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Infant Deaths

Linked Birth / Infant Death Records Data Summary

1995 - 2014

Summary:    This data collection provides counts and rates for deaths of children under 1 year of age, occurring within the United States to U.S. residents. Information from death certificates has been linked to corresponding birth certificates. Data are available by county of mother's residence, child's age, underlying cause of death, gender, birth weight, birth plurality, birth order, gestational age at birth, period of prenatal care, maternal race and ethnicity, maternal age, maternal education and marital status.

Privacy policy: As of May 23, 2011, all sub-national data representing zero to nine (0-9) deaths or births are suppressed. See Assurance of Confidentiality for more information.

Population:    Live births and infant (age under 365 days) deaths to maternal residents of the United States, 1995 - 2014.
Source:   

United States Department of Health and Human Services (US DHHS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Division of Vital Statistics (DVS). Linked Birth / Infant Death Records 1995-2014, as compiled from data provided by the 57 vital statistics jurisdictions through the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program, on CDC WONDER Online Database.

In WONDER:    You can produce tables, maps, charts, and data extracts. Request national, state and county summary counts of infant deaths, live births and infant death rates for the years 1995-2014. You can limit and index your data by any and all of these variables:
Infant Death Variables
  1. Location - Region, Division, National, State and County (total population of 250,000 or more; no territories) of mother's legal residence at the time of birth.

    Mother's Characteristics:
    Available All Years:
  2. Age of Mother - under 15 years; 5 year age groups through age 54.
  3. Maternal Hispanic Origin - Mexican; Puerto Rican; Cuban; Central or South American; Other and Unknown Hispanic; Non-Hispanic White; Non-Hispanic Black; Non-Hispanic other races; Origin unknown or not stated.
  4. Marital Status - Married; Unmarried; Unknown or not stated.
    Available Years 1995-2002:
  5. Maternal Race - American Indian or Alaskan Native; Black; Chinese; Filipino; Guamanian; Hawaiian (includes part-Hawaiian); Japanese; Other Asian; White.
    Available Years 2003 and later:
  6. Maternal Race - American Indian or Alaska Native; Asian or Pacific Islander; Black or African American; White.
    Available Years 1995-2006:
  7. Maternal Education 0 - 8 years; 9 - 11 years;12 years; 13 - 15 years; 16 years and over; Not stated/Not on Certificate; Excluded.
    Available Years 2007 and later:
  8. Maternal Education 8th grade or less; 9th through 12th grade with no diploma; High school graduate or GED completed; Some college credit, but not a degree; Associate degree (AA, AS); Bachelor's degree (BA, AB, BS); Master's degree (MA, MS); Doctorate (PHD, EdD) or Professional Degree (MD, DDS, DVM, LLB, JD); Unknown/Not on certificate; Excluded.

    Birth Characteristics:
    Available All Years:
  9. Month When Maternal Prenatal Care Began - No prenatal care; 1st month through 9th month of pregnancy; Not stated/Not on certificate; Excluded.
    Note: The Prenatal Care data are incomparable between these time periods:
    • Data for years 1995-2002 use the 1989 U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth. No data are in the "Excluded" category.
    • Data for years 2003-2006 are reported for births where the mother's place of residence used the 1989 U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth, and data are recoded to "Excluded" for births where the mother's place of residence used the 2003 U.S. standard Certificate of Live Birth.
    • Data for year 2007 and later are reported for births where the mother's reporting area of residence used the 2003 U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth, and data are recoded to "Excluded" for births where the mother's reporting area of residence used the 1989 U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth.
  10. Birth Weight - 499 grams or less; 500 - 999 grams; 1000 - 1499 grams; 1500 - 1999 grams; 2000 - 2499 grams; 2500 - 2999 grams; 3000 - 3499 grams; 3500 - 3999 grams; 4000 - 4499 grams; 4500 - 4999 grams; 5000 - 8165 grams; not stated.
  11. Plurality or Multiple Birth - Single; Twin; Triplet; Quadruplet; Quintuplet or more.
  12. Live Birth Order - One child born alive to mother through six live births, and Not Stated.
    Available only for Years 1995-1998:
  13. Gestational Age at Birth - Under 20 weeks; 20 - 27 weeks; 28 - 31 weeks; 32 - 35 weeks; 36 weeks; 37 - 39 weeks; 40 weeks; 41 weeks; 42 weeks or more; Unknown.
    Available only for Years 1999 and later:
  14. Gestational Age Group1: Under 20 weeks; 20-27 weeks; 28-31 weeks; 32-33 weeks; 34-36 weeks; 37-38 weeks; 39 weeks, 40 weeks; 41 weeks; 42 or more weeks; Unknown.
  15. Gestational Age Group2: Under 20 weeks; 20-27 weeks; 28-31 weeks; 32-35 weeks; 36 weeks; 37-39 weeks; 40 weeks; 41 weeks; 42 weeks or more; Unknown.
  16. Gestational Age Weekly: 17 weeks; 18 weeks; 19 weeks; 20 weeks; 21 weeks; 22 weeks; 23 weeks; 24 weeks; 25 weeks; 26 weeks; 27 weeks; 28 weeks; 29 weeks; 30 weeks; 31 weeks; 32 weeks; 33 weeks; 34 weeks; 35 weeks; 36 weeks; 37 weeks; 38 weeks; 39 weeks; 40 weeks; 41 weeks; 42 weeks; 43 weeks; 44 weeks; 45 weeks; 46 weeks; 47 weeks; Unknown.
  17. Birthplace - In Hospital; Not in Hospital; Unknown or Not Stated.
  18. Delivery Method - Cesarean, Not Stated, and Vaginal.
  19. Medical Attendant - Certified Nurse Midwife (CNM); Doctor of Medicine (MD); Doctor of Osteopathy (DO); Other; Other Midwife; Unknown or Not Stated.

    Cause of Infant's Death:
    Years 1999 and later:
  20. International Classification of Diseases, revision 10 chapters, sub-chapters and specific causes of death.
  21. 130 Selected Causes of Infant Death grouped causes of death in International Classification of Diseases, revision 10.
    Years 1995-1998 only:
  22. International Classification of Diseases, revision 9 chapters, sub-chapters and specific causes of death.
  23. 72 Selected Causes of Death grouped causes of death in International Classification of Diseases, revision 9.

    Infant's Characteristics:
  24. Age of Infant at Death - under 1 hour; 1-23 hours; 1-6 days; 7-27 days; 28-364 days.
  25. Year of Death - 1995-2014.
  26. Gender (sex) of Child - Female; Male.

Please refer to the following topics:


Linked Birth / Infant Death Records Data Request

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Output:    You can produce tables, maps, charts, and data extracts.

How?    The Request screen has sections to guide you through the making a data request as step-by-step process. However, to get your first taste of how the system works, you might want to simply press any Send button, and execute the default data request. The data results for your query appear on the Table screen. After you get your data results, try the Chart and Map screens. Or export your data to a file (tab-delimited line listing) for download to your computer.

For more information, see the following:

Quick Start Guide;
Step 1, Organize your request;
Step 2, Select location of maternal residence;
Step 3, Select other maternal characteristics;
Step 4, Select birth characteristics;
Step 5, Select cause of infant death;
Step 6, Select infant characteristics;
Step 7, Other options.

Help:    Click on any button labeled "Help", located to the right hand side of the screen at the top of each section. Each Control's label, such as the "Location" label next to the Location entry box, is linked to the online help for that item.
Send:    Sends your data request to be processed on the CDC WONDER databases. The Send buttons are located on the bottom of the Request page, and also in the upper right corner of each section, for easy access.
Variables:   You can limit and index your data by any the variables listed above.


Step 1. Organize table layout:

Select up to five variables that serve as keys for grouping your data. For example, you could select to group (summarize, stratify, index) your data by Year, State, Race and Gestational Age.
How?    See How do I organize my data? for more information. Also, see How do I select items from the list box?

