relatively complete for fetal deaths of 28 weeks
 gestation or more.  National statistical data on fetal deaths include only
 those fetal deaths with stated or presumed gestation of 20 weeks or more.

 Massachusetts Data

     The 1964 data statistics for deaths exclude approximately 6,000 events
 registered in Massachusetts, primarily to residents of that State.
 Microfilm copies of these records were not received by NCHS.  Figures for
 the United States and the New England Division are also somewhat affected.

 Quality Control Procedures

     Demographic items on the death certificate--As previously indicated, for
 1984 the mortality data for these items were obtained from two sources:  (1)
 Microfilm images of the original certificates furnished by 4 States, the
 District of Columbia, and the Virgin Islands, and photocopies from Guam; and
 (2) records on data tape furnished by the remaining 46 States, New York
 City, and Puerto Rico.  For the four States, the District of Columbia, the
 Virgin Islands, and Guam that sent only copies of the original certificates,
 the demographic items were coded for 100 percent of the death certificates.
 The demographic coding for a 10-percent sample of the certificates was
 independently verified.

     As part of the quality control procedures for mortality data, each
 registration area has to go through a calibration period during which it
 must achieve the specified error tolerance level of 2 percent per item for 3
 consecutive months, based on NCHS independent verification of a 50-percent
 sample of that area's records.  Once the area has achieved the required
 error tolerance level, a sample of 70-80 records per month is used to
 monitor quality of coding.

     All of the areas had achieved the specified error tolerance before 1984;
 accordingly, for these areas the demographic items on about 70-80 records
 per area per month were independently verified by NCHS.  These areas include
 New York City, Puerto Rico, and the 46 States that furnished data on
 computer tape to NCHS.  The estimated average error rate for all demographic
 items in the entire 1984 mortality file was 0.25 percent.

     These verification procedures involve controlling two types of error
 (coding and entering into the data record tape) at the same time and the
 error rates are a combined measure of both types.  While it may be assumed
 that the entering errors are randomly distributed across all items on the
 record, this assumption cannot be made as readily for coding errors.
 Although systematic errors in coding infrequent events may escape detection
 during sample verification, it is probable that some of these errors were
 detected during the initial period when 50 percent of the file was being
 verified, thus providing an opportunity to retrain the coders.

     Medical items on the death certificate--As for demographic data,
 mortality medical data are also subject to quality control procedures which
 control for errors of both coding and data entry.  Each of the 19
 registration areas that furnished NCHS with coded medical information
 according to NCHS specifications first had to qualify for sample
 verification.  During an initial calibration period, the area had to achieve
 a specified error tolerance level of less than 5 percent for coding all
 medical items.  After the area has achieved the required error tolerance
 level, a sample of 70-80 records per month is used to monitor quality of
 medical coding.  For these 19 States, the average coding error rate in 1984
 was estimated at just over 4 percent.

     For the remaining 39 registration areas--31 States, the District of
 Columbia, New York City, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Guam--NCHS
 coded the medical items for 100 percent of the death records.  A 1-percent
 sample of the records was independently coded for quality control purposes.
 The estimated average error rate for these areas was about 3 percent.

     The ACME system for selecting the underlying cause of death through
 computer application contributes to the quality control of medical items on
 the death certificate (see the section  on Automated selection of underlying
 cause of death).

     Demographic items on the report of fetal death--For 1984, all data on
 fetal deaths, except for New York State (excluding New York City), were
 coded under contract by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.  For Oklahoma,
 portions of the data were coded under contract by the U.S. Bureau of the
 Census, and other portions were coded by the State.  The combination coding
 was necessary because the medical and confidential portion of the fetal
 death report, which contain some of the essential statistical information,
 became detached from the other part of the fetal death report prior to
 receipt by NCHS.  Coding and entering information "on data tapes were
 verified on a 100-percent basis because of the relatively small number of
 records involved.

     Other control procedures--After coding and entering on data tape are
 completed, record counts are balanced against control totals for each
 shipment of records from a registration area.  Editing procedures ensure
 that records with inconsistent or impossible codes are modified.
 Inconsistent codes are those, for example, where there is contradiction
 between cause of death and age or sex of the decedent.  Records so
 identified during the computer-editing process are either corrected by
 reference to the source record or adjusted by arbitrary code assignment.24
 All subsequent operations in tabulating and in preparing tables are verified
 during the computer processing or by statistical clerks.

 Estimates of Errors Arising from 50-Percent Sample for 1972

     Death statistics for 1972 in this report (excluding fetal-death
 statistics) are based on a 50-percent sample of all deaths occurring in the
 50 States and the District of Columbia.

     A description of the sample design and a table of the percent errors of
 the estimated number of deaths by size of estimate and total deaths in the
 area are shown in the Technical Appendix of Vital Statistics of the United
 States, 1972, Volume II, Mortality, Part A.

 Population Bases

     The population bases from which death rates shown in this report are
 computed are prepared by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.  Rates for 1940,
 1950, 1960, 1970, and 1980, are based on the population enumerated as of
 April 1 in the censuses of those years.  Rates for all other years use the
 estimated midyear (July 1) population for the respective years.  Death rates
 for the United States, individual States, and SMSA's are based on the total
 resident populations of the respective areas.  Except as noted these
 populations exclude the Armed Forces abroad but include the Armed Forces
 stationed in each area.

     The resident populations of the birth- and death-registration States for
 1900-32 and of the United States for 1900-84 are shown in table 7-1.  In
 addition, the population including Armed Forces abroad is shown for the
 United States.  Table A lists the sources for these populations.


       Table A.  Sources for resident population and population including
     Armed Forces abroad:  Birth- and death-registration States, 1900-1932,
                          and United States, 1900-1984


         Year                                Source


 1984-------------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
                    Series P-25, No. 985, Apr. 1986.
 1983-------------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
                    Series P-25, No. 965, Mar. 1985.
 1982-------------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
                    Series P-25, No. 949, May 1984.
 1981-------------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
                    Series P-25, No. 929, May 1983.
 1980-------------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Census of Population:
                    1980, Number of Inhabitants, PC80-1-A1, United States
                    Summary, 1983.
 1971-79----------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
                    Series P-25, No. 917, July 1982.
 1970-------------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Census of Population:
                    1970, Number of Inhabitants, Final Report PC(1)-A1,
                    United States Summary, 1971.
 1961-69----------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
                    Series P-25, No. 519, April 1974.
 1960-------------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Census of Population:
                    1960, Number of Inhabitants, Final Report PC(1)-A1,
                    United States Summary, 1964.
 1951-59----------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
 Series P-25, No. 310, June 30, 1965.
 1940-50----------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
                    Series P-25, No. 499, May 1973.
 1930-39----------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
                    Series P-25, No. 499, May 1973, and National Office of
                    Vital Statistics, Vital Statistics Raters in the United
                    States, 1900-1940, 1947.
 1920-29----------- National Office of Vital Statistics, Vital Statistics
                    Rates in the United States, 1900-1940, 1947.
 1917-19----------- Same as for 1930-39.
 1900-1916--------- Same as for 1920-29.


     Population estimates for 1984--The population of the United States
 estimated by age, race, and sex for 1984 is shown in table 7-2, and the
 population for each State by broad age groups follows in table 7-3.
 Population estimates for 1984 incorporate new estimates for net migration
 and net undocumented immigration; and, thus, are not comparable with the
 postcensal estimates for 1981-83 shown in tables 7-2 and 7-3 of Vital
 Statistics of the United States, Volume II, for those years.  A comparison
 of population estimates based on the new migration assumptions with
 estimates based on the old assumption, by 5- and 10-year age-race-sex
 groups, produced differences of less than 2 percent in all age groups except
 40-44 years and 85 years and over for the black population.  The 1984
 population estimates for the black populations based on the new assumptions
 were about 4 percent smaller for ages 40-44 years and about 3 percent
 smaller for ages 85 years and over.  Death rates and estimates of life
 expectancy for 1984, therefore, are not strictly comparable with those for
 previous years, although trends for the total population and most
 age-race-sex groups are not substantially affected.  Additional information
 has been published by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.25  Population data by
 race are consistent with the modified (see below) 1980 population by race.

     Population for 1980--The population of the United States by age, race,
 and sex and the population for each State by age are shown in tables 7-2 and
 7-3, respectively, of Vital Statistics of the United States, 1980, Volume
 II.  The figures by race have been modified as described below.

     The racial counts in the 1980 census are affected by changes in
 reporting practices, particularly of the Hispanic population, and in coding
 and classifying.  One particular change created a major inconsistency
 between the 1980 census data and historical data series, including censuses
 and vital statistics.  About 40 percent of the Hispanic population counted
 in 1980, over 5.8 million persons, did not mark one of the specified races
 listed on the census questionnaire but instead marked the "Other" category.

     In the 1980 census, coding procedures were modified for persons who
 marked "Other" race and wrote in a national origin designation of a Latin
 American country or a specific Hispanic origin group in response to the
 racial question.  These persons remained in the "Other" racial category in
 1980 census data; in previous censuses and in vital statistics, such
 responses had almost always been coded into the "White" category.

     In order to maintain comparability, the "Other" racial category in the
 1980 census was reallocated to be consistent with previous procedures.
 Persons who marked the "Other" racial category and reported any Spanish
 origin on the Spanish origin question (5,840,648 persons) were distributed
 to white and black races in proportion to the distribution of persons of
 Hispanic origin who actually reported their race as "White" or "Black."
 This was done for each age-sex group.

     As a result of this procedure, 5,705,155 persons (98 percent) were added
 to the white population and 135,493 persons (2 percent) to the black
 population.  Persons who marked the "Other" racial category and reported
 that they were not of Spanish origin (916,338 persons) were distributed as
 follows:  20 percent in each age-sex group were added to the "Asian and
 Pacific Islander" category (183,268 persons), and 80 percent were added to
 the "White" category (733,070 persons).  The count of American Indians,
 Eskimos, and Aleuts was not affected by these procedures.  Unpublished
 tabulations of these modified census counts were obtained from the U.S.
 Bureau of the Census and used to compute the rates for this report.

     Population estimates for 1971-79--Death rates in this volume for 1971-79
 used revised population estimates that are consistent with the 1980 census
 levels.  The 1980 census enumerated approximately 5.5 million more persons
 than had previously been estimated for April 1, 1980.26  These revised
 estimates for the United States by age, race, and sex are published by the
 U.S. Bureau of the Census in Current Population Reports, Series P-25, Number
 917.  Unpublished revised estimates for States were obtained from the U.S.
 Bureau of the Census.  For Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Guam,
 revised estimates are published in Current Population Reports, Series P-25,
 Number 919.

     Population estimates for 1961-69--Death rates in this volume for 1961-69
 are based on revised estimates of the population and thus may differ
 slightly from rates published before 1976.  The rates shown in tables 1-1
 and 1-2, the life table values in table 6-5, and the population estimates in
 table 7-1 for each year in the period 1961-69 have been revised to reflect
 modified population bases, as published in the U.S. Bureau of the Census,
 Current Population Reports, Series P-25, Number 519.  The data shown in
 table 1-10 for 1961-69 have not been revised.

     Rates and ratios based on live births--Infant and maternal mortality
 rates, and fetal death and perinatal mortality ratios, are computed on the
 basis of the number of live births.  Fetal death and perinatal mortality
 rates are computed on the basis of the number of live births and fetal
 deaths.  Counts of live births are published annually in Vital Statistics of
 the United States, Volume I, Natality.

     New Jersey--As previously indicated, data by race are not available for
 New Jersey for 1962 and 1963.  Therefore for 1962 and 1963 the National
 Center for Health Statistics estimated a population by age, race, and sex
 excluding New Jersey for rates shown by race.  The methodology used to
 estimate the revised population excluding New Jersey is discussed in the
 Technical Appendixes of the 1962 and 1963 reports.

 Net Census Undercount

     Just as the underenumeration of deaths and the misreporting of
 demographic characteristics on the death certificate can introduce error
 into the annual rates, errors in the latest decennial census such as
 undercount or overcount can also adversely affect mortality statistics.
 This is because annual population estimates for the postcensal interval,
 which are used in the denominator for calculating death rates, are computed
 using the decennial census count as a base.25  Net census undercount is
 determined by miscounting and misreporting of demographic characteristics
 such as age.  Age-specific death rates are affected by both the net census
 undercount and the misreporting of age on the death certificate.27  To the
 extent that the net undercount is substantial and that it varies among
 subgroups and geographic areas, it may have important consequences for vital
 statistics measures.

     Although death rates based on a population adjusted for net census
 undercount may be more accurate than rates based on an unadjusted
 population, rates in this volume are not adjusted; rather, they are computed
 using population estimates that preserve the age pattern of the net census
 undercount across the postcensal interval.  Thus, it is important to
 consider the possible impact of net census undercount on death rates.

     The U.S. Bureau of the Census has conducted extensive research on
 completeness of coverage of the U.S. population (including underenumeration
 and misstatement of age, race, and sex) in the last four decennial
 censuses--1950, 1960, 1970, and 1980.  From this work have come estimates of
 the national population that was not counted by age, race, and sex.22,28,29
 The reports for 1980 include estimates of net census undercount using
 alternative methodological assumptions for age, race, and sex subgroups of
 the national population.22,30  These studies indicate that, although
 coverage was improved over previous censuses, there was differential
 coverage in the 1980 census among the population subgroups; that is, some
 age, race, and sex groups were more completely counted than others.

     Net census undercounts can affect (1) levels of the observed vital
 rates, (2) differences among groups, and (3) levels and group differences
 shown by summary measures such as age-adjusted death rates and life
 expectancy.

     Levels and differentials--If adjustments are made for net census    were m
 undercount, the size of denominators of the death rates generally would
 increase and the rates, therefore, would decrease.  Assuming net census
 undercounts remained consistent by age after the 1980 census, the estimated
 rates for 1984 can be computed by multiplying the reported rates by ratios
 of the census-level population to the population adjusted for the estimated
 net census undercount (table 7-4).  A ratio of less than 1.0 indicates a net
 census undercount and, when applied, results in a corresponding decrease in
 the death rate.  A ratio greater than 1.0--indicating a net census
 overcount--multiplied by the reported rate results in an increase in the
 death rate.

     Coverage ratios for all ages show that, in general, females were more
 completely enumerated than males and the white population more completely
 than the population of all other races.  The black population was counted
 less completely than the total population of all other races.

     For the total population, underenumeration varied by age group, with the
 greatest undercount found for persons aged 80-84, and 85 years and over.
 All other age groups were overcounted or undercounted by less than 3 percent.

     Among the age-sex-race groups, coverage was lowest for black males aged
 35-39, 40-44, and 45-49 years.  Underenumeration for these groups was 19
 percent.  In contrast, white females in these age groups were essentially
 completely enumerated.  For black females and white males in these same age
 groups, the undercount ranged from 3 to 6 percent.  For the under-1-year age
 group the white population was overenumerated by 2 percent, whereas infants
 of other races were underenumerated by 9 percent.

