Births Data Summary

Natality 2016-2018 (Expanded)

Summary:    This dataset reports statistics for live births occurring within the United States to U.S. residents. Data are available by a variety of demographic characteristics, such as state and county of residence, mother's race, and mother's age, and health and medical items, such as tobacco use, method of delivery, and congenital anomalies. The data are derived from birth certificates issued in years 2016-2018. For the documentation on births data for preceding years through 2018, see Natality 1995-2018. Please also see Natality Information for links to the online databases.

Privacy policy: As of May 23, 2011, all sub-national data representing zero to nine (0-9) births are suppressed. See Assurance of Confidentiality for more information

Population:    Live births in the United States, 2016-2018
Source:   

United States Department of Health and Human Services (US DHHS),
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),
National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS),
Division of Vital Statistics (DVS),
Natality on CDC WONDER Online Database,
for years 2016-2018 available September 2019.

In WONDER:    You can produce tables, maps, charts, and data extracts. Request national, state and county summary counts of live births since 1995. Calculate birth rates (normalized to the total population) and fertility rates (normalized to females age 15 - 44 years old), as well as other measures. Limit and index your data by any and all of these variables:

  • Mother's residence:
    Location - National, Regional, Division, State and County (total population of 100,000 or more; no territories) of mother's legal residence at the time of birth.
  • Maternal Characteristics:
    • Maternal Race in Single-Race categories:
      • 6 race categories - American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN); Asian; Black or African American; More than one race; Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI); White; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • 15 race categories - White; Black; American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN); Asian Indian; Chinese; Filipino; Japanese; Korean; Vietnamese; Other Asian; Hawaiian; Guamanian; Samoan; Other Pacific Islander; More than one race; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • 31 race categories - White; Black; American Indian or Alaskan Native (AIAN); Asian; Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI); Black and White; Black and AIAN; Black and Asian; Black and NHOPI; AIAN and White; AIAN and Asian; AIAN and NHOPI; Asian and White; Asian and NHOPI; NHOPI and White; Black, AIAN, and White; Black, AIAN, and Asian; Black, AIAN, and NHOPI; Black, Asian, and White; Black, Asian, and NHOPI; Black, NHOPI, and White; AIAN, Asian, and White; AIAN, NHOPI, and White; AIAN, Asian, and NHOPI; Asian, NHOPI, and White; Black, AIAN, Asian, and White; Black, AIAN, Asian, and NHOPI; Black, AIAN, NHOPI, and White; Black, Asian, NHOPI, and White; AIAN, Asian, NHOPI, and White; Black, AIAN, Asian, NHOPI, and White; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Maternal Hispanic Origin
      • Hispanic origin categories - Hispanic or Latino; Not Hispanic or Latino; Origin unknown or not stated.
      • Expanded Hispanic origin categories - Mexican; Puerto Rican; Cuban; Dominican; Central or South American; Other and Unknown Hispanic; Non-Hispanic; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Marital Status - Married; Unmarried; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Available.
    • Paternity Acknowledgment (if mother unmarried) - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Applicable; Not Reported.
    • Age of Mother - under 15 years through over 50 years.
      Mother's age is available in 4 sets of age groups:
      • 9 groups of 5-year increments: under 15 years; 15-19 years; 20-24 years; 25-29 years; 30-34 years; 35-39 years; 40-44 years; 45-49 years; 50 years and over.
      • 10 groups with categories for 15-17 and 18-19 year old mothers, and 5-year age increments for older mothers;
      • 13 groups with single-year age categories for 15, 16, 17, 18, and 19 year old mothers, and 5-year age increments for older mothers;
      • Yearly age groups with an age category for 10-12 year old mothers, and single-year age increments for older mothers.
    • Mother's Education - 8th grade or less; 9th through 12th grade with no diploma; High school graduate or GED completed; Some college credit, but not a degree; Associate degree (AA, AS); Bachelor's degree (BA, AB, BS); Master's degree (MA, MS); Doctorate (PHD, EdD) or Professional Degree (MD, DDS, DVM, LLB, JD); Unknown or Not Stated; Excluded.
    • Mother's birth place:
      • Mother's Nativity - Born in the U.S. (50 US States); Born outside the U.S. (includes possessions); Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Mother's Birth Country - lists 294 options, from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Mother's Birth State - lists 72 options, for areas affiliated with the United States and Canada; Rest of the World; Not Classifiable.
  • Paternal Characteristics:
    • Paternal Race in Single-Race categories:
      • 6 race categories - American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN); Asian; Black or African American; More than one race; Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI); White; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • 15 race categories - White; Black; American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN); Asian Indian; Chinese; Filipino; Japanese; Korean; Vietnamese; Other Asian; Hawaiian; Guamanian; Samoan; Other Pacific Islander; More than one race; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • 31 race categories - White; Black; American Indian or Alaskan Native (AIAN); Asian; Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI); Black and White; Black and AIAN; Black and Asian; Black and NHOPI; AIAN and White; AIAN and Asian; AIAN and NHOPI; Asian and White; Asian and NHOPI; NHOPI and White; Black, AIAN, and White; Black, AIAN, and Asian; Black, AIAN, and NHOPI; Black, Asian, and White; Black, Asian, and NHOPI; Black, NHOPI, and White; AIAN, Asian, and White; AIAN, NHOPI, and White; AIAN, Asian, and NHOPI; Asian, NHOPI, and White; Black, AIAN, Asian, and White; Black, AIAN, Asian, and NHOPI; Black, AIAN, NHOPI, and White; Black, Asian, NHOPI, and White; AIAN, Asian, NHOPI, and White; Black, AIAN, Asian, NHOPI, and White; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Father's Hispanic Origin
      • Hispanic origin categories - Hispanic or Latino; Not Hispanic or Latino; Origin unknown or not stated.
      • Expanded Hispanic origin categories - Mexican; Puerto Rican; Cuban; Dominican; Central or South American; Other and Unknown Hispanic; Non-Hispanic; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Father's Education - 8th grade or less; 9th through 12th grade with no diploma; High school graduate or GED completed; Some college credit, but not a degree; Associate degree (AA, AS); Bachelor's degree (BA, AB, BS); Master's degree (MA, MS); Doctorate (PHD, EdD) or Professional Degree (MD, DDS, DVM, LLB, JD); Unknown or Not Stated; Excluded.
    • Age of Father - 11 groups of 5-year increments: under 15 years; 15-19 years; 20-24 years; 25-29 years; 30-34 years; 35-39 years; 40-44 years; 45-49 years; 50-54 years, 55-98 years; Unknown or Not Stated.
  • Pregnancy history and prenatal care characteristics:
    • Prior pregnancies - timing:
      • Interval Since Last Live Birth - 11 categories: Zero to 3 months (plural delivery); 4 to 11 months; 12 to 17 months; 18 to 23 months; 24 to 35 months; 36 to 47 months; 48 to 59 months; 60 to 71 months; 72 months and over; Not Applicable (1st live birth); Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Interval Since Last Other Pregnancy Outcome - 11 categories: Zero to 3 months (plural delivery); 4 to 11 months; 12 to 17 months; 18 to 23 months; 24 to 35 months; 36 to 47 months; 48 to 59 months; 60 to 71 months; 72 months and over; Not Applicable (1st natality event); Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Interval of Last Pregnancy - 11 categories: Zero to 3 months (plural delivery); 4 to 11 months; 12 to 17 months; 18 to 23 months; 24 to 35 months; 36 to 47 months; 48 to 59 months; 60 to 71 months; 72 months and over; Not Applicable (no previous pregnancy); Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Prior pregancy outcomes:
      • Prior Births Now Living - 33 categories: Zero through thirty births in 1 birth increments (0,1,2... 30); Unknown or Not Stated (99); Not Reported (100).
      • Prior Births Now Dead - 33 categories: Zero through thirty live births in 1 birth increments (0,1,2... 30); Unknown or Not Stated (99); Not Reported (100).
      • Prior Other Pregnancy Outcomes - 33 categories: Zero through thirty outcomes in increments of 1 (0,1,2... 30); Unknown or Not Stated (99); Not Reported (100).
    • Birth order:
      • Live Birth Order - 9 categories: One child born alive to mother through seven live births; 8 or more; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Total Birth Order - 9 categories: One child born alive to mother through seven live births; 8 or more; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Prenatal care:
      • Number of Prenatal Visits - 100 categories: Zero through 98 prenatal visits; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Number of Prenatal Visits Recode - 12 categories: No visits; 1 to 2 visits; 3 to 4 visits; 5 to 6 visits; 7 to 8 visits; 9 to 10 visits; 11 to 12 visits; 13 to 14 visits; 15 to 16 visits; 17 to 18 visits; 19 or more visits; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Month Maternal Prenatal Care Began - 12 categories: No prenatal care; 1st month through 10th month; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Trimester Prenatal Care Began - 6 categories: 1st to 3rd month; 4th to 6th month; 7th to final month; No prenatal care; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
    • WIC - 3 categories for enrollment in Women, Infants, and Children supplemental nutrition program: Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Obstetric procedures:
      • Successful External Cephalic Version - 3 categories for outcome of procedure to turn non-vertex fetal position to vertex by external manipulation: Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Failed External Cephalic Version - 3 categories for outcome of procedure to turn non-vertex fetal position to vertex by external manipulation: Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
  • Maternal Risk Factors:
    • Mother's height and weight:
      • Mother's Height in Inches - 50 categories: 30 inches; 31 - 78 inches; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Mother's Pre-pregnancy Weight - 7 categories in 50 pound increments: 75 - 124 lbs; 125 - 174 lbs; 175 - 224 lbs; 225 - 274 lbs; 275 - 324 lbs; 325 - 375 lbs; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Mother's Pre-pregnancy BMI - 7 categories for Body Mass Index: Underweight <18.5; Normal 18.5-24.9; Overweight 25.0-29.9; Obesity I 30.0-34.9; Obesity II 35.0-39.9; Extreme Obesity III >39.9; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Mother's Delivery Weight - 7 categories in 50 pound increments: 100 - 149 lbs; 150 - 199 lbs; 200 - 249 lbs; 250 - 299 lbs; 300 - 349 lbs; 350 - 400 lbs; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Mother's Weight Gain - 100 categories in single pound increments: 0 pounds through 97 pounds; 98 or more; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Mother's Weight Gain Recode - 6 categories: Less than 11 pounds; 11 to 20 pounds; 21 to 30 pounds; 31 to 40 pounds; 41 to 98 pounds; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Tobacco use during pregnancy - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Cigarette consumption:
  • Pregnancy Risk Factors:
  • Maternal infections present and/or treated during pregnancy:
    • Gonorrhea - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Syphilis - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Chlamydia - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Hepatitis B - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Hepatitis C - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Infections Checked - At least one checked; None checked; Unknown or Not Stated.
      This field indicates whether any infections were reported. Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any reported infections.
  • Labor Characteristics:
    • Induction of Labor - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Augmentation of Labor - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Steroids (glucocorticoids) for fetal lung maturation received by the mother before delivery - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Antibiotics for Mother during labor - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Chorioamnionitis clinical chorioamnionitis or maternal temperature >= 38 degrees Celsius (100.4 degrees Fahrenheit) - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Anesthesia epidural or spinal anesthesia during labor - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Characteristics of Labor Checked - At least one checked; None checked; Unknown or Not Stated.
      This field indicates whether any labor characteristics noted above was reported. Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any of the above labor characteristics.
  • Delivery Characteristics:
    • When:
      • Year - 2016-2018 for "expanded" natality data from birth records
        (less detailed data are available for years 1995-2018 at Births).
      • Month - January-December.
      • Weekday - Sunday-Saturday.
      • Time of Day - 10 categories: 00:00 - 02:29; 03:00 - 05:59; 06:00 - 08:59; 09:00 - 11:59; 12:00 - 14:59; 15:00 - 17:59; 18:00 - 20:59; 21:00 - 23:59; Unknown or Not Stated, Not Reported.
    • Where:
      • Birthplace - 9 categories: Hospital; Freestanding Birth Center; Home (intended); Home (not intended); Home (unknown if intended); Clinic / Doctor's Office; Other; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
      • Birthplace Recode 6 - 6 categories: Hospital; Freestanding Birth Center; Clinic / Doctor's Office; Residence; Other; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Birthplace Recode 3 - 3 categories: Hospital; Not in Hospital; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Mother Transferred - - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Medical Attendant - Doctor of Medicine (MD); Doctor of Osteopathy (DO); Certified Nurse Midwife (CNM); Other Midwife; Other; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • How:
    • Payment:
  • Maternal Morbidity:
  • Infant Characteristics:
    • Gender (Sex) of Child - Female; Male.
    • Birth Weight
      Infant's weight at birth is available in 3 sets of categories, through 8165 grams, or Not stated:
    • Multiple Births
    • Gestational Age at Birth
      Gestational age groups are available in 3 sets of categories, representing the duration of the pregnancy at the time of birth, based on Last Menstrual Period (LMP) or Obstetric Estimate (OE):
      • 10 age groups: Under 20 weeks; 20-27 weeks; 28-31 weeks; 32-35 weeks; 36 weeks; 37-39 weeks; 40 weeks; 41 weeks; 42 weeks or more; Unknown.
      • 11 age groups: Under 20 weeks; 20-27 weeks; 28-31 weeks; 32-33 weeks; 34-36 weeks; 37-38 weeks; 39 weeks, 40 weeks; 41 weeks; 42 or more weeks; Unknown.
      • Weekly age groups: 17 weeks through 47 weeks; Unknown.
    • APGAR scores
      APGAR scores are available for 5 minutes and 10 minutes after birth, in single increments or recoded into 5 categories:
      • Single increments of 0 - 10; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Applicable.
      • Recoded categories - A score of 0-3; A score of 4-6; A score of 7-8; A score of 9-10; Unknown or Not Stated.
      Note that 10 minute APGARS scores are categorized as "Not Applicable" when the 5 minute score was 6 or higher, and reported as "Unknown or Not Stated" in the recoded categories.
    • Infant Breastfed at Discharge? - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
    • Infant Transferred? - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Infant Living at Time of Report? - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
  • Abnormal conditions of newborn:
    • Assisted Ventilation - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
      Assisted Ventilation data are available in 2 fields,
      1) Assisted ventilation required immediately following delivery; and
      2) Assisted ventilation required for more than six hours.
    • NICU Admission - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Surfactant Replacement Therapy - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Antibiotics for Suspected Neonatal Sepsis - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Seizures - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Abnormal Conditions Checked - At least one checked; None checked; Unknown or Not Stated.
      This field indicates whether any abnormal conditions noted above was reported. Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any of the above abnormal conditions.
  • Congenital anomalies of newborn:

