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Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)
Daily Land Surface Temperature (LST)
2003 - 2008

Summary:  

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data available on CDC WONDER are daytime and nighttime geographically aggregated land surface temperatures (LST) spanning the years 2003-2008. Temperature data are available in Fahrenheit or Celsius. Reported measures are the average daily temperature, the number of observations, the range for the daily maximum and minimum land surface temperatures, and the percent coverage for the both the day and night land surface temperatures. Data are available by place (combined 48 contiguous states plus the District of Columbia, region, division, state, county), time (year, month, day) and specified average land surface temperature value for day (1:30 pm local time) and night (1:30 am local time). County-level and higher data are aggregated from 1 kilometer square spatial resolution grids.

Source:  

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC).

In a study funded by the NASA Applied Sciences Program/Public Health Program (fully cited below), scientists at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center / Universities Space Research Association developed computer programs to process the MODIS data, including merging data from the two MODIS sensors They also identified in a Geographic Information System (GIS) the associated geographic locations of the centroids of the gridded MODIS LST dataset in terms of the counties and states they fall into to enable aggregation to different geographic levels in CDC WONDER. See also Data Source Information and Suggested Data Source Citation.

In WONDER:   You can produce tables, maps, charts, and data extracts. Obtain average temperature, the number of observations, range, and percent coverage for the day (1:30 pm local time) or night (1:30 am local time) daily land surface temperatures, in Fahrenheit or Celsius. Select specific criteria to produce cross-tabulated average land surface temperatures measures for day or night. Data are organized into three levels of geographic detail: the 48 contiguous states, state (including multi-state regions and divisions) and county. County-level data are aggregated from 1 kilometer square spatial resolution grids. You can limit and index your data by any and all of the variables.
Contents:   MODIS LST Data Request
Data Source Information
Additional Information
Suggested Data Source Citation

MODIS LST Data Request

Output:    You can produce tables, maps, charts, and data extracts. Obtain average temperature and the number of observations the number of observations, range, and percent coverage for the day (1:30 pm local time) or night (1:30 am local time) daily land surface temperatures, in Fahrenheit or Celsius. Select specific criteria to produce cross-tabulated average land surface temperature measures. Data are organized into three levels of geographic detail: the 48 contiguous states, state (including multi-state regions and divisions) and county. You can limit and index your data by any and all of the variables.
Variables:    You can limit and index your data by any and all of these variables:
  1. Location: Region, Division, State, County
  2. Year 2003-2008
  3. Month January - December, available also as specific "Month, Year" values
  4. Day Available as specific "Month Day, Year" values, or as Day of Month (1-31) or as Day of Year (1-366)
  5. Day Land Surface Temperature -32 through 148 degrees Fahrenheit, or -36 through 64 degrees Celsius
  6. Night Land Surface Temperature -50 through 93 degrees Fahrenheit, or -46 through 34 degrees Celsius
How?    The Request screen has sections to guide you through the making a data request as a step-by-step process. However, to get your first taste of how the system works, you might want to simply press any Send button, and execute the default data request. The data results for your query appear on the Table screen. After you get your data results, try the Chart and Map screens. Or export your data to a file (tab-delimited line listing) for download to your computer.
For more information, see the Quick Start Guide and the following steps:
  1. Organize table layout
  2. Select location
  3. Select year, month, day
  4. Select values for temperature
  5. Other options
'By-Variables'    Select variables that serve as keys (indexes) for organizing your data. See "How do I organize my data?" for more information.
Note:   To map your data, you must select at least one geographical location as a "By-Variable" for grouping your data, such as State or County.
Help:    Click on any button labeled "Help", located to the right hand side of the screen at the top of each section. Each control's label, such as the "Location" label next to the Location entry box, is linked to the on-line help for that item.
Send:    Sends your data request to be processed on the CDC WONDER databases. The Send buttons are located on the bottom of the Request page, and also in the upper right corner of each section, for easy access.