     If vital statistics measures were calculated with adjustments for net
 census undercounts for each population subgroup, the resulting rates would
 be differentially reduced from their original levels, that is, rates for
 those groups with the greatest estimated undercounts would show the greatest
 relative reductions due to these adjustments.  Similar effects would be
 evident in the opposite direction for groups with overcounts.  As a
 consequence, the ratio of mortality between the rates for males and females,
 and between the rates for the white population and the population of other
 races, or the black population, usually would be reduced.

     Similarly, the differences between the death rates among subgroups of
 the population by cause of death would be affected by adjustments for net
 census undercounts.  For example, for the age group 35-39 years in 1984, the
 ratio of the death rate for Homicide and legal intervention for black males
 to that for white males is 6.9, whereas the ratio of the death rates
 adjusted for net census undercount in 1984 is 5.4, a reduction of 22
 percent.  For Ischemic heart disease for males aged 40-44 years, the ratio
 of the death rate for the population of all other races to that for the
 white population is 1.3 using the unadjusted rates, but it is 1.1 when
 adjusted for estimated underenumeration.

     Summary measures--The effect of net census undercount on age-adjusted
 death rates depends on the underenumeration of each age group and on the
 distribution of deaths by age.  In 1984, the age-adjusted death rate for All
 causes would decrease from 545.9 to 538.4 per 100,000 population if the
 age-specific death rates were corrected for net census undercount.

     For Diseases of the heart, the age-adjusted death rate for white males
 would decrease from 249.5 to 245.5 per 100,000 population, a decline of 1.6
 percent.  For black males the change, from an unadjusted rate of 300.1 to an
 adjusted rate of 273.2, would amount to 9.0 percent.

     If death rates by age were adjusted, then the corresponding life
 expectancy at birth computed from these rates would change.  The importance
 of adjustments varies by age, that is, when calculating life expectancy, the
 impact of an undercount (or overcount) is greatest at the younger ages.  In
 general, the effect of correcting the death rates is to increase the
 estimate of life expectancy at birth.  Differential underenumeration among
 race-sex groups would lead to greater changes in life expectancy at birth.
 Differential underenumeration among race-sex groups would lead to greater
 changes in life expectancy for some groups than for others.  For white
 females who were completely enumerated in 1980, revised estimates of life
 expectancy would remain roughly constant; those for black males would show
 the greatest increase.

 Age-Adjusted Death Rates

     Age-adjusted death rates shown in this report are computed by using the
 distribution in 10-year age intervals of the enumerated population of the
 United States in 1940 as the standard population.  Each figure represents
 the rate that would have existed if the age-specific rates of the particular
 year prevailed in a population whose age distribution was the same as that
 of the United States in 1940.  The rates for the total population and for
 each race-sex group were adjusted using the same standard population.  It is
 important not to compare age-adjusted death rates with crude rates.  The
 standard 1940 population, on the basis of one million total population, is
 as follows:

                                   Age                                 Number

          All ages ...............................................   1,000,000

     Under 1 year.................................................      15,343
     1-4 years....................................................      64,718
     5-14 years...................................................     170,355
     15-24 years..................................................     181,677
     25-34 years..................................................     162,066
     35-44 years..................................................   139,237
     45-54 years..................................................   117,811
     55-64 years..................................................    80,294
     65-74 years..................................................    48,426
     75-84 years..................................................    17,303
     85 years and over............................................     2,770

 Life Tables

     U.S. abridged life tables are constructed by reference to a standard
 table.31  Life tables for the decennial period 1979-81 are used as the
 standard life tables in constructing the 1980-84 abridged life tables.  With
 the availability of the 1979-81 standard life tables, revised life table
 values were computed for 1980-82; these appear for the first time in this
 volume.  Life table values appearing in Vital Statistics of the United
 States, 1983.

     Life tables for the decennial period 1969-71 are used as the standard
 life tables in constructing the 1970-79 abridged life tables.  Life table
 values for 1970-73 were first revised in Vital Statistics of the United
 States, 1977; before 1977, life table values for 1970-73 were constructed
 using the 1959-61 decennial life tables.  In addition, life tables values
 for 1951-59, 1961-69, and 1971-79 appearing in this publication are based on
 revised intercensal estimates of the populations for those years.  As such,
 these life table values may differ from the life table values for those
 years published in previous volumes.

     There has been an increasing interest in data on average length of life
 (  0) for single calendar years before the initiation of the annual abridged
 life table series for selected race-sex groups in 1945.  The figures in
 table 6-5 for the race and sex groups for the following years were estimated
 to meet these needs.32

                                                                  Race and
                               Years                             Sex Groups

     1900-45..............................................   Total
     1900-47..............................................   Male
     1900-47..............................................   Female
     1900-50..............................................   White
     1900-44..............................................   White, male
     1900-44..............................................   White, female
     1900-50..............................................   All other
     1900-44..............................................   All other, male
     1900-44..............................................   All other, female

     The geographic areas covered in life tables before 1929-31 were limited
 to the death-registration areas.  Life tables for 1900-1902 and 1909-11 were
 constructed using mortality data from the 1900 death-registration States--10
 States and the District of Columbia--and for 1919-21 from the 1920
 death-registration States--34 States and the District of Columbia.  The
 tables for 1929-31 through 1958 cover the counterminous United States.
 Decennial life table values for the 3-year period 1959-61 were derived from
 data that include both Alaska and Hawaii for each year (table 6-4).  Data
 for each year shown in table 6-5 include Alaska beginning in 1959 and Hawaii
 beginning in 1960.  It is not believed that the inclusion of these two
 States materially affects life table values.

 Random Variation in No. Deaths, Death Rates, Mort. Rates & Ratio

     Deaths and population-based rates--Except for 1972, the numbers of
 deaths reported for a community represent complete counts of such events.
 As such, they are not subject to sampling error, although they are subject
 to errors in the registration process.  However, when the figures are used
 for analytical purposes, such as the comparison of rates over a time period
 or for different areas, the number of events that actually occurred may be
 considered as one of a large series of possible results that could have
 arisen under the same circumstances.33  The probable range of values may be
 estimated from the actual figures according to certain statistical
 assumptions.

     In general, distributions of vital events may be assumed to follow the
 binomial distribution.  Estimates of standard error and tests of
 significance under this assumption are described in most standard statistics
 texts.  When the number of events is large, the standard error, expressed as
 a percent of the number or rate, is usually small.

     When the number of events is small (perhaps less than 100) and the
 probability of such an event is small, considerable caution must be observed
 in interpreting the conditions described by the figures.  This is
 particularly true for infant mortality rates, cause-specific death rates,
 and death rates for counties.  Events of a rare nature may be assumed to
 follow a Poisson probability distribution.  For this distribution, a simple
 approximation may be used to estimate a confidence interval, as follows.

     If N is the number of registered deaths in the population and R is the
 corresponding rate, the chances are 19 in 20 that


     1.  N  -  2 / N and N  +  2 / N

         covers the "true" number of events.

     2.  R  -  2   R and R  +  2   R
                  /N              /N

         covers the "true" rate.

     If the rate R corresponding to N events is compared with the rate S
 corresponding to M events, the difference between the two rates may be
 regarded as statistically significant if it exceeds


              R2    S2
         2        +
              N      M

     For example, if the observed death rate for Community A were 10.0 per
 1,000 population and if this rate were based on 20 recorded deaths, then the
 chances are 19 in 20 that the "true" death rate for that community lies
 between 5.5 and 14.5 per 1,000 population.  If the death rate for Community
 A of 10.0 per 1,000 population were being compared with a rate of 20.0 per
 1,000 population for Community B, which is based on 10 recorded deaths, then
 the difference between the rates for the two communities is 10.0.  This
 difference is less than twice the standard error of the difference


              (10.0)2   (20.0)2
         2            +
                20      10

 of the two rates, which is computed to be 13.4.  From this, it is concluded
 that the difference between the rates for the two communities is not
 statistically significant.


 Symbols Used in Tables
                             SYMBOLS USED IN TABLES

     Data not available------------------------------------------     ---

     Category not applicable-------------------------------------     ...

     Quantity zero-----------------------------------------------       -

     Quantity more than 0 but less than 0.05---------------------     0.0

     Quantity more than zero but less than 500 where numbers are
       rounded to thousands--------------------------------------     Z

     Figure does not meet standards of reliability or precision--     *

 
 REFERENCES

 1.  National Center for Health Statistics:  Vital statistics,
     classification and coding instructions for fetal death records.  NCHS
     Instruction Manual, Part 3b.  Public Health Service, Hyattsville, Md.
     Published annually.

 2.  National Center for Health Statistics:  Vital statistics, demographic
     classification and coding instructions for death records.  NCHS Instruction
     Manual, Part 4.  Public Health Service, Hyattsville, Md.  Published annually.

 3.  National Center for Health Statistics, M.A. McCarthy:  Comparison of
     the classification of place of residence on death certificates and matching
     census records, United States, May-August 1960.  Vital and Health
     Statistics, Series 2, No. 30.  PHS Pub. No. 1000.  Public Health Service.
     Washington.  U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1969.

 4.  National Vital Statistics Division:  Matched record comparison of birth
     certificate and census information, United States, 1950. Vital
     Statistics--Special Reports.  Vol. 47, No. 12.  Public Health Service.
     Washington, D.C., Mar. 1962.

 5.  National Center for Health Statistics:  Vital statistics, vital records
     geographic classification, 1982.  NCHS Instruction Manual, Part 8.  Public
     Health Service, Hyattsville, Md., June 1985.

 6.  U.S. Office of Management and Budget:  Standard metropolitan
     statistical areas and standard consolidated areas.  Statistical Reporter.
     Washington.  U.S. Government Printing Office, Oct. 1981, pp. 1-20.

 7.  U.S. Office of Management and Budget:  36 new standard metropolitan
     statistical areas and standard consolidated areas.  Statistical Reporter.
     Washington.  U.S. Government Printing Office, July 1981, p. 420.

 8.  U.S. Office of Management and Budget:  Standard Metropolitan
     Statistical Areas, rev. ed.  Statistical Reporter.  Washington.  U.S.
     Government Printing Office, 1975, pp. 89-90.

 9.  U.S. Bureau of the Census:  1980 Census of Population, Persons of
     Spanish Origin by State, 1980.  Supplementary Report, PC80-S1-7.
     Washington.  Aug. 1982.

 10. National Center for Health Statistics, A. J. Klebba:  Mortality from
     selected causes by marital status, United States, Parts A & B.  Vital and
     Health Statistics, Series 20, No. 8a, Series 20, No. 8b.  PHS Pub. No.
     1000.  Public Health Service.  Washington.  U.S. Government Printing Office,
     Dec. 1970.

 11. World Health Organization:  Manual of the International Statistical
     Classification of Diseases, Injuries,, and Causes of Death, Based on the
     Recommendations of the Ninth Revision Conference, 1975.  Geneva.   World
     Health Organization, 1977.

 12. National Center for Health Statistics:  Estimates of selected
     comparability ratios based on dual coding of 1976 death certificates by the
     Eighth and Ninth Revisions of the International Classification of Diseases.
     Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 28, No. 11 Supp. DHEW Pub. No. (PHS)
     80-1120.  Public Health Service, Hyattsville, Md., Feb. 29, 1980.

 13. National Center for Health Statistics, A. Gittelsohn and P. N.
     Royston:  Annotated bibliography of cause-of-death validation studies,
     1958-80, Vital and Health Statistics, Series 2, No. 89.  DHHS Pub. No. (PHS)
     82-1363.  Public Health Service.  Washington.  U.S. Government Printing
     Office, Sept. 1982.

 14. National Center for Health Statistics:  Vital statistics, ICD-9 ACME
     decision tables for classifying the underlying causs of death, 1984.  NCHS
     Instruction Manual, Part 2c.  Public Health Service, Hyattsville, Md., Sept.
     1982.

 15. L. Guralnick and E. D. Winter.  A note on cohort infant mortality
     rates.  Pub. Health Rep. 80:692-694, 1965.

 16. National Center for Health Statistics, R. D. Grove and A. M. Hetzel.
     Vital Statistics Rates in the United States, 1940-1960.  Public Health
     Service.  Washington.  U.S. Government Printing Office, 1968.

 17. National Office of Vital Statistics, F. E. Linder and R. D. Grove.
     Vital Statistics Rates in the United States, 1900-1940.  U.S. Public Health
     Service.  Washington.  U.S. Government Printing Office, 1947.

 18. B.J. McCarthy et al.  The underregistration of neonatal deaths:
     Georgia 1974-77.  Am. J. Pub. Health 70:977-982, 1980.

 19. F. Frost and Kirkwood K. Shy:  Racial differences between linked birth
     and infant death records in Washington State.  American Journal of Public
     Health, 70:974-976, Sept. 1980.

 20. National Office of Vital Statistics:  International Recommendations on
     Definitions of Live Birth and Fetal Death, PHS Pub. No. 39.  Public Health
     Service.  Washington.  U.S. Government Printing Office, Oct. 1950.

 21. For definitions used by the States and registration areas, see
     National Center for Health Statistics, State Definitions and Reporting
     Requirements for Live Births, Fetal Deaths, and Induced Terminations of
     Pregnancy.  DHHS Pub. No. (PHS) 81-1119.  Public Health Service.
     Washington.  U.S. Government Printing Office, May 1981.

 22. National Center for Health Statistics:  Model State Vital Statistics
     Act and Model State Vital Statistics Regulations.  DHEW Pub. No. (PHS)
     78-1115.  Public Health Service.  Washington.  U.S. Government Printing
     Office, May 1978.

 23. Unpublished fetal mortality data contained in a thesis for Harvard:
     School of Public Health, Apr. 1962, by Carl L. Erhardt, Sc.D., Director,
     Bureau of Records and Statistics, Department of Health, New York, N.Y.

 24. National Center for Health Statistics:  Vital Statistics, computer
     edits for mortality data, effective 1979.  NCHS Instruction Manual, Part
     11.  Public Health Service, Hyattsville, Md., Nov. 1979.

 25. U.S. Bureau of the Census:  Estimates of the Population of the United
     States, by age, sex, and race:  1980 to 1985.  Current Population Reports.
     Series P-25, No. 985.  Washington.  U.S. Government Printing Office, April
     1986.

 26. U.S. Bureau of the Census:  Coverage of the national population in the
     1980 census by age, sex, and race.  Preliminary estimates by demographic
     analysis.  Current Population Reports.  Series P-23, No. 115.  Washington.
     U.S. Government Printing Office, Feb. 1982.

 27. National Center for Health Statistics, T. Z. Hambright:  Comparability
     of age on the death certificate and matching census records.  United States,
     May-August 1960.  Vital and Health Statistics.  Series 2, No. 29.  PHS Pub.
     No. 1000.  Public Health Service.  Washington.  U.S. Government Printing
     Office, June 1968.

 28. U.S. Bureau of the Census:  Developmental estimates of the coverage of
     the population of States in the 1970 census--demographic analysis.  Current
     Population Reports.  Series P-23, No. 65.  Washington.  U.S. Government
     Printing Office, Dec. 1977.

 29. U.S. Bureau of the Census:  Estimates of coverage of the population by
     sex, race, and age--demographic analysis.  1970 Census of Population and
     Housing, PHC(E)-4.  Washington.  U.S. Government Printing Office, 1974.