Hints:   
  1. Group results by "15 Leading Causes of Death (Infants)" to get death counts and rates for the top 15 rankable causes of death, for your selected query criteria.
    • Note that cross-tabulations, zero value death counts, and suppressed values are not permitted when you group results by "15 Leading Causes."
    • When more than one rankable cause of death occurs in the last position, all these causes are shown.
    • The "leading causes of death" published by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) are also called "rankable causes of death." The rankable causes are a subset of the 113 selected causes of death for all ages, and the 130 selected causes of death for infants. A "#" symbol preceding the label indicates a "rankable" cause of death, from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) list of rankable causes of death.
  2. To make a map, you must request data with a geographic location variable, such as State, as a "By-Variable." Then click the Map tab.
  3. You cannot make charts when your data has more than two By-Variables.
Title  Enter any desired description to display as a title with your results.


Step 2. Select maternal residence:

Limit the population to specific locations here. Alternately, you can leave the settings at the default values (the United States) and choose to organize or group the data results by Region, State or County to show these stratifications.


Location: Regions, States and Counties

This dataset includes states (no territories) and counties with a total population over 250,000 persons. Use this field to specify the location or locations for the query. Select any number of locations.

How?
  • Click a round button to switch between the State and County list, the HHS Regions list, or the Census Regions and Census Divisions list.
  • See How do I use a Finder? for more information.
Hints:
  • The Advanced mode let you easily pick several items from different parts of the list. Items are not selected until you click the "Move" button in Advanced mode. You may also enter values by hand, one code per line, in the Advanced mode. Use the Finder to see the correct code format. For example, 02 is the Alaska state code.
  • The "plus" symbol, "+" indicates that you can open the item, to see more items below it.
  • The results to a search are shown in blue, and indicated by ">".
  • Notes:   

    • About geographic classification:
      For events to be included in the linked file, both the birth and death must occur inside the fifty states and the District of Columbia. Tabulations of linked data and denominator data events occurring in each of the respective areas to nonresidents are excluded from tabulations by place of residence. These exclusions are based on the place of residence of the mother.
    • About counties:
      County-level data are shown for counties with populations of 250,000 persons or more. All counties with fewer than 250,000 persons are shown combined together for the state, under the label "Unidentified Counties," due to privacy and confidentiality concerns.
      • 1995-2002 data identify counties with a population of 250,000 persons or more in the year 1990 Census.
      • 2003-2013 data identify counties with a population of 250,000 persons or more in the year 2000 Census.
      • 2014 data identify counties with a population of 250,000 persons or more in the year 2010 Census.
      • For more information, refer to the sections below discussing Unidentified Counties and Missing counties.
    • State and County codes are Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) codes. See the Locations section below for more information about how county FIPS codes have been modified for use in NCHS public-use data.
    • Regions and divisions are multi-state groups. Choose between two types of regions:
      • four Census Regions, with nine sub-ordinate Census divisions, or
      • ten Health and Human Services (HHS) Regions.
      Note that data for the territories are not included here.
    • The state, region and division data are derived from the "STRESFIPB" variable in the public use files for years 1999-2002, and from "MRSTATEFIPS" in the public use files for years 2003-2004, and from "MRTERR" for years 2005-2014. The county data are derived from the combined values in variables "STRESFIPB" + "CNTYRFPB" in the public use files for years 1999-2002, and from "MRSTATEFIPS" + "MRCNTYFIPS" in the public use files for years 2003-2004, and from "MRTERR"+ "MRCNTY" for years 2005-2014.
    • When the data results are exported, there are separate columns for location label and code values. To see the full set of available location values, group results by HHS Region, State and County, or group results by Census Region, Census Division, State and County, and then export the results.



    Step 3. Select other maternal characteristics:

    Limit your data for any of the following data elements:

      Available all Years:
    • Age of Mother - under 15 years; 5 year age groups through age 54.
    • Maternal Hispanic Origin - Mexican; Puerto Rican; Cuban; Central or South American; Other and Unknown Hispanic; Non-Hispanic White; Non-Hispanic Black; Non-Hispanic other races; Not stated.
    • Marital Status - Married; Unmarried; Unknown or not stated.
    • Available Years 1995-2002:
    • Maternal Race - American Indian or Alaskan Native; Black; Chinese; Filipino; Guamanian; Hawaiian (includes part-Hawaiian); Japanese; Other Asian; White.
    • Available Years 2003 and later:
    • Maternal Race - American Indian or Alaska Native; Asian or Pacific Islander; Black or African American; White.
    • Available Years 1995-2006:
    • Maternal Education 0 - 8 years; 9 - 11 years;12 years; 13 - 15 years; 16 years and over; Not stated/Not on Certificate; Excluded.
    • Available Years 2007 and later:
    • Maternal Education - 8th grade or less; 9th through 12th grade with no diploma; High school graduate or GED completed; Some college credit, but not a degree; Associate degree (AA, AS); Bachelor's degree (BA, AB, BS); Master's degree (MA, MS); Doctorate (PHD, EdD) or Professional Degree (MD, DDS, DVM, LLB, JD); Unknown/Not on certificate; Excluded.



    Age of Mother

    This field indicates the age group of the mother at the time of birth.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Data for mother's age at time of birth are derived from the "MAGER9" variable in the public use data.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the Age Group code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


       Code Label
       "15"  Under 15 years 
       "15-19"  15 - 19 years 
       "20-24"  20 - 24 years 
       "25-29"  25 - 29 years 
       "30-34"  30 - 34 years 
       "35-39"  35 - 39 years 
       "40-44"  40 - 44 years 
       "45-49"  45 - 49 years 
       "50-54"  50 - 54 years 


    Maternal Education

    This field indicates a range for the number of years of education received by the mother at the time of birth.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    • About excluded maternal education data for years 2003-2006:
      Education data are recoded to "Excluded" for those reporting areas that have implemented the 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Birth, because their data for maternal education are not comparable to the data from the other reporting areas that still use the 1989 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Birth. The following reporting areas have maternal education data excluded:
      • Pennsylvania and Washington state for deaths that occurred in 2003;
      • Florida, Idaho, Kentucky, New Hampshire, New York (excluding New York City), Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee and Washington state (9 reporting areas) for deaths that occurred in 2004;
      • Florida, Idaho, Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New York (excluding New York City), Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont and Washington state (13 reporting areas) for deaths that occurred in 2005;
      • California, Delaware, Florida, Idaho, Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New York (excluding New York City), North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Washington state, and Wyoming (19 reporting areas) for deaths that occurred in 2006.
    • About excluded maternal education data for year 2007 and later:
      Education data are recoded to "Excluded" for those reporting areas that used the 1989 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Birth, because their data for education are not comparable to the data from the reporting areas using the 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Birth.
      • Note that prior data years (data for deaths that occurred in years 2003 - 2006) excluded education and prenatal care data from those reporting areas that had adopted the 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Birth.
      • The following 33 reporting areas have education data excluded for deaths that occurred in 2007:  Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Georgia, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia and Wisconsin.
      • The following 30 reporting areas have education data excluded for deaths that occurred in 2008:  Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Georgia, Hawaii, Illinois, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia and Wisconsin.
      • The following 24 reporting areas have education data excluded for deaths that occurred in 2009:  Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Illinois, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, New Jersey, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia and Wisconsin.
      • The following 23 reporting areas have education data excluded for deaths that occurred in 2010:  Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Illinois, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, New Jersey, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, Virginia, West Virginia and Wisconsin.
      • The following 17 reporting areas have education data excluded for deaths that occurred in 2011:  Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, Hawaii, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, New Jersey, North Carolina, Rhode Island, Virginia, West Virginia and Wisconsin.
      • The following 14 reporting areas have education data excluded for deaths that occurred in 2012:  Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, Hawaii, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, New Jersey, Rhode Island, Virginia, and West Virginia.
      • The following 12 reporting areas have education data excluded for deaths that occurred in 2013:  Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, Hawaii, Maine, Mississippi, New Jersey, Rhode Island, Virginia, and West Virginia.
      • The following 9 reporting areas have education data excluded for deaths that occurred in 2014:  Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, Hawaii, Maine, New Jersey, Rhode Island, and West Virginia.
    • Maternal Education data are derived from the "MEDUC6" variable in the public use data for years 1995-2002, and derived from the "MEDUC_REC" variable in the public use data for years 2003-2006, and derived from the "MEDUC" variable in the public use data for year 2007 and later.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the Maternal Education codes are shown in a separate column from the category labels. Public Health Information Network (PHIN) compatible codes are used when applicable.