Contents:    Natality Data Request
Data Source Information
Additional Information
Natality Data Items
Frequently Asked Questions

Natality (Expanded) Data Request

Output:    You can produce tables, maps, charts, and data extracts. The following measures are available:
  1. Number of births (summary frequency counts)
  2. Birth rates (normalized to the total population)
  3. Fertility rates (normalized to females age 15-44)
  4. Percent of total births (total for your query results)
  5. Average Age of Mother (years)
  6. Average Gestational Age of Infant (weeks) (based on date of Last Menstrual Period (LMP))
  7. Average Gestational Age of Infant (weeks) (based on Obstetric Estimate (OE))
  8. Average Birth Weight (grams)
  9. Average Pre-pregnancy BMI
  10. Average Number of Prenatal Visits
  11. Average Interval Since Last Live Birth (months)
  12. Average Interval Since Last Other Pregnancy Outcome (months)
  13. Standard Deviation (for averages)
Variables:   

You can limit and index your data by any and all of the data variables.

How?   

The Request screen has sections to guide you through making a data request as a step-by-step process. However, first time users might want to simply press any Send button to get the default table. The data results for your query appear on the Table screen. Click the Request tab above the table to return to the Request screen and form another query. After you get your data results, click the Chart or Map tabs to go to those screens and makes charts or maps. Click the export button above the data table to download your data table as a tab-delimited line listed file.

For more information, see the following:

Quick Start Guide;
Step 1, Organize your request;
Step 2, Limit births to selected locations (for maternal residence);
Step 2.a, Limit births to selected urbanization classifications (for maternal residence);
Step 3, Select maternal characteristics;
Step 4, Select paternal characteristics;
Step 5, Select pregnancy history and prenatal care characteristics;
Step 6, Select maternal risk factors;
Step 7, Select pregnancy risk factors;
Step 8, Select maternal infections present and/or treated during pregnancy;
Step 9, Select labor characteristics;
Step 10, Select delivery characteristics;
Step 11, Select maternal morbidity;
Step 12, Select infant characteristics;
Step 13, Select abnormal conditions of newborn;
Step 14, Select congenital anomalies of newborn;
Step 15, Other options.

'Group Results By'   

Select variables that serve as keys (indexes) for organizing your data. See How do I organize my data? for more information.
Note:    To map your data, the first selection in the "Group Results By" list must be a geographical location, such as region, state or county. You can also limit locations in section 2, and limit other data categories in subsequent sections.

Help:   

Click on any button labeled "Help", located to the right hand side of the screen at the top of each section. Each Control's label, such as the "Location" label next to the Location entry box, is linked to the online help for that item.

Send:   

Sends your data request to be processed on the CDC WONDER databases. The Send buttons are located on the bottom of the Request page, and also in the upper right corner of each section, for easy access.



Step 1. Organize table layout:

Group Results By:   

Select up to five variables to group (summarize, stratify, index) your data. For example, you could select to group your data by State and by County. See How do I organize my data? for more information.

Select Measures:   

Birth rates, fertility rates and other optional measures are available for the Natality data beginning in year 2003, see Births for other years of birhs data on CDC WONDER. Select the check box to calculate these measures for your query criteria. The number of live births is always calculated by default.

Title:    Enter any desired description to display as a title with your results.


Group Results By

Select up to five variables that serve as keys for grouping your data. For example, you could select to group (summarize, stratify, index) your data by Year, State, and Race.

How?    See How do I organize my data? for more information.

Hints:   

  1. To make a map, select a location variable, such as region, state or county, in the Group Results By list in section 1 on the Request Form tab. After the results for the query display, then click the Map tab.
  2. To make a chart, select one or two options in the Group Results By lists in section 1 on the Request Form tab. After the results for the query display, then click the Chart tab. When a query groups results by more than two By-Variables, charts are not available.



Birth Rates

Birth rates are calculated as the number of births divided by total population in the given year(s).

When the numerator is sub-set by mother's race category, Hispanic origin category, location, or year of birth, then the same sub-set for race, Hispanic origin category, location and year applies to the denominator population. If the data are sub-set by any other variable, then birth rates and denominator data are not available.

See Denominator Population Sources below for more information.

Notes:
  • Birth rates are available for the Natality data beginning in year 2003. (Data are available for years 1995-2018 at Births).
  • Birth rates are only available for the total population, or for mother's race category, Hispanic origin category, mother's place of residence and the year of birth. If data are grouped by any other variable, or limited for any other variable, then birth rates are not calculated. Comparable denominator data are not available for the other variables.
  • Rates returned for Hispanicity in combination with Single Race are calculated differently here than in other natality published reports. For more information, see About Hispanic birth and fertility rates.


Fertility Rates

Fertility rates are calculated as the number of births divided by the number of females age 15 - 44 years old in the given year(s).

When the numerator is sub-set by mother's age, mother's race category, Hispanic origin category, location, or year of birth, then the same sub-set for age, race, Hispanic origin category, location and year applies to the denominator population. If data are sub-set by any other variable, then fertility rates and denominator data are not available.

See Denominator Population Sources below for more information.

Notes:
  • Fertility rates are available for the Natality data since year 2003. (Data are available for years 1995-2018 at Births).
  • Fertility rates are only available for the total population, or for mother's age, mother's race category, Hispanic origin category, mother's place of residence and the year of birth. If data are grouped by any other variable, or limited for any other variable, then fertility rates are not calculated. Comparable denominator data are not available for the other variables.
  • Rates returned for Hispanicity in combination with Single Race are calculated differently here than in other natality published reports. For more information, see About Hispanic birth and fertility rates.


Denominator Population Sources

The current population sources for calculating birth and fertility rates in the "expanded" Natality online database come from these sources:



Percent of Total Births

Calculates percentages for your query results. The percentages appear in a column, showing each row's percentage of the total births in the results table. The results table shows data for the live births that met your query criteria.

Notes:
  • Please note that the Percent of Total calculated by CDC WONDER may not be consistent with percentages published by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). NCHS excludes unknowns (also "not stated," "not on certificate," "excluded," and "not reported") from the denominator when calculating percentages.
  • If you wish to drop the unknown categories from your query criteria, then you should specifically select the categories you wish to include in your query. Please note that "All" options include the unknown values.


Average Age of Mother (years)

Calculates the average maternal age in years for your query results. The averages appear in a column, showing each row's average value. The results table shows data for the live births that met your query criteria.

Notes:
  • Standard deviation is also available for each average measure.
  • The averages are based on the most detailed scalar maternal age field, Age of Mother Year with single year increments, in a range from 10-50 years.
  • Caution should be used when interpreting the Average Age of Mother measure. All ages 12 years and less are coded to 12 years. All ages 50 years and over are coded to 50 years. The number of counts in those two age groups are small and should not have a great effect on the average age. Consider doing queries with and without these two age groups and compare the effect on Average Age of Mother measure.


Average Gestational Age based on Last Menstrual Period (weeks)

Calculates the average gestational age of the infant in weeks, based on the Last Menstrual Period (LMP). The averages appear in a column, showing each row's average value. The results table shows data for the live births that met your query criteria.

Notes:
  • Standard deviation is also available for each average measure.
  • The averages are based on the most detailed scalar field, "LMP Gestational Age Weekly", with weekly infant's gestational age increments ranging from 17-47 weeks.
  • Records where the gestational age at birth is "Unknown or Not Stated" are not included in the calculation of the "Average Gestational Age" measure.


Average Gestational Age based on Obstetric Estimate (weeks)

Calculates the average gestational age of the infant in weeks, based on the Obstetric Estimate (OE). The averages appear in a column, showing each row's average value. The results table shows data for the live births that met your query criteria.

Notes:
  • Standard deviation is also available for each average measure.
  • The averages are based on the most detailed scalar field, "OE Gestational Age Weekly", with weekly infant's gestational age increments ranging from 17-47 weeks.
  • Records where the gestational duration of the pregnancy at the time of birth is "Unknown or Not Stated" are not included in the calculation of the "Average Gestational Age" measure.


Average Birth Weight (grams)

Calculates the average birth weight of the infant, The averages appear in a column, showing each row's average birth weight. The results table shows data for the live births that met your query criteria.

Notes:
  • Standard deviation is also available for each average measure.
  • The averages are based on the most detailed scalar weight data field, Birth Weight 100 gram increments.
  • Records where the "Birth Weight" is "Unknown or Not Stated" are not included in the calculation of the "Average Birth Weight" measure.


Average Pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI)

Calculates the average pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI) value for mothers. The averages appear in a column, showing each row's average value. The results table shows data for the live births that met your query criteria.

Notes:
  • Standard deviation is also available for each average measure.
  • The averages are based on values in the detailed scalar data field, which is also the basis for the categories available in Mother's Pre-pregnancy BMI.
  • Records where the "BMI" is "Unknown or Not Stated" are not included in the calculation of the "Average Pre-pregnancy BMI" measure.


Average Number of Prenatal Visits

Calculates the average number of prenatal visits. The averages appear in a column, showing each row's average value. The results table shows data for the live births that met your query criteria.

Notes:
  • Standard deviation is also available for each average measure.
  • The averages are based on values in the detailed scalar data field, which is also the basis for the categories available in Number of Prenatal Visits.
  • Records where the "Number of Prenatal Visits" is "Unknown or Not Stated" are not included in the calculation of the "Average Number of Prenatal Visits" measure.


Average Interval Since Last Live Birth (months)

Calculates the average number of months between this live birth and the mother's preceding live birth. The averages appear in a column, showing each row's average value. The results table shows data for the live births that met your query criteria.

Notes:
  • Standard deviation is also available for each average measure.
  • The averages are based on values in the detailed scalar data field, which is also the basis for the categories available in Interval Since Last Live Birth.
  • Records where the "Interval Since Last Other Pregnancy Outcome" is "Unknown or Not Stated" or "Zero to 3 months" are not included in the calculation of the "Average Interval Since Last Live Birth" measure.


Average Interval Since Last Other Pregnancy Outcome (months)

Calculates the average number of months between this live birth and the mother's preceding pregnancy outcome, other than live birth. The averages appear in a column, showing each row's average value. The results table shows data for the live births that met your query criteria.

Notes:


Standard Deviation

Calculates the standard deviation for the selected average measures. The results are calculated for the live births that met your query criteria.

Notes:
  • On the Results tab, standard deviation values appear in the 2nd line in the Average column(s). In the tab-delimited text file produced by export, standard deviation values are reported in a separate column, for each selected average measure.
  • The standard deviation shows the variation from the average or mean value that occurs in the birth records that meet the criteria that define the table cell. A low standard deviation value indicates that most data values are close to the mean, and a high standard deviation value indicates the data are spread over a large range of values.