 30. J. S. Passel and J. G. Robinson.  Revised Demographic Estimates of the
     Coverage of the Population by Age, Sex, and Race in the 1980 Census.
     Unpublished memorandum.  U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C., Apr.
     8, 1985.

 31. National Center for Health Statistics, M. G. Sirken:  Comparison of
     two methods of constructing abridged life tables by reference to a
     "standard" table.  Vital and Health Statistics.  Series 2, No. 4.  PHS Pub.
     No. 1000.  Public Health Service.  Washington.  U.S. Government Printing
     Office, Mar. 1966.

 32. For estimating procedure see National Office of Vital Statistics, T.
     N. E. Greville and G. A. Carlson:  Estimated average length of life in the
     death-registration States.  Vital Statistics--Special Reports, Vol. 33, No.
     9.  Public Health Service.  Washington, D.C., 1951.

 33. National Office of Vital Statistics, C. L. Chiang:  Standard error of
     the age-adjusted death rate.  Vital Statistics--Special Reports, Vol. 47,
     No. 9.  U.S. Public Health Service.  Washington, D.C., Aug. 1961.


 TECHNICAL APPENDIX, 1984,1985 MORTALITY FILE
 Sources of Data

 Death and Fetal-Death Statistics

     Mortality statistics for 1984-85 are, as for all previous years except
 1972, based on information from records of all deaths occurring in the
 United States.  Fetal-death statistics for every year are based on all
 reports of fetal death received by the National Center for Health Statistics
 (NCHS).

     The death-registration system and the fetal-death reporting system of
 the United States encompass the 50 States, the District of Columbia, New
 York City (which is independent of New York State for the purpose of death
 registration), Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and
 the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.  In the statistical tabulations
 of this publication, United States refers only to the aggregate of the 50
 States (including New York City) and the District of Columbia.  Tabulations
 for Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands are shown separately in this
 volume.  No data have ever been included for American Samoa or the Trust
 Territory of the Pacific Islands.

     The Virgin Islands was admitted to the "registration area" for deaths in
 1924; Puerto Rico, in 1932; and Guam, in 1970.  Tabulations of death
 statistics for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands were regularly shown in
 the annual volumes of Vital Statistics of the United States from the year of
 their admission through 1971 except for the years 1967 through 1969, and
 tabulations for Guam were included for 1970 and 1971.  Death statistics for
 Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Guam were not included in the 1972
 volume but have been included in section 8 of the volumes for each of the
 years 1973-78 and in section 9 beginning with 1979.  Information for 1972
 for these three areas was published in the respective annual vital
 statistics reports of the Department of Health of the Commonwealth of Puerto
 Rico, the Department of Health of the Virgin Islands, and the Department of
 Public Health and Social Services of the Government of Guam.

     Procedures used by NCHS to collect death statistics have changed over
 the years.  Before 1971, tabulations of deaths and fetal deaths were based
 solely on information obtained by NCHS from copies of the original
 certificates.  The information from these copies was edited, coded, and
 tabulated.  For 1960-70, all mortality information taken from these records
 was transferred by NCHS to magnetic tape for computer processing.

     Beginning with 1971, an increasing number of States have provided NCHS
 with computer tapes of data coded according to NCHS specifications and
 provided to NCHS through the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program.  The year
 in which State-coded demographic data were first transmitted to NCHS is
 shown below for New York City, Puerto Rico, and each of the 46 States now
 furnishing demographic data.


     1971                                             1976--Con.

          Florida                                                Minnesota
                                                                 Nevada
     1972                                                   Texas
                                                                 West Virginia
          Maine
          Missouri                                          1977
          New Hampshire
          Rhode Island                                           Alaska
          Vermont                                                Idaho
                                                                 Massachusetts
     1973                                                        New York City
                                                                 Ohio
          Colorado                                               Puerto Rico
          Michigan
          New York (except New York City)                   1978

     1974                                                   Indiana
                                                                 Utah
          Illinois                                               Washington
          Iowa
          Kansas                                            1979
          Montana
          Nebraska                                               Connecticut
          Oregon                                                 Hawaii
          South Carolina                                         Mississippi
                                                                 New Jersey
     1975                                              Pennsylvania
                                                                 Wyoming
          Louisiana
          Maryland                                          1980
          North Carolina
          Oklahoma                                               Arkansas
          Tennessee                                              New Mexico
          Virginia                                               South Dakota
          Wisconsin
                                                            1982
     1976
                                                                 North Dakota
          Alabama
          Kentucky

                               1985
                                    Arizona
                                    California
                                    Delaware
                                    Georgia
                                    District of Columbia

     For the remaining four States, the District of Columbia, the Virginia
 Islands, and Guam, mortality statistics for 1984 are based on information
 obtained directly by NCHS from copies of the original certificates received
 from the registration offices.

     In 1974, States began coding medical (cause-of-death) data on computer
 tapes according to NCHS specifications.  The year in which State-coded
 medical data were first transmitted to NCHS is shown below for the 19 States
 now furnishing such data.

     1974                                                1980--Con.

          Iowa                                                Pennsylvania
          Michigan                                            South Carolina

     1975                                                1981

          Louisiana                                           Maine
          Nebraska
          North Carolina                                 1983
          Virginia
          Wisconsin                                           Minnesota

     1980                                                1984

          Colorado                                            Maryland
          Kansas                                              New York State
          Massachusetts                                         (except New
          Mississippi                                           York City)
          New Hampshire                                       Vermont

     For 1985 and previous years except 1972, NCHS coded the Medical
 information from copies of the original certificates received from the
 registration offices for all deaths occurring in those States that were not
 furnishing NCHS with medical data coded according to NCHS specifications.
 For 1981 and 1982, it was necessary to change these procedures because of a
 backlog in coding and processing that resulted from personnel and budgetary
 restrictions.  To produce the mortality files on a timely basis with reduced
 resources, NCHS used State-coded underlying cause-of-death information
 supplied by 19 States for 50 percent of the records; for the other 50
 percent of the records for these States as well as for 100 percent of the
 records for the remaining 21 registration areas, NCHS coded the medical
 information.

     Mortality statistics for 1972 were based on information obtained from a
 50-percent sample of death records instead of from all records as in other
 years.  The sample resulted from personnel and budgetary restrictions.
 Sampling vaiation associated with the 50-percent sample is described below
 in the section "Estimates of errors arising from 50-percent sample for 1972."

     Fetal-death data are obtained directly from copies of original reports
 of fetal deaths received by NCHS, except New York State (excluding New York
 City), which submitted State-coded data in 1984.  For Oklahoma in 1984,
 fetal-death data were obtained partly from copies of original reports of
 fetal deaths received by NCHS, and partly from State-coded data (See section
 Quality control procedures).  Fetal-death data are not published by NCHS for
 the Virgin Islands and Guam.

 Standard Certificates and Reports

     The U.S. Standard Certificate of Death and the U.S. Standard Report of
 Fetal Death, issued by the Public Health Service, have served for many years
 as the principal means of attaining uniformity in the content of documents
 used to collect information on these events.  They have been modified in
 each State to the extent required by the particular needs of the State or by
 special provisions of the State vital statistics law.  However, the
 certificates or reports of most States conform closely in content and
 arrangement to the standards.

     The first issue of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Death appeared in
 1900.  Since then, it has been revised periodically by the national vital
 statistics agency through consultation with State health officers and
 registrars; Federal agencies concerned with vital statistics; national,
 State, and county medical societies; and others working in such fields as
 public health, social welfare, demography, and insurance.  This revision
 procedure has assured careful evaluation of each item in terms of its
 current and future usefulness for legal, medical and health, demographic,
 and research purposes.  New items have been added when necessary, and old
 items have been modified to ensure better reporting, or in some cases have
 been dropped when their usefulness appeared to be limited.

     New revisions of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Death and the U.S.
 Standard Report of Fetal Death were recommended for State use beginning
 January 1, 1978.  The certificate of death is for use by a physician, a
 medical examiner, or a coroner.  Two other forms of the U.S. Standard
 Certificate of Death are available, they are similar except that the section
 on certification is designed for the physician's signature on one, and for
 the medical examiner's or coroner's signature on the other.

     Among the changes in the new revision were the addition of (1) an item
 asking "If Hosp. or Inst., Indicate DOA, OP/Emer. Rm., Inpatient" and (2) an
 item "Was Decedent Ever in U.S. Armed Forces?"  The latter item was
 previously on the certificate but was deleted during 1968 through 1977.  An
 item on whether autopsy findings were considered for determining cause of
 death was dropped.

 History
 
    The first death statistics published by the Federal Government concerned
 events in 1850 and were based on statistics collected during the decennial
 census of that year.  In 1880 a national "registration area" was created for
 deaths.  Originally consisting of two States (Massachusetts and New Jersey),
 the District of Columbia, and several large cities having efficient systems
 for death registrations, the death-registration area continued to expand
 until 1933, when it included the entire United States for the first time.
 Tables that show data for death-registration States include the District of
 Columbia for all years; registration cities in nonregistration States are
 not included.  For more details on the history of the death-registration
 area see the technical Appendix in Vital Statistics of the United States,
 1979, Volume II, Mortality, Part A, Section 7, pages 3-4, and the section
 "History and Organization of the Vital Statistics System," chapter 1, Vital
 Statistics of the United States, 1950, Volume I, pages 2-19.

     Statistics on fetal deaths were first published for the
 birth-registration area in 1918, and then every year beginning with 1922.

 Classification of Data

 Introduction

     The principal value of vital statistics data is realized through the
 presentation of rates, which are computed by relating the vital events of a
 class to the population of a similarly defined class.  Vital statistics and
 population statistics must therefore be classified according to similarly
 defined systems and tabulated in comparable groups.  Even when the variables
 common to both, such as geographic area, age, sex and race, have been
 similarly classified and tabulated, differences between the enumeration
 method of obtaining population data and the registration method of obtaining
 vital statistics data may result in significant discrepancies.

     The general rules used in the classification of geographic and personal
 items for deaths and fetal deaths are set forth in two NCHS instruction
 manuals.1,2

     A discussion of the classification of certain important items is
 presented below.

 Classification by Occurrence and Residence
 
    Tabulations for the United States and specified geographic areas in this
 report are by place of residence unless stated as by place of occurrence.
 Before 1970, resident mortality statistics for the United States included
 all deaths occurring in the United States, with deaths of "nonresidents of
 the United States" assigned to place of death.  Deaths of nonresidents of
 the United States" refers to deaths that occur in the United States of
 nonresident aliens, nationals residing abroad, and residents of Puerto Rico,
 the Virgin Islands, Guam, and other territories of the United States.
 Beginning with 1970, deaths of nonresidents of the United States are not
 included in tables by place of residence.

     Tables by place of occurrence, on the other hand, include deaths of both
 residents and nonresidents of the United States.  Consequently, for each
 year beginning with 1970, the total number of deaths in the United States by
 place of occurrence was somewhat greater than the total by place of
 residence.  For 1985 this difference amounted to 2,938 deaths.  Mortality
 statistics by place of occurrence are shown in tables 1-10, 1-18, 1-19,
 1-28, 1-29, 3-1, 3-8, 8-1, and 8-7.

     Before 1970, except for 1964 and 1965, deaths of nonresidents of the
 United States occurring in the United States were treated as deaths of
 residents of the exact place of occurrence, which in most instances was an
 urban area.  In 1964 and 1965, deaths of nonresidents of the United States
 occurring in the United States were allocated as deaths of residents of the
 balance of the county in which they occurred.

     Residence error--Results of a 1960 study showed that the classification
 of residence information on the death certificates corresponded closely to
 the residence classification of the census records for the decedents whose
 records were matched.3

     A comparison of the results of this study of deaths with those for a
 previous matched record study of births4 showed that the quality of
 residence data had considerably improved between 1950 and 1960.  Both
 studies found that events in urban areas were overstated by the NCHS
 classification in comparison with the U.S. bureau of the Census
 classification.  The magnitude of the difference was substantially less for
 deaths in 1960 than it was for births in 1950.

     The improvement is attributed to an item added in 1956 to the U.S.
 Standard Certificates of Birth and of Death, asking if residence was inside
 or outside city limits.  This new item aided in properly allocating the
 residence of persons living near cities but outside the corporate limits.

 Geographic Classification

     The rules followed in the classification of geographic areas for deaths
 and fetal deaths are contained in the two instruction manuals referred to
 previously.1,2

     The geographic codes assigned by the National Center for Health
 Statistics during data reduction of source information on birth, death, and
 fetal-death records are given in another instruction manual.5  For 1982-83,
 geographic codes were modified to reflect results of the 1980 census.  For
 1980-81, codes are based on results of the 1970 census.

     Standard metropolitan statistical areas--The standard metropolitan
 statistical areas (SMSA's) used in this report are those established by the
 U.S. Office of Management and Budget from final 1980 census population
 counts6 and used by the U.S. Bureau of the Census, except in the New England
 States.

     Except in the New England States, an SMSA is a county or a group of
 contiguous counties containing a city of 50,000 inhabitants or more or an
 urbanized area of 50,000 with a total metropolitan population of at least
 100,000.  In addition to the county or counties containing such a city or
 urbanized area, contiguous counties are included in an SMSA if, according to
 specified criteria, they are essentially metropolitan in character and are
 socially and economically integrated with the central city or urbanized
 area.7

     In the New England States the U.S. Office of Management and Budget uses
 towns and cities rather than counties as geographic components of SMSA's.
 The National Center for Health Statistics cannot, however, use the SMSA
 classification for these States because its data are not coded to identify
 all towns.  Instead, NCHS uses New England County Metropolitan Areas
 (NECMA's).  These areas, established by the U.S. Office of Management and
 Budget, are made up of county units.7,8

     Metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties--Independent cities and
 counties included in SMSA's or NECMA's are included in data for metropolitan
 counties; all other counties are classified as nonmetropolitan.

     Population-size groups--Vital statistics data for cities and certain
 other urban places in 1983 are classified according to the population
 enumerated in the 1980 Census of Population.  Data are available for
 individual cities and other urban places of 10,000 or more population.  Data
 for the remaining areas not separately identified are shown in the tables
 under the heading "Balance of area" or "Balance of county."  For the years
 1970-81, classification of areas was determined by the population enumerated
 in the 1970 Census of Population.  Beginning in 1982, as a result of changes
 in the enumerated population between 1970 and 1980, some urban places
 identified in previous reports are no longer included, and a number of other
 urban places have been added.

     Urban places other than incorporated cities for which vital statistics
 data are shown in this report include the following:

     *  Each town in New England, New York, and Wisconsin and each township
        in Michigan, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania that had no incorporated
        municipality as a subdivision and had either 25,000 inhabitants or
        more, or a population of 10,000 to 25,000 and a density of 1,000
        persons or more per square mile.

     *  Each county in States other than those indicated above that had no
        incorporated municipality within its boundary and had a density of
        1,000 persons or more per square mile.  (Arlington County, Virginia,
        is the only county classified as urban under this rule.)

     *  Each place in Hawaii with 10,000 or more population, as there are no
        incorporated cities in the State.

     Before 1964, places were classified as "urban" or "rural."  The
 Technical Appendixes for earlier years discuss the previous classification
 system.