    Maternal Education years 1999-2006:
     Code  Label
     "1"  0 - 8 years 
     "2"  9 - 11 years 
     "3"  12 years 
     "4"  13 - 15 years 
     "5"  16 years and over 
     "6"  Not stated / Not on Certificate 
     "999"  Excluded 



    Maternal Education years 2007 and later:
      Code  Label
      "1"  8th grade or less 
      "2"  9th through 12th grade with no diploma 
      "3"  High school graduate or GED completed 
      "4"  Some college credit, but not a degree 
      "5"  Associate degree (AA, AS) 
      "6"  Bachelor's degree (BA, AB, BS) 
      "7"  Master's degree (MA, MS) 
      "8"  Doctorate (PHD, EdD) or Professional Degree (MD, DDS, DVM, LLB, JD) 
      "Unk"  Unknown  /  Not on certificate 
      "999"  Excluded 


    Maternal Hispanic Origin

    This field indicates the Hispanic ethnicity of the mother.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Maternal Hispanic origin data are derived from the "ORRACEM" variable in the public use data for years 1999-2002, and derived from the "MRACEHISP" variable in the public use data for years 2003 and later.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the Maternal Hispanic Origin code is shown in a separate column from the category label. Public Health Information Network (PHIN) compatible codes are used when applicable.


       Code Label
       "2148-5"  Mexican 
       "2180-8"  Puerto Rican 
       "2182-4"  Cuban 
       "4"  Central or South American 
       "5"  Other and Unknown Hispanic 
       "6"  Non-Hispanic White 
       "7"  Non-Hispanic Black 
       "8"  Non - Hispanic other races 
       "9"  Origin unknown or not stated 


    Maternal Race

    This field indicates the race of the mother. The 1995-2002 data categorize race by 8 values. The 2003 and later data categorize race by 4 values.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Maternal race data (8 categories) are derived from the "MRACE" variable in the public use data for years 1995-2002. Maternal race data (4 categories) are derived from the "MRACEREC" variable in the public use data for years 2003 and later.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the Maternal Race code is shown in a separate column from the category label. Public Health Information Network (PHIN) compatible codes are used when applicable.


      Race Categories for Years 1995 - 2002
         Code Label
         "1002-5"  American Indian or Alaskan Native 
         "2054-5"  Black 
         "2034-7"  Chinese 
         "2036-2"  Filipino 
         "2076-8"  Hawaiian 
         "2039-6"  Japanese 
         "2028-9"  Other Asian 
         "2106-3"  White 




      Race Categories for Years 2003 and later
         Code Label
         "1002-5"  American Indian or Alaskan Native 
         "API"  Asian / Pacific Islander 
         "2054-5"  Black 
         "2106-3"  White 


    Marital Status

    This field indicates the marital status of the mother as recorded on the birth certificate.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Data for the mother's marital status are derived from the "DMAR" variable in the public use data for years 1995-2002, and from the "MAR" variable in the public use data for years 2003 and later.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the Marital Status code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


       Code Label
       "1"  Married 
       "2"  Unmarried 
       "9"  Unknown or not stated 



    Step 4. Select birth characteristics:

    Limit your data for any of the following data elements:

      Available All Years:
    • Month When Maternal Prenatal Care Began - No prenatal care; 1st month through 9th month of pregnancy; Not stated/Not on certificate; Excluded.
      Note: The Prenatal Care data are incomparable between these time periods:
      1. Data for years 1995-2002 use the 1989 U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth. No data are in the "Excluded" category.
      2. Data for years 2003-2006 are reported for births where the mother's reporting area of residence used the 1989 U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth, and data are recoded to "Excluded" for births where the mother's reporting area of residence used the 2003 U.S. standard Certificate of Live Birth.
      3. Data for year 2007 and later are reported for births where the mother's reporting area of residence used the 2003 U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth, and data are recoded to "Excluded" for births where the mother's reporting area of residence used the 1989 U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth.
    • Birth Weight - 499 grams or less; 500 - 999 grams; 1000 - 1499 grams; 1500 - 1999 grams; 2000 - 2499 grams; 2500 - 2999 grams; 3000 - 3499 grams; 3500 - 3999 grams; 4000 - 4499 grams; 4500 - 4999 grams; 5000 - 8165 grams; not stated.
    • Plurality or Multiple Birth - Single; Twin; Triplet; Quadruplet; Quintuplet or more.
    • Live Birth Order - One child born alive to mother through six live births, and Not Stated.
    • Available only for Years 1995-1998:
    • Gestational Age at Birth - Under 20 weeks; 20 - 27 weeks; 28 - 31 weeks; 32 - 35 weeks; 36 weeks; 37 - 39 weeks; 40 weeks; 41 weeks; 42 weeks or more; Unknown.
    • Available only for Years 1999 and later:
    • Gestational Age Group1: Under 20 weeks; 20-27 weeks; 28-31 weeks; 32-33 weeks; 34-36 weeks; 37-38 weeks; 39 weeks, 40 weeks; 41 weeks; 42 or more weeks; Unknown.
    • Gestational Age Group2: Under 20 weeks; 20-27 weeks; 28-31 weeks; 32-35 weeks; 36 weeks; 37-39 weeks; 40 weeks; 41 weeks; 42 weeks or more; Unknown.
    • Gestational Age Weekly: 17 weeks; 18 weeks; 19 weeks; 20 weeks; 21 weeks; 22 weeks; 23 weeks; 24 weeks; 25 weeks; 26 weeks; 27 weeks; 28 weeks; 29 weeks; 30 weeks; 31 weeks; 32 weeks; 33 weeks; 34 weeks; 35 weeks; 36 weeks; 37 weeks; 38 weeks; 39 weeks; 40 weeks; 41 weeks; 42 weeks; 43 weeks; 44 weeks; 45 weeks; 46 weeks; 47 weeks; Unknown.
    • Birthplace - In Hospital; Not in Hospital; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Delivery Method - Cesarean, Not Stated, and Vaginal.
    • Medical Attendant - Certified Nurse Midwife (CNM); Doctor of Medicine (MD); Doctor of Osteopathy (DO); Other; Other Midwife; Unknown or Not Stated.


    Month Prenatal Care Began

    This field indicates the month in the pregnancy when prenatal care began.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • About incomparable data:
      The Prenatal Care data are incomparable between these time periods:
      1. Data for years 1995-2002 use the 1989 U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth. No data are in the "Excluded" category.
      2. Data for years 2003-2006 are reported for births where the mother's reporting area of residence used the 1989 U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth, and data are recoded to "Excluded" for births where the mother's reporting area of residence used the 2003 U.S. standard Certificate of Live Birth.
      3. Data for year 2007 and later are reported for births where the mother's reporting area of residence used the 2003 U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth, and data are recoded to "Excluded" for births where the mother's reporting area of residence used the 1989 U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth.
    • About excluded prenatal care data for years 2003-2006:
      Prenatal care data are recoded to "Excluded" for those reporting areas that have implemented the 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Birth, because their data for prenatal care are not comparable to the data from the other reporting areas that still use the 1989 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Birth. The following reporting areas have prenatal care data excluded:
      • Pennsylvania and Washington state for deaths that occurred in 2003;
      • Florida, Idaho, Kentucky, New Hampshire, New York (excluding New York City), Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee and Washington state (9 reporting areas) for deaths that occurred in 2004;
      • Florida, Idaho, Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New York (excluding New York City), Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont and Washington state (13 reporting areas) for deaths that occurred in 2005;
      • Delaware, Florida, Idaho, Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New York (excluding New York City), North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Washington state, and Wyoming (18 reporting areas) for deaths that occurred in 2006.
    • About excluded prenatal care data for year 2007 and later years:
      Prenatal care data are recoded to "Excluded" for those reporting areas that used the 1989 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Birth, because their data for education and prenatal care are not comparable to the data from the reporting areas using the 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Birth.
      • Note that prior data years (data for deaths that occurred in years 2003-2006) excluded education and prenatal care data from those reporting areas that had adopted the 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Birth.
      • In California, the prenatal care data are recoded to "Excluded" and Maternal Education data are not recoded, for deaths occurring in 2007.
      • The following 34 reporting areas have prenatal care data excluded for deaths that occurred in 2007: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Georgia, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia and Wisconsin.
      • The following 30 reporting areas have prenatal care data excluded for deaths that occurred in 2008: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Georgia, Hawaii, Illinois, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia and Wisconsin.
      • The following 24 reporting areas have prenatal care data excluded for deaths that occurred in 2009: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Illinois, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, New Jersey, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia and Wisconsin.
      • The following 23 reporting areas have prenatal care data excluded for deaths that occurred in 2010: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Illinois, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, New Jersey, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, Virginia, West Virginia and Wisconsin.
      • The following 17 reporting areas have prenatal care data excluded for deaths that occurred in 2011: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, Hawaii, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, New Jersey, North Carolina, Rhode Island, Virginia, West Virginia and Wisconsin.
      • The following 14 reporting areas have prenatal care data excluded for deaths that occurred in 2012: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, Hawaii, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, New Jersey, Rhode Island, Virginia, and West Virginia.
      • The following 12 reporting areas have prenatal care data excluded for deaths that occurred in 2013: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, Hawaii, Maine, Mississippi, New Jersey, Rhode Island, Virginia, and West Virginia.
      • The following 9 reporting areas have prenatal care data excluded for deaths that occurred in 2014: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, Hawaii, Maine, New Jersey, Rhode Island, and West Virginia.
    • Prenatal care data are derived from the "MONPRE" variable in the public use data for years 1995-2002, and derived from the "MPCB" variable in the public use data for years 2003-2006, and derived from the "PRECARE" variable in the public use data for year 2007 and later.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