Step 1. Organize table layout:
Group Results By:    Select up to five variables that serve as keys for grouping your data. See Group Results By below for hints.
Select Temperature Scale:    Choose either Fahrenheit or Celsius scale. Click the round radio button to indicate your choice.
Select Measures:    If checked, these measures will appear in the results table. You must select at least one measure: 
  1. Average temperature of the temperature measurements that met the criteria for this cell
  2. Number of observations, how many measurements went into this summary statistic
  3. Range or minimum - maximum value for this summary statistic
  4. Percent Coverage
The two summary measures above are available for these two items:
  1. Day Land Surface Temperature (1:30 pm local time)
  2. Night Land Surface Temperature (1:30 am local time)
Title:    Enter any desired description to display as a title with your results.

Group Results By...

Select up to five variables that serve as keys for grouping your data. For example, you could select to group (summarize, stratify, index) your data by State and by County.

How?    See "How do I organize my data?" for more information.

Hints:   

  1. About charts:
    You cannot make charts when your data has more than two By-Variables.
  2. About maps:
    To make a map, you must request data with a geographic location variable, such as Region, as the first "By-Variable" in the "Group Results By" box. Send your data request, then click the Map tab when you get the results.

Average Temperature

The average temperature summary measure is the mean value of all of the daily temperature measurements that met the criteria for this cell in the results table. For example, if results are grouped by Year and limited to the South Region for years 2003-2008, then the first row shows the value 64.96 (F) or 18.25 (C) as the average daytime land surface temperature for year 2003 in the South Region. This summary measure is the mean of the daily values recorded for daily daytime (1:30 pm local time) land surface temperature measurements of the 1 kilometer square spatial resolution geographic-area grids in the selected time and place.

How?
  1. First select your preferred temperature scale using the round radio button in section 1. Organize table layout on the Request Form.
  2. Then select the checkbox labeled "Avg Temperature" under the desired measurement in the "Select Measures" heading in section 1. Organize table layout on the Request Form.

Notes:
  • The average temperature summary measurement is the mean value of all of the daily temperature measurements that met the selected criteria for time and place.
  • This dataset contains average daily land surface measurements, daytime measurements taken at 1:30 pm local time, and nighttime measurements taken at 1:30 am local time. The measurements are summarized to the county-level, from 1 kilometer square spatial area grids covering the 48 contiguous United states (not including Alaska and Hawaii) plus the District of Columbia.
  • MODIS temperature measurements are recorded for 1 kilometer square spatial resolution grids in the selected area. Temperature measurements from each grid are assigned to the county where the grid centroid is located. WONDER shows the summary the grid-level measurements into counties and larger area The county locations are from the 1999-2000 Federal Information Processing (FIPS) code set.
  • MODIS temperature measurement data are sparse for some times and places, data are missing during times of cloud cover or satellite calibration operations. See Additional Information for more information about the filter algorithm for land surface temperatures.


Number of Observations

The number of observations is the number of daily temperature measurements that produced the summary measure. For example, for January 1, 2008, there were 5,625,017 land surface temperature measurements averaged to produce the national average daytime land surface temperature value of 35.98 degrees Fahrenheit. The observations are the daily land surface temperature values recorded for the 1 kilometer square spatial resolution grids in the selected time and place.

How?
  1. First select your preferred temperature scale using the round radio button in section 1. Organize table layout on the Request Form.
  2. Then select the checkbox labeled "# of Observations" under the desired measurement in the "Select Measures" heading in section 1. Organize table layout on the Request Form.

Notes:
  • The number of observations is the total number of daily land surface temperature values recorded for the 1 kilometer square spatial resolution grids in the selected time and place.
  • This dataset contains average daily land surface measurements, daytime measurements taken at 1:30 pm local time, and nighttime measurements taken at 1:30 am local time. The measurements are summarized to the county-level, from 1 kilometer square spatial area grids covering the 48 contiguous United states (not including Alaska and Hawaii) plus the District of Columbia.
  • MODIS temperature measurements are recorded for 1 kilometer square spatial resolution grids in the selected area. Temperature measurements from each grid are assigned to the county where the grid centroid is located. WONDER shows the summary the grid-level measurements into counties and larger area The county locations are from the 1999-2000 Federal Information Processing (FIPS) code set.
  • MODIS temperature measurement data are sparse for some times and places, data are missing during times of cloud cover or satellite calibration operations. See Additional Information for more information about the filter algorithm for land surface temperatures.