 State or Country of Birth

     Mortality statistics by State or country of birth (table 1-32) became
 available beginning with 1979.  State or country of birth of a decedent is
 assigned to 1 of the 50 States or the District of Columbia; or to Puerto
 Rico, the Virgin Islands, or Guam--if specified on the death certificate.
 The place of birth is also tabulated for Canada, Cuba, Mexico, and for the
 Remainder of the World.  Deaths for which information on State or country of
 birth was unknown, not stated, or not classifiable accounted for a small
 proportion of all deaths in 1983, about 0.5 percent.

     Early mortality reports published by the U.S. Bureau of the Census
 contained tables showing nativity of parents as well as nativity of
 decedent.  Publication of these tables was discontinued in 1933.  Mortality
 data showing nativity of decedent were again published in annual reports for
 1939-41 and for 1950.

 Age

     The age recorded on the death record is the age at last birthday.  With
 respect to the computation of death rates, the age classification used by
 the U.S. Bureau of the Census is also based on the age of the person in
 completed years.

     For computation of age-specific and age-adjusted death rates, deaths
 with age not stated are excluded.  For life table computation, deaths with
 age not stated are distributed proportionately.

 Race

     For vital statistics in the United States in 1983, deaths are classified
 by race--white, black, Indian, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Other Asian or
 Pacific Islander, and other races.  Mortality data for Filipino and Other
 Asian or Pacific Islander were shown for the first time in 1979.

     The white category includes, in addition to persons reported as white,
 those reported as Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, and all other Caucasians.
 The Indian category includes American, Alaskan, Canadian, Eskimo, and
 Aleut.  If the racial entry on the death certificate indicates a mixture of
 Hawaiian and any other race, the entry is coded to Hawaiian.  If the race is
 given as a mixture of white and any other race, the entry is coded to the
 appropriate other race.  If a mixture of races other than white is given
 (except Hawaiian), the entry is coded to the first race listed.  This
 procedure for coding the first race listed has been in use since 1969.
 Before 1969, if the entry for race was a mixture of black and any other race
 except Hawaiian, the entry was coded to black.

     Most of the tables in this report, however, do not show data for this
 detailed classification by race.  In about half of all the tables the
 divisions are white, all other (including black), and black separately.  In
 other tables by race, where the main purpose is to isolate the major groups,
 the classifications are simply white and all other.

     Race not stated--For 1985 the number of death records for which race was
 unknown, not stated, or not classifiable was 3,488, or less than 0.2 percent
 of the total deaths.  Death records with race entry not stated are assigned
 to a racial designation as follows:  If the preceding record is coded white,
 the code assignment is made to white; if the code is other than white, the
 assignment is made to black.  Before 1964 all records with race not stated
 were assigned to white except records of residents of New Jersey for 1962-64.

     New Jersey, 1962-64--New Jersey omitted the race item from its
 certificates of live birth, death, and fetal death in use in the beginning
 of 1962.  The item was restored during the latter part of 1962.  However,
 the certificate revision without the race item was used for most of 1962 as
 well as 1963.  Therefore figures by race for 1962 and 1963 exclude New
 Jersey.  For 1964, 6.3 percent of the death records in use for residents of
 New Jersey did not contain the race item.

     Adjustments made in vital statistics to take into account the omission
 of the race item in New Jersey for part of the certificates filed during
 1962 through 1964 are described in the Technical Appendix of Vital
 Statistics of the United States for each of those data years.

 Hispanic Origin
 
     Mortality statistics for the Hispanic-origin population
 were published in 1984 for the first time.  They are based on
 information for those States and the District of Columbia that
 included items on the death certificate to identify Hispanic or
 ethnic origin of decedents.  Data were obtained from D.C. and the
 following 22 states:  Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado,
 Georgia, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Maine, Mississippi,
 Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York (including New
 York City), North Dakota, Ohio, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, and Wyoming.
 Generally, the reporting states used items similar to one of two
 basic formats recommended by NCHS.  The first format is open-ended to
 obtain the specific origin or descent of the decedent (for example,
 Italian, Mexican, Puerto Rican, English, and Cuban).  The second
 format is directed specifically toward the Hispanic population and
 asks whether the decedent is of Spanish origin.  If so, the specific
 origin - for example, Mexican, Puerto Rican, or Cuban - is to be
 indicated.
      For 1985, mortality data in tables 1-33 and 2-18 are based on
 deaths to residents of all 22 reporting States and D.C.  In tables
 1-34, 2-19, 2-20, 2-21 mortality data for the Hispanic-origin
 population are based on deaths to residents of 17 reporting states and
 D.C. whose data were at least 90 percent complete and considered to be
 sufficiently comparable to be used for analysis.  The 17 states are as
 follows:  Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Georgia, Hawaii,
 Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Mississippi, Nebraska, New York (including
 New York City), North Dakota, Ohio, Texas, Utah, and Wyoming.
 Excluded from these tables are data for New Mexico because the format
 for the Hispanic item on the N.M. death certificate departs
 sufficiently from that of other areas to result in noncomparable data.
 In addition, in tables 1-33 and 1-34 for New Mexico, no deaths are
 shown for the category "not stated" origin.  Because of the way in
 which the item on the death certificate for N.M. is worded, it was not
 possible to determine whether a blank entry represented a response of
 "non-Hispanic origin" or of "unknown origin."  Accordingly, blank
 entries were coded to "non-Hispanic."  The data for four other states -
 Maine, Nevada, New Jersey, and Tennesse - are excluded from tables
 1-34, 2-19, 2-20, and 2-21 because of the large proportion of deaths
 (in excess of 10%) occurring in these states for which Hispanic
 origin was not stated or was unknown.
       In 1980, the 17 reporting states and D.C. accounted for about
 77 percent of the Hispanic population in the U.S., including about
 89 percent of the Mexican population, 66 percent of the Puerto Rican
 population, 24 percent of the Cuban population, and 63 percent of the
 "other Hispanic" population (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1982b).
 Accordingly, caution should be exercised in generalizing mortality
 patterns from the reporting area to the Hispanic-origin population
 (especially Cubans) of the entire U.S.  For qualifications regarding
 infant mortality of the Hispanic-origin population, see "Infant
 deaths."

 Marital Status

     Mortality statistics by marital status (table 1-31) were published in
 1979 for the first time since 1961.  (Previously they had been published
 only in the annual reports for the years 1949-51 and 1959-61.)  Several
 reports analyzing mortality by marital status have been published, including
 the special study based on 1959-61 data.9  Reference to earlier reports may
 be found in the appendix of part B of the 1959-61 special study.
      Mortality statistics by marital status are tabulated separately
 for never married, married, widowed, and divorced.  Certificates in
 which the marriage is specified as being annulled are classified as
 never married.  Where marital status is specified as separated or
 common-law marriage, it is classified as married.  Of the 2,029,261
 resident deaths 15 years of age and over in 1985, 9,692 certificates
 (0.5%) had marital status not stated.

     Mortality statistics by marital status are tabulated separately for
 never married, married, widowed, and divorced.  Certificates in which the
 marriage is specified as being annulled are classified as never married.
 Where marital status is specified as separated or common-law marriage, it is
 classified as married.  Of the 1,961,007 resident deaths 15 years of age and
 over in 1983, 8,442 certificates (0.4 percent) had marital status not stated.

 Place of Death and Status of Decedent
 
    Mortality statistics by place of death were published in 1979 for the
 first time since 1958 (tables 1-28 and 1-29).  In addition, mortality data
 were also available for the first time in 1979 for the status of decedent
 when death occurred in a hospital or medical center (table 1-28).  These
 data were obtained from the following two items that appeared on the U.S.
 Standard Certificate of Death:

     *  Item 7c, Hospital or Other Institution--Name (If not in either, give
        street and number)
     *  Item 7d, If Hosp. or Inst. Indicate DOA, OP/Emer. Rm., Inpatient
        (Specify)

     All of the States and the District of Columbia have item 7c (or its
 equivalent) on the death certificate.  For 46 States in the Vital Statistics
 Cooperative Program, NCHS accepts the State definition, classification, or
 codes for hospitals, medical centers, or other institutions.  For the
 remaining four States not in the Program, and the District of Columbia, NCHS
 classifies and codes to a hospital or medical center according to whether
 the terms "hospital" or "medical center" are entered as part of the name in
 item 7c or its equivalent.  If the terms "hospital" or "medical center" are
 not entered as part of the name, the entry is coded to one of the following
 according to the information entered in item 7c on the certificate:  (1)
 other institutions, (2) all other reported entries, or (3) unknown, not
 stated.

     Table 1-28 shows mortality data for the total of the following 42 States
 (including New York City) that have item 7d or its equivalent on their death
 certificates:

     Alaska                Louisiana                Ohio
     Arizona               Maine                    Oregon
     Arkansas              Michigan                 Pennsylvania
     Colorado              Mississippi              Rhode Island
     Connecticut           Missouri                 South Carolina
     Florida               Montana                  South Dakota
     Georgia               Nebraska                 Tennessee
     Hawaii                Nevada                   Utah
     Idaho                 New Hampshire            Vermont
     Illinois              New Jersey               Virginia
     Indiana               New Mexico               Washington
     Iowa                  New York                 West Virginia
     Kansas                North Carolina           Wisconsin
     Kentucky              North Dakota             Wyoming

     Effective with data for 1980, the coding of place of death and status of
 decedent was changed.  A new coding category was added:  "Dead on
 arrival--hospital, clinic, medical center name not given."  Deaths coded to
 this category are tabulated in table 1-28 as "Dead on arrival" and in table
 1-29 as "Not in hospital or medical center."  Had the 1979 coding categories
 been used, these deaths would have been tabulated as "Place unknown."

 Mortality by Month and Date of Birth

     Deaths by month have been regularly tabulated and published in the
 annual report for each year beginning with data year 1900.  For 1983, deaths
 by month are shown in tables 1-19, 1-20, 1-23, 1-30, 2-12, 2-13, 2-14, and
 3-9.

     Date of death was first published for data year 1972.  In addition,
 unpublished data for selected causes by date of death for 1962 are available
 from NCHS.

     Number of deaths by date of death in this report are shown in table 1-30
 for the total number of deaths and for the number of deaths for the
 following three causes, for which the greatest interest in date of
 occurrence of death has been expressed:  Motor vehicle accidents, Suicide,
 and Homicide and legal intervention.

     These data show the frequency distribution of deaths for the selected
 causes by day of week.  They also make it possible to identify holidays with
 peak numbers of deaths from specified causes.

 Report of Autopsy
 
    Before 1972, the last year for which autopsy data were tabulated was
 1958.  For 1972-83, all registration areas requested information on the
 death certificate as to whether autopsies were performed.  For 1985,
 autopsies were reported on 258,596 death certificates, 12.4 percent of the
 total (table 1-27).

     Information as to whether the autopsy findings were used in determining
 the causes of death were tabulated for 1972-73 for all but nine registration
 areas and from 1974-77 for all but eight registration areas.  The item
 "autopsy findings used" was deleted from the 1978 U.S. Standard Certificate
 of Death.

     For 8 of the cause of death categories shown in table 1-27,
 autopsies were reported as performed for 50 percent or more of all
 deaths (meningococcal infection; measles; pregnancy with abortive
 outcome; other complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and the
 puerperium; motor vehicle accidents; suicide; homicide and legal
 intervention; and all other external causes).  There were four other
 categories for which 40% or more of the death certificates reported
 autopsies.  Autopsies were reported for only 7.9% of the major
 cardiovascular diseases.

     For six of the cause-of-death categories shown in table 1-27, autopsies
 were reported as performed for 50 percent or more of all deaths (Whooping
 cough; Meningoccocal infection; Pregnancy with abortive outcome; Other
 complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium; Homicide and
 legal intervention; and All other external causes).

     There were five other categories for which 40 percent or more of the
 death certificates reported autopsies.  Autopsies were reported for only 8.3
 percent of the Major cardiovascular diseases.  Among all causes other than
 major cardiovascular diseases, autopsies were reported for 17.8 percent of
 all deaths.

 Cause of Death

     Cause-of-death classification--Since 1949, cause-of-death statistics
 have been based on the underlying cause of death which is defined as "(a)
 the disease or injury which initiated the train of events leading directly
 to death, or (b) the circumstances of the accident or violence which
 produced the fatal injury."10

     For a given death the underlying cause is selected from an array of
 conditions given in the cause-of-death section on the death certificate.
 These conditions are translated into medical codes through use of the
 classification structure and selection and modification rules contained in
 the applicable revision of the International Classification of Diseases
 (ICD) published by the World Health Organization (WHO).  Selection rules
 provide guidance for systematically identifying the underlying cause of
 death in terms of the format of reported conditions and their causal
 relationship.  Modification rules are intended to improve the usefulness of
 mortality statistics by giving preference to certain classification
 categories over others and/or to consolidate two or more conditions on the
 certificate into a single classification category.

     As a statistical datum, the underlying cause of death is a simple,
 one-dimensional statistic; it is conceptually easy to understand and a
 well-accepted measure of mortality.  It identifies the initiating cause of
 death and is therefore most useful to public health officials in developing
 measures to prevent the start of the chain of events leading to death.  The
 rules for coding underlying causes of death are included with the ICD as a
 means of standardizing classification, which contributes toward uniformity
 in mortality medical statistics among countries.

     Beginning with data year 1979 the cause-of-death statistics published by
 the National Center for Health Statistics have been classified according to
 the Ninth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases
 (ICD-9).10  In addition to specifying that the Classification be used, WHO
 also recommends how the data should be tabulated in order to promote
 international comparability.  The recommended system for tabulating data in
 the Ninth Revision allows countries to construct their own mortality and
 morbidity tabulation lists from the rubrics of the WHO Basic Tabulation List
 as long as rubrics from the WHO mortality and morbidity lists, respectively,
 are included.  This tabulation system for the Ninth Revision is more
 flexible than that of the Eighth Revision in which specific lists were
 recommended for tabulating mortality and morbidity data.

     The Basic Tabulation List (BTL) recommended under the Ninth Revision
 consists of 57 two-digit rubrics that add to the "all causes" total.  Within
 each two-digit rubric, up to 9 three-digit rubrics numbered from 0 to 8 are
 identified, but these do not add to the total of the two-digit rubric.  The
 residual of each two-digit rubric, the difference between the two-digit
 total and the sum of its three-digit rubrics, is given the number 9.  The
 WHO Mortality List, a subset of the titles contained in the BTL, consists of
 50 rubrics, which are a minimum for the national display of mortality data.
 The two-digit rubrics of the BTL 01 through 46 provide for the tabulation of
 nonviolent deaths to ICD categories 001-799.  Rubrics relating to chapter 17
 (nature-of-injury causes 47 through 56) are not used by NCHS for selecting
 underlying cause of death, rather, preference is given to rubrics E47
 through E56.  The 57th two-digit rubric VO is the Supplementary
 Classification of Factors Influencing Health Status and Contact with Health
 Services and is not appropriate for the tabulation of mortality data.

     Five lists of causes have been developed for tabulation and publication
 of mortality data in this volume.  The Each-Cause List, List of 282 Selected
 Causes, List of 72 Selected Causes, List of 61 Selected Causes of Infant
 Death, and List of 34 Selected Causes of Death.  These lists were designed
 to be as comparable as possible with the NCHS lists more recently in use
 under the Eighth Revision.  However, complete comparability could not always
 be achieved.