Step 2. Select maternal residence:

Limit the population to specific location here. Alternately, you can leave the settings at the default values (the United States) and choose to organize or group the data results by State to show these stratifications. See Step 2a to select Urbanization and Metro/Nonmetro categories for mother's county of residence, in the classifications for 2006 and 2013.


Location

This dataset includes states (no territories) and counties with a total population over 100,000 persons. Limit your data request to specific locations here. You can select any number of locations. The default settings are national data, the United States.

How?  
  1. Click the round button to choose between Regions (two types of regions, both include states and counties) or States (includes Counties).
  2. See How do I use a Finder? for hints on how to search for and select your desired locations.
    • The default value is all locations (the United States).
    • See Finder Tool help for more hints.

Notes:   

  • Location is based on mother's legal residence recorded on the birth certificate.
  • About Counties: County-level data are shown for counties with populations of 100,000 persons or more. All counties with fewer than 100,000 persons are shown combined together under the label "Unknown County." The 2016-2018 births data identifies counties with a population of 100,000 persons or more in the year 2010 Census.
  • About Regions and Divisions:
    • Regions and divisions are multi-state groups. Regions include states and counties, yet do not include territories. Choose between two types of regions:
      • four Census Regions, with nine sub-ordinate divisions, or
      • ten Health and Human Services (HHS) Regions.
    • Census Regions and Divisions from the United States Census Bureau:

      Census Region 1 - Northeast:

      • Division 1 - New England:    Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont.
      • Division 2 - Middle Atlantic:    New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania.

      Census Region 2 - Midwest:

      • Division 3 - East North Central:    Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin.
      • Division 4 - West North Central:    Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota.

      Census Region 3 - South:

      • Division 5 - South Atlantic:    Delaware, District of Columbia reporting area, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia.
      • Division 6 - East South Central:    Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, Tennessee.
      • Division 7 - West South Central:    Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas.

      Census Region 4 - West:

      • Division 8 - Mountain:    Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, Wyoming.
      • Division 9 - Pacific:    Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, Washington.

    • Health and Human Services (HHS) Regions:

      HHS Region 1 - Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont.

      HHS Region 2 - New Jersey, New York (data for Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands are not included here).

      HHS Region 3 - Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia.

      HHS Region 4 - Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee.

      HHS Region 5 - Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Wisconsin.

      HHS Region 6 - Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas.

      HHS Region 7 - Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska.

      HHS Region 8 - Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, Wyoming.

      HHS Region 9 - Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada (data for American Samoa and Guam are not included here).

      HHS Region 10 - Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington

    • When you export the results of your data request, the location name and the codes are in separate columns.
    • To see the full set of available location values for Regions, group the data by HHS Region, State and County, or by Census Region, Division, State and County, and then export the results.
  • About state and county codes:
    • State and County codes are Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) codes. See the Locations section below for more information about how county FIPS codes have been modified for use in the Natality public-use data.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the location names and the FIPS codes are in separate columns.
    • To see the full list of State locations and codes, send a request and group results by State, then export the results of your data request.
    • See About Counties for more information about county-level data.

The large central metro category contains counties in metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) of one million or more population that have been identified by NCHS classification rules as central because they contain all or part of a principal city of the area. The large fringe metro category contains the remaining counties (similar to suburbs) in MSAs of one million or more. Counties in MSAs of 250,000 to 999,999 population are assigned to the medium metro category and counties in MSAs with populations under 250,000 are assigned to the small metro category. Nonmetropolitan counties that are designated by the Office of Management and Budget as belonging to a micropolitan statistical area are assigned to the micropolitan category and the remaining nonmetropolitan counties are assigned to the noncore category. The large central metro category is the most "urban" category and the noncore category is the most "rural" category.
  • To understand how the classification schemes were developed, see:
  • Most counties are in the same urbanization category for both the 2013 and 2006 schemes. However, for those counties whose category differs in the two schemes, some moved from a less urban to a more urban category, while others moved from a more urban category to a less urban category. For more information, see "Changes in county urbanization category:  2013 scheme versus 2006 scheme" in the report, 2013 NCHS Urban-Rural Classification Scheme for Counties.
  • It is recommended that the micropolitan category not be aggregated with metropolitan categories.
  • The Urbanization categories are identified by two columns, labels and codes, in data extracts.

  • Urbanization

    Use the radio buttons to select either the 2006 or the 2013 NCHS Urban-Rural Scheme for Counties. Select All Categories or any combination of Urbanization values:  Large Central Metro, Large Fringe Metro, Medium Metro, Small Metro, Micropolitan (non-metro), NonCore (non-metro). Each county is assigned to one of these six categories. Each birth is associated with a category based on the county of the person's legal residence.

    See Step 2.a for more information on how to select categories and notes on how these categories are defined.


    Metro/Nonmetro

    The Metro/Nonmetro list allows you to easily compare metropolitan and rural areas. The Metro group includes counties in these Urbanization categories: Large Central Metro, Large Fringe Metro, Medium Metro, and Small Metro. The Nonmetro group includes counties in these Urbanization categories: Micropolitan (non-metro) and NonCore (non-metro).

    See Step 2.a for more information on how to select categories and notes on how categories are defined.



    Step 3. Select maternal characteristics:
    Limit your data for any of the following data elements:
    • Maternal Race in Single-Race categories:
      • 6 race categories - American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN); Asian; Black or African American; More than one race; Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI); White; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • 15 race categories - White; Black; American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN); Asian Indian; Chinese; Filipino; Japanese; Korean; Vietnamese; Other Asian; Hawaiian; Guamanian; Samoan; Other Pacific Islander; More than one race; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • 31 race categories - White; Black; American Indian or Alaskan Native (AIAN); Asian; Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI); Black and White; Black and AIAN; Black and Asian; Black and NHOPI; AIAN and White; AIAN and Asian; AIAN and NHOPI; Asian and White; Asian and NHOPI; NHOPI and White; Black, AIAN, and White; Black, AIAN, and Asian; Black, AIAN, and NHOPI; Black, Asian, and White; Black, Asian, and NHOPI; Black, NHOPI, and White; AIAN, Asian, and White; AIAN, NHOPI, and White; AIAN, Asian, and NHOPI; Asian, NHOPI, and White; Black, AIAN, Asian, and White; Black, AIAN, Asian, and NHOPI; Black, AIAN, NHOPI, and White; Black, Asian, NHOPI, and White; AIAN, Asian, NHOPI, and White; Black, AIAN, Asian, NHOPI, and White; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Maternal Hispanic Origin
      • Hispanic origin categories - Hispanic or Latino; Not Hispanic or Latino; Origin unknown or not stated.
      • Expanded Hispanic origin categories - Mexican; Puerto Rican; Cuban; Dominican; Central or South American; Other and Unknown Hispanic; Non-Hispanic; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Marital Status - Married; Unmarried; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Available.
    • Paternity Acknowledgment (if mother unmarried) - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Applicable; Not Reported.
    • Age of Mother - under 15 years through over 50 years.
      Mother's age is available in 4 sets of age groups:
      • 9 groups of 5-year increments: under 15 years; 15-19 years; 20-24 years; 25-29 years; 30-34 years; 35-39 years; 40-44 years; 45-49 years; 50 years and over.
      • 10 groups with categories for 15-17 and 18-19 year old mothers, and 5-year age increments for older mothers;
      • 13 groups with single-year age categories for 15, 16, 17, 18, and 19 year old mothers, and 5-year age increments for older mothers;
      • Yearly age groups with an age category for 10-12 year old mothers, and single-year age increments for older mothers.
    • Mother's Education - 8th grade or less; 9th through 12th grade with no diploma; High school graduate or GED completed; Some college credit, but not a degree; Associate degree (AA, AS); Bachelor's degree (BA, AB, BS); Master's degree (MA, MS); Doctorate (PHD, EdD) or Professional Degree (MD, DDS, DVM, LLB, JD); Unknown or Not Stated; Excluded.
    • Mother's birth place:
      • Mother's Nativity - Born in the U.S. (50 US States); Born outside the U.S. (includes possessions); Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Mother's Birth Country - lists 294 options, from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Mother's Birth State - lists 72 options, for areas affiliated with the United States and Canada; Rest of the World; Not Classifiable.

    How?    

    Hispanic Origin

    This field indicates the selected parent's Hispanic origin. Data are available for the mother and the father.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • About birth and fertility rates for Hispanic Origin: Rates returned for Hispanic Origin in combination with Single Race are calculated differently here than in other natality published reports. In computing birth and fertility rates by race and Hispanic origin, the Division of Vital Statistics of the National Center for Health Statistics includes births with origin of mother not stated with non-Hispanic births, according to the race of mother ( DOCUMENTATION OF THE DETAIL NATALITY TAPE FILE FOR 1999 DATA; see page 262, or page 17 of the Technical Appendix).
    • Fertility and birth rates are not available for Expanded Hispanic Origin categories because this level of detail is not available in the population denominator data. For birth and fertility rates by Hispanic Origin, limit or group results by the Hispanic Origin categories.
    • Beginning in 2018, the category "Dominican" was added to "Expanded Hispanic Origin" data. WONDER reports "Missing Ethnicity" for the "Dominican" category in years before 2018. Before 2018, births to Dominican parents were coded to the "Other and Unknown Hispanic" category, thus there is a discontinuity between 2017 and 2018 for the "Other and Unknown Hispanic" category.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. Public Health Information Network (PHIN) compatible codes are used when applicable.

      Hispanic Origin groups:
       Code     Label
       "2135-2"  Hispanic or Latino 
       "2186-5"  Not Hispanic or Latino 
       "9"  Origin unknown or not stated 


      Expanded Hispanic Origin groups:
       Code     Label
       "2148-5"  Mexican 
       "2180-8"  Puerto Rican 
       "2182-4"  Cuban 
       "4"  Central or South American 
       "7"  Dominican 
       "5"  Other and Unknown Hispanic 
       "0"  Non-Hispanic 
       "9"  Origin unknown or not stated 


    Parent's Race

    Limit your data to the selected categories for the race of the selected parent. Data are available for the mother and the father. The default selection is all race groups. Three sets of race groups are available in the "expanded" Natality data for years 2016-2018:

    1. 6 race categories - American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN); Asian; Black or African American; More than one race; Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI); White; Unknown or Not Stated.
    2. 15 race categories - White; Black; American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN); Asian Indian; Chinese; Filipino; Japanese; Korean; Vietnamese; Other Asian; Hawaiian; Guamanian; Samoan; Other Pacific Islander; More than one race; Unknown or Not Stated.
    3. 31 race categories - White; Black; American Indian or Alaskan Native (AIAN); Asian; Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI); Black and White; Black and AIAN; Black and Asian; Black and NHOPI; AIAN and White; AIAN and Asian; AIAN and NHOPI; Asian and White; Asian and NHOPI; NHOPI and White; Black, AIAN, and White; Black, AIAN, and Asian; Black, AIAN, and NHOPI; Black, Asian, and White; Black, Asian, and NHOPI; Black, NHOPI, and White; AIAN, Asian, and White; AIAN, NHOPI, and White; AIAN, Asian, and NHOPI; Asian, NHOPI, and White; Black, AIAN, Asian, and White; Black, AIAN, Asian, and NHOPI; Black, AIAN, NHOPI, and White; Black, Asian, NHOPI, and White; AIAN, Asian, NHOPI, and White; Black, AIAN, Asian, NHOPI, and White; Unknown or Not Stated.
    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • About "Single Race" categories for years 2016-2018: Beginning in 2016, all jurisdictions and the National Center for Health Statistics are reporting race consistent with the 1997 Office of Management and Budget standards ("single race"). Single race is defined as one race reported on the birth certificate.
    • When results are exported to a file, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. Public Health Information Network (PHIN) compatible codes are used when applicable. See codes and labels for the Single Race categories below.