Range

The range shows the minimum and maximum land surface temperature measurement for the criteria that defines the cell in the table, from all of the grid-level observations that contribute to the spatial average daily measurement. For example, when data are grouped by year and limited to the District of Columbia in the year 2008, for the 43,060 observations of Average Daytime Land Surface Temperature, the lowest daytime land surface temperature recorded was 27.77 degrees Fahrenheit and the highest daytime land surface temperature recorded was 116.87 degrees Fahrenheit.

How?
  1. First select your preferred temperature scale using the round radio button in section 1. Organize table layout on the Request Form.
  2. Then select the checkbox labeled "Range" under the desired measurement in the "Select Measures" heading in section 1. Organize table layout on the Request Form.

Notes:
  • The range shows the minimum and maximum land surface temperature measurements for the daily land surface temperature values recorded for the 1 kilometer square spatial resolution grids in the selected time and place.
  • This dataset contains average daily land surface measurements, daytime measurements taken at 1:30 pm local time, and nighttime measurements taken at 1:30 am local time. The measurements are summarized to the county-level, from 1 kilometer square spatial area grids covering the 48 contiguous United states (not including Alaska and Hawaii) plus the District of Columbia.
  • MODIS temperature measurements are recorded for 1 kilometer square spatial resolution grids in the selected area. Temperature measurements from each grid are assigned to the county where the grid centroid is located. WONDER shows the summary the grid-level measurements into counties and larger area The county locations are from the 1999-2000 Federal Information Processing (FIPS) code set.
  • MODIS temperature measurement data are sparse for some times and places, data are missing during times of cloud cover or satellite calibration operations. See Additional Information for more information about the filter algorithm for land surface temperatures.


Percent Coverage

The percent coverage measure reports the coverage of land surface temperature grid-level observations for the selected time and place reported in the table cell. For example, when data are grouped by year and limited to the District of Columbia in the year 2008, for the 43,060 observations of Average Daytime Land Surface Temperature, the percent coverage for the Average Daytime Land Surface Temperature was 53.97%, meaning of all of the possible observations recorded for 1 kilometer square spatial resolution grids in the selected area and time period, there were nearly measurements recorded for nearly 54% of the possibilities. Cloud cover obstructs remote sensor capability to measure land surface temperatures.

How?
  1. First select your preferred temperature scale using the round radio button in section 1. Organize table layout on the Request Form.
  2. Then select the checkbox labeled "Percent Coverage" under the desired measurement in the "Select Measures" heading in section 1. Organize table layout on the Request Form.

Notes:
  • The percent coverage measure reports the coverage of land surface temperature grid-level observations for the selected time and place reported in the table cell.
  • MODIS temperature measurement data are sparse for some times and places, data are missing during times of cloud cover or satellite calibration operations. See Additional Information for more information about the filter algorithm for land surface temperatures.


Step 2. Select location:

Select the place of interest:
  1. Location:   the 48 contiguous United States plus District of Columbia by Region, Division, State, and County

Location

Data are available for the United States by Region, Division, State, County. Select the location(s) for the query. Any number of locations can be specified here.

How? Hints:
  • The default is all values (the United States).
  • The Advanced mode let you easily pick several items from different parts of the list. Items are not selected until you click the "Move" button in Advanced mode. You may also enter values by hand, one code per line, in the Advanced mode. Use the Finder to see the correct code format. For example, 05 is the Arkansas state code.
  • The "plus" symbol, "+" indicates that you can open the item, to see more items below it.
  • The results to a search are shown in blue, and indicated by ">".

Region

Regions are multi-state groups. For regional data, you can group by Region, or you can select any combination of individual regions.
How?   Notes:  
  • The Regions are identified by both name and codes in data extracts.
  • The United States is split into 4 regions: Northeast, Midwest, South and West. The states that comprise each region are shown below.