     The Each-Cause List is made up of each three-digit category of the WHO
 Detailed List and each four-digit subcategory to which deaths may be validly
 assigned.  The list is used for tabulation for the entire United States.
 The published Each-Cause table does not show the four-digit subcategories
 provided for Motor vehicle accidents (E810-E825); however, these
 subcategories, which identify persons injured, are shown in the accident
 tables of this report (section 5).  Special fifth-digit subcategories are
 also used in the accident tables to identify place of accident when deaths
 from nontransport accidents are shown.  These are not shown in the
 Each-Cause table.

     The List of 282 Selected Causes of Death is constructed from BTL rubrics
 01-46 and E47-E56.  Each of the 56 BTL two-digit titles can be obtained
 either directly or by combining titles in the List.  The three-digit level
 of the BTL is modified more extensively.  Where more detail was desired,
 categories not shown in the three-digit rubrics were added to the List of
 282 Selected Causes of Death.  Where less detail was needed, the three-digit
 rubrics were combined.  Moreover, each of the 50 rubrics of the WHO
 Mortality List can be obtained from the List of 282 Selected Causes of
 Death.  The List is used in tables published for the United States and each
 State.

     The List of 72 Selected Causes of Death was constructed by combining
 titles in the List of 282 Selected Causes of Death.  It is used in tables
 published for the United States and each State, and for standard
 metropolitan statistical areas.

     The List of 61 Selected Causes of Infant Death shows more detailed
 titles for Congenital anomalies and Certain conditions originating in the
 perinatal period than any other list except the Each-Cause List.

     The List of 34 Selected Causes of Death was created by combining titles
 in the List of 72 Selected Causes.  A table using this list is published to
 show detailed geographic areas.

     Effect of list revisions--The International Lists, in use in this
 country since 1900, have been revised approximately every 10 years so that
 the disease classification may be consistent with advances in medical
 science and with advances in diagnostic practice.  Each revision of the
 International Lists has produced some break in comparability of
 cause-of-death statistics.  Cause-of-death statistics beginning with 1979
 are classified by NCHS according to the ICD-9.10  For a discussion of each
 of the classifications used with death statistics since 1900, see the
 Technical Appendix in Vital Statistics of the United States, 1979, Volume
 II, Mortality, Part A, section 7, pages 9-14.

     A dual coding study was undertaken between the Ninth and Eighth
 Revisions to measure the extent of discontinuity in cause-of-death
 statistics resulting from introducing the new Revision.  An initial study
 has been published for the list of 72 causes and the list of 10 infant
 causes, both of which appear in the Monthly Vital Statistics Report.11  The
 72-cause list is also a basic list used in this volume.  Comparability
 studies were also undertaken between the Eighth and Seventh, Seventh and
 Sixth, and Sixth and Fifth Revisions.  For additional information about
 these studies, again see the 1979 Technical Appendix.

     Significant coding changes during the Ninth Revision--Coding changes
 have been introduced since the implementation of ICD-9 in the United States,
 effective with mortality data for 1979.  Among the more important changes
 are the following.  For 1981, a change was made in the coding of Acquired
 Immunity Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), described below.  For 1982, a change
 was made in the procedures for coding poliomyelitis; in the definition of
 child (which affects the classification of deaths to a number of categories,
 including child battering and other maltreatment); and in guidelines for
 coding deaths to the category Child battering and other maltreatment (ICD
 No. E967).  Detailed discussion of these changes may be found in the
 technical appendixes of the respective volumes.

     Coding in 1983--The National Center for Health Statistics prepares for
 its cause-of-death coding clerks instruction manuals that contain decisions
 and interpretations that apply each year.12-16  These manuals are revised
 annually, chiefly to bring coding procedures into alignment with new
 developments in reporting practices and in medical opinions as to the
 etiology and causal relationship of diseases and to eliminate
 inconsistencies in coding procedures.  Part 2e, Non-Indexed Terms, Standard
 Abbreviations, and State Geographic Codes Used in Mortality Data
 Classification, 1983 (including WHO Amendments to ICD-9)16 was added to the
 vital statistics instruction manual series in 1983.  The major reason for
 development of Part 2e was to provide a published source of code assignments
 for terms not indexed in Volume 2 of ICD-9.  The rules for coding the 1983
 mortality data essentially remained the same as the previous year except for
 the coding of Acquired Immunity Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

     Coding in 1985 -- The rules for coding the 1985 medical data
 remained essentially the same as in the previous year.  However, during
 the calendar year 1985, detailed instructions for coding motor vehicle
 accidents involving all-terrain vehicles (ATV's) were implemented by
 NCHS and state medical coders in order to ensure consistency in coding
 these accidents.  The instructions specify that accidents involving
 ATV's are to be coded to nontraffic accidents involving other off-road
 motor vehicle (ICD-9 No. E821) unless "on road use" is clearly
 specified.  If "on road use" is specified, then ATV's are to be coded
 to the appropriate category for traffic accidents (ICD-9 Nos. E810-
 E819).  Previously, there were no specific instructions for coding
 these accidents.

     AIDS--In early 1983, during the processing of the 1981, 1982, and 1983
 mortality files, the code assignment for the Acquired Immunity Deficiency
 Syndrome (AIDS) was changed from ICD No. 279.3 to ICD No. 279.1, both
 subcategories of Disorders involving the immune mechanism (ICD No. 279).
 This change was made in accordance with the World Health Organization's
 recommendations.  Prior to early 1983, AIDS had been assigned to Unspecified
 immunity deficiency (ICD No. 279.3).  (It was not included as an entry in
 the index to ICD-9).  As a result of the change, all AIDS deaths from the
 1983 mortality file were assigned to ICD No. 279.1.  For 1982, approximately
 25 percent were assigned to ICD No. 279.1 and 75 percent to ICD No. 279.3.
 For 1981, approximately 10 percent were assigned to ICD No. 279.1 and 90
 percent to ICD No. 279.3.

     Medical certification--The use of a standard classification list,
 although essential for State, regional, and international comparison, does
 not assure strict comparability of the tabulated figures.  A high degree of
 comparability between areas could be attained only if all records of cause
 of death were reported with equal accuracy and completeness.  The medical
 certification of cause of death can be made only by a qualified person,
 usually a physician, a medical examiner, or a coroner.  Therefore,
 reliability and accuracy of cause-of-death statistics are, to a large
 extent, governed by the ability of the certifier to make the proper
 diagnosis and by the care with which he or she completes the death
 certificate.

     A number of studies have been undertaken on the quality of medical
 certification on the death certificate.  In general, these have been for
 relatively small samples and for limited geographic areas.  A bibliography,
 prepared by NCHS, covering 128 references over a period of 23 years
 indicates that no definitive conclusions have been reached about the quality
 of medical certification on the death certificate.17  No country has a
 well-defined program for systematically assessing the quality of medical
 certifications reported on death certificates or for measuring the error
 effects on the levels and trends of cause-of-death statistics.

     One index of the quality of reporting causes of death is the proportion
 of death certificates coded to the Ninth Revision rubrics for Symptoms,
 signs, and ill-defined conditions (ICD-9 Nos. 780-799).  While there are
 cases for which it is not possible to determine the causes of death, this
 proportion indicates the care and consideration given to the certification
 by the medical certifier.  It may also be used as a rough measure of the
 specificity of the medical diagnoses made by the certifier in various
 areas.  In 1985, 1.5 percent of all reported deaths in the United States
 were assigned to ill-defined or unknown causes.  However, this percentage
 varied among the States, from 0.3 percent to 6.1 percent.

     Automated selection of underlying cause of death--Beginning with data
 year 1968, NCHS began using a computer system for assigning the underlying
 cause of death.  It has been used every year since to select the underlying
 cause of death.  The system is called "Automated Classification of Medical
 Entities" (ACME).

     The ACME system applies the same rules for selecting the underlying
 cause as applied by a nosologist; however, under this system, the computer
 consistently applies the same criteria, thus eliminating intercoder
 variation in this step of the process.

     The ACME computer program requires the coding of all conditions shown on
 the medical certification.  These codes are matched automatically against
 decision tables that consistently select the underlying cause of death for
 each record according to international rules.  The decision tables provide
 not only a comprehensive relationship between the conditions classifiable by
 ICD when applying the rules of selection and modification, but also
 decisions used when the underlying cause of death is assigned by ACME.

     Decision tables were developed by NCHS staff on the basis of their
 experience in coding underlying causes of death under the earlier manual
 coding system and as a result of periodic independent validations.  These
 tables are periodically updated to reflect additional new information on the
 relationship among medical conditions.  For 1983, the content of these
 tables was identical to that in the 1982 tables.14

     Cause-of-death ranking--Cause-of-death ranking (except for infants) is
 based on the List of 72 Selected Causes of Death.  Cause-of-death ranking
 for infants is based on the List of 61 Selected Causes of Infant Death.  The
 group titled Major cardiovascular diseases and Symptoms, signs, and
 ill-defined conditions are not ranked from the List of 72 Selected Causes,
 and Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period and Symptoms,
 signs, and ill-defined conditions are not ranked from the List of 61
 Selected Causes of Infant Death.  In addition, category titles that begin
 with the words "Other" or "All other" are not ranked to determine the
 leading causes of death.  When one of the titles that represents a subtotal
 is ranked (such as Tuberculosis), its component parts (in this case,
 Tuberculosis of respiratory system and Other tuberculosis) are not ranked.

 Maternal Deaths
 
    Maternal deaths are those for which the certifying physician has
 designated a maternal condition as the underlying cause of death.  Maternal
 conditions are those assigned to Complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and
 the puerperium (ICD-9 Nos. 630-676).  In the Ninth Revision, WHO for the
 first time defined a maternal death as follows:

     A maternal death is defined as the death of a woman while pregnant or
     within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration
     and the site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated
     by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental
     causes.10

     Under the Eighth Revision, maternal deaths were assigned to category
 title "Complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium" (ICDA-8
 Nos. 630-678).  Although WHO did not define maternal mortality, there was an
 NCHS classification rule that limited a maternal death to a death within a
 year after termination of pregnancy from any "maternal cause," that is, any
 cause within the range of ICDA-8 Nos. 630-678.  This rule applied only if a
 duration of time for the condition was given.  If no duration was specified
 and the underlying cause of death was a maternal condition, then the
 duration was assumed to be within a year and the death was coded by NCHS as
 a maternal death.  The change from an under-1-year limitation on duration
 used in the Eighth Revision to an under-42-days limitation used in the Ninth
 Revision is not expected to have much effect on the comparability of
 maternal mortality statistics.  However, comparability is affected by the
 following classification change.  Under the Ninth Revision, maternal causes
 have been expanded to include indirect obstetric causes (ICD-9 Nos.
 647-648).  These causes include Infective and parasitic conditions and other
 current conditions in the mother that are classifiable elsewhere but which
 complicate pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium, such as Syphilis,
 Tuberculosis, Diabetes mellitus, Drug dependence, and Congenital
 cardiovascular disorders.

     Maternal mortality rates are computed on the basis of the number of live
 births.  The maternal mortality rate indicates the likelihood that a
 pregnant woman will die from maternal causes.  The number of live births
 used in the denominator is an approximation of the population of pregnant
 women who are at risk of a maternal death.

 Infant Deaths
 
    An infant death is defined as a death under 1 year of age.  The term
 excludes fetal deaths.  Infant deaths are usually divided into two
 categories according to age, neonatal and postneonatal.  Neonatal deaths are
 those that occur during the first 27 days of life, and postneonatal deaths
 are those that occur between 28 days and 1 year of age.  It has generally
 been believed that different factors influencing the child's survival
 predominate in these two periods:  Factors associated with prenatal
 development, heredity, and the birth process were considered dominant in the
 neonatal period; and environmental factors, such as nutrition, hygiene, and
 accidents, were considered more important in the postneonatal period.
 Recently, however, the distinction between these two periods has blurred due
 in part to advances in neonatology, which have enabled more very small,
 premature infants to survive the neonatal period.

     Infant mortality rates shown in section 2 and section 8 are the most
 commonly used index for measuring the risk of dying during the first year of
 life; they are calculated by dividing the number of infant deaths in a
 calendar year by the number of live births registered for the same period
 and are presented as rates per 1,000 or per 100,000 live births.  Infant
 mortality rates use the number of live births in the denominator to
 approximate the population at risk of dying before the first birthday.  This
 measure is an approximation of the risk of dying in infancy because some of
 the live births will not have been exposed to a full year's risk of dying
 and some of the infants that die during a year will have been born in the
 previous year.  The error introduced in the infant mortality rate by this
 inexactness is usually small, especially when the birth rate is relatively
 constant from year to year.18,19  Other sources of error in the infant
 mortality rate have been attributed to differences in applying the
 definitions for infant death and fetal death when registering the event.20,21

     In contrast to infant mortality rates based on live births, infant death
 rates shown in section 1 are based on the estimated population under 1 year
 of age.  Infant death rates, which appear in tabulations of age-specific
 death rates, are calculated by dividing the number of infant deaths in a
 calendar year by the estimated midyear population of persons under 1 year of
 age and are presented as rates per 100,000 population in this age group.
 Patterns and trends in the infant death rate may differ somewhat from those
 of the more commonly used "infant mortality rate" mainly because of
 differences in the nature of the denominator and in the time reference
 period.  Whereas the population denominator for the infant death rate is
 estimated using data on births, infant deaths, and migration for the
 12-month period of July through June, the denominator for the infant
 mortality rate is a count of births occurring during the 12 months of
 January through December.  The difference in the time reference period can
 result in different trends between the two indices during periods when birth
 rates are moving up or down markedly.

     In addition, the infant death rate is also subject to greater
 imprecision than is the infant mortality rate because of problems of
 enumerating and estimating the population under 1 year of age.20

     Causes of death for infants are tabulated according to a list of causes
 that is different from the list of causes for the population of all ages,
 except for the Each Cause List.  (See section "Effect of list revisions.")

     Infant and neonatal mortality for Wyoming, 1981--The 1981 data on infant
 and neonatal mortality shown in tables 2-8 and 2-9 for Wyoming are incorrect
 because of NCHS processing errors.  The correct numbers for Wyoming are 124
 infant deaths and 76 neonatal deaths; the corresponding infant mortality
 rates are 11.2 and 7.0 deaths under 1 year of age per 1,000 live births.

