Fetal Deaths (Expanded)

Fetal Death Records Data Summary

2014 - 2018

Summary:   

This data collection provides counts for fetal deaths at 20 weeks gestation or more, occurring within the United States to U.S. residents. Information are derived from Report of Fetal Death forms, both the 1989 revision of the U.S. Standard Report of Fetal Death (unrevised) and the 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Report of Fetal Death (revised). Data are available by place: region and state of mother's residence; time: year, month and weekday of death; parental characteristics including mother's race and ethnicity, age, education and nativity, and father's age; pregnancy history and risk factors; maternal risk factors and morbidity; fetal characteristics including gestational age, sex, weight at delivery, plurality; delivery characteristics; and underlying cause of death classified by ICD-10 codes.

Privacy policy: Sub-national data representing zero to nine (0-9) deaths are suppressed. See Assurance of Confidentiality for more information.

Population:    United States fetal death data represent fetal deaths registered in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City. The majority of states require reporting fetal deaths of 20 weeks of gestation or more, or 350 grams delivery weight (roughly equivalent to 20 weeks gestational age), or some combination of the two. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) receives these data as electronic files, prepared from individual records processed by each registration area, through the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program. Fetal death data for the U.S. are limited to events occurring within the United States to U.S. residents and nonresidents. Fetal deaths to nonresidents of the United States are excluded from all tabulations by place