State abbreviation and name   FIPS code
________________________________________ 
Northeast Region:
CT    Connecticut               09
ME    Maine                     23
MA    Massachusetts             25
NH    New Hampshire             33
NJ    New Jersey                34
NY    New York                  36
PA    Pennsylvania              42
RI    Rhode Island              44
VT    Vermont                   50
________________________________________
Midwest Region:
IL    Illinois                  17
IN    Indiana                   18
IA    Iowa                      19
KS    Kansas                    20
MI    Michigan                  26
MN    Minnesota                 27
MO    Missouri                  29
NE    Nebraska                  31
ND    North Dakota              38
OH    Ohio                      39
SD    South Dakota              46
WI    Wisconsin                 55
________________________________________ 
South Region:
AL    Alabama                   01
AR    Arkansas                  05
DE    Delaware                  10
DC    District of Columbia      11
FL    Florida                   12
GA    Georgia                   13
KY    Kentucky                  21
LA    Louisiana                 22
MD    Maryland                  24
MS    Mississippi               28
NC    North Carolina            37
OK    Oklahoma                  40
SC    South Carolina            45
TN    Tennessee                 47
TX    Texas                     48
VA    Virginia                  51
WV    West Virginia             54
________________________________________ 
West Region:
AK    Alaska *                 02
AZ    Arizona                  04
CA    California               06
CO    Colorado                 08
HI    Hawaii *                 15
ID    Idaho                    16
MT    Montana                  30
NV    Nevada                   32
NM    New Mexico               35
OR    Oregon                   41
UT    Utah                     49
WA    Washington               53
WY    Wyoming                  56
________________________________________ 

 * Alaska and Hawaii are not included in these data.


Division

Divisions are multi-state groups, sub-sets of Regions. For division-level data, you can group by Division, or select any combination of individual divisions.
How?   Notes:  


State

For state level data, you can select any combination of individual states. Or group by State and leave the Location Finder selection at the default (all locations or the 48 United States and the District of Columbia).
How?   Notes:  
  • The states and the District of Columbia are identified by both state name and Standard Federal Information Processing (FIPS) codes in data extracts. See About FIPS Codes below.


County

County-level data are available for the United States and the District of Columbia. For county level data, you can select any combination of individual counties, or group by County. Leave the Location Finder selection at the default (all locations or the 48 United States and the District of Columbia).
How?   Notes:  
  • The county coded represents the spatial average of data observations from 1 kilometer square spatial resolution grids. Grids are coded to the county that includes the grid centroid.
  • The counties and the District of Columbia are identified by both county name and Standard Federal Information Processing (FIPS) codes in data extracts. The county locations are from the 1999-2000 Federal Information Processing (FIPS) code set.
  • About FIPS Codes:   The FIPS State and county codes were established by the National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Department of Commerce in 1968. This standard set of codes provides names and codes for counties and county equivalents of the 50 States of the United States and the District of Columbia. Counties are considered to be the "first order subdivisions" of each State, regardless of their local designation (county, parish, borough, census area). Washington, D.C.; the consolidated government of Columbus City, Georgia; the independent cities of the States of Maryland, Missouri, Nevada, and Virginia; and the census areas and boroughs of Alaska are identified as county equivalents. The system is standard throughout the Federal Government. The State codes are ascending, two-digit numbers; the county codes are ascending three-digit numbers. For both the State and county codes, space has been left for new States or counties. Some changes in the FIPS codes and county boundaries have occurred since 1968. See Location Updates for information on how these changes affect the data.
  • About County Changes:   Comparable measures may be misleading for counties with changing boundaries. See Location Updates for information on how these changes affect the data. Due to boundary changes, data are available for some counties for a limited period of time.
    The following county-level constraints apply to the data:
    • Alaska: data for Alaska are not included in this MODIS daily land surface temperature collection.
    • Colorado:
    • Florida:
      • Dade county, Florida (FIPS code 12025) - data are shown for the Dade county code value 12025, also the location of Miami, Florida.
    • Hawaii: data for Hawaii are not included in this this MODIS daily land surface temperature collection.