     Race - Infant mortality rates for specified races other than white
 or black may be underestimated, based on results of studies in which
 race on the birth and death certificates for the same infant were
 compared (Frost and Shy, 1980).  The figures should be interpreted
 with caution because of possible inconsistencies in reporting of race
 between the numerator and denominator of the rates.  This reflects
 differences in the nature of reporting and processing of race on these
 two vital records.  On the birth certificate, race of parents is
 reported by the mother at the time of delivery.  On the death
 certificate, race of the deceased infant is reported by the funeral
 director based on observation or on information supplied by an
 informant, such as a parent.  With respect to processing, race of
 infant at birth is coded using coding rules that take account of the
 race of each parent (see the technical appendix in Vital Statistics
 of the U.S., 1984 and 1985, Volume I, Natality, section entitled
 Race or national origin).  For infant deaths, the race of child is
 coded directly from the race reported on the death certificate.
     Hispanic origin - Infant mortality rates for the Hispanic-origin
 population are based on numbers of resident infant deaths reported to
 be of Hispanic origin (see section "Hispanic origin") and numbers of
 resident live births by Hispanic origin of mother for the 17 reporting
 states and D.C.  In computing infant mortality rates, deaths and live
 births of unknown origin are not distributed among the specified
 Hispanic and non-Hispanic groups.  Because for 1985 the percent of
 deaths of unknown origin was 7.5 percent and the percent of live
 births of unknown origin was 2.7 percent, infant mortality rates by
 Hispanic origin may be somewhat underestimated.
     Small numbers of infant deaths for Hispanic-origin groups can
 result in infant mortality rates subject to relatively large random
 variation (see section "Random variation in numbers of deaths, death
 rates, and mortality rates and ratios").

 Fetal Deaths

     In May 1950 the World Health Organization recommended the following
 definition of fetal death be adopted for international use:

     Death prior to the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a
     product of conception, irrespective of the duration of pregnancy; the
     death is indicated by the fact that after such separation, the fetus
     does not breathe or show any other evidence of life such as beating of
     the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movement of
     voluntary muscles.22

     The term "fetal death" was defined on an all-inclusive basis to end
 confusion arising from use of such terms as stillbirth, abortion, and
 miscarriage.

     Shortly thereafter, this definition of fetal death was adopted by the
 National Center for Health Statistics as the nationally recommended
 standard.  Currently all registration areas except Puerto Rico have
 definitions similar to the standard definition.23  Puerto Rico has no formal
 definition.

     As another step toward increasing the comparability of data on fetal
 deaths for different countries, the World Health Organization recommended
 that for statistical purposes fetal deaths be classified as early,
 intermediate, and late.  These groups are defined as follows:

     Less than 20 completed weeks of gestation
       (early fetal deaths) ............................    Group I

     20 completed weeks of gestation but less
       than 28 (intermediate fetal deaths) .............    Group II

     28 completed weeks of gestation and over
       (late fetal deaths) .............................    Group III

     Gestation period not classifiable in
       groups I, II and III ............................    Group IV

 Note that in table 3-13, group IV consists of fetal deaths with gestation
 not stated but presumed to be 20 weeks or more gestation.

     Until 1939 the nationally recommended procedures for registration of a
 fetal death required the filing of both a live-birth and a death
 certificate.  In 1939 a separate Standard Certificate of Stillbirth (fetal
 death) was created to replace the former procedure.  This was revised in
 1949, 1955, 1956, and 1965.  In 1976 the Standard Certificate of Fetal Death
 was replaced by the Standard Report of Fetal Death (figure 7-B).

     The 1977 revision of the Model State Vital Statistics Act and Model
 State Vital Statistics Regulations24 recommended that spontaneous fetal
 deaths of 20 weeks or more gestation, or a weight of 350 grams or more, and
 all induced terminations of pregnancy regardless of gestational age be
 reported and further that they be reported on separate forms.  These forms
 are to be considered legally required statistical reports rather than legal
 documents.

     Beginning with 1970 fetal deaths, procedures were implemented that
 attempted to separate reports of spontaneous fetal deaths from those of
 induced terminations of pregnancy.  These procedures were implemented
 because the health implications are different for spontaneous fetal deaths
 and induced terminations of pregnancy.  These procedures are still in use.

     Comparability and completeness of data--Registration area requirements
 for reporting fetal deaths vary.  Most of these areas require reporting
 fetal deaths of gestations of 20 weeks or more.  Table 3-1 shows the minimum
 period of gestation required by each State for fetal-death reporting.  There
 is substantial evidence that not all fetal deaths for which reporting is
 required are reported.25

     For registration areas not requiring the reporting of fetal deaths of
 all periods of gestation, underreporting is more likely to occur in the
 earlier gestational periods.  This is illustrated by the fact that for most
 areas requiring reporting of fetal deaths of 20 weeks or more, the total
 number reported for 20-23 weeks is lower than the numbers reported for 24-27
 and 28-31 weeks.  For areas requiring the reporting of all fetal deaths,
 however, the opposite is generally true.

     Another type of reporting problems arises from the inconsistent
 application of the definition of fetal death by individual registration
 areas.  For example, some live-born infants who die shortly after birth,
 particularly those born prematurely who die before the umbilical cord is
 severed or while the placenta is still attached, may be erroneously reported
 as fetal deaths.

     To maximize the comparability of data by year and by State, most of the
 tables in section 3 are based on fetal deaths occurring at gestations of 20
 weeks or more.  These tables also include fetal deaths of not stated
 gestation for those States requiring reporting at 20 weeks or more only.
 Beginning with 1969, fetal deaths of not stated gestation were excluded for
 States requiring reporting of all products of conception except for those
 with a stated birth weight of 500 grams or more.  In 1983 this rule was
 applied to the following States:  Colorado, Georgia, Hawaii, New York
 (including New York City), Rhode Island, and Virginia.  Each year there are
 some exceptions to this procedure.  Arkansas was one such exception in 1983,
 requiring the reporting of fetal deaths of all periods of gestation;
 however, all fetal deaths of not stated gestation were assumed to be of 20
 weeks or more gestation.

     The data in table 3-3 include only fetal deaths to residents of those
 areas in the United States that report all periods of gestation.  The areas
 are Colorado, Georgia, Hawaii, New York (including New York City), Rhode
 Island, and Virginia. Although Arkansas reports all periods of gestation, it
 is excluded from this table because of a noncomparable reporting practice
 explained below.  This reporting practice results in undercounts of fetal
 deaths of less than 28 weeks gestation.

     Arkansas--Arkansas has been using two reporting forms for fetal deaths.
 A confidential Spontaneous Abortion form and a Fetal Death Certificate.
 Beginning with data year 1981, Arkansas specified that fetal deaths of less
 than 28 weeks gestation or weighing less than 1,000 grams could be reported
 on the Spontaneous Abortion form rather than on their report of fetal
 death.  Although the National Center for Health Statistics receives their
 certificates of fetal death, it does not receive their confidential abortion
 reports.  Accordingly, counts of fetal deaths of gestational age 20 to 27
 weeks declined sharply from 100 in 1980 to 39 in 1981 to 7 in 1982 and
 increased to 24 in 1983.  Beginning with 1984 data, the State specified
 that fetal deaths of 20 weeks gestation or weighing 500 grams be
 reported on the fetal death certificate.  Because of these changes,
 the comparability of counts of early fetal deaths may be affected.
 In particular, counts of fetal deaths aged 20-27 weeks during 1981-83
 were not comparable between Arkansas and other reporting areas nor
 with data for 1984 and 1985.  This reporting practice results in
 noncomparability of fetal death data for fetal deaths under 28 weeks of
 gestation between Arkansas and other reporting areas.

     District of Columbia--Beginning in 1981, the District of Columbia
 changed its reporting requirements for spontaneous fetal deaths from "passed
 the fifth month of uterogestation" to "20 completed weeks or more or a
 weight of 500 grams or more."

     Kentucky--Beginning in 1981, Kentucky changed its reporting requirements
 for spontaneous fetal deaths from "20 weeks gestation or more" to "a weight
 of 350 grams or more or a gestational age of 20 weeks or more."

     Maine--Beginning with data year 1978, Maine changed its reporting
 requirements for spontaneous fetal deaths from "all periods of gestation" to
 "20 weeks or more."  This change affects the tabulation of fetal deaths with
 no stated gestational age.  Data for 1978-83 include all fetal deaths of not
 stated gestational age.

     New Mexico--Beginning in 1980, New Mexico changed its reporting
 requirements for spontaneous fetal deaths from "20 completed weeks" to "500
 grams or more."

     South Dakota--Beginning in 1979, South Dakota changed its reporting
 requirements for spontaneous fetal deaths from "20 weeks or more gestation"
 to a weight of more than 500 grams."

     Tennessee--Beginning in 1979, Tennessee changed its reporting
 requirements for spontaneous fetal deaths from "20 weeks or more gestation"
 to "500 grams or more, or in the absence of weight, of 22 completed weeks'
 gestation or more."

     Period of gestation--The period of gestation is the number of completed
 weeks elapsed between the first day of the last normal menstrual period and
 the date of delivery.  The first day of the last normal menestrual period
 (LMP) is used as the initial date because it can be more accurately
 determined than the date of conception, which usually occurs 2 weeks after
 LMP.  Data on period of gestation are computed from information on "date of
 delivery" and "date last normal menses began."  If "date last normal menses
 began" is not on the record or the calculated gestation falls beyond a
 duration considered biologically plausible, "gestation in weeks" or
 "Physician's estimate of gestation" is used.  When the period of gestation
 is reported in months on the report, it is allocated to gestational
 intervals in weeks as follows:

     1-3 months to under 16 weeks
     4 months to 16-19 weeks
     5 months to 20-23 weeks
     6 months to 24-27 weeks
     7 months to 28-31 weeks
     8 months to 32-35 weeks
     9 months to 40 weeks
     10 months and over to 43 weeks and over

 All areas reported LMP in 1983 except Delaware, New Mexico, Puerto Rico, and
 South Dakota.

     Table A-1. Period of gestation at which fetal-death reporting
               is required:  Each reporting area, 1985

                          / All periods /             /           /
                          /     of      /             /           / 20 wks or
           Area           /  gestation  /  16 weeks   / 20 weeks  /  350 grams
 Alabama                  /             /             /     X     /
 Alaska                   /             /             /     X     /
 Arizona                  /             /             /     X     /
 Arkansas                 /     X       /             /           /
 California               /             /             /     X     /
 Colorado                 /     X       /             /           /
 Connecticut              /             /             /     X     /
 Delaware                 /             /             /     X     /
 District of Columbia     /             /             /           /
 Florida                  /             /             /     X     /
 Georgia                  /     X       /             /           /
 Hawaii                   /     X       /             /           /
 Idaho                    /             /             /           /     X
 Illinois                 /             /             /     X     /
 Indiana                  /             /             /     X     /
 Iowa                     /             /             /     X     /
 Kansas                   /             /             /           /
 Kentucky                 /             /             /           /     X
 Louisiana                /             /             /           /     X
 Maine                    /             /             /     X     /
 Maryland                 /             /             /     X*    /
 Massachusetts            /             /             /           /     X
 Michigan                 /             /             /           /
 Minnesota                /             /             /     X     /
 Mississippi              /             /             /           /     X
 Missouri                 /             /             /           /     X
 Montana                  /             /             /     X     /
 Nebraska                 /             /             /     X     /
 Nevada                   /             /             /     X     /
 New Hampshire            /             /             /           /     X
 New Jersey               /             /             /     X     /
 New Mexico               /             /             /           /
 New York                 /             /             /           /
   NY excluding NYC       /     X       /             /           /
   New York City          /     X       /             /           /
 North Carolina           /             /             /     X     /
 North Dakota             /             /             /     X     /
 Ohio                     /             /             /     X     /
 Oklahoma                 /             /             /     X     /
 Oregon                   /             /             /     X**   /
 Pennsylvania             /             /      X      /           /
 Rhode Island             /     X       /             /           /
 South Carolina           /             /             /           /     X
 South Dakota             /             /             /           /
 Tennessee                /             /             /           /
 Texas                    /             /             /     X     /
 Utah                     /             /             /     X     /
 Vermont                  /             /             /     X**** /
 Virginia                 /     X       /             /           /
 Washington               /             /             /     X     /
 West Virginia            /             /             /     X     /
 Wisconsin                /             /             /     X     /
 Wyoming                  /             /             /     X     /


           Table A-1.  Period of gestation at which fetal-death reporting
                     is required:  Each reporting area, 1985

                         / 20 weeks  / 20 weeks  /          /         /
                         /     or    /    or     /          /   350   /   500
           Area          / 400 grams / 500 grams / 5 months /  grams  /grams
 Alabama                 /           /           /          /         /
 Alaska                  /           /           /          /         /
 Arizona                 /           /           /          /         /
 Arkansas                /           /           /          /         /
 California              /           /           /          /         /
 Colorado                /           /           /          /         /
 Connecticut             /           /           /          /         /
 Delaware                /           /           /          /         /
 District of Columbia    /           /     X     /          /         /
 Florida                 /           /           /          /         /
 Georgia                 /           /           /          /         /
 Hawaii                  /           /           /          /         /
 Idaho                   /           /           /          /         /
 Illinois                /           /           /          /         /
 Indiana                 /           /           /          /         /
 Iowa                    /           /           /          /         /
 Kansas                  /           /           /          /    X    /
 Kentucky                /           /           /          /         /
 Louisiana               /           /           /          /         /
 Maine                   /           /           /          /         /
 Maryland                /           /           /          /         /
 Massachusetts           /           /           /          /         /
 Michigan                /     X     /           /          /         /
 Minnesota               /           /           /          /         /
 Mississippi             /           /           /          /         /
 Missouri                /           /           /          /         /
 Montana                 /           /           /          /         /
 Nebraska                /           /           /          /         /
 Nevada                  /           /           /          /         /
 New Hampshire           /           /           /          /         /
 New Jersey              /           /           /          /         /
 New Mexico              /           /           /          /         /  X
 New York                /           /           /          /         /
   New York excluding NYC/           /           /          /         /
   New York City         /           /           /          /         /
 North Carolina          /           /           /          /         /
 North Dakota            /           /           /          /         /
 Ohio                    /           /           /          /         /
 Oklahoma                /           /           /          /         /
 Oregon                  /           /           /          /         /
 Pennsylvania            /           /           /          /         /
 Rhode Island            /           /           /          /         /
 South Carolina          /           /           /          /         /
 South Dakota            /           /           /          /         /  X
 Tennessee               /           /           /          /         /  X
 Texas                   /           /           /          /         /
 Utah                    /           /           /          /         /
 Vermont                 /           /           /          /         /
 Virginia                /           /           /          /         /
 Washington              /           /           /          /         /
 West Virginia           /           /           /          /         /
 Wisconsin               /           /           /          /         /
 Wyoming                 /           /           /          /         /

 *    If gestational age is unknown, weight of 500 grams or more.
 **   If gestational age is unknown, weight of 400 grams or more, or
       crown-heel length of 28 centimeters or more
 ***  If weight is unknown, 22 completed weeks' gestation or more.
 **** If gestational age is unknown, weight of 400 or more grams, 15 or more
       ounces.

     Birth weight--Of the 55 registration areas (including the 50 States, the
 District of Columbia New York City, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and
 Guam), 27 do not specify how weight should be given; 16 specify that weight
 should be given in pounds and ounces; 5 specify grams; and the remaining 7
 areas indicate weight can be given either in pounds and ounces or in grams.
 Data on fetal deaths for the Virgin Islands and Guam are not published by
 NCHS.