       Code Label
       "00"  No prenatal care  
       "01"  1st month  
       "02"  2nd month  
       "03"  3rd month  
       "04"  4th month  
       "05"  5th month  
       "06"  6th month  
       "07"  7th month  
       "08"  8th month  
       "09"  9th month  
       "11"  Excluded  
       "12"  Unknown or not stated  


    Gestational Age at Birth

    Select a range of weeks that represents the duration of the pregnancy at the time of birth. The "Gestational Age at Birth" data for years 1995-1998 correspond to the "Gestational Age - Group1" data for years 1999 and later. Data for years 1995 through 1998 have these categories:

    • Gestational Age at Birth:  Under 20 weeks; 20-27 weeks; 28-31 weeks; 32-35 weeks; 36 weeks; 37-39 weeks; 40 weeks; 41 weeks; 42 weeks or more; Unknown.
    Data for years 1999 and later are organized in three lists:
    1. Gestational Age - Group1:   Under 20 weeks; 20-27 weeks; 28-31 weeks; 32-33 weeks; 34-36 weeks; 37-38 weeks; 39 weeks; 40 weeks; 41 weeks; 42 or more weeks; Unknown.
    2. Gestational Age - Group2:   Under 20 weeks; 20-27 weeks; 28-31 weeks; 32-35 weeks; 36 weeks; 37-39 weeks; 40 weeks; 41 weeks; 42 weeks or more; Unknown.
    3. Gestational Age - weekly:   17 weeks; 18 weeks; 19 weeks; 20 weeks; 21 weeks; 22 weeks; 23 weeks; 24 weeks; 25 weeks; 26 weeks; 27 weeks; 28 weeks; 29 weeks; 30 weeks; 31 weeks; 32 weeks; 33 weeks; 34 weeks; 35 weeks; 36 weeks; 37 weeks; 38 weeks; 39 weeks; 40 weeks; 41 weeks; 42 weeks; 43 weeks; 44 weeks; 45 weeks; 46 weeks; 47 weeks; Unknown.

    How?  
    • Click a round button to switch between the gestational age lists for years 1999 and later.
    • Select your desired age groups. See How do I select items from the list box?.
    • Hint:
      You can only pick 1 gestational age list for any data request. The round radio button indicates the selected list, any selections in the other gestational age at birth lists are ignored. The gestational age at birth "by-variables" in section 1 and the radio button selections must match. For example, if you select to group by "Gestational Age - weekly," then the radio button automatically sets to the "Gestational Age - weekly" selection list. If you change the radio button to a different list, then the "by-variable" also changes to match.

    Notes:   

    • The "Gestational Age - Group1" and the "Gestational Age - weekly" data are derived from the "COMBGEST" variable in the public use data for years 1999 and later.
    • The "Gestational Age at Birth" data for years 1995-1998 and the "Gestational Age - Group2" data are derived from the "GESTAT10" variable in the public use data for years 1995-2002, and derived from the "GESTREC10" variable in the public use data for years 2003 and later.
    • "Gestational Age at Birth" for years 1995-1998 is named in 1999 and later years "Gestational Age - Group2".
    • The categories in "Gestational Age Group1" changed with the April 2013 release. A new category was introduced: "39 weeks". The data code values changed, please see the tables below. Before the April 2013 release, the "Gestation Age Group1" categories for years 1999-2008 were: Under 20 weeks; 20-27 weeks; 28-31 weeks; 32-33 weeks; 34-36 weeks; 37-39 weeks; 40 weeks; 41 weeks; 42 or more weeks; Unknown.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the Gestational Age codes are shown in a separate column from the category label.


    Gestational Age at Birth for years 1995-1998:
    and
    Gestational Age - Group2 for 1999 and later years
     Code Label
     "1"  Under 20 weeks  
     "2"  20 - 27 weeks  
     "3"  28 - 31 weeks  
     "4"  32 - 35 weeks  
     "5"  36 weeks  
     "6"  37 - 39 weeks  
     "7"  40 weeks  
     "8"  41 weeks  
     "9"  42 weeks or more 
     "10"  Unknown  


    Gestational Age - Group1:
     Code Label
     "1"  Under 20 weeks  
     "2"  20-27 weeks  
     "3"  28-31 weeks  
     "4"  32-33 weeks  
     "5"  34-36 weeks  
     "6"  37-38 weeks  
     "7"  39 weeks  
     "8"  40 weeks  
     "9"  41 weeks  
     "10"  42 or more weeks 
     "11"  Unknown  


    Gestational Age - Group1
    Values before the April 2013 release
     Code Label
     "1"  Under 20 weeks  
     "2"  20-27 weeks  
     "3"  28-31 weeks  
     "4"  32-33 weeks  
     "5"  34-36 weeks  
     "6"  37-39 weeks  
     "7"  40 weeks  
     "8"  41 weeks  
     "9"  42 or more weeks 
     "10"  Unknown  


    Gestational Age - Weekly:
     Code Label
     "17"  17 weeks  
     "18"  18 weeks  
     "19"  19 weeks  
     "20"  20 weeks  
     "21"  21 weeks  
     "22"  22 weeks  
     "23"  23 weeks  
     "24"  24 weeks  
     "25"  25 weeks  
     "26"  26 weeks  
     "27"  27 weeks  
     "28"  28 weeks  
     "29"  29 weeks  
     "30"  30 weeks  
     "31"  31 weeks  
     "32"  32 weeks  
     "33"  33 weeks  
     "34"  34 weeks  
     "35"  35 weeks  
     "36"  36 weeks  
     "37"  37 weeks  
     "38"  38 weeks  
     "39"  39 weeks  
     "40"  40 weeks  
     "41"  41 weeks  
     "42"  42 weeks  
     "43"  43 weeks  
     "44"  44 weeks  
     "45"  45 weeks  
     "46"  46 weeks  
     "47"  47 weeks  
     "99"  Unknown  


    Birth Weight

    The Birth Weight field indicates weight ranges for the child at birth.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • About low birth weight:
      ICD - 9 and ICD - 10 define low birthweight as less than 2,500 grams. This is a shift of 1 gram from the previous criterion of 2,500 grams or less, which was recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 1935 and adopted in 1948 by the World Health Organization in the International Lists of Diseases and Causes of Death, Sixth Revision.
    • About comparing grams to pounds and ounces :
      The categories in gram intervals and their equivalents in pounds and ounces are as follows:
      Less than 500 grams = 1 lb 1 oz or less
      500 - 999 grams = 1 lb 2 oz - 2 lb 3 oz
      1,000 - 1,499 grams = 2 lb 4 oz - 3 lb 4 oz
      1,500 - 1,999 grams = 3 lb 5 oz - 4 lb 6 oz
      2,000 - 2,499 grams = 4 lb 7 oz - 5 lb 8 oz
      2,500 - 2,999 grams = 5 lb 9 oz - 6 lb 9 oz
      3,000 - 3,499 grams = 6 lb 10 oz - 7 lb 11 oz
      3,500 - 3,999 grams = 7 lb 12 oz - 8 lb 13 oz
      4,000 - 4,499 grams = 8 lb l4 oz - 9 lb l4 oz
      4,500 - 4,999 grams = 9 lb 15 oz - 11 lb 0 oz
      5,000 grams or more = 11 lb l oz or more
    • Birth weight data are derived from the "BIRWT12" variable in the public use data for years 1995-2002 and 2004, and derived from the "BWTR14" variable in the public use data for years 2003, and 2005-2014.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the Birth Weight code is shown in a separate column from the category label. See the table below.