    Six "Single Race" groups in years 2016-2018:
     Code     Label
     "1002-5"  American Indian or Alaska Native 
     "A"  Asian 
     "2054-5"  Black or African American 
     "NHOPI"  Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 
     "2106-3"  White 
     "M"  More than one race 


    Fifteen "Single Race" groups in years 2016-2018:
     Code     Label
     "1"  White 
     "2"  Black 
     "3"  American Indian or Alaska Native 
     "4"  Asian Indian 
     "5"  Chinese 
     "6"  Filipino 
     "7"  Japanese 
     "8"  Korean 
     "9"  Vietnamese 
     "10"  Other Asian 
     "11"  Hawaiian 
     "12"  Guamanian 
     "13"  Samoan 
     "14"  Other Pacific Islander
     "15"  More than one race 


    Thirty One "Single/Multi Race" groups in years 2016-2018:
     Code     Label
     "1"  White (only) 
     "2"  Black (only) 
     "3"  AIAN American Indian or Alaska Native  (only)
     "4"  Asian (only) 
     "5"  NHOPI (Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander) (only)
     "6"  Black and White 
     "7"  Black and AIAN 
     "8"  Black and Asian 
     "9"  Black and NHOPI 
     "10"  AIAN and White 
     "11"  AIAN and Asian 
     "12"  AIAN and NHOPI 
     "13"  Asian and White 
     "14"  Asian and NHOPI
     "15"  NHOPI and White 
     "16"  Black, AIAN, and White  
     "17"  Black, AIAN, and Asian  
     "18"  Black, AIAN, and NHOPI  
     "19"  Black, Asian, and White  
     "20"  Black, Asian, and NHOPI  
     "21"  Black, NHOPI, and White  
     "22"  AIAN, Asian, and White  
     "23"  AIAN, NHOPI, and White  
     "24"  AIAN, Asian, and NHOPI  
     "25"  Asian, NHOPI, and White  
     "26"  Black, AIAN, Asian, and White 
     "27"  Black, AIAN, Asian, and NHOPI 
     "28"  Black, AIAN, NHOPI, and White  
     "29"  Black, Asian, NHOPI, and White 
     "30"  AIAN, Asian, NHOPI, and White  
     "31"  Black, AIAN, Asian, NHOPI, and White  


    Marital Status

    This field indicates the marital status of the mother as recorded on the birth certificate.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Beginning in 2017, due to state statutory restrictions, California no longer provides record-level data on the marital status of the mother for births occurring to California residents and non-residents (including residents of other states). For these births, Marital Status is reported as "Not Available."
    • Data for the mother's marital status are derived from the "MAR" variable in the public use data for years 2003-2018. (Data are available for years 1995-2018 at Births).
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the Marital Status code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


       Code     Label
       "01"  Married 
       "02"  Unmarried 
       "9"  Unknown or Not Stated 
       "NA"  Not Available 


    Paternity Acknowledgment (if mother unmarried)

    This field indicates whether Paternity Acknowledgment is recorded on the birth certificate, for mothers who are recorded as unmarried at the time of birth.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Beginning in 2017, due to state statutory restrictions, California no longer provides record-level data on paternity acknowledgment for births occurring to California residents and non-residents (including residents of other states). For these births, Paternity Acknowledgment is reported as "Not Reported."
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


       Code     Label
       "1"  Yes 
       "2"  No 
       "9"  Unknown or Not Stated 
       "3"  Not Applicable 
       "10"  Not Reported 


    Age of Mother

    This field indicates the age group of the mother at the time of birth. Maternal age is available in four sets of age groups:

    1. 9 groups of 5-year increments;
    2. 10 groups with categories for 15-17 and 18-19 year old mothers, and 5-year age increments for older mothers;
    3. 13 groups with single-year age categories for 15, 16, 17, 18, and 19 year old mothers, and 5-year age increments for older mothers;
    4. Yearly age groups with an age category for 10-12 year old mothers, and single-year age increments for older mothers.
    How?    

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided, a column for the Age group code value and a column for the label. See codes and labels for the basic 9 age groups below.


     Code     Label
     "15"  Under 15 years 
     "15-19"  15 - 19 years 
     "20-24"  20 - 24 years 
     "25-29"  25 - 29 years 
     "30-34"  30 - 34 years 
     "35-39"  35 - 39 years 
     "40-44"  40 - 44 years 
     "45-49"  45 - 49 years 
     "50-54"  50 - 54 years 


    Parent's Education

    This field indicates a range for the number of years of education received by the parent at the time of birth. Data are available for both the mother and the father.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided for Maternal Education, the code value and the label.


    Maternal Education:
     Code     Label
     "1"  8th grade or less 
     "2"  9th through 12th grade with no diploma 
     "3"  High school graduate or GED completed 
     "4"  Some college credit, but not a degree 
     "5"  Associate degree (AA, AS) 
     "6"  Bachelor's degree (BA, AB, BS) 
     "7"  Master's degree (MA, MS) 
     "8"  Doctorate (PHD, EdD) or Professional Degree (MD, DDS, DVM, LLB, JD) 
     "Unk"  Unknown/Not on certificate 


    Mother's Nativity

    This field categorizes the place of mother's birth, into the following 3 groups: (1) Born in the U.S. (50 US States); (2) Born outside the U.S. (includes possessions); (3) Unknown or Not Stated.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided for this field, the code value and the label, as noted above.


    Mother's Birth Country

    This field reports the place of mother's birth. The list includes 294 options, from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe; Unknown or Not Stated.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided for this field, the code value and the label. The codes are also shown inside parenthesis at the end of each label.


    Mother's Birth State

    This field reports the state of mother's birth, for mothers born in the United States, US territories or possessions, or Canada. The list includes 72 options, including "Rest of the World" and "Not Classifiable."

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • From June 27, 2019 until August 12, 2020, the labels for Massachusetts and Maine were switched for Mother's Birth State data. Birth statistics for Massachusetts were shown in the results when data was limited to Maine as the Mother's Birth State, or when data was grouped by Mother's Birth State and the row's label reported Maine in the Mother's Birth State column. Likewise, birth statistics for Maine were shown in the results when data was limited to Massachusetts as the Mother's Birth State, or when data was grouped by Mother's Birth State and the row's label reported Massachusetts in the Mother's Birth State column. If data was not limited or grouped by Mother's Births State, then the problem did not impact the results. We deeply regret this error and apologize for the inconvenience.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided for this field, the code value and the label. The codes are also shown inside parenthesis at the end of each label.



    Step 4. Select paternal characteristics:

    Limit your data for any of the following data elements:

    1. Paternal Race in Single-Race categories:
      • 6 race categories - American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN); Asian; Black or African American; More than one race; Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI); White; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • 15 race categories - White; Black; American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN); Asian Indian; Chinese; Filipino; Japanese; Korean; Vietnamese; Other Asian; Hawaiian; Guamanian; Samoan; Other Pacific Islander; More than one race; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • 31 race categories - White; Black; American Indian or Alaskan Native (AIAN); Asian; Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI); Black and White; Black and AIAN; Black and Asian; Black and NHOPI; AIAN and White; AIAN and Asian; AIAN and NHOPI; Asian and White; Asian and NHOPI; NHOPI and White; Black, AIAN, and White; Black, AIAN, and Asian; Black, AIAN, and NHOPI; Black, Asian, and White; Black, Asian, and NHOPI; Black, NHOPI, and White; AIAN, Asian, and White; AIAN, NHOPI, and White; AIAN, Asian, and NHOPI; Asian, NHOPI, and White; Black, AIAN, Asian, and White; Black, AIAN, Asian, and NHOPI; Black, AIAN, NHOPI, and White; Black, Asian, NHOPI, and White; AIAN, Asian, NHOPI, and White; Black, AIAN, Asian, NHOPI, and White; Unknown or Not Stated.
    2. Father's Hispanic Origin
      • Hispanic origin categories - Hispanic or Latino; Not Hispanic or Latino; Origin unknown or not stated.
      • Expanded Hispanic origin categories - Mexican; Puerto Rican; Cuban; Central or South American; Dominican; Other and Unknown Hispanic; Non-Hispanic; Unknown or Not Stated.
    3. Father's Education - 8th grade or less; 9th through 12th grade with no diploma; High school graduate or GED completed; Some college credit, but not a degree; Associate degree (AA, AS); Bachelor's degree (BA, AB, BS); Master's degree (MA, MS); Doctorate (PHD, EdD) or Professional Degree (MD, DDS, DVM, LLB, JD); Unknown or Not Stated.
    4. Age of Father - 11 groups of 5-year increments: under 15 years; 15-19 years; 20-24 years; 25-29 years; 30-34 years; 35-39 years; 40-44 years; 45-49 years; 50-54 years, 55-98 years; Unknown or Not Stated.


    Age of Father

    This field indicates the age group of the mother at the time of birth. Paternal age is available in 11 age groups of 5-year increments, and Unknown or Not Stated.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided, a column for the Age group code value and a column for the label. See codes and labels for the 11 paternal age groups below.


     Code     Label
     "1"  Under 15 years 
     "2"  15 - 19 years 
     "3"  20 - 24 years 
     "4"  25 - 29 years 
     "5"  30 - 34 years 
     "6"  35 - 39 years 
     "7"  40 - 44 years 
     "8"  45 - 49 years 
     "9"  50 - 54 years 
     "10"  55 - 98 years 
     "11"  Unknown or Not Stated 



    Step 5. Select pregnancy history and prenatal care characteristics:

    Limit your data for any of the following data elements:

    1. Prior pregnancies - timing:
      • Interval Since Last Live Birth - 11 categories: Zero to 3 months (plural delivery); 4 to 11 months; 12 to 17 months; 18 to 23 months; 24 to 35 months; 36 to 47 months; 48 to 59 months; 60 to 71 months; 72 months and over; Not Applicable (1st live birth); Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Interval Since Last Other Pregnancy Outcome - 11 categories: Zero to 3 months (plural delivery); 4 to 11 months; 12 to 17 months; 18 to 23 months; 24 to 35 months; 36 to 47 months; 48 to 59 months; 60 to 71 months; 72 months and over; Not Applicable (1st natality event); Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Interval of Last Pregnancy - 11 categories: Zero to 3 months (plural delivery); 4 to 11 months; 12 to 17 months; 18 to 23 months; 24 to 35 months; 36 to 47 months; 48 to 59 months; 60 to 71 months; 72 months and over; Not Applicable (no previous pregnancy); Unknown or Not Stated.
    2. Prior pregnancy outcomes:
      • Prior Births Now Living - 33 categories: Zero through thirty births in 1 birth increments (0,1,2... 30); Unknown or Not Stated (99); Not Reported (100).
      • Prior Births Now Dead - 33 categories: Zero through thirty live births in 1 birth increments (0,1,2... 30); Unknown or Not Stated (99); Not Reported (100).
      • Prior Other Pregnancy Outcomes - 33 categories: Zero through thirty outcomes in increments of 1 (0,1,2... 30); Unknown or Not Stated (99); Not Reported (100).
    3. Birth order:
      • Live Birth Order - 9 categories: One child born alive to mother through seven live births; 8 or more; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Total Birth Order - 9 categories: One child born alive to mother through seven live births; 8 or more; Unknown or Not Stated.
    4. Prenatal care:
      • Number of Prenatal Visits - 100 categories: Zero through 98 prenatal visits; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Number of Prenatal Visits Recode - 12 categories: No visits; 1 to 2 visits; 3 to 4 visits; 5 to 6 visits; 7 to 8 visits; 9 to 10 visits; 11 to 12 visits; 13 to 14 visits; 15 to 16 visits; 17 to 18 visits; 19 or more visits; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Month Maternal Prenatal Care Began - 12 categories: No prenatal care; 1st month through 10th month; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Trimester Prenatal Care Began - 6 categories: 1st to 3rd month; 4th to 6th month; 7th to final month; No prenatal care; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
    5. WIC - 3 categories for enrollment in Women, Infants, and Children supplemental nutrition program: Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    6. Obstetric procedures:
      • Successful External Cephalic Version - 3 categories for outcome of procedure to turn non-vertex fetal position to vertex by external manipulation: Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Failed External Cephalic Version - 3 categories for outcome of procedure to turn non-vertex fetal position to vertex by external manipulation: Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.

    How?    

    Interval Since Last Live Birth

    This field reports the time elapsed since the mother's last live birth, in eleven categories of months, ranging from zero (plural delivery) through 72 months and over, and including Not Applicable (1st live birth); Unknown or Not Stated.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided, a column for the code value and a column for the label. See codes and labels below for the categories.


     Code     Label
     "0"  Zero to 3 months (plural delivery) 
     "1"  4 to 11 months 
     "2"  12 to 17 months 
     "3"  18 to 23 months 
     "4"  24 to 35 months 
     "5"  36 to 47 months 
     "6"  48 to 59 months 
     "7"  60 to 71 months 
     "8"  72 months and over 
     "88"  Not Applicable (1st live birth) 
     "99"  Unknown or Not Stated 


    Interval Since Last Other Pregnancy Outcome

    This field reports the time elapsed since the mother's last pregnancy outcome (for outcomes other than live birth), in eleven categories of months, ranging from zero (plural delivery) through 72 months and over, and including Not Applicable (1st natality event); Unknown or Not Stated.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided, a column for the code value and a column for the label. See codes and labels below for the categories.


     Code     Label
     "0"  Zero to 3 months (plural delivery) 
     "1"  4 to 11 months 
     "2"  12 to 17 months 
     "3"  18 to 23 months 
     "4"  24 to 35 months 
     "5"  36 to 47 months 
     "6"  48 to 59 months 
     "7"  60 to 71 months 
     "8"  72 months and over 
     "88"  Not Applicable (1st natality event) 
     "99"  Unknown or Not Stated 


    Interval of Last Pregnancy

    This field reports the time elapsed since the mother's last pregnancy, in eleven categories of months, ranging from zero (plural delivery) through 72 months and over, and including Not Applicable (no previous pregnancy); Unknown or Not Stated.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided, a column for the code value and a column for the label. See codes and labels below for the categories.