     In the tabulation and presentation of these data, the metric system
 (grams) has been used to facilitate comparison with other data published in
 the United States and internationally.  The equivalents of the gram
 intervals in pounds and ounces are as follows:

     Less than 350 grams =   0 lb 12 oz or less
       350-  499   grams =   0 lb 13 oz-  1 lb  1 oz
       500-  999   grams =   1 lb  4 oz-  2 lb  3 oz
     1,000-1,499   grams =   2 lb  5 oz-  3 lb  4 oz
     1,500-1,999   grams =   3 lb  7 oz-  4 lb  6 oz
     2,000-2,499   grams =   4 lb  9 oz-  5 lb  8 oz
     2,500-2,999   grams =   5 lb 10 oz-  6 lb  9 oz
     3,000-3,499   grams =   6 lb 12 oz-  7 lb 11 oz
     3,500-3,999   grams =   7 lb 14 oz-  8 lb 13 oz
     4,000-4,499   grams =   8 lb 15 oz-  9 lb 14 oz
     4,500-4,999   grams =   9 lb 15 oz- 11 lb  0 oz
     5,000 grams or more =  11 lb  1 oz or more

     With the introduction of the Ninth Revision, International
 Classification of Diseases, the birth-weight classification intervals for
 perinatal mortality statistics were shifted downward by 1 gram, as shown
 above.  Previously, the intervals were, for example, 1,001-1,500;
 1,501-2,000; etc.

     Race--The race of the fetus is ordinarily classified based on the race
 of the parents.  If the parents are of different races, the following rules
 apply.  (1) When only one parent is white, the fetus is assigned the other
 parent's race.  (2) When neither parent is white, the fetus is assigned the
 father's race with one exception:  If the mother is Hawaiian or
 Part-Hawaiian, the fetus is classified as Hawaiian.

     When the race of one parent is missing or ill defined, the race of the
 other determines that of the fetus.  When race of both parents is missing,
 the race of the fetus is allocated to the specific race of the fetus on the
 preceding record.

     Total-birth order--Total-birth order refers to the sum of the live
 births and other terminations (including both spontaneous fetal deaths and
 induced terminations of pregnancy) that a woman has had including the fetal
 death being recorded.  For example, if a woman has previously given birth to
 two live babies and to one born dead, the next fetal death to occur is
 counted as number four in total-birth order.

     In the 1976 revision of the Standard Report of Fetal Death, total-birth
 order is calculated from four items on pregnancy history:  Number of
 previous live births, now living; number of previous live births, now dead;
 number of other terminations before 20 weeks; and number of other
 terminations after 20 weeks.

     All registration areas use the two standard items pertaining to the
 number of previous live births.  Thirty areas use the two standard items
 pertaining to the number of "other terminations" before and after 20 weeks
 gestation; 4 report "other terminations" of 20 weeks or more; 14 do not
 differentiate "other terminations" by gestational age; 6 areas use other
 criteria for differentiating spontaneous and induced terminations; and 1
 area reports "other terminations" before and after 16 weeks gestation.
 Total-birth order for all areas is calculated from the sum of available
 information.  Thus, information on total-birth order may not be completely
 comparable among the registration areas.

     Marital status--Table 3-4 shows fetal deaths and fetal-death ratios by
 mother's marital status.  States excluded from this table are as follows:
 California, Connecticut, Maryland, Michigan, Montana, New York (including
 New York City), Ohio, Texas, and Vermont.  Because live births comprise the
 denominator of the ratio, marital status must also be reported for mothers
 of live births.  Starting in 1980, marital status of the mother of the live
 birth was inferred for States that did not report it on the birth
 certificate.

     There are no quantitative data on the characteristics of unmarried women
 who may misreport their marital status or who fail to register fetal
 deaths.  Underreporting may be greater for the unmarried group than for the
 married group.

     Age of mother--The fetal-death report asks for the mother's "age (at
 time of delivery)," and the ages are edited in NCHS for upper and lower
 limits.  When mothers are reported to be under 10 years of age or 50 years
 and over, the age of the mother is considered and not stated and is assigned
 as follows:  Age on all fetal-death records with age of mother not stated is
 allocated according to the age appearing on the record previously processed
 for a mother of identical race and having the same total-birth order (total
 of live births and other terminations).

 Perinatal Mortality

     Perinatal definitions--Beginning with data year 1979, perinatal
 mortality data for the United States and each State have been published in
 section 4.  The World Health Organization in the Ninth Revision of the
 International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9) recommended that "national
 perinatal statistics should include all fetuses and infants delivered
 weighing at least 500 grams (or when birth weight is unavailable, the
 corresponding gestational age (22 weeks) or body length (25 cm crown-heel)),
 whether alive or dead...."  It was further recommended that countries should
 present, solely for international comparisons 'standard perinatal
 statistics' in which both the numerator and denominator of all rates are
 restricted to fetuses and infants weighing 1,000 grams or more (or, where
 birth weight is unavailable, the corresponding gestational age (28 weeks) or
 body length (35 cm crown-heel))."  Because birth weight and gestational age
 are not reported on the death certificate in the United States, NCHS was
 unable to recommend adopting these definitions.  Three definitions of
 perinatal mortality are currently used by NCHS.  Perinatal Definition I,
 generally used for international comparisons, which includes fetal deaths of
 28 weeks or more gestation and infant deaths of less than 7 days, Perinatal
 Definition II, which includes fetal deaths of 20 weeks or more gestation and
 infant deaths of less than 28 days; and Perinatal Definition III, which
 includes fetal deaths of 20 weeks or more gestation and infant deaths of
 less than 7 days.

     Variations in fetal death reporting requirements and practices have
 implications for comparing perinatal rates among States.  Since reporting is
 generally poorer near the lower limit of the reporting requirement, States
 that require reporting of all products of pregnancy regardless of gestation
 are likely to have more completereporting of fetal deaths of 20 weeks or
 more than are other States.  The larger number of fetal deaths reported by
 these "all periods" States may result in higher perinatal rates compared
 with States whose reporting is less complete.  Accordingly, reporting
 completeness may account, in part, for differences among the State perinatal
 rates, particularly differences for Definitions II and III, which use data
 for fetal deaths of 20-27 weeks.

     Not stated--Fetal deaths with gestational age not stated are presumed to
 be of 20 weeks gestation or more if (1) the State requires reporting of all
 fetal deaths of gestational age 20 weeks or more or (2) the fetus weighed
 500 grams or more, in those States requiring reporting of all fetal deaths
 regardless of gestational age.  For Definition I, fetal deaths with
 gestation not stated but presumed to be 20 weeks or more are allocated to
 the category 28 weeks or more, according to the proportion of fetal deaths
 with stated gestational age that falls into that category.  For Definitions
 II and III, fetal deaths with presumed gestation of 20 weeks or more are
 included with those of stated gestation of 20 weeks or more.

     For all three definitions, following the distribution of gestation not-
 stated described above, fetal deaths with nonstated sex are allocated within
 gestational age groups on the basis of the distribution of stated cases.
 The allocation of not-stated gestational age and sex for fetal deaths is
 made individually for each State, for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan
 areas, and separately for the United States as a whole.  Accordingly, the
 sum of perinatal deaths for the areas according to Definition I may not
 equal the total number of perinatal deaths for the United States.

 Quality of Data

 Completeness of Registration

     All States have adopted laws that require the registration of births and
 deaths, and the reporting of fetal deaths.  It is believed that over 99
 percent of the births and deaths occurring in this country are registered.

     Reporting requirements for fetal deaths vary somewhat from State to
 State (see "Comparability and completeness of data").  Overall reporting
 completeness is not as good for fetal deaths as for births and deaths, but
 it is believed to be relatively complete for fetal deaths of 28 weeks
 gestation or more.  National statistical data on fetal deaths include only
 those fetal deaths with stated or presumed gestation of 20 weeks or more.

 Massachusetts Data

     The 1964 data statistics for deaths exclude approximately 6,000 events
 registered in Massachusetts, primarily to residents of that State.
 Microfilm copies of these records were not received by NCHS.  Figures for
 the United States and the New England Division are also somewhat affected.

 Quality Control Procedures

     Demographic items on the death certificate--As previously indicated, for
 1985 the mortality data for these items were obtained from two sources:  (1)
 Microfilm images of the original certificates furnished by the Virgin
 Islands and photocopies from Guam, and
 (2) records on data tape furnished by the 50 States, D.C., New York City,
 City, and Puerto Rico.  For the Virgin Islands and Guam which sent only
 only copies of the original certificates,
 the demographic items were coded for 100 percent of the death certificates.
 The demographic coding for a 10-percent sample of the certificates was
 independently verified.

     As part of the quality control procedures for mortality data, each
 registration area has to go through a calibration period during which it
 must achieve the specified error tolerance level of 2 percent per item for 3
 consecutive months, based on NCHS independent verification of a 50-percent
 sample of that area's records.  Once the area has achieved the required
 error tolerance level, a sample of 70-80 records per month is used to
 monitor quality of coding.

     All of the areas had achieved the specified tolerance error before 1983;
 accordingly, for these areas the demographic items on about 70-80 records
 per area per month were independently verified by NCHS.  These areas include
 New York City, Puerto Rico, and the 46 States that furnished data on
 computer tape to NCHS.  The estimated average error rate for all demographic
 items in the entire 1985 mortality file was 0.25 percent.

     These verification procedures involve controlling two types of error
 (coding and entering into the data record tape) at the same time and the
 error rates are a combined measure of both types.  While it may be assumed
 that the entering errors are randomly distributed across all items on the
 record, this assumption cannot be made as readily for coding errors.
 Although systematic errors in coding infrequent events may escape detection
 during sample verification, it is probable that some of these errors were
 detected during the initial period when 50 percent of the file was being
 verified, thus providing an opportunity to retrain the coders.

     Medical items on the death certificate--As for demographic data,
 mortality medical data are also subject to quality control procedures which
 control for errors of both coding and data entry.  Each of the 16
 registration areas that furnished NCHS with coded medical information
 according to NCHS specifications first had to qualify for sample
 verification.  During an initial calibration period, the area had to achieve
 a specified error tolerance level of less than 5 percent for coding all
 medical items for 3 consecutive months, based on independent verification by
 NCHS, for all records.  After the area has achieved the required error
 tolerance level, a sample of 70-80 records per month is used to monitor
 quality of medical coding.  For these 16 States, the average coding error
 rate in 1983 was just over 3 percent.

     For the remaining 39 registration areas--34 States, the District of
 Columbia, New York City, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Guam--NCHS
 coded the medical items for 100 percent of the death records.  A 1-percent
 sample of the records was independently coded for quality control purposes.
 The estimated average error rate for these areas was about 3 percent.

     The ACME system for selecting the underlying cause of death through
 computer application contributes to the quality control of medical items on
 the death certificate (see the section "Automated selection of underlying
 cause of death").

     Demographic items on the report of fetal death--For 1985, all data on
 fetal deaths were coded under contract by the U.S. Bureau of the Census
 except New York State (excluding New York City), which submitted State-coded
 data.  Coding and entering information on data tapes were verified on a
 100-percent basis because of the relatively small number of records involved.

     Other control procedures--After coding and entering on data tape are
 completed, record counts are balanced against control totals for each
 shipment of records from a registration area.  Editing procedures ensure
 that records with inconsistent or impossible codes are modified.
 Inconsistent codes are those, for example, where there is contradiction
 between cause of death and age or sex of the decedent.  Records so
 identified during the computer-editing process are either corrected by
 reference to the source record or adjusted by arbitrary code assignment.26
 All subsequent operations in tabulating and in preparing tables are verified
 during the computer processing or by statistical clerks.

 Estimates of Errors Arising from 50-Percent Sample for 1972

     Death statistics for 1972 in this report (excluding fetal-death
 statistics) are based on a 50-percent sample of all deaths occurring in the
 50 States and the District of Columbia.

     A description of the sample design and a table of the percent errors of
 the estimated number of deaths by size of estimate and total deaths in the
 area are shown in the Technical Appendix of Vital Statistics of the United
 States, 1972, Volume II, Mortality, Part A.

 Computation of Rates and Other Measures

 Population Bases

     The population bases from which death rates shown in this report are
 computed are prepared by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.  Rates for 1940,
 1950, 1960, 1970, and 1980, are based on the population enumerated as of
 April 1 in the censuses of those years.  Rates for all other years use the
 estimated midyear (July 1) population for the respective years.  Death rates
 for the United States, individual States, and SMSA's are based on the total
 resident populations of the respective areas.  Except as noted these
 populations exclude the Armed Forces abroad but include the Armed Forces
 stationed in each area.

     The resident populations of the birth- and death-registration States for
 1900-32 and of the United States for 1900-83 are shown in table 7-1.  In
 addition, the population including Armed Forces abroad is shown for the
 United States.  Table A shows the sources for these populations.

     Population estimates for 1984-85--The population of the United States
 estimated by age, race, and sex for 1985 is shown in table 7-2, and the
 population for each State by broad age groups follows in table 7-3.
 Comparable data for 1981 and 1982 were shown in tables 7-2 and 7-3 of Vital
 Statistics of the United States, Volume II, for those years.  Population
 estimates for 1984 and 1985 incorporate new estimation procedures for
 net migration and net undocumented immigration.  The 1985 estimates are
 comparable with those of 1984 but are not strictly comparable with the
 postcensal estimates for 1981-83 shown in tables 7-2 and 7-3 of Vital
 Statistics of the U.S., Volume II, for those years.  Although the
 death rates and estimates of life expectancy for 1984 and 1985 are
 not strictly comparable with those for previous years, the trends for
 the total population and most age-race-sex groups are not substantially
 affected.  For additional details, see the technical appendix in
 Vital Statistics of the U.S., 1984, Volume II, and the report of the
 U.S. Bureau of the Census (1986).  Population
 data by race are consistent with the modified (see below) 1980 population by
 race.

     Population for 1980--The population of the United States by age, race,
 and sex and the population for each State by age are shown in tables 7-2 and
 7-3, respectively, of Vital Statistics of the United States, 1980, Volume
 II.  The figures by race have been modified as described below.

     The racial counts in the 1980 census are affected by changes in
 reporting practices, particularly of the Hispanic population, and in coding
 and classifying.  One particular change created a major inconsistency
 between the 1980 census data and historical data series, including censuses
 and vital statistics.  About 40 percent of the Hispanic population counted
 in 1980, over 5.8 million persons, did not mark one of the specified races
 listed on the census questionnaire but instead marked the "Other" category.


       Table A.  Sources for resident population and population including
     Armed Forces abroad:  Birth- and death-registration States, 1900-1932,
                          and United States, 1900-1983


         Year                                Source


 1985-------------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reprts,
                    Series P-25, No. 1000, Feb. 1987.
 1984-------------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reprts,
                    Series P-25, No. 985, April 1986.
 1983-------------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reprts,
                    Series P-25, No. 965, Dec. 1984.
 1982-------------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
                    Series P-25, No. 949, May 1984.
 1981-------------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
                    Series P-25, No. 929, May 1983.
 1980-------------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Census of Population:
                    1980, Number of Inhabitants, PC80-1-A1, United States
                    Summary, 1983.
 1971-79----------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
                    Series P-25, No. 917, July 1982.
 1970-------------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Census of Population:
                    1970, Number of Inhabitants, Final Report PC(1)-A1,
                    United States Summary, 1971.
 1961-69----------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
                    Series P-25, No. 519, April 1974.
 1960-------------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Census of Population:
                    1960, Number of Inhabitants, Final Report PC(1)-A1,
                    United States Summary, 1964.
 1951-59----------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
                    Series P-25, No. 310, June 30, 1965.
 1940-50----------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
                    Series P-25, No. 499, May 1973.
 1930-39----------- U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
                    Series P-25, No. 499, May 1973, and National Office of
                    Vital Statistics, Vital Statistics Raters in the United
                    States, 1900-1940, 1947.
 1920-29----------- National Office of Vital Statistics, Vital Statistics
                    Rates in the United States, 1900-1940, 1947.
 1917-19----------- Same as for 1930-39.
 1900-1916--------- Same as for 1920-29.