       Code Label
       "01"  499 grams or less 
       "02"  500 - 999 grams 
       "03"  1000 - 1499  
       "04"  1500 - 1999 grams 
       "05"  2000 - 2499 grams 
       "06"  2500 - 2999 grams 
       "07"  3000 - 3499 grams 
       "08"  3500 - 3999 grams 
       "09"  4000 - 4499 grams 
       "10"  4500 - 4999 grams 
       "11"  5000 - 8165 grams 
       "12"  Not stated 


    Plurality or Multiple Birth

    The Plurality field indicates if more than one infant shared the gestation and birth.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    • Notes:   
    • Plurality data are derived from the "DPLURAL" variable in the public use data for years 1995 and later.
    • Data for 1995-1998 only indicates 3 categories:  Single; Twin; Triplet or higher.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the Plurality code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


       Code Label
       "1"  Single 
       "2"  Twin 
       "3"  Triplet 
       "4"  Quadruplet 
       "5"  Quintuplet or more


    Live Birth Order

    This field indicates the mother's total number of live births, including this birth.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Live birth order data are derived from the "DLIVORD" variable in the public use data for years 1995-2002, and derived from the "LBO" variable in the years 2003 and later.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.



     Code Label
     "01"  1st child born alive to mother 
     "02"  2nd children born alive to mother 
     "03"  3rd children born alive to mother 
     "04"  4th children born alive to mother 
     "05"  5th children born alive to mother 
     "06"  6th or more children born alive to mother 
     "99"  Unknown or not stated 


    Birthplace

    This field indicates the place of birth. Birthplace data are only included for births occurring in the year 1999 and later.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Birthplace data are derived from the "PLDEL" variable in the public use data for years 1999-2002, and derived from the "BFACIL3" variable in the years 2003 and later.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


       Code Label
       "1"   In Hospital  
       "2"   Not in Hospital  
       "3"   Unknown or Not Stated  


    Delivery Method

    This field indicates whether the baby was born by Cesarean section or vaginal birth. Method of delivery data are only included for births occurring in the year 1999 and later.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Method of delivery data are derived from the "DELMETH5" variable in the public use data for years 1999-2002, and derived from the "DMETH_REC" variable in the years 2003 and later.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


       Code Label
       "1"   Vaginal  
       "2"   Cesarean  
       "9"   Not Stated  


    Medical Attendant

    This field indicates the attendant at the time of birth. Birth attendant data are only included for births occurring in the year 1999 and later.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Birth Attendant data are derived from the "BIRATTND" variable in the public use data for years 1999-2002, and derived from the "ATTEND" variable in the years 2003 and later.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


       Code Label
       "3"   Certified Nurse Midwife (CNM)  
       "1"   Doctor of Medicine (MD)  
       "2"   Doctor of Osteopathy (DO)  
       "5"   Other  
       "4"   Other Midwife  
       "9"   Unknown or Not Stated  



    Step 5. Select cause of infant death:
    Select the International Classification of Disease (ICD) categories that represent the underlying cause of death from the death certificate. Any number of causes can be specified here. However, you can only request data from one of the lists: the ICD codes (organized by chapters, sub-chapters and codes), or the groups of selected causes of death (organized by group and codes). Be sure the radio button for ICD Codes or ICD Groups is set to your choice. Or, you can leave the field empty to select all causes of death, and choose to organize or group the data results by these variables to show these stratifications.
    How?
    • Click a round button to switch between the ICD chapter and code list, or by the Selected Causes group and ICD code list.
    • See How do I use a Finder? for more information.
    Hints:
    • The default is all values (all causes of death).
    • The Advanced mode let you easily pick several items from different parts of the list. Items are not selected until you click the "Move" button in Advanced mode. You may also enter values by hand, one code per line, in the Advanced mode. Use the Finder to see the correct code format. For example, "GR130-120" the Selected Causes group code for Congenital hydrocephalus. .
    • The "plus" symbol, "+" indicates that you can open the item, to see more items below it.
    • The results to a search are shown in blue, and indicated by ">".
    Notes:
    • About the International Classification of Diseases:
      The mortality data are compiled in accordance with the World Health Organization (WHO) regulations, which specify that member nations classify and code causes of death in accordance with the current revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD). The International Classification of Diseases is developed collaboratively between the World Health Organization (WHO) and 10 international centers, for purposes of ensuring that medical terms reported on death certificates are internationally comparable and lend themselves to statistical analysis. The ICD has been revised approximately every 10 years since 1900 in order to reflect changes in understanding of disease mechanisms and in disease terminology.
    • About the 9th and 10th ICD revisions:
      During the years 1979-1998, the United States used the Ninth Revision of the ICD (ICD-9) to code causes of death. Effective with deaths occurring in 1999, the United States began using the Tenth Revision of this classification, (ICD-10). The two revisions differ substantially, and to prevent confusion about the significance of any specific disease code, data queries are separate. For more information, see Comparability of Cause-of-Death Between ICD Revisions.
    • About selecting causes of death for infants:

    ICD-10 Changes

    About changes in the ICD-10 codes:  
    The valid ICD-10 codes used to classify underlying cause of death change over time. Effective with the 2003 data year, 1 code was introduced. Effective with the 2006 data year, 18 codes were introduced as valid causes of death, and 4 codes were discontinued. Effective with the 2007 data year, 4 codes were introduced as valid causes of death, and 2 codes were discontinued. Effective with the 2009 data year, 5 codes were introduced as valid causes of death, and 11 codes were discontinued. Effective with the 2011 data year, 33 codes were introduced as valid causes of death.


    ICD-10 Changes in Years 2003-2011
    New causes of death in 2011
    ICD-10 Code Title
    B17.9 Acute viral hepatitis, unspecified
    D68.5 Primary thrombophilia
    D68.6 Other thrombophilia
    D89.3 Immune reconstitution syndrome
    E88.3 Tumor lysis syndrome
    G14 Postpolio syndrome
    G21.4 Vascular parkinsonism
    H54.9 Unspecified visual impairment (binocular)
    I72.5 Aneurysm and dissection of other precerebral arteries
    J12.3 Human metapneumovirus pneumonia
    J21.1 Acute bronchiolitis due to human metapneumovirus
    K12.3 Oral mucositis (ulcerative)
    K35.2 Acute appendicitis with generalized peritonitis
    K35.3 Acute appendicitis with localized peritonitis
    K35.8 Acute appendicitis, other and unspecified
    L89.0 Stage I decubitus ulcer and pressure area
    L89.1 Stage II decubitus ulcer
    L89.2 Stage III decubitus ulcer
    L89.3 Stage IV decubitus ulcer
    L89.9 Decubitus ulcer and pressure area, unspecified
    N18.1 Chronic kidney disease, stage 1
    N18.2 Chronic kidney disease, stage 2
    N18.3 Chronic kidney disease, stage 3
    N18.4 Chronic kidney disease, stage 4
    N18.5 Chronic kidney disease, stage 5
    N42.3 Dysplasia of prostate
    O14.2 HELLP syndrome
    O43.2 Morbidly adherent placenta
    O96.0 Death from direct obstetric cause occurring more than 42 days but less than one year after delivery
    O96.1 Death from indirect obstetric cause occurring more than 42 days but less than one year after delivery
    O96.9 Death from unspecified obstetric cause occurring more than 42 days but less than one year after delivery
    O97.0 Death from sequelae of direct obstetric cause
    O97.1 Death from sequelae of indirect obstetric cause
    O97.9 Death from sequelae of obstetric cause, unspecified
    O98.7 Human immunodeficiency [HIV] disease complicating pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium
    X34.0 Victim of cataclysmic earth movements caused by earthquake
    X34.1 Victim of tsunami
    X34.8 Victim of other specified effects of earthquake
    X34.9 Victim of unspecified effect of earthquake
    New causes of death in 2009
    ICD-10 Code Title
    A09.0 Other and unspecified gastroenteritis and colitis of infectious origin
    A09.9 Gastroenteritis and colitis of unspecified origin
    K52.3 Indeterminate colitis
    R26.3 Immobility
    R63.6 Insufficient intake of food and water due to self neglect
    New causes of death in 2007
    ICD-10 Code Title
    J09 Influenza due to identified avian influenza virus
    U04.9 Severe acute respiratory syndrome [SARS], unspecified
    X59.0 Exposure to unspecified factor causing fracture
    X59.9 Exposure to unspecified factor causing other and unspecified injury
    New causes of death in 2006
    ICD-10 Code Title
    B33.4 Hantavirus (cardio)-pulmonary syndrome [HPS][HCPS]
    G90.4 Autonomic dysreflexia
    I15.0 Renovascular hypertension
    I15.9 Secondary hypertension, unspecified
    K22.7 Barrett's esophagus
    K85.0 Idiopathic acute pancreatitis
    K85.1 Biliary acute pancreatitis
    K85.2 Alcohol-induced acute pancreatitis
    K85.3 Drug-induced acute pancreatitis
    K85.8 Other acute pancreatitis
    K85.9 Acute pancreatitis, unspecified
    M31.7 Microscopic polyangiitis
    M79.7 Fibromyalgia
    P91.6 Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy of newborn
    R29.6 Tendency to fall, not elsewhere classified
    R50.2 Drug-induced fever
    R50.8 Other specified fever
    W46 Contact with hypodermic needle
    New causes of death in 2003
    ICD-10 Code Title
    I27.2 Other secondary pulmonary hypertension