     Code     Label
     "0"  Zero to 3 months (plural delivery) 
     "1"  4 to 11 months 
     "2"  12 to 17 months 
     "3"  18 to 23 months 
     "4"  24 to 35 months 
     "5"  36 to 47 months 
     "6"  48 to 59 months 
     "7"  60 to 71 months 
     "8"  72 months and over 
     "88"  Not Applicable (no previous pregnancy) 
     "99"  Unknown or Not Stated 


    Prior Pregnancy Outcomes

    Three fields report information on the number of prior pregnancy outcomes in 33 categories, ranging from zero through thirty in single increments, and including Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.

    1. Prior Births Now Living - 33 categories: Zero through thirty births in 1 birth increments (0,1,2... 30); Unknown or Not Stated (99); Not Reported (100).
    2. Prior Births Now Dead - 33 categories: Zero through thirty live births in 1 birth increments (0,1,2... 30); Unknown or Not Stated (99); Not Reported (100).
    3. Prior Other Pregnancy Outcomes - 33 categories: Zero through thirty outcomes in increments of 1 (0,1,2... 30); Unknown or Not Stated (99); Not Reported (100).

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided, a column for the code value and a column for the label. Codes values are numeric for the number of prior births, and also shown in parenthesis after the category labels: Unknown or Not Stated (99); Not Reported (100).


    Live Birth Order

    This field indicates the mother's total number of live births, including this birth. The categories range from one through seven live births; 8 or more; Unknown or Not Stated.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • For years 2003 and later the live birth order data is derived from the "LBO_REC" field found in the public use data. (Data are available for years 1995-2018 at Births).
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


       Code     Label
       "1"  1st child born alive to mother 
       "2"  2nd child born alive to mother 
       "3"  3rd child born alive to mother 
       "4"  4th child born alive to mother 
       "5"  5th child born alive to mother 
       "6"  6th child born alive to mother 
       "7"  7th child born alive to mother 
       "8"  8th child or more born alive to mother 
       "9"  Unknown or not stated 


    Total Birth Order

    This field indicates the mother's total number of births, including this birth and stillbirths. The categories range from one through seven births; 8 or more; Unknown or Not Stated.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • For years 2003 and later the live birth order data is derived from the "LBO_REC" field found in the public use data. (Data are available for years 1995-2018 at Births).
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


       Code     Label
       "1"  1st child born to mother 
       "2"  2nd child born to mother 
       "3"  3rd child born to mother 
       "4"  4th child born to mother 
       "5"  5th child born to mother 
       "6"  6th child born to mother 
       "7"  7th child born to mother 
       "8"  8th child or more born alive to mother 
       "9"  Unknown or not stated 


    WIC

    This field indicates whether the mother received food for herself from the Women, Infants & Children (WIC) because she was pregnant with this child supplemental nutrition program because she was pregnant with this child. Data are reported in three categories: Yes (1); No (2); Unknown or Not Stated (9).

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided for this field, label and the code value, as noted above inside parenthesis.


    Successful External Cephalic Version

    This field indicates the successful outcome of a procedure to turn non-vertex fetal position to vertex by external manipulation, in three categories: Yes (1); No (2); Unknown or Not Stated (9).

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided for this field, the code value and the label, as noted above.


    Failed External Cephalic Version

    This field indicates the failed outcome of a procedure to turn non-vertex fetal position to vertex by external manipulation, in three categories: Yes (1); No (2); Unknown or Not Stated (9).

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided for this field, the code value and the label, as noted above.


    Prenatal Care

    Data are available for prenatal care in 4 fields (codes shown in parenthesis before labels below):
    1. Number of Prenatal Visits - 100 categories: (0-98) single increments from zero through 98 prenatal visits; (99) Unknown or Not Stated.
    2. Number of Prenatal Visits Recode - 12 categories: (1) No visits; (2) 1 to 2 visits; (3) 3 to 4 visits; (4) 5 to 6 visits; (5) 7 to 8 visits; (6) 9 to 10 visits; (7) 11 to 12 visits; (8) 13 to 14 visits; (9) 15 to 16 visits; (10) 17 to 18 visits; (11) 19 or more visits; (12) Unknown or Not Stated.
    3. Month Maternal Prenatal Care Began - 12 categories: No prenatal care; 1st month through 10th month; (99) Unknown or Not Stated.
    4. Trimester Prenatal Care Began - 6 categories: (1) 1st to 3rd month; (2) 4th to 6th month; (3) 7th to final month; (4) No prenatal care; (5) Unknown or Not Stated; (100) Not Reported.
    How?    
    Notes:   
    • When you group results by the categories for prenatal care data in section 1 on the Request Form tab, you must also select the round button to show the list of desired data categories in section 5.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns.

    Month Prenatal Care Began

    This field indicates the month in the pregnancy when prenatal care began.

    How?    

    Notes:   

    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns.


     Code     Label
     "0"  No prenatal care  
     "1"  1st month  
     "2"  2nd month  
     "3"  3rd month  
     "4"  4th month  
     "5"  5th month  
     "6"  6th month  
     "7"  7th month  
     "8"  8th month  
     "9"  9th month  
     "10"  10th month  
     "99"  Unknown or Not stated



    Step 6. Select maternal risk factors:

    Limit your data for any of the following data elements:

    1. Mother's height and weight:
      • Mother's Height in Inches - 50 categories: 30 inches; 31 - 78 inches; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Mother's Pre-pregnancy Weight - 7 categories in 50 pound increments: 75 - 124 lbs; 125 - 174 lbs; 175 - 224 lbs; 225 - 274 lbs; 275 - 324 lbs; 325 - 375 lbs; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Mother's Pre-pregnancy BMI - 7 categories for Body Mass Index: Underweight <18.5; Normal 18.5-24.9; Overweight 25.0-29.9; Obesity I 30.0-34.9; Obesity II 35.0-39.9; Extreme Obesity III >39.9; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Mother's Delivery Weight - 7 categories in 50 pound increments: 100 - 149 lbs; 150 - 199 lbs; 200 - 249 lbs; 250 - 299 lbs; 300 - 349 lbs; 350 - 400 lbs; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Mother's Weight Gain - 100 categories in single pound increments: 0 pounds through 97 pounds; 98 or more; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Mother's Weight Gain Recode - 6 categories: Less than 11 pounds; 11 to 20 pounds; 21 to 30 pounds; 31 to 40 pounds; 41 to 98 pounds; Unknown or Not Stated.
    2. Tobacco use during pregnancy - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    3. Cigarette consumption:
      • Number of Cigarettes Before Pregnancy in the 3 months prior to conception - 100 categories in single cigarette increments: 0 cigarettes daily through 97 cigarettes daily; 98 or more; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Number of Cigarettes Before Pregnancy Recode in the 3 months prior to conception - 7 categories for number of cigarettes consumed daily: Nonsmoker; 1-5; 6-10; 11-20; 21-40; 41 or more; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Number of Cigarettes 1st Trimester - 100 categories in single cigarette increments: 0 cigarettes daily through 97 cigarettes daily; 98 or more; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Number of Cigarettes 1st Trimester Recode - 7 categories for number of cigarettes consumed daily: Nonsmoker; 1-5; 6-10; 11-20; 21-40; 41 or more; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Number of Cigarettes 2nd Trimester - 100 categories in single cigarette increments: 0 cigarettes daily through 97 cigarettes daily; 98 or more; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Number of Cigarettes 2nd Trimester Recode - 7 categories for number of cigarettes consumed daily: Nonsmoker; 1-5; 6-10; 11-20; 21-40; 41 or more; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Number of Cigarettes 3rd Trimester - 100 categories in single cigarette increments: 0 cigarettes daily through 97 cigarettes daily; 98 or more; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Number of Cigarettes 3rd Trimester Recode - 7 categories for number of cigarettes consumed daily: Nonsmoker; 1-5; 6-10; 11-20; 21-40; 41 or more; Unknown or Not Stated.

    How?    

    Notes:   

    • Beginning in 2018, the fields "Number of Cigarettes 3rd Trimester Recode" and "Number of Cigarettes 3rd Trimester" were recoded to the "Unknown or Not Stated" category if the pregnancy didn't last into the 3rd trimester (obstetric estimate is less than 27 weeks gestational age). Thus there is a discontinuity between births in 2017 and 2018 for all categories of "Number of Cigarettes 3rd Trimester Recode" and "Number of Cigarettes 3rd Trimester."
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns.


    Tobacco use during pregnancy

    This field indicates whether tobacco use was reported during the pregnancy, in three categories: Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • For more detailed data on tobacco use and pregnancy, see Cigarettes.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. Codes are shown in parenthesis after the category labels below: Yes (1); No (2); Unknown or Not Stated (9).



    Step 7. Select pregnancy risk factors:

    Limit your data for any of the following data elements:

    1. Pregnancy related conditions:
    2. Prior conditions:
    3. Prior deliveries:
    4. Fertility assistance:
    5. Risk Factors Checked - At least one checked; None checked; Unknown or Not Stated.
      This field indicates whether any pregnancy risk factors were reported. Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any pregnancy risk factors.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   


    Diabetes

    This field indicates whether Diabetes is reported as a maternal risk factor. Gestational Diabetes and Pre-pregnancy Diabetes are reported in separate fields.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes for Diabetes data are Yes (1); No (2); Unknown or Not Stated (9).


    Hypertension Disease

    This field indicates whether Hypertension Disease is reported as a maternal risk factor. Gestational Hypertension and Pre-pregnancy Hypertension are reported in separate fields.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes for Hypertension data are Yes (1); No (2); Unknown or Not Stated (9).


    Eclampsia

    This field indicates whether Eclampsia is reported as a maternal risk factor.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • The following reporting areas have Eclampsia data coded to "Not Reported" for births that occurred in years 2016 -2018: South Carolina, and Tennessee (2 reporting areas).
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes for Eclampsia data are Yes (1); No (2); Not Applicable (3); Unknown or Not Stated (9); Not Reported (10).


    Previous Preterm Birth

    This field indicates whether previous preterm birth is reported as a maternal risk factor.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes are Yes (1); No (2); Unknown or Not Stated (9).


    Previous Cesarean Delivery

    This field indicates whether previous cesarean delivery is reported as a maternal risk factor.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes are Yes (1); No (2); Unknown or Not Stated (9).


    Number of Previous Cesareans

    This field indicates the number of previous cesarean deliveries reported as a maternal risk factor.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns.
    • The number or previous cesarean deliveries to this mother are reported in 12 categories in increments of 1: zero previous cesareans through 10 previous cesareans; Unknown or Not Stated..


    Infertility Treatment Used

    This field indicates whether the use of infertility treatment is reported as a maternal risk factor.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • "Yes" is reoprted when pregnancy resulted from infertility treatment including fertility-enhancing drugs; artificial insemination or intrauterine insemination; assisted reproductive technology (e.g., in vitro fertilization (IVF), gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT). See current standard birth certificate.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes are Yes (1); No (2); Unknown or Not Stated (9).


    Assistive Reproductive Technology

    This field indicates whether Assistive Reproductive Technology is reported as a maternal risk factor.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • The following reporting areas have Assistive Reproductive Technology data coded to "Not Reported:" New Hampshire 2016; South Carolina 2016-2018; Tennessee 2016-2018.
    • "Assistive Reproductive Technology" is coded to "Not Applicable" for records where "Infertility Treatment Used" is "No".
    • "Yes" is reported when the pregancy resulted from in vitro fertilization (IVF) or gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT). See current standard birth certificate.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes for Assistive Reproductive Technology data are Yes (1); No (2); Not Applicable (3); Unknown or Not Stated (9); Not Reported (10).


    Fertility Enhancing Drugs

    This field indicates whether the use of fertility enhancing drugs is reported as a maternal risk factor.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • The following reporting areas have "Fertility Enhancing Drugs" data coded to "Not Reported" for births in these years: New Hampshire 2016; South Carolina 2016-2018; Tennessee 2016-2018.
    • "Fertility Enhancing Drugs" is coded to "Not Applicable" for records where "Infertility Treatment Used" is "No".
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes for Fertility Enhancing Drugs data are Yes (1); No (2); Not Applicable (3); Unknown or Not Stated (9); Not Reported (10).