Step 3. Select year, month and day:
Select the time period for the query. Any number of dates can be specified here. Choose between these three controls:
  1. The Date Range control is selected at first by default, with the full time period of available data shown in the range controls. Use this control to select a continuous span of time, such as May 25, 2005 - September 25, 2006.
  2. Individual date fields allow you to separately limit or filter data for Year (2003-2008), Month (January - December), and Day of Month (1-31) or Day of Year (1-366). Use this control to select a specific point in time, such as the average measure for the months of June, July and August.
  3. The Aggregate Date Finder lets you select specific, discrete year/month/day dates, such as January 1, 2003.
How?
  • Click a round button to switch between Date Range, Individual Date Fields or Aggregate Dates.
  • Hints for the Date Range fields:
    • Click the down-arrow to the right of each field to open the drop-down list, then click on your selection in the list.
    • Click the blue counter-clockwise swoop image to the right of the date range fields to reset the entries to the default values (all).
  • Hints for the Individual Date Fields:
    • To select more than one value in the list, press down the Ctrl key on your keyboard while you click your left Mouse button.
    • To select a range of contiguous values, press down the Shift key on your keyboard while you click and drag your left Mouse button.
  • Hints for the Aggregate Date Finder:
    • See "How do I use a Finder?" for more information on using the Aggregate Date Finder.
    • See Finder Tool help for more hints.
    • The default for the Aggregate Date Finder is all values (1979/01/01 - 2011/12/31).
    • The Advanced mode let you easily pick several items from different parts of the list. Items are not selected until you click the "Move" button in Advanced mode. You may also enter values by hand, one code per line, in the Advanced mode. The code format is YYYY/MM/DD. For example, 2003/09/01 is September 1, 2003.
    • The "plus" symbol, "+" indicates that you can open the item, to see more items below it.
    • The results to a search are shown in blue, and indicated by ">".

Dates

Select a range of continuous time. The default is the full time-period found in the data, 2003 - 2008.
How?  
  • Click a round button to indicate Date Range Fields.
  • Click the down-arrow to the right of each field to open the drop-down list, then click on your selection in the list.
  • Click the blue counter-clockwise swoop image to the right of the range fields to reset the entries to the default values (all).

Year

Select All Years or any number of individual years (2003 - 2008). For example, select year 2008 to get the average daily measures and the range of minimum and maximum measures in 2008.
How?  
  • Click a round button to indicate Individual Date Fields.
  • Click your left Mouse button on any desired single option in the list box.
  • Press the Ctrl key while clicking your left Mouse button to make multiple selections.
  • Press the Shift key while clicking your left Mouse button and dragging the selection for a range of values.

Month

Select All Months or any number of individual months (January - December). For example, select June, July and August to get the average, minimum and maximum measures for the summer months, and the number of observations.
How?  
  • Click a round button to indicate Individual Date Fields.
  • Click a round button to indicate Day of Month Fields.
  • Click your left Mouse button on any desired single option in the list box.
  • Press the Ctrl key while clicking your left Mouse button to make multiple selections.
  • Press the Shift key while clicking your left Mouse button and dragging the selection for a range of values.

Day of Month

Select All Days or any number of individual days (1 - 31).
How?  
  • Click a round button to indicate Individual Date Fields.
  • Click a round button to indicate Day of Month Fields.
  • Click your left Mouse button on any desired single option in the list box.
  • Press the Ctrl key while clicking your left Mouse button to make multiple selections.
  • Press the Shift key while clicking your left Mouse button and dragging the selection for a range of values.
Notes:  
Data are reported as "Missing" when the selections in the Individual Date Fields are not found in the data. For example, if data are limited to Day of Month values (29, 30, 31) for All Years in the month of February, then data are only reported for February 29 in the year 2004 and the year 2008. If the query also shows the data grouped by "Day of Month" and shows zero-value rows, then you see "Missing" in the cells for days 30 and 31.