    Discontinued causes of death in 2009
    ICD-10 Code Title
    A09 Diarrhea and gastroenteritis of infectious origin
    F11.0 Mental and behavioral disorders due to use of opioids, acute intoxication
    F12.0 Mental and behavioral disorders due to use of cannabinoids, acute intoxication
    F13.0 Mental and behavioral disorders due to use of sedatives or hypnotics, acute intoxication
    F14.0 Mental and behavioral disorders due to use of cocaine, acute intoxication
    F15.0 Mental and behavioral disorders due to use of other stimulants, including caffeine, acute intoxication
    F16.0 Mental and behavioral disorders due to use of hallucinogens, acute intoxication
    F17.0 Mental and behavioral disorders due to use of tobacco, acute intoxication
    F18.0 Mental and behavioral disorders due to use of volatile solvents, acute intoxication
    F19.0 Mental and behavioral disorders due to multiple drug use and use of other psychoactive substances, acute intoxication
    K51.1 Ulcerative (chronic) ileocolitis

    Discontinued causes of death in 2007
    ICD-10 Code Title
    F10.0 Mental and behavioral disorders due to use of alcohol, acute intoxication
    X59 Exposure to unspecified factor

    Discontinued causes of death in 2006
    ICD-10 Code Title
    I25.2 Old myocardial infarction
    K85 Acute pancreatitis
    R50.0 Fever with chills
    R50.1 Persistent fever




    ICD-10 Codes

    Limit the data to any number of causes of death, for selected chapters, sub-chapters or codes.

    How?   See Step 5. Select cause of infant death above. Check the Hints section.

    Notes:  

    • The International Classification of Disease (ICD) 10th revision is used to represent the underlying cause of death for the years 1999 and later. The ICD system is organized by chapters, sub-chapters and codes.
    • ICD-10 uses a 4-length alphanumeric coding scheme. Each of the 21 chapters in ICD-10 is classified to a letter or letters of the alphabet. Infectious disease codes in Chapter 1, for example, begin with an "A" or "B". Thus, Acute poliomyelitis is associated with the codes A80.0-A80.9 and Viral hepatitis is classified as B15.0-B19.9. The ICD 10 system begins codes with a letter from the alphabet, followed by two numerals, then a decimal point to indicate subordinate position, and then more numerals. Some causes of death in Compressed Mortality are represented by 3 length codes, although most causes of death are represented by 4 length codes (format A12.3). Greater detail than 4 length codes are not included in the data.
    • Data for underlying cause of death, sub-chapter, chapter and the 130 selected causes of death groups are derived from the "UCOD" field in the public use data for years 1999-201.
    • Changes to cause of death classification affect reporting trends. See ICD-10 Changes for more information.


    ICD-9 Codes

    Limit the data to any number of causes of death, for selected chapters, sub-chapters or codes.

    How?   See Step 5. Select cause of infant death above.

    Notes:  

    • The International Classification of Disease (ICD) 9th revision is used to represent the underlying cause of death for the years 1979 - 1998. The ICD system is organized by chapters, sub-chapters and codes. For a further description of the ICD-9 codes see Volume II of the annual mortality volumes produced by the NCHS, such as Vital Statistics of the United States, 1988, Volume II-Mortality.
    • About Deaths due to Injuries and Poisoning in ICD-9:
      For deaths due to injuries and poisonings that occurred during 1979-1998, the external cause is coded (E800-E999) rather than the Nature of Injury (800-999). The letter "E" is not included in the ICD-9 code in the data.
    • Data for underlying cause of death, sub-chapter, chapter and the selected causes of death groups are derived from the "UCOD" field in the public use data for years 1995-1998.


    ICD-10 130 Cause List (Infants)

    Limit the data to any number of groups of selected causes of death, or individual codes.

    How?   See Step 5. Select cause of infant death above.

    Notes:  

    • Deaths in the years 1999 and later are coded to the tenth revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). There are 130 Selected Causes of Infant Death groups for the ICD-10 codes.
    • NCHS has defined selected causes of death groups for analysis of all ages mortality data: the "72 Selected Causes of Death" for ICD-9 codes and years 1979-1998, and the "113 Selected Causes of Infant Death" for ICD-10 codes and years 1999 and later. The group code values are not actual ICD codes published in the International Classification of Diseases, but are "recodes" defined to support analysis by the Selected Causes of Death groups.
    • Data for underlying cause of death, sub-chapter, chapter and the selected causes of death groups are derived from the "UCOD" field in the public use data for years 1999-2014.
    • Group the data by "ICD-10 130 Groups" and also by "Cause of Death" to see the individual ICD codes included in each category.
    • A "#" symbol preceding the label indicates a "rankable" cause of death, from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) list of rankable causes of death. The rankable causes in the Linked Birth / Infant Death Records are a subset of the 130 selected causes of death for infants.
    • Group results by "15 Leading Causes" to get death counts and rates for the top 15 rankable causes of death, for your selected query criteria. Note that cross-tabulations, zero value death counts, and suppressed values are not permitted when you group results by "15 Leading Causes." When more than one rankable cause of death occurs in the last position, all these causes are shown.


    ICD-9 72 Groups

    Limit the data to any number of groups of selected causes of death.

    How?   See Step 5. Select cause of infant death above.

    Notes:  

    • Deaths in the years 1979 - 1998 are coded to the ninth revision of the International Classification of Disease (ICD-9). There are 72 selected causes of death groups for the ICD-9 codes.
    • NCHS has defined selected causes of death groups for analysis of all ages mortality data: the "72 Selected Causes of Death" for ICD-9 codes and years 1979-1998, and the "113 Selected Causes " for ICD-10 codes and years 1999 and later. The group code values are not actual ICD codes published in the International Classification of Diseases, but are "recodes" defined to support analysis by the Selected Causes of Death groups.
    • Data for underlying cause of death, sub-chapter, chapter and the selected causes of death groups are derived from the "UCOD" field in the public use data for years 1995-1998.


    Step 6. Select infant characteristics:

    Limit your data for any of the following data elements:

    1. Age of Infant at Death - under 1 hour; 1-23 hours; 1-6 days; 7-27 days; 28-364 days.
    2. Year of Death - 1995-2002.
    3. Gender (sex) of Child - Female; Male.