    Risk Factors Checked

    This field indicates whether any pregnancy risk factors were reported for 1) diabetes (pre-pregnancy or gestational); 2) hypertension (pre-pregnancy or gestational); 3) eclampsia; 4) previous preterm births; 5) pregnancy resulted from infertility treatment; and 6) mother had a previous cesarean delivery. For more information, refer to page 66 in the NCHS guide to 2017 birth records data.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any pregnancy risk factors.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes for Risk Factors Checked data are At least one checked (0); None checked (1); Unknown or Not Stated (9).



    Step 8. Select maternal infections present and/or treated during pregnancy:

    Limit your data for any of the following data elements:

    1. Gonorrhea - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    2. Syphilis - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    3. Chlamydia - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    4. Hepatitis B - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    5. Hepatitis C - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    6. Infections Checked - At least one checked; None checked; Unknown or Not Stated.
      This field indicates whether any of the above maternal infections were reported. Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any of the above reported infections.
    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes for maternal infections Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Chlamydia, Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C are Yes (1); No (2); Unknown or Not Stated (9).


    Infections Checked

    This field indicates whether any maternal infections for Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Chlamydia, Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C were reported. Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any of the above infections. For more information, refer to page 67 in the NCHS guide to 2017 birth records data.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any maternal infections checked for Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Chlamydia, Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes for Maternal Infections Checked data are At least one checked (0); None checked (1); Unknown or Not Stated (9).



    Step 9. Select labor characteristics:

    Limit your data for any of the following data elements:

    1. Induction of Labor - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    2. Augmentation of Labor - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    3. Steroids (glucocorticoids) for fetal lung maturation received by the mother before delivery - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    4. Antibiotics for Mother during labor - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    5. Chorioamnionitis clinical chorioamnionitis or maternal temperature >= 38 degrees Celsius (100.4 degrees Fahrenheit) - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    6. Anesthesia epidural or spinal anesthesia during labor - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    7. Characteristics of Labor Checked - At least one checked; None checked; Unknown or Not Stated.
      This field indicates whether any labor characteristics noted above was reported. Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any of the above labor characteristics.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes for labor characteristics data are Yes (1); No (2); Unknown or Not Stated (9).


    Characteristics of Labor Checked

    This field indicates whether any labor characteristics were reported for induction or augmentation of labor, maternal steroids (glucocorticoids) for fetal lung maturation received by the mother before delivery, or antibiotics, chorioamnionitis or anesthesia. Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any of the above labor characteristics. For more information, refer to page 60 in the NCHS guide to 2017 birth records data.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any labor characteristics checked.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes for Characteristics of Labor Checked data are At least one checked (0); None checked (1); Unknown or Not Stated (9).



    Step 10. Select delivery characteristics:

    Limit your data for any of the following data elements:

    1. When:
      • Year - 2016-2018 for "expanded" natality data from birth records
        (less detailed data are available for years 1995-2018 at Births).
      • Month - January-December.
      • Weekday - Sunday-Saturday.
      • Time of Day - 10 categories: 00:00 - 02:29; 03:00 - 05:59; 06:00 - 08:59; 09:00 - 11:59; 12:00 - 14:59; 15:00 - 17:59; 18:00 - 20:59; 21:00 - 23:59; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
    2. Where:
      • Birthplace - 9 categories: Hospital; Freestanding Birth Center; Home (intended); Home (not intended); Home (unknown if intended); Clinic / Doctor's Office; Other; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
      • Birthplace Recode 6 - 6 categories: Hospital; Freestanding Birth Center; Residence; Clinic / Doctor's Office; Other; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Birthplace Recode 3 - 3 categories: Hospital; Not in Hospital; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Mother Transferred - - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    3. Medical Attendant - Doctor of Medicine (MD); Doctor of Osteopathy (DO); Certified Nurse Midwife (CNM); Other Midwife; Other; Unknown or Not Stated.
    4. How:
    5. Payment:

    How?

    Hint:   You can only pick one list for Birthplace, Delivery Method, and Source of Payment for any data request. The round radio button indicates the selected list, any selections in the other gestational age or birth weight lists are ignored. The "by-variables" in section 1 and the round radio button selections must match. For example, if you select to group results by the categories in "Source of Payment for Delivery Expanded" in section 1, then you should set the radio button to select the same list in section 10.

    Note:   When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category.


    Year of Birth

    Pick any combination of years desired.

    How?    See How do I select items from the list box?.
    Hint:    Year is limited to the most recent year of data available by default, you may prefer to change the selection to "All Years."


    Month

    This field indicates month of birth.

    How?    See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • For years 2003 and later the month data are derived from the "dob_mm" field found in the public use data. (Data are available for years 1995-2018 at Births).
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


       Code     Label
       "1"   January  
       "2"   February  
       "3"   March  
       "4"   April  
       "5"   May  
       "6"   June  
       "7"   July  
       "8"   August  
       "9"   September  
       "10"   October  
       "11"   November  
       "12"   December  


    Weekday

    This field indicates weekday of birth.

    How?    See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Note that there are a different number of days of the week in each year.
    • For years 2003 and later the weekday data are derived from the "dob_wk" field found in the public use data. (Data are available for years 1995-2018 at Births).
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


       Code     Label
       "1"   Sunday  
       "2"   Monday  
       "3"   Tuesday  
       "4"   Wednesday  
       "5"   Thursday  
       "6"   Friday  
       "7"   Saturday  
       "9"   Unknown  


    Time Of Day

    This field indicates the time of birth in 3 hour time period increments in a 24 hour day, and categories for Unknown or Not Stated, and Not Reported.

    How?    See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:   

    When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


     Code     Label
     "0"   00:00 - 02:59  
     "1"   03:00 - 05:59  
     "2"   06:00 - 08:59  
     "3"   09:00 - 11:59  
     "4"   12:00 - 14:59  
     "5"   15:00 - 17:59  
     "6"   18:00 - 20:59  
     "7"   21:00 - 23:59  
     "33"  Unknown or Not Stated 
     "NR"   Not Reported  


    Birthplace

    This field indicates the place of birth. Birthplace data are available in 3 lists of categories. The code values are listed in parenthesis after the category labels below.

    1. Birthplace - 9 categories:
      Hospital (1); Freestanding Birth Center (2); Home (intended) (3); Home (not intended) (4); Home (unknown if intended) (5); Clinic / Doctor's Office (6); Other (7); Unknown or Not Stated (9); Not Reported (10).
    2. Birthplace Recode 6 - 6 categories:
      Hospital (1); Freestanding Birth Center (2); Clinic / Doctor's Office (3); Residence (4); Other (5) Unknown or Not Stated (9).
    3. Birthplace Recode 3 - 3 categories:
      Hospital (1); Not in Hospital (2); Unknown or Not Stated (3).
    How?

    Hint:   You can only pick one list for Birthplace for any data request. The round radio button indicates the selected list, any selections in the other birthplace lists are ignored. The "by-variables" in section 1 and the round radio button selections must match. For example, if you select to group results by the categories in "Birthplace Recode 6" in section 1, then you should set the radio button to select the same list in section 10.

    Notes:   

    • California does not report whether home births were intended or not. Therefore, births in California homes are categorized as "Home(unknown if intended)" for the "Birthplace" variable.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


    Mother Transferred

    This field indicates whether the mother was transferred.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:   When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label. The three categories and code values are Yes (1), No (2), or Unknown or Not Stated (9).


    Medical Attendant

    This field indicates the attendant at the time of birth.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • For years 2003 and later the birth Attendant data are derived from the "ATTEND" field found in the public use data. (Data are available for years 1995-2018 at Births).
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


       Code     Label
       "1"   Doctor of Medicine (MD)  
       "2"   Doctor of Osteopathy (DO)  
       "3"   Certified Nurse Midwife (CNM)  
       "4"   Other Midwife  
       "5"   Other  
       "9"   Unknown or Not Stated  


    Fetal Presentation

    This field reports the baby's presentation at birth, in five categories: Cephalic; Breech; Other; Unknown or Not Stated, or Not Reported.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


     Code     Label
     "1"   Cephalic  
     "2"   Breech  
     "3"   Other  
     "9"   Unknown or Not Stated  
     "100"   Not Reported  


    Final Route and Method of Delivery

    This field reports the final route and method of delivery in six categories: Spontaneous, Forceps, Vacuum, Cesarean, Unknown or Not Stated, Not Reported.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


     Code     Label
     "1"   Spontaneous  
     "2"   Forceps  
     "3"   Vacuum  
     "4"   Cesarean  
     "9"   Unknown or Not Stated  
     "100"   Not Reported  


    Delivery Method

    This field indicates whether the baby was born by Cesarean section or vaginal birth.

    How?    

    Hint:   You can only pick one list for Delivery Method for any data request. The round radio button indicates the selected list, any selections in the other Delivery Method lists are ignored. The "by-variables" in section 1 and the round radio button selections must match. For example, if you select to group results by the categories in "Delivery Method Expanded" in section 1, then you should set the radio button to select the same list in section 10.

    See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


     Code     Label
     "1"   Vaginal  
     "2"   Cesarean  
     "9"   Not Stated  


    Delivery Method Expanded

    This field reports the method of delivery in eight categories.

    How?    

    Hint:   You can only pick one list for Delivery Method for any data request. The round radio button indicates the selected list, any selections in the other Delivery Method lists are ignored. The "by-variables" in section 1 and the round radio button selections must match. For example, if you select to group results by the categories in "Delivery Method Expanded" in section 1, then you should set the radio button to select the same list in section 10.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


     Code     Label  
     "1"   Vaginal (excludes vaginal after previous C-section)  
     "2"   Vaginal after previous c-section  
     "3"   Primary C-section  
     "4"   Repeat C-section  
     "5"   Vaginal (unknown if previous c-section)  
     "6"   C-section (unknown if previous c-section)  
     "9"   Unknown or Not Stated  
     "100"   Not Reported  


    Trial of Labor Attempted (if cesarean)

    This field reports if babies born by cesarean delivery attempted labor, in four categories: Yes; No; Not Applicable; Unknown or Not Stated.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


     Code     Label
     "1"   Yes  
     "2"   No  
     "3"   Not Applicable  
     "9"   Unknown or Not Stated  


    Source of Payment for Delivery

    This field reports the source of payment for delivery, in two fields (code values shown inside parenthesis after each category label):

    • Source of Payment for Delivery - 5 categories: Medicaid (1); Private Insurance (2); Self Pay (3); Other (4); Unknown or Not Stated (9).
    • Source of Payment for Delivery Expanded - 9 categories: Medicaid (1); Private Insurance (2); Self-Pay (3); Indian Health Service (4); CHAMPUS/TRICARE (5); Other Government (Federal, State, Local) (6); Other (8); Unknown or Not Stated (9); Not Reported (10)

    How?    

    Hint:   You can only pick one list for Source of Payment for Delivery. The round radio button indicates the selected list, any selections in the other list are ignored. The "by-variables" in section 1 and the round radio button selections must match. For example, if you select to group results by the categories in "Source of Payment for Delivery Expanded" in section 1, then you should set the radio button to select the same list in section 10.

    Notes:   

    • The following reporting areas do not report all of the categories "Indian Health Service", "CHAMPUS/TRICARE", and "Other Government" for the "Source of Payment for Delivery Expanded" data field. "Source of Payment for Delivery Expanded" data have been recoded to "Not Reported" for births to residents of the following reporting areas and years: Arizona 2016-2017; Arkansas 2016-2018; District of Columbia 2016-2017; Florida 2016-2018; Illinois 2016-2018; Michigan 2016-2018; Minnesota 2016-2018; Mississippi 2016-2018; Missouri 2016-2018; New Hampshire 2016-2018; New Jersey 2016-2018; North Carolina 2016-2018; Pennsylvania 2016-2018; Rhode Island 2018; Texas 2016-2018; Vermont 2016-2018; Virginia 2016-2018.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.



    Step 11. Select maternal morbidity:

    Limit your data for any of the following data elements:

    1. Maternal Transfusion - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    2. Third or Fourth Degree Perineal Laceration - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    3. Ruptured Uterus - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    4. Unplanned Hysterectomy - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    5. Admission to Intensive Care Unit - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    6. Maternal Morbidity Checked - At least one checked; None checked; Unknown or Not Stated.
      This field indicates whether any maternal morbidity above was reported. Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any of the above maternal morbidity.

    How?

    See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:   When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label. The categories and codes for maternal morbidity data are Yes (1); No (2); Unknown or Not Stated (9).


    Maternal Morbidity Checked

    This field indicates whether any maternal morbidity attributes were reported for Maternal Transfusion, Third or Fourth Degree Perineal Laceration, Ruptured Uterus, Unplanned Hysterectomy, or Admission to Intensive Care Unit. Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any maternal morbidity attributes checked. For more information, refer to page 67 in the NCHS guide to 2017 birth records data.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:  

    • Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any maternal morbidity attributes checked.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes for Maternal Morbidity Checked data are At least one checked (0); None checked (1); Unknown or Not Stated (9).