Step 4. Select temperature values:
Limit your data for any of the following data elements:
  1. Day Land Surface Temperature - All Temperatures, -32 - 148 (F) or -36 - 64 (C)
  2. Night Land Surface Temperature - All Temperatures, -51 - 93 (F) or -46 - 34 (C)
How?
  • Click a round button to indicate Fahrenheit or Celsius temperature scales, in Section 1.
  • Click a round button to switch between temperature Ranges or Lists, in Section 4.
  • Hints for the Temperature Range fields:
    • Leave the box blank to use the default value for the threshold, which is displayed below each box inside parenthesis.
    • Type in your desired range of sunlight values, use whole numbers. For example, to limit data to all values above 100 degrees, you would type 100 in the lower range box and leave the upper range box blank.
    • Click the blue counter-clockwise swoop image to the right of the date range fields to reset the entries to the default values (all).
  • Hints for the Lists:
    • Click your left Mouse button on any desired single option in the list box.
    • To select more than one value in the list, press down the Ctrl key on your keyboard while you click your left Mouse button. You can select specific, distinct values that are not contiguous in the list.
    • To select a range of contiguous values, press down the Shift key on your keyboard while you click and drag your left Mouse button.

Day Land Surface Temperature

Limit your data to the selected daily daytime (1:30 pm local time) land surface temperature values. First click the round radio button to show the preferred temperature scale in Section 1. Then use the round button to switch between temperature Ranges or Lists. Finally select a range of temperatures for limiting the data, or use the List to specify any combination of the individual values to limit the data.

How?  

Notes:  

  • Note that the values in the list box are the range of daily county-level average values available in the data.
  • Values are a spatial average of the daily daytime (1:30 pm local time) land surface temperature values recorded for each 1 kilometer square spatial resolution grid, aggregated at the county level.
  • MODIS temperature measurement data are sparse for some times and places, data are missing during times of cloud cover or satellite calibration operations. See Additional Information for more information about the filter algorithm for land surface temperatures.

Night Land Surface Temperature

Limit your data to the selected daily minimum land surface temperature values. First click the round radio button to show the preferred temperature scale in Section 1. Then use the round button to switch between temperature Ranges or Lists. Finally select a range of temperatures for limiting the data, or use the List to specify any combination of the individual values to limit the data.

How?  

Notes:  

  • Note that the values in the list box are the range of daily county-level average values available in the data.
  • Values are a spatial average of the daily nighttime (1:30 am local time) land surface temperature values recorded for each 1 kilometer square spatial resolution grid, aggregated at the county level.
  • MODIS temperature measurement data are sparse for some times and places, data are missing during times of cloud cover or satellite calibration operations. See Additional Information for more information about the filter algorithm for land surface temperatures.


Step 5. Other options:
Export Results:    If checked query results are exported to a local file. More information on how to import this file into other applications can be found here.
How? See "How do I use a checkbox?"
Show Totals:    If checked totals and sub-totals will appear in the results table.
How? See "How do I use a checkbox?"
Show Zero Values:    If checked, rows containing zero counts are included in the results table. If unchecked, zero count rows are not included.
How? See "How do I use a checkbox?"
Precision:    Select the precision for rate calculations. When the rate calculated for a small numerator (incidence count) is zero, you may increase the precision to reveal the rate by showing more numbers to the right of the decimal point.
How? See "How do I select items from the list box?"
Data Access Timeout:    This value specifies the maximum time to wait for the data access for a query to complete. If the data access takes too long to complete, a message will be displayed and you can increase the timeout or simplify your request. If you can't complete a request using the maximum timeout, contact user support and we will try to run a custom data request for you.
How? See "How do I select items from the list box?"

Data Source Information

Data Sources:   

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC).

In a study funded by the NASA Applied Sciences Program/Public Health Program (fully cited below), scientists at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center/ Universities Space Research Association developed computer programs to process the MODIS data, including merging data from the two MODIS sensors They also identified in a Geographic Information System (GIS) the associated geographic locations of the centroids of the gridded MODIS LST dataset in terms of the counties and states they fall into to enable aggregation to different geographic levels in CDC WONDER.

MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra Earth Observing System (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth is timed so that it passes from north to south across the equator in the morning, while Aqua passes south to north over the equator in the afternoon. Terra MODIS and Aqua MODIS are viewing the entire Earth's surface every 1 to 2 days, acquiring data in 36 spectral bands, or groups of wavelengths (see MODIS Technical Specifications). These data improve our understanding of global dynamics and processes occurring on the land, in the oceans, and in the lower atmosphere. MODIS plays a vital role in the development of validated, global, interactive Earth system models with accuracy to assist policy makers in making sound decisions concerning our environment.