    Age of Infant at Death

    Pick any combination of age groups.
    How?    See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Data indicating the age of infant at death are derived from the "AGER5" field in the public use data for years 1995 and later.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the Age group code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


       Code Label
       "01"  Under 1 hour 
       "02"  1 - 23 hours 
       "03"  1 - 6 days 
       "04"  7 - 27 days 
       "05"  28 - 364 days 



    Year of Death

    Pick any combination of years desired. Note that there are four separate data requests, one for the years 1995-1998 with ICD-9 codes, another for the years 1999-2002 with ICD-10 codes a third for years 2003-2006 with ICD-10 codes, more counties, and bridged-race categories, and a fourth for years 2007-2014 with different categories for maternal education, and prenatal care for births where the mother's reporting area of residence used the 2003 U.S. standard Certificate of Live Birth.
    How?    See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:   Data indicating the year of the infant's death are implicit in the public use data for years 1995-2014. The year of death may be recorded in the last field of the public use data.



    Gender of Child

    This field indicates the gender of the child at birth.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Data indicating the gender of the child at birth are derived from the "CSEX" field in the public use data for years 1995- 2002, and derived from the "SEX" field in the public use data for years 1999-2014.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the Gender code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


       Code Label
       "F"  Female 
       "M"  Male 




    Step 7. Other options:
    Export Results:    If checked, then query results are exported to a local file. More information on how to import this file into other applications can be found here.
    How?   See Checkbox.
    Show Totals:    If checked, then totals and sub-totals display in the results table.
    How?   See CheckBox.
    Show Zero Values:    If checked, then rows containing zero counts are included in the results table. If unchecked, then zero count rows are not included.
    How?   See Checkbox.
    Precision:    Select the precision for rate calculations. You may increase the precision to show more numbers to the right of the decimal point.
    How? See How do I select items from the list box?
    Data Access Timeout:    This value specifies the maximum time to wait for the data access for a query to complete. If the data access takes too long to complete, a message will be displayed and you can increase the timeout or simplify your request. If you can't complete a request using the maximum timeout, contact user support and we will try to run a custom data request for you.
    Calculate Rates Per:    Select the factor (multiplier) for your rates. By default, infant death rates are calculated per 1,000 live births.
    How? See How do I select items from the list box?

    Data Source Information

    See Source in the Summary section above, or see the suggested citation below. To learn more about the methods and source of these data please refer to:

    Publications:
  • Other Issues


  • Weight Factors: Changes Beginning with the 1995 Data Year

    Beginning in 1995 data, linked file records are weighted to compensate for the 2 to 3 percent of infant death records which could not be linked to their corresponding birth certificates. Although every effort has been made to design weights which will accurately reflect the distribution of deaths by characteristics, weighting may contribute to small differences in numbers and rates by specific variables between the linked file and the vital statistics mortality files.

    A weight has been added to the linked numerator file to correct in part for biases in percent of records linked by major characteristics. The number of infant deaths in the linked file are weighted to equal the sum of the linked plus unlinked infant deaths by age at death and state. The formula for computing the weights is as follows:

    (number of linked infant deaths + number of unlinked infant deaths)


    number of linked infant deaths

    A separate weight is computed for each reporting area of residence of birth and each age at death category. Thus, weights are 1.0 for reporting areas which link all of their infant deaths. The denominator file is not weighted. Note that for years 1983-2001, these age at death groups are used to construct weights: <1 day, 1 to 27 days, 28 days to 1 year. For year 2002 and later, the age at death cohorts for constructing weights changed as follows: <7 days, 7-27 days, 28 days to 1 year.

    An imputation for not-stated birthweight has been added to the data set, to reduce potential bias in the computation of birthweight-specific infant mortality rates. Basically, if birthweight is not-stated and the period of gestation is known, birthweight is assigned the value from the previous record with the same period of gestation, race, sex, and plurality. Imputed values are flagged.

    For more detail, and to see the percentage of records linked for each year of data, please see the methodology sections in the publications listed at Data Source Information.



    Locations - About FIPS State and County Codes

    The FIPS state and county codes were established by the National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Department of Commerce in 1968. This standard set of codes provides names and codes for counties and county equivalents of the 50 states of the United States and the District of Columbia. Counties are considered to be the "first order subdivisions " of each State, regardless of their local designation (county, parish, borough). Washington, D.C.; the consolidated government of Columbus, Georgia; the independent cities of the states of Maryland, Missouri, Nevada, and Virginia; the census areas and boroughs of Alaska; and that part of Yellowstone Park in Montana are identified as county equivalents. The system is standard throughout the Federal Government. The state codes are ascending, two-digit numbers; the county codes are ascending three-digit numbers. For both the state and county codes, space has been left for new states or counties. Some changes in the FIPS codes have occurred since 1968.

    A modified version of the FIPS state and county codes is used to identify states and counties on NCHS public-use data files. The modifications as implemented in the Linked Birth / Infant Death public-use data are described below.

    Modifications of FIPS State and County Codes

    1. Counties with populations under 250,000 persons are grouped into "Unidentified Counties" (FIPS code 999) to protect privacy.
    2. A portion of Adams county, Colorado (FIPS code 08001) was moved into Broomfield County, Colorado (FIPS code 08014), which was created effective November 15, 2001 from parts of four counties: Adams, Boulder, Jefferson, and Weld.
    3. Dade county, Florida (FIPS code 12025) was renamed Miami-Dade County (FIPS code 12086) effective November 13, 1997. However, the area is coded to Dade (12025) for all years.
    4. Baltimore county, Maryland (FIPS code 24005) is reported separately from the independent city of Baltimore, Maryland (FIPS code 24510).
    5. The independent city of Baltimore, Maryland (FIPS code 24510) is reported separately from Baltimore county (FIPS code 24005).
    6. St. Louis county (FIPS code 29189) is reported separately from the independent city of St. Lois, Missouri (FIPS code 29510).
    7. The independent city of St. Lois, Missouri (FIPS code 29510) is reported separately from St. Louis county (FIPS code 29189).
    8. Bronx, New York (FIPS code 36005) represents Bronx Borough, New York City.
    9. Kings county, New York (FIPS code 36047) represents Brooklyn Borough, New York City.
    10. New York county, New York (FIPS code 36061) represents Manhattan Borough, New York City.
    11. Queens, New York (FIPS code 36081) represents Queens Borough, New York City.
    12. Richmond county, New York (FIPS code 36085) represents Staten Island Borough, New York City.

    For more information on county level data, refer to the sections discussing About Counties, Unidentified Counties and Missing Counties.