     In the 1980 census, coding procedures were modified for persons who
 marked "Other" race and wrote in a national origin designation of a Latin
 American country or a specific Hispanic origin group in response to the
 racial question.  These persons remained in the "Other" racial category in
 1980 census data; in previous censuses and in vital statistics, such
 responses had almost always been coded into the "White" category.

     In order to maintain comparability, the "Other" racial category in the
 1980 census was reallocated to be consistent with previous procedures.
 Persons who marked the "Other" racial category and reported any Spanish
 origin on the Spanish origin question (5,840,648 persons) were distributed
 to white and black races in proportion to the distribution of persons of
 Hispanic origin; who actually reported their race as "White" or "Black."
 This was done for each age-sex group.

     As a result of this procedure, 5,705,155 persons (98 percent) were added
 to the white population and 135,493 persons (2 percent) to the black
 population.  Persons who marked the "Other" racial category and reported
 that they were not of Spanish origin (916,338 persons) were distributed as
 follows:  20 percent in each age-sex group were added to the "Asian and
 Pacific Islander" category (183,268 persons), and 80 percent were added to
 the "White" category (733,070 persons).  The count of American Indians,
 Eskimos, and Aleuts was not affected by these procedures.  Unpublished
 tabulations of these modified census counts were obtained from the U.S.
 Bureau of the Census and used to compute the rates for this report.

     Population estimates for 1971-79--Death rates in this volume for 1971-79
 used revised population estimates that are consistent with the 1980 census
 levels.  The 1980 census enumerated approximately 5.5 million more persons
 than had previously been estimated for April 1, 1980.27  These revised
 estimates for the United States by age, race, and sex are published by the
 U.S. Bureau of the Census in Current Population Reports, Series P-25, Number
 917.  Unpublished revised estimates for States were obtained from the U.S.
 Bureau of the Census.  For Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Guam,
 revised estimates are published in Current Population Reports, Series P-25,
 Number 919.

     Population estimates for 1961-69--Death rates in this volume for 1961-69
 are based on revised estimates of the population and thus may differ
 slightly from rates published before 1976.  The rates shown in tables 1-1
 and 1-2, the life table values in table 6-5, and the population estimates in
 table 7-1 for each year in the period 1961-69 have been revised to reflect
 modified population bases, as published in the U.S. Bureau of the Census,
 Current Population Reports, Series P-25, Number 519.  The data shown in
 table 1-10 for 1961-69 have not been revised.

     Rates and ratios based on live births--Infant and maternal mortality
 rates, and fetal death and perinatal mortality ratios, are computed on the
 basis of the number of live births.  Fetal death and perinatal mortality
 rates are computed on the basis of the number of live births and fetal
 deaths.  Counts of live births are published annually in Vital Statistics of
 the United States, Volume I, Natality.

     New Jersey--As previously indicated, data by race are not available for
 New Jersey for 1962 and 1963.  Therefore for 1962 and 1963 the National
 Center for Health Statistics estimated a population by age, race, and sex
 excluding New Jersey for rates shown by race.  The methodology used to
 estimate the revised population excluding New Jersey is discussed in the
 Technical Appendixes of the 1962 and 1963 reports.

 Net Census Undercount

     Just as the underenumeration of deaths and the misreporting of
 demographic characteristics on the death certificate can introduce error
 into the annual rates, errors in the latest decennial census such as
 undercount or overcount can also adversely affect mortality statistics.
 This is because annual population estimates for the postcensal interval,
 which are used in the denominator for calculating death rates, are computed
 using the decennial census count as a base.28  Net census undercount is
 determined by miscounting and misreporting of demographic characteristics
 such as age.  Age-specific death rates are affected by both the net census
 undercount and the misreporting of age on the death certificate.29  To the
 extent that the net undercount is substantial and that it varies among
 subgroups and geographic areas, it may have important consequences for vital
 statistics measures.

     Although death rates based on a population adjusted for net census
 undercount may be more accurate than rates based on an unadjusted
 population, rates in this volume are not adjusted; rather, they are computed
 using population estimates that preserve the age pattern of the net census
 undercount across the postcensal interval.  Thus, it is important to
 consider the possible impact of net census undercount on death rates.

     The U.S. Bureau of the Census has conducted extensive research on
 completeness of coverage of the U.S. population (including underenumeration
 and misstatement of age, race, and sex) in the last four decennial
 censuses--1950, 1960, 1970, and 1980.  From this work have come estimates of
 the national population that was not counted by age, race, and sex.25,30,31
 The reports for 1980 include estimates of net census undercount using
 alternative methodological assumptions for age, race, and sex subgroups of
 the national population.25,32

     These studies indicate that, although coverage was improved over
 previous censuses, there was differential coverage in the 1980 census among
 the population subgroups; that is, some age, race, and sex groups were more
 completely counted than others.

     Net census undercounts can affect (1) levels of the observed vital
 rates, (2) differences among groups, and (3) levels and group differences
 shown by summary measures such as age-adjusted death rates and life
 expectancy.

     Levels and differentials--If adjustments were made for net census
 undercount, the size of denominators of the death rates generally would
 increase and the rates, therefore, would decrease.  Assuming net census
 undercounts remained consistent by age after the 1980 census, the estimated
 rates for 1985 can be computed by multiplying the reported rates by ratios
 of the census-level population to the population adjusted for the estimated
 net census undercount (table 7-4).  A ratio of less than 1.0 indicates a net
 census undercount and, when applied, results in a corresponding decrease in
 the death rate.  A ratio greater than 1.0--indicating a net census
 overcount--multiplied by the reported rate results in an increase in the
 death rate.

     Coverage ratios for all ages show that, in general, females were more
 completely enumerated than males and the white population more completely
 than the population of all other races.  The black population was counted
 less completely than the total population of all other races.

     For the total population, underenumeration varied by age group, with the
 greatest undercount found for persons aged 80-84, and 85 years and over.
 All other age groups were overcounted or undercounted by less than three
 percent.

     Among the age-sex-race groups, coverage was lowest for black males aged
 35-39, 40-44, and 45-49 years.  Underenumeration for these groups averaged
 17.3 percent.  In contrast, white females in these age groups were
 essentially completely enumerated.  For black females and white males in
 these same age groups, the undercount ranged from 2 to 6 percent.  For the
 under-1-year age group the white population was overenumerated by about 2
 percent, whereas infants of other races were underenumerated by about 8
 percent.

     If vital statistics measures were calculated with adjustments for net
 census undercounts for each population subgroup, the resulting rates would
 be differentially reduced from their original levels, that is, rates for
 those groups with the greatest estimated undercounts would show the greatest
 relative reductions due to these adjustments.  Similar effects would be
 evident in the opposite direction for groups with overcounts.  As a
 consequence, the ratio of mortality between the rates for males and females,
 and between the rates for the white population and the population of other
 races, or the black population, usually would be reduced.

     Similarly, the differences between the death rates among subgroups of
 the population by cause of death would be affected by adjustments for net
 census undercounts.  For example, for the age group 35-39 years in 1985, the
 ratio of the death rate for Homicide and legal intervention for black males
 to that for white males is 6.9, whereas the ratio of the death rates
 adjusted for net census undercount in 1985 is 5.9, a reduction of about 16
 percent.  For Ischemic heart disease for males aged 40-44 years, the ratio
 of the death rate for the population of all other races to that for the
 white population is 1.3 using the unadjusted rates, but it is 1.1 when
 adjusted for estimated underenumeration.

     Summary measures--The effect of net census undercount on age-adjusted
 death rates depends on the underenumeration of each age group and on the
 distribution of deaths by age.  In 1985, the age-adjusted death rate for All
 causes would decrease from 546.1 to 540.1 per 100,000 population if the
 age-specific death rates were corrected for net census undercount.

     For Diseases of the heart, the age-adjusted death rate for white males
 would decrease from 244.5 to 241.4 per 100,000 population, a decline of 1.3
 percent.  For black males the change, from an unadjusted rate of 301 to an
 adjusted rate of 284.4, would amount to 5.5 percent.

     If death rates by age were adjusted, then the corresponding life
 expectancy at birth computed from these rates would change.  The importance
 of adjustments varies by age, that is, when calculating life expectancy, the
 impact of an undercount (or overcount) is greatest at the younger ages.  In
 general, the effect of correcting the death rates is to increase the
 estimate of life expectancy at birth.  Differential underenumeration among
 race-sex groups would lead to greater changes in life expectancy at birth.
 Differential underenumeration among race-sex groups would lead to greater
 changes in life expectancy for some groups than for others.  For white
 females who were completely enumerated in 1980, revised estimates of life
 expectancy would remain roughly constant; those for black males would show
 the greatest increase.

 Age-Adjusted Death Rates

     Age-adjusted death rates shown in this report are computed by using the
 distribution in 10-year age intervals of the enumerated population of the
 United States in 1940 as the standard population.  Each figure represents
 the rate that would have existed if the age-specific rates of the particular
 year prevailed in a population whose age distribution was the same as that
 of the United States in 1940.  The rates for the total population and for
 each race-sex group were adjusted using the same standard population.  It is
 important not to compare age-adjusted death rates with crude rates.  The
 standard 1940 population, on the basis of one million total population, is
 as follows:

                                   Age                                 Number

          All ages ...............................................   1,000,000

     Under 1 year.................................................      15,343
     1-4 years....................................................      64,718
     5-14 years...................................................     170,355
     15-24 years..................................................     181,677
     25-34 years..................................................     162,066
     35-44 years..................................................     139,237
     45-54 years..................................................     117,811
     55-64 years..................................................      80,294
     65-74 years..................................................      48,426
     75-84 years..................................................      17,303
     85 years and over............................................       2,770

 Life Tables

     U.S. abridged life tables are constructed by reference to a standard
 table.33  Life tables for the decennial period 1979-81 are used as the
 standard life tables in constructing the 1980-83 abridged life tables.  With
 the availability of the 1979-81 standard life tables, revised life table
 values were computed for 1980-82, these appear for the first time in this
 volume.  Life table values appearing in Vital Statistics of the United
 States for 1980-82 were constructed using the 1969-71 decennial life tables.

     Life tables for the decennial period 1969-71 are used as the standard
 life tables in constructing the 1970-79 abridged life tables.  Life table
 values for 1970-73 were first revised in Vital Statistics of the United
 States, 1977; before 1977, life table values for 1970-73 were constructed
 using the 1959-61 decennial life tables.  In addition, life tables values
 for 1951-59, 1961-69, and 1971-79 appearing in this publication are based on
 revised intercensal estimates of the populations for those years.  As such,
 these life table values may differ from the life table values for those
 years published in previous volumes.

     There has been an increasing interest in data on average length of life
 (e0) for single calendar years before the initiation of the annual abridged
 life table series for selected race-sex groups in 1945.  The figures in
 table 6-5 for the race and sex groups for the following years were estimated
 to meet these needs.34

                                                                  Race and
                               Years                             Sex Groups

     1900-45..............................................   Total
     1900-47..............................................   Male
     1900-47..............................................   Female
     1900-50..............................................   White
     1900-44..............................................   White, male
     1900-44..............................................   White, female
     1900-50..............................................   All other
     1900-44..............................................   All other, male
     1900-44..............................................   All other, female

     The geographic areas covered in life tables before 1929-31 were limited
 to the death-registration areas.  Life tables for 1900-1902 and 1909-11 were
 constructed using mortality data from the 1900 death-registration States--10
 States and the District of Columbia--and for 1919-21 from the 1920
 death-registration States--34 States and the District of Columbia.  The
 tables for 1929-31 through 1958 cover the counterminous United States.
 Decennial life table values for the 3-year period 1959-61 were derived from
 data that include both Alaska and Hawaii for each year (table 6-4).  Data
 for each year shown in table 6-5 include Alaska beginning in 1959 and Hawaii
 beginning in 1960.  It is not believed that the inclusion of these two
 States materially affects life table values.

 Random Variation in No. Deaths, Death Rates, Mort. Rates & Ratios

     Deaths and population-based rates--Except for 1972, the numbers of
 deaths reported for a community represent complete counts of such events.
 As such, they are not subject to sampling error, although they are subject
 to errors in the registration process.  However, when the figures are used
 for analytical purposes, such as the comparison of rates over a time period
 or for different areas, the number of events that actually occurred may be
 considered as one of a large series of possible results that could have
 arisen under the same circumstances.35  The probable range of values may be
 estimated from the actual figures according to certain statistical
 assumptions.

     In general, distributions of vital events may be assumed to follow the
 binomial distribution.  Estimates of standard error and tests of
 significance under this assumption are described in most standard statistics
 texts.  When the number of events is large, the standard error, expressed as
 a percent of the number or rate, is usually small.

     When the number of events is small (perhaps less than 100) and the
 probability of such an event is small, considerable caution must be observed
 in interpreting the conditions described by the figures.  This is
 particularly true for infant mortality rates, cause-specific death rates,
 and death rates for counties.  Events of a rare nature may be assumed to
 follow a Poisson probability distribution.  For this distribution, a simple
 approximation may be used to estimate a confidence interval, as follows.

     If N is the number of registered deaths in the population and R is the
 corresponding rate, the chances are 19 in 20 that


     1.  N  -  2 / N and N  +  2 / N

         covers the "true" number of events.

     2.  R  -  2   R and R  +  2   R
                  /N              /N

         covers the "true" rate.

     If the rate R corresponding to N events is compared with the rate S
 corresponding to M events, the difference between the two rates may be
 regarded as statistically significant if it exceeds


              R2    S2
         2       +
             N      M

     For example, if the observed death rate for Community A were 10.0 per
 1,000 population and if this rate were based on 20 recorded deaths, then the
 chances are 19 in 20 that the "true" death rate for that community lies
 between 5.3 and 14.5 per 1,000 population.  If the death rate for Community
 A of 10.0 per 1,000 population were being compared with a rate of 20.0 per
 1,000 population for Community B, which is based on 10 recorded deaths, then
 the difference between the rates for the two communities is 10.0.  This
 difference is less than twice the standard error of the difference


              (10.0)2   (20.0)2
         2           +
               20      10

 of the two rates, which is computed to be 13.4.  From this, it is concluded
 that the difference between the rates for the two communities is not
 statistically significant.

 Symbols Used in Tables
                             SYMBOLS USED IN TABLES

     Data not available---------------------------     ---

     Category not applicable----------------------     ...

     Quantity zero--------------------------------       -

     Quantity more than 0 but less than 0.05------     0.0

     Quantity more than zero but less than
       500 where numbers are rounded to
       thousands----------------------------------     Z

     Figure does not meet standards of
       reliability or precision-------------------     *

 
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 34. For estimating procedure see National Office of Vital Statistics, T.
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