To learn more about the methods and source of these data, please reference:


Additional Information

Suggested Data Source Citations:   

Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Daily Land Surface Temperature (LST), years 2003-2008 on CDC WONDER Online Database, released 2012.

Crosson, W.L., M.Z. Al-Hamdan, S.N. Hemmings and G.M. Wade, 2012. A daily merged MODIS Aqua-Terra land surface temperature data set for the conterminous United States. Remote Sensing of Environment, Volume 119, pages 315-324. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2011.12.019.

The suggested citation including the original series for the data is shown below each table, chart or map.

Contact:    For data questions that are not addressed in this document, e-mail bill.crosson@nasa.gov or mohammad.alhamdan@nasa.gov
Acknowledgements:    This work was part of a collaborative study funded by the NASA Applied Sciences Program/Public Health Program (grant# NNX09AV81G), whose team members are:
  • Dr. Leslie McClure (PI), School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham
  • Dr. Mohammad Al-Hamdan (Co-PI), Universities Space Research Association, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center
  • Dr. William Crosson (Co-I), Universities Space Research Association, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center
  • Ms. Sigrid Economou (Collaborator), National Center for Public Health Informatics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • Mr. Maurice Estes, Jr. (Co-I), Universities Space Research Association, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center
  • Ms. Sue Estes (Co-I), Universities Space Research Association, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center
  • Mr. Mark Puckett (Collaborator), National Center for Public Health Informatics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • Dr. Dale Quattrochi, Jr. (Co-I), Earth Science Office, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center
Other Topics:    Reference the following topics:
Filtering Algorithm
Locations: About County Level Changes
Contact for Data Questions
Suggested Citation

Filtering Algorithm

There exist some unrealistically high or low MODIS land surface temperatures (LST) at the original 1 kilometer square grid resolution. These anomalies are the result of imperfect flagging of cloudy areas in the MODIS LST data, erroneous data collected during in-flight calibration of the sensor, or other sensor-related issues. An algorithm was developed and applied to filter out values which are outside of the normally observed LST range for a given location. The algorithm sets minimum and maximum temperature thresholds separately for day and night MODIS LST values based on linear functions of the latitude and elevation of each LST pixel value and on the day of year. In this approach, the highest threshold temperatures were fixed to July 15, and the lowest threshold temperatures were assigned to January 15.

This algorithm was used to eliminate MODIS LST pixel values from the calculation of county-level LST. The scheme is designed to exclude values that are extremely unlikely to occur at a given location and time. It does not filter out all inaccurate LST values, since these sometimes are within normal limits for a given location and date. On the other hand, a few extreme, but valid, LST values are likely incorrectly eliminated by this algorithm. In most cases, the effect on the county level and larger aggregation scales is very slight.


Location Updates: notes about specific county-level changes in boundaries and codes

Comparable measures may be misleading for counties with changing boundaries. The data collection may lag behind some Federal Information Processing (FIPS) location code changes. Some places, such as independent cities and New York City boroughs are included as unique locations in the data. Some county and census tract area (CA) locations are not included, instead the data are associated with a neighboring county or the previous location name and FIPS code. The list below of county-level changes is organized alphabetically by state name and then county name.