    Additional Information

    Suggested Citation:    United States Department of Health and Human Services (US DHHS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Linked Birth / Infant Death Records 1995-2014, as compiled from data provided by the 57 vital statistics jurisdictions through the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program, on CDC WONDER Online Database.
    Contact:    The National Center for Health Statistics welcomes comments and questions at nchsed@cdc.gov.
    Notes:   
    • About "Unidentified Counties:"
      The label "Unidentified Counties" indicates counties with less than 250,000 population, combined for the state. When viewing data sorted "by County," please note that not all counties in a given state show births that were registered in that county. The state total displays all linked births and deaths for a given state (by mother's residence). Some counties are not associated with tabulated births due to confidentiality concerns. Counties with a total population less than 250,000 report births under "Unidentified Counties" to protect personal privacy. See also About Counties and Missing Counties.
    • About "Missing" counties:"
      As a result of population changes, the following counties do not have data available for all years:
      • For deaths occurring before 2014, the data for the following thirty two counties was recoded to the "Unidentified Counties" category for the state, because the total county population was less than 250,000 persons: Pinal County, Arizona (FIPS code 04021); Marin County, California (FIPS code 06041); Merced County, California (FIPS code 06047); Placer County, California (FIPS code 06061); San Luis Obispo County, California (FIPS code 06079); Douglas County, Colorado (FIPS code 08035); Weld County, Colorado (FIPS code 08123); Lake County, Florida (FIPS code 12069); Leon County, Florida (FIPS code 12073); Osceola County, Florida (FIPS code 12097); St. Lucie County, Florida (FIPS code 12111); Chatham County, Georgia (FIPS code 13051); Clayton County, Georgia (FIPS code 13063); Hamilton County, Indiana (FIPS code 18057); Howard County, Maryland (FIPS code 24027); Kalamazoo County, Michigan (FIPS code 26077); Ottawa County, Michigan (FIPS code 26139); Greene County, Missouri (FIPS code 29077); Durham County, North Carolina (FIPS code 37063); Cleveland County, Oklahoma (FIPS code 40027); Horry County, South Carolina (FIPS code 45051); Lexington County, South Carolina (FIPS code 45063); Rutherford County, Tennessee (FIPS code 47149); Bell County, Texas (FIPS code 48027); Brazoria County, Texas (FIPS code 48039); Lubbock County, Texas (FIPS code 48303); Webb County, Texas (FIPS code 48479); Williamson County, Texas (FIPS code 48491); Davis County, Utah (FIPS code 49011); Loudoun County, Virginia (FIPS code 51107); Kitsap County, Washington (FIPS code 53035); Thurston County, Washington (FIPS code 53067). These counties are "missing" data for years 2007-2013, because the data are reported under the "Unidentified Counties" category in the respective states.
      • For deaths occurring after 2013, the data for the following two counties was recoded to the "Unidentified Counties" category for the state, because the total county population was less than 250,000 persons: Hinds County, Mississippi (FIPS code 28049); Mahoning County, Ohio (FIPS code 39099). These counties are "missing" data for 2014, because the data are reported under the "Unidentified Counties" category in the respective states.
    • About Births to Foreign Residents:
      Births occurring within the United States to a mother who is a resident of a foreign country are excluded from this data set. The Linked Birth / Infant Death data set defines "Foreign Residents: State of occurrence is one of the 50 States or the District of Columbia, but place of residence of mother is outside of the 50 States and D.C. "
    • About Weight Factors and Totals:
      Infant deaths are weighted so numbers may not exactly add to totals due to rounding. A record weight is added to the linked file to compensate for the infant death records that could not be linked to their corresponding birth certificates. This procedure was initiated in 1995. For more information, see Weight Factors
    • About Excluded Maternal Education and Prenatal Care Data:
      For infant deaths that occurred in year 2007 and later, maternal education and prenatal care data are recoded to "Excluded" for those reporting areas that used the 1989 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Birth, because their data for maternal education and prenatal care are not comparable to the data from the reporting areas using the 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Birth.
      For infant deaths that occurred in years 2003-2006, maternal education and prenatal care data are recoded to "Excluded" for those reporting areas that have implemented the 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Birth, because their data for maternal education and prenatal care are not comparable to the data from the other reporting areas that still use the 1989 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Birth.
      The following reporting areas have maternal education and prenatal care data excluded, by year:
      • Pennsylvania and Washington state for deaths that occurred in 2003;
      • Florida, Idaho, Kentucky, New Hampshire, New York (excluding New York City), Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee and Washington state (9 reporting areas) for deaths that occurred in 2004.
      • Florida, Idaho, Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New York (excluding New York City), Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont and Washington state (13 reporting areas) for deaths that occurred in 2005.
      • Delaware, Florida, Idaho, Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New York (excluding New York City), North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Washington state, and Wyoming for deaths that occurred in 2006. In California, only the education data are recoded to "Excluded" for deaths that occurred in 2006.
      • Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Georgia, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia and Wisconsin for deaths that occurred in 2007. In California, only the prenatal care data are recoded to "Excluded" for deaths that occurred in 2007.
      • Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Georgia, Hawaii, Illinois, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia and Wisconsin (30 reporting areas) for deaths that occurred in 2008.
      • Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Illinois, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, New Jersey, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia and Wisconsin (24 reporting areas) for deaths that occurred in 2009.
      • Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Illinois, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, New Jersey, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, Virginia, West Virginia and Wisconsin (23 reporting areas) for deaths that occurred in 2010.
      • Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, Hawaii, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, New Jersey, North Carolina, Rhode Island, Virginia, West Virginia and Wisconsin (17 reporting areas) for deaths that occurred in 2011.
      • Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, Hawaii, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, New Jersey, Rhode Island, Virginia, and West Virginia (14 reporting areas) for deaths that occurred in 2012.
      • Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, Hawaii, Maine, Mississippi, New Jersey, Rhode Island, Virginia, and West Virginia (12 reporting areas) for deaths that occurred in 2013.
      • Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, Hawaii, Maine, New Jersey, Rhode Island, and West Virginia (9 reporting areas) for deaths that occurred in 2014.
    • About incomparable Prenatal Care data:
      The Prenatal Care data are incomparable between these time periods:
      1. Data for years 1995-2002 use the 1989 U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth. No data are in the "Excluded" category.
      2. Data for years 2003-2006 are reported for births where the mother's state of residence used the 1989 U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth, and data are recoded to "Excluded" for births where the mother's state of residence used the 2003 U.S. standard Certificate of Live Birth.
      3. Data for year 2007 and later are reported for births where the mother's state of residence used the 2003 U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth, and data are recoded to "Excluded" for births where the mother's state of residence used the 1989 U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth.
    • Reporting anomalies:
      • About reporting anomalies in 2014: Due to a coding error for ICD-10 codes W32-W34, classifying underlying cause of death as accidental discharge of firearms, some states show large increases in 2014 for this cause. This cause of death should be interpreted with caution.
      • About Georgia reporting anomalies in 2008-2009:  Circumstances in Georgia for the years 2008 and 2009 have resulted in unusually high death counts for the ICD-10 cause of death code R99, "Other ill-defined and unspecified causes of mortality" for deaths occurring in years 2008 and 2009. Caution should be used in interpreting these data. For more information, see Deaths: Final Data for 2008.
      • About New Jersey reporting anomalies in 2009:  Circumstances in New Jersey for the year 2009 have resulted in unusually high death counts for the ICD-10 cause of death code R99, "Other ill-defined and unspecified causes of mortality" and therefore unusually low death counts in other ICD-10 codes, most notably R95, "Sudden Infant Death Syndrome" and X40-X49, "Unintentional poisoning." Caution should be used in interpreting these data. Deaths: Final Data for 2009.
      • About Allen Parish, Louisiana reporting anomalies in 2006-2008:  Deaths for Allen Parish, Louisiana (FIPS code 22003] in years 2006 through 2008 are under reported due to problems with registering the deaths with the Louisiana Vital Statistics Office.
      • About California reporting anomalies in 2000 - 2001:  Circumstances in California resulted in unusually high death counts for the ICD-10 cause of death code R99, "Other ill-defined and unspecified causes of mortality" for deaths occurring in years 2000 and 2001. Caution should be used in interpreting these data.
      • About cause of death classification changes:  Changes to cause of death classification affect reporting trends. For more information, see Changes in ICD-10 codes.
    • Assurance of Confidentiality Constraints:   
      Data reports for years 1989 and later must meet the NCHS data use restrictions. Vital statistics data are suppressed due to confidentiality constraints, in order to protect personal privacy.
      The term "Suppressed" replaces sub-national death counts, births counts and death rates, when the figure represents zero to nine (0-9) persons.
      Prior to May 23, 2011, death counts and birth counts were not suppressed for the Linked Birth / Infant Death Records database on CDC WONDER.
      Totals and sub-totals are suppressed when the value falls within scope of the suppression criteria, or when the summary value includes a single suppressed figure, in order to prevent the inadvertent disclosure of suppressed values.
      The confidentiality constraints are established by the original data providers. For more information, please contact the data providers.
    • About "Unreliable" rates representing fewer than 20 deaths:
      Rates are flagged as "(Unreliable)" when there are fewer than 20 deaths in the numerator, because the figure does not meet the NCHS standard of reliability or precision.
    • Data Correction:
      The June 30, 2009 data release on WONDER included a revision for a single death that occurred in 2001 to a non-Hispanic white male infant in New York state: the underlying cause of death was changed from V89.2 (Person injured in unspecified motor-vehicle accident, traffic) to J18.1 (Lobar pneumonia, unspecified). Data for the year 2001 was first released on WONDER on October 17, 2006, and was based on the 2001 public use data set dated October 31, 2003. The June 30, 2009 data release on WONDER includes data from the 2001 public use data set dated December 17, 2007. The December 17, 2007 data set for 2001 includes the record revision. The June 30, 2009 data update on WONDER makes weekly gestational age data available on WONDER.



    This page last reviewed: Thursday, March 16, 2017
    This information is provided as technical reference material. Please contact us at cwus@cdc.gov to request a simple text version of this document.
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