    Step 12. Select infant characteristics:

    Limit your data for any of the following data elements:

    1. Gender (Sex) of Child - Female; Male.
    2. Birth Weight
      Infant's weight at birth is available in 3 sets of categories, through 8165 grams, or Not stated:
    3. Multiple Births
    4. Gestational Age at Birth
      Gestational age groups are available in 3 sets of categories, representing the duration of the pregnancy at the time of birth, based on Last Menstrual Period (LMP) or Obstetric Estimate (OE):
      • 10 age groups: Under 20 weeks; 20-27 weeks; 28-31 weeks; 32-35 weeks; 36 weeks; 37-39 weeks; 40 weeks; 41 weeks; 42 weeks or more; Unknown.
      • 11 age groups: Under 20 weeks; 20-27 weeks; 28-31 weeks; 32-33 weeks; 34-36 weeks; 37-38 weeks; 39 weeks, 40 weeks; 41 weeks; 42 or more weeks; Unknown.
      • Weekly age groups: 17 weeks through 47 weeks; Unknown.
    5. APGAR scores
      APGAR scores are available for 5 minutes and 10 minutes after birth, in single increments or recoded into 5 categories:
      • Single increments of 0 - 10; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Applicable.
      • Recoded categories - A score of 0-3; A score of 4-6; A score of 7-8; A score of 9-10; Unknown or Not Stated.
      Note that 10 minute APGARS scores are categorized as "Not Applicable" when the 5 minute score was 6 or higher, and reported as "Unknown or Not Stated" in the recoded categories.
    6. Infant Breastfed at Discharge? - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
    7. Infant Transferred? - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    8. Infant Living at Time of Report? - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.

    How?

    Hint:   You can only pick one list for Birthplace, Delivery Method, and Apgar Score. The round radio button indicates the selected list, any selections in the other gestational age or birth weight lists are ignored. The "by-variables" in section 1 and the round radio button selections must match. For example, if you select to group results by the categories in "Infant Birth Weight 100 gram increments" in section 1, then you should set the radio button to select the same list in section 12.

    Note:   When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns.


    Infant Birth Weight

    The Infant Birth Weight field indicates weight ranges for the infant at birth. The infant's weight at birth is available in 3 sets of categories, through 8165 grams, or Not stated:

    • 12 groups in 500 gram increments;
    • 14 groups in 250 gram increments;
    • 100 gram increments.
    How?

    Hint:   You can only pick 1 birth weight list for any data request. The round radio button indicates the selected list, any selections in the other birth weight lists are ignored. The "by-variables" in section 1 and the round radio button selections must match. For example, if you select to group results by "Infant Birth Weight 100 gram increments" then the radio button must also be set to the same selection list in section 12.

    Notes:   

    • The categories in gram intervals and their equivalents in pounds and ounces are as follows:
      Less than 500 grams = 1 lb 1 oz or less
      500 - 999 grams = 1 lb 2 oz - 2 lb 3 oz
      1,000 - 1,499 grams = 2 lb 4 oz - 3 lb 4 oz
      1,500 - 1,999 grams = 3 lb 5 oz - 4 lb 6 oz
      2,000 - 2,499 grams = 4 lb 7 oz - 5 lb 8 oz
      2,500 - 2,999 grams = 5 lb 9 oz - 6 lb 9 oz
      3,000 - 3,499 grams = 6 lb 10 oz - 7 lb 11 oz
      3,500 - 3,999 grams = 7 lb 12 oz - 8 lb 13 oz
      4,000 - 4,499 grams = 8 lb l4 oz - 9 lb l4 oz
      4,500 - 4,999 grams = 9 lb 15 oz - 11 lb 0 oz
      5,000 grams or more = 11 lb l oz or more
    • About low birth weight:
      ICD - 9 and ICD - 10 define low birth weight as less than 2,500 grams. This is a shift of 1 gram from the previous criterion of 2,500 grams or less, which was recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 1935 and adopted in 1948 by the World Health Organization in the International Lists of Diseases and Causes of Death, Sixth Revision.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided, a column for the code and a column for the label. The table below shows the codes and labels for "Birth Weight 12" with 12 categories.

        Code     Label
        "01"  499 grams or less 
        "02"  500 - 999 grams 
        "03"  1000 - 1499  
        "04"  1500 - 1999 grams 
        "05"  2000 - 2499 grams 
        "06"  2500 - 2999 grams 
        "07"  3000 - 3499 grams 
        "08"  3500 - 3999 grams 
        "09"  4000 - 4499 grams 
        "10"  4500 - 4999 grams 
        "11"  5000 - 8165 grams 
        "12"  Not stated 


    Gestational Age at Birth

    Select a range of weeks that represents the duration of the pregnancy at the time of birth.

    NOTE: Beginning in 2014 NCHS changed the standard for gestational period from the Last Menstrual Period (LMP) based gestational age to the Obstetric/clinical Estimate (OE) based gestational age. Obstetric/clinical Estimate (OE) based gestational age groups are available for years 2007 and later in WONDER since February 2016. Refer to Measuring Gestational Age in Vital Statistics Data: Transitioning to the Obstetric Estimate for more information.

    Births data are organized in three groupings:

    1. Gestational Age with 10 age groups Under 20 weeks; 20-27 weeks; 28-31 weeks; 32-35 weeks; 36 weeks; 37-39 weeks; 40 weeks; 41 weeks; 42 weeks or more; Unknown.
    2. Gestational Age with 11 age groups Under 20 weeks; 20-27 weeks; 28-31 weeks; 32-33 weeks; 34-36 weeks; 37-38 weeks; 39 weeks; 40 weeks; 41 weeks; 42 or more weeks; Unknown.
    3. Gestational Age - Weekly:  17 weeks; 18 weeks; 19 weeks; 20 weeks; 21 weeks; 22 weeks; 23 weeks; 24 weeks; 25 weeks; 26 weeks; 27 weeks; 28 weeks; 29 weeks; 30 weeks; 31 weeks; 32 weeks; 33 weeks; 34 weeks; 35 weeks; 36 weeks; 37 weeks; 38 weeks; 39 weeks; 40 weeks; 41 weeks; 42 weeks; 43 weeks; 44 weeks; 45 weeks; 46 weeks; 47 weeks; Unknown.

    How?  
    • Click a round button to switch between the gestational age lists.
    • Select your desired age groups. See How do I select items from the list box?.
    • Hint:
      You can only pick 1 gestational age group list for any data request. The round radio button indicates the selected list, any selections in the other gestational age at birth lists are ignored. The gestational age at birth "by-variables" in section 1 and the radio button selections must match. For example, if you select to group results by "Gestational Age - Weekly" in section 1, then you must also select the radio button for the same list in section 12.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, the Gestational Age codes are shown in a separate column from the category label.



    Gestational Age at Birth - 10 Groups
     Code     Label
     "01"  Under 20 weeks  
     "02"  20 - 27 weeks  
     "03"  28 - 31 weeks  
     "04"  32 - 35 weeks  
     "05"  36 weeks  
     "06"  37 - 39 weeks  
     "07"  40 weeks  
     "08"  41 weeks  
     "09"  42 weeks or more  
     "10"  Unknown or Not Stated  


    Gestational Age - 11 Groups
     Code     Label
     "01"  Under 20 weeks  
     "02"  20-27 weeks  
     "03"  28-31 weeks  
     "04"  32-33 weeks  
     "05"  34-36 weeks  
     "06"  37-38 weeks  
     "07"  39 weeks  
     "08"  40 weeks  
     "09"  41 weeks  
     "10"  42 weeks and over  
     "11"  Unknown or Not Stated  


    Gestational Age - Weekly:
     Code     Label
     "17"  17 weeks  
     "18"  18 weeks  
     "19"  19 weeks  
     "20"  20 weeks  
     "21"  21 weeks  
     "22"  22 weeks  
     "23"  23 weeks  
     "24"  24 weeks  
     "25"  25 weeks  
     "26"  26 weeks  
     "27"  27 weeks  
     "28"  28 weeks  
     "29"  29 weeks  
     "30"  30 weeks  
     "31"  31 weeks  
     "32"  32 weeks  
     "33"  33 weeks  
     "34"  34 weeks  
     "35"  35 weeks  
     "36"  36 weeks  
     "37"  37 weeks  
     "38"  38 weeks  
     "39"  39 weeks  
     "40"  40 weeks  
     "41"  41 weeks  
     "42"  42 weeks  
     "43"  43 weeks  
     "44"  44 weeks  
     "45"  45 weeks  
     "46"  46 weeks  
     "47"  47 weeks  
     "99"  Unknown or Not Stated  


    Sex of Infant

    This field indicates the sex of the child as recorded on the birth certificate.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are shown, a column for the code value and a column for the label.


     Code     Label
     "F"  Female 
     "M"  Male 


    Plurality or Multiple Birth

    The Plurality field indicates if more than one infant shared the gestation and birth.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns.


     Code     Label
     "1"  Single 
     "2"  Twin 
     "3"  Triplet 
     "4"  Quadruplet 
     "5"  Quintuplet or higher 


    Set Order

    The Set Order field indicates the order of birth for each infant, when more than one infant shared the gestation and birth. The values fall into the following six categories: 1st; 2nd; 3rd; 4th; 5th to 16th; Unknown or Not Stated. Single births are categorized as Unknown or Not Stated.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns.


     Code     Label
     "1"  1st 
     "2"  2nd 
     "3"  3rd 
     "4"  4th 
     "5"  5th to 16th 
     "9"  Unknown or Not Stated 


    APGAR scores

    Data for infant APGAR scores are available in four data fields. APGAR scores are available for 5 minutes and 10 minutes after birth, in single increments or recoded into 5 categories:

    • Single increments of 0 - 10; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Applicable.
    • Recoded categories - A score of 0-3; A score of 4-6; A score of 7-8; A score of 9-10; Unknown or Not Stated.
    Note that 10 minute APGARS scores are categorized as "Not Applicable" when the 5 minute score was 6 or higher, and reported as "Unknown or Not Stated" in the recoded categories.

    How?

    Hint:   You can only pick 1 APGAR Score list for any data request. The round radio button indicates the selected list, any selections in the other APGAR Score lists are ignored. The "by-variables" in section 1 and the round radio button selections must match. For example, if you select to group results by "Five Minute APGAR Score" then the radio button must also be set to the same selection list in section 12.

    Notes:   
    • In 1963, the acronym APGAR was coined for the scoring system as a mnemonic learning aid: Appearance (skin color), Pulse (heart rate), Grimace (reflex irritability), Activity (muscle tone), and Respiration. Virginia Apgar, MD, (1909-1974) was an obstetrical anesthesiologist known for developing the system.
    • Ten Minute APGAR Score data are recorded for births with with a score less than six in the Five Minute APGAR Score. The Ten Minute APGAR Score data field includes an additional category, "Not Applicable" for births with a Five Minute Apgar Score of 6 or more. Births reporting "Not Applicable" for the Ten Minute APGAR Score are included in the "Unknown or Not Stated" category in the "Ten Minute APGAR Score Recode" data.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns.


      Single increments:
       Code     Label
       "0"  0 
       "1"  1 
       "2"  2 
       "3"  3 
       "4"  4 
       "5"  5 
       "6"  6 
       "7"  7 
       "8"  8 
       "9"  9 
       "10"  10 
       "88"  Not Applicable *
       "99"  Unknown or Not Stated 
         * Not Applicable category is only reported in Ten Minute APGAR Score data.

      Recoded categories:
       Code     Label
       "1"  A score of 0-3 
       "2"  A score of 4-6 
       "3"  A score of 7-8 
       "4"  A score of 9-10 
       "5"  Unknown or Not Stated *
         * Includes Not Applicable category in the Ten Minute APGAR Score data.


    Infant Transferred

    The Infant Transferred field indicates whether the infant was transferred, in three categories: Yes, No, Unknown or Not Stated.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns.


     Code     Label
     "1"  Yes 
     "2"  No 
     "9"  Unknown or Not Stated 


    Infant Living at Time of Report

    This field indicates whether the infant was alive when the birth certificate data was reported, in three categories: Yes, No, Unknown or Not Stated.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns.


     Code     Label
     "1"  Yes 
     "2"  No 
     "9"  Unknown or Not Stated 


    Infant Breastfed at Discharge

    This field indicates whether the infant was receiving breastmilk or colostrum during the period between birth and discharge from the hospital, in four categories: Yes, No, Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • The following reporting areas have Infant Breastfed at Discharge data coded to "Not Reported" for years 2016-2018: California and Michigan.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns.