  1. Alaska boroughs and census areas:
    Data are not available for the state of Alaska, nor Alaskan boroughs and census areas.
  2. Colorado: Broomfield county
    Broomfield county, Colorado (FIPS code 08014) was created effective November 15, 2001 from parts of four counties: Adams, Boulder, Jefferson, and Weld. Data are not available for Broomfield county. Data are aggregated within the previous boundaries of adjacent Adams, Boulder, Jefferson, and Weld counties.
  3. Florida: Dade county and Miami city
    Dade county, Florida (FIPS code 12025) was renamed Miami-Dade County and its FIPS code changed to 12086, effective November 13, 1997. The previous label and code, Dade county (FIPS code 12025), are used here.
  4. Maryland: Baltimore city and Baltimore county
    The independent city of Baltimore, Maryland has been treated as a county. Data are reported separately for Baltimore city (FIPS code 24510) and Baltimore county (FIPS code 24005).
  5. Missouri:
    1. St. Genevieve county, Missouri
      In order to achieve alphabetical consistency, the FIPS code for St. Genevieve, Missouri was changed in 1979 from 29193 to 29186. The new code (29186) is used here.
    2. St. Louis city and St. Louis county, Missouri
      The independent city of St. Louis, Missouri has been treated as a county. Data are reported separately for St. Louis city (FIPS code 29510) and St. Louis county (FIPS code 29189).
  6. Nevada: Carson City
    The independent city of Carson City, Nevada (FIPS code 32510) has been treated as a county. Data are shown separately from the adjacent counties for Carson City, Nevada.
  7. New York: New York City boroughs
    The five boroughs of New York City have been treated as counties and maintained as separate entities.

    Borough County FIPS Code
    Bronx Bronx 36005
    Brooklyn Kings 36047
    Manhattan New York 36061
    Queens Queens 36081
    Staten Island   Richmond   36085

  8. Virginia independent cities:
    1. Alleghany, Virginia
      Alleghany, Virginia (FIPS code 51005) and Clifton Forge city, Virginia (FIPS code 51560) are reported separately.
    2. Clifton Forge city, Virginia
      On July 1, 2001, Clifton Forge city, Virginia (FIPS code 51560), formerly an independent city, merged with Alleghany county (FIPS code 51005). However, data for Clifton Forge city are reported separately from Alleghany county, Virginia (FIPS code 51005) for all years.
    3. Nansemond city, Virginia
      Nansemond city, Virginia (FIPS code 51123) has been part of the independent city of Suffolk, VA (FIPS code 51800) since 1979. For all years, data for Nansemond are aggregated and reported with those for Suffolk city.
    4. Table of Virginia independent cities and counties
      The Virginia independent cities are treated as counties and appear on the data with the following FIPS codes:

         Independent City	       County
      

      Name	     FIPS code	 Name       FIPS code   
      
      Alexandria	 51510	 Arlington	51013
      Bedford		 51515	 Bedford	51019
      Bristol		 51520	 Washington	51191
      Buena Vista	 51530	 Rockbridge	51163
      Charlottesville	 51540	 Albemarle 	51003
      Chesapeake	 51550	
      Clifton Forge	 51560	 Alleghany 	51005 
      Colonial Heights 51570   Chesterfield 	51041
      Covington	 51580   Alleghany 	51005
      Danville	 51590   Pittsylvania 	51143
      Emporia		 51595   Greensville	51081
      Fairfax		 51600   Fairfax	51059
      Falls Church	 51610   Fairfax 	51059
      Franklin	 51620   Southampton	51175
      Fredericksburg	 51630   Spotsylvania	51177
      Galax		 51640   Grayson 	51077          
      Hampton		 51650
      Harrisonburg	 51660	 Rockingham	51165
      Hopewell	 51670	 Prince George	51149
      Lexington	 51678	 Rockbridge	51163
      Lynchburg	 51680	 Campbell 	51031
      Manassas	 51683	 Prince William 51153
      Manassas Park	 51685	 Prince William	51153
      Martinsville	 51690	 Henry	 	51089
      Newport News	 51700
      Norfolk		 51710
      Norton		 51720	 Wise	 	51195
      Petersburg	 51730	 Dinwiddie	51053
      Poquoson	 51735	 York	 	51199
      Portsmouth	 51740	 Norfolk city	51710
      Radford		 51750	 Montgomery	51121
      Richmond	 51760	 Henrico 	51087
      Roanoke		 51770	 Roanoke 	51161
      Salem		 51775	 Roanoke 	51161
      Staunton	 51790	 Augusta 	51015
      Suffolk		 51800
      Virginia Beach	 51810
      Waynesboro	 51820	 Augusta 	51015
      Williamsburg	 51830	 James City	51095
      Winchester	 51840	 Frederick	51069
      




This page last reviewed: Monday, January 25, 2016
This information is provided as technical reference material. Please contact us at cwus@cdc.gov to request a simple text version of this document.
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