       Code     Label
       "1"  Yes 
       "2"  No 
       "9"  Unknown or Not Stated 
       "10"  Not Reported 



    Step 13. Select abnormal conditions of newborn:

    Limit your data for any of the following data elements:

    1. Assisted Ventilation - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
      Assisted Ventilation data are available in 2 fields,
      1) Assisted ventilation required immediately following delivery; and
      2) Assisted ventilation required for more than six hours.
    2. NICU Admission - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    3. Surfactant Replacement Therapy - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    4. Antibiotics for Suspected Neonatal Sepsis - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    5. Seizures - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    6. Abnormal Conditions Checked - At least one checked; None checked; Unknown or Not Stated.
      This field indicates whether any of the abnormal conditions noted above was reported for the newborn. Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any of the above abnormal conditions.

    How?

    See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note: When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label. The categories and codes for abnormal conditions of newborn data are Yes (1); No (2); Unknown or Not Stated (9).


    Abnormal Conditions Checked

    This field indicates whether any abnormal conditions was reported for the newborn for Assisted Ventilation, NICU Admission, Surfactant Replacement Therapy, Antibiotics for Suspected Neonatal Sepsis, or Seizures or or serious neurologic dysfunction. Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any attributes checked for newborn abnormal conditions. For more information, see page 70 in the NCHS guide for 2017 births data.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any pregnancy risk factors.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes for Abnormal Conditions Checked data are At least one checked (0); None checked (1); Unknown or Not Stated (9).



    Step 14. Select congenital anomalies of newborn:

    Limit your data for any of the following data elements:

    1. Anencephaly Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    2. Cleft Palate Alone Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    3. Cleft Lip with or without Cleft Palate Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    4. Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    5. Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    6. Omphalocele Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    7. Gastroschisis Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    8. Hypospadias Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    9. Meningomyelocele / Spina Bifida Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    10. Limb Reduction Defect Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    11. Down Syndrome Confirmed; Pending; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    12. Suspected Chromosomal Disorder Confirmed; Pending; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    13. Congenital Anomalies Checked - At least one checked; None checked; Unknown or Not Stated.
      This field indicates whether any congenital anomalies noted above was reported. Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any of the above congenital anomalies.

    How?

    See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:   When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label. The categories and codes for congenital anomalies data are Yes (1); No (2); Unknown or Not Stated (9).


    Congenital Anomalies Checked

    This field indicates whether any congenital anomalies was reported in 2003 revision of the standard certificate of birth for 1) anencephaly; 2) meningomyelocele/spina bifida; 3) cyanotic congenital heart disease; 4) congenital diaphragmatic hernia; 5) omphalocele; 6) gastrochisis; 7) limb reduction defect; 8) cleft lip with or without cleft palate; 9) cleft palate alone; 10) Down syndrome; 11) suspected chromosomal disorder; and 12) hypospadias. If the item is not completed (i.e. none of the boxes are checked in the birth certificate), then it is classified as "Not stated." Data for the congenital anomaly "Hypospadias" are edited to exclude this condition where the infant is a female. For more information, see page 70 in the NCHS guide for 2017 births data.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:  

    • Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any reported congenital anomalies.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes for Congenital Anomalies Checked data are At least one checked (0); None checked (1); Unknown or Not Stated (9).



    Step 15. Other options:
    Export Results:    If checked, then query results are exported to a local file. More information on how to import this file into other applications can be found here.
    How?   See check box.
    Show Totals:    If checked, then totals and sub-totals display in the results table.
    How?   See check box.
    Show Zero Values:    If checked, then rows containing zero counts display in the results table. If unchecked, then zero count rows do not appear.
    How?   See check box.
    Precision:    Select the number of positions after the decimal place for calculated measures such as rates, averages and percentages.
    How?   See check box.
    Data Access Timeout:    This value specifies the maximum time to wait for the data access for a query to complete. If the data access takes too long to complete, a message will be displayed and you can increase the timeout or simplify your request. If you can't complete a request using the maximum timeout, contact user support and we will try to run a custom data request for you.

    Data Source Information

    To learn more about the methods and source of these data please refer to:

    Publications:


    Additional Information


    Suggested Citation:   

    United States Department of Health and Human Services (US DHHS),
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),
    National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS),
    Division of Vital Statistics,
    Natality public-use data on CDC WONDER Online Database,
    for years 2016-2018 (expanded), available September 2019.

    Each original annual dataset has a unique suggested citation. Please refer to Data Source Information to reference the original technical reference notes and citation for a specific year. See also National Vital Statistics - Birth Data for published reports and more.

    Contact:    Data questions: births@cdc.gov.
    The National Center for Health Statistics welcomes comments and questions at nchsQuery@cdc.gov.
    Notes:   

    Please review the following information:

    • Assurance of Confidentiality Constraints:   

      Vital statistics for years 1989 and later must meet the NCHS data use restrictions. Vital statistics data are suppressed due to confidentiality constraints, in order to protect personal privacy.

      The term "Suppressed" replaces sub-national births counts, birth rates and fertility rates, when the figure represents zero to nine (0-9) persons. Corresponding population denominator data are also suppressed when the figure represents fewer than ten persons.

      Totals and sub-totals are suppressed when the value falls within scope of the suppression criteria, or when the summary value includes a single suppressed figure, in order to prevent the inadvertent disclosure of suppressed values.

      The confidentiality constraints are established by the original data providers. For more information, please contact the data providers.

    • US Residents

      Natality data for the United States are limited to births occurring within the United States to U.S. residents and non-residents. Births to non-residents of the United State are excluded from all tabulations in WONDER by place of residence. Births occurring to U.S. citizens outside the United States are not included.

      All Natality data included in WONDER are reported in conformance to the reporting criteria of the mother's place of residence, rather than the actual criteria on the birth certificate issued by the reporting area of occurrence. For example, if a baby was born in Texas to a mother legally residing in California, then only those data items reported by California are included in the WONDER data set. The original Natality 2004 public use dataset includes data fields from the birth certificate, with an associated reporting flag for each field to indicate whether the mother's place of residence reports this item.

    • About "Unidentified Counties:"

      The label "Unidentified Counties" designates data for combined counties in the indicated state with less than 100,000 population. Note that not all counties in a given state show births that were registered in that county. The state total displays all tabulated births for a given state. Some counties are not associated with tabulated births due to confidentiality concerns. Counties with a total population less than 100,000 report births under "Unidentified Counties" to protect personal privacy.

    • About Eclampsia reporting:

      The following reporting areas have data for Eclampsia coded to "Not Reported" for births that occurred in 2016-2018: South Carolina, and Tennessee (2 reporting areas).

    • About Paternity Acknowledgment reporting:

      Beginning in 2017, due to state statutory restrictions, California no longer provides record-level data on paternity acknowledgment for births occurring to California residents and non-residents (including residents of other states). For these births, Paternity Acknowledgment is reported as "Not Reported."

    • About Assistive Reproductive Technology and Fertility Enhancing Drugs reporting:

      The following reporting areas have data for "Assistive Reproductive Technology: and "Fertility Enhancing Drugs" coded to "Not Reported" for births in these years: New Hampshire 2016; South Carolina 2016-2018; Tennessee 2016-2018.

    • About Source of Payment for Delivery Expanded reporting:

      The following reporting areas do not report all of the categories "Indian Health Service", "CHAMPUS/TRICARE", and "Other Government" for "Source of Payment for Delivery Expanded". These data have been recoded to "Not Reported" for "Source of Payment for Delivery Expanded" for births to residents of these reporting areas in the following years: Arizona 2016-2017; Arkansas 2016-2018; District of Columbia 2016-2017; Florida 2016-2018; Illinois 2016-2018; Michigan 2016-2018; Minnesota 2016-2018; Mississippi 2016-2018; Missouri 2016-2018; New Hampshire 2016-2018; New Jersey 2016-2018; North Carolina 2016-2018; Pennsylvania 2016-2018; Rhode Island 2018; Texas 2016-2018; Vermont 2016-2017; Virginia 2016-2018.

    • About Infant Breastfed reporting:

      The following reporting areas have "Infant Breastfed" data coded to "Not Reported" for births in the following years: California 2016-2018; Michigan 2016-2018.

    • About Birthplace reporting:

      California does not report whether home births were intended or not. Therefore, births in California homes are categorized as "Home (unknown if intended)" for the "Birthplace" variable.

    • Errors and revisions:

      From June 27, 2019 until August 12, 2020, the labels for Massachusetts and Maine were switched for Mother's Birth State data. Birth statistics for Massachusetts were shown in the results when data was limited to Maine as the Mother's Birth State, or when data was grouped by Mother's Birth State and the row's label reported Maine in the Mother's Birth State column. Likewise, birth statistics for Maine were shown in the results when data was limited to Massachusetts as the Mother's Birth State, or when data was grouped by Mother's Birth State and the row's label reported Massachusetts in the Mother's Birth State column. If data was not limited or grouped by Mother's Births State, then the problem did not impact the results. We deeply regret this error and apologize for the inconvenience.

    • Please see Frequently Asked Questions about Natality below.

    • See Locations for more information about changes to state and county areas and codes over time.


    Frequently Asked Questions about Natality

    • Why are there no records found for a specific county?
      When viewing births sorted "by County," please note that not all counties in a given state show births that were registered in that county. The state total displays all tabulated births for a given state. Some counties are not associated with tabulated births due to confidentiality concerns. Counties with a total population less than 100,000 persons report births under "Unidentified Counties" to protect personal privacy. The label "Unidentified Counties" designates the combined counties with less than 100,000 population in the indicated state. If there are no records of births for a specific county, then request data for the entire state, grouped by County, to see the state total and the reporting counties for each state.
    • What data elements are available in the Natality data?
      Please see Natality Data Items for more information.
    • What other technical notes for this data are available?
      Please see the following sources:
      National Vital Statistics - Birth Data
      Vital Stats Online Downloadable Data Files
    • What are the data privacy restrictions for Natality data?
      • Counties with a total population less than 100,000 persons report births under "Unidentified Counties" to protect personal privacy. The label "Unidentified Counties" designates the combined counties with less than 100,000 population in the indicated state. 1995-2002 data identify counties with a population of 100,000 persons or more in the year 1990 Census. 2003-2013 data identify counties with a population of 100,000 persons or more in the year 2000 Census. The data for 2014 and later years identify counties with a population of 100,000 persons or more in the year 2010 Census.
      • Sub-national data representing fewer than ten persons are suppressed. See Assurance of Confidentiality for more information.
      • See also CDC WONDER and NCHS data use restrictions.

    Locations - About FIPS State and County Codes

    The FIPS state and county codes were established by the National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Department of Commerce in 1968. This standard set of codes provides names and codes for counties and county equivalents of the 50 states of the United States and the District of Columbia reporting area. Counties are considered to be the "first order subdivisions" of each State, regardless of their local designation (county, parish, borough). Washington, D.C.; the consolidated government of Columbus, Georgia; the independent cities of the States of Maryland, Missouri, Nevada, and Virginia; the census areas and boroughs of Alaska; and that part of Yellowstone Park in Montana are identified as county equivalents. The system is standard throughout the Federal Government. The State codes are ascending, two-digit numbers; the county codes are ascending three-digit numbers. For both the State and county codes, space has been left for new States or counties. Some changes in the FIPS codes have occurred since 1968.

    A modified version of the FIPS state and county codes is used to identify states and counties on NCHS public-use data files. The modifications as implemented in the Natality public-use data are described below.

    Modifications of FIPS State and County Codes

    1. Counties with populations under 100,000 persons are grouped into "Unidentified Counties" (FIPS code 999) to protect privacy. The 2016-2018 data shows counties with a population of 100,000 persons or more in the year 2010 Census.
    2. Dade county, Florida (FIPS code 12025) was renamed Miami-Dade County (FIPS code 12086) effective November 13, 1997. However, the area is coded to Dade (12025) for all years.
    3. The independent city of Baltimore, Maryland (FIPS code 24510) is reported separately from Baltimore county (FIPS code 24005).
    4. The independent city of St. Lois, Missouri (FIPS code 29510) is reported separately from St. Louis county (FIPS code 29189).
    5. St. Louis county (FIPS code 29189) is reported separately from the independent city of St. Lois, Missouri (FIPS code 29510).
    6. Bronx, New York (FIPS code 36005) represents Bronx Borough, New York City.
    7. Kings county, New York (FIPS code 36047) represents Brooklyn Borough, New York City.
    8. New York county, New York (FIPS code 36061) represents Manhattan Borough, New York City.
    9. Queens, New York (FIPS code 36081) represents Queens Borough, New York City.
    10. Richmond county, New York (FIPS code 36085) represents Staten Island Borough, New York City.




    This page last reviewed: Thursday, September 24, 2020
    This information is provided as technical reference material. Please contact us at cwus@cdc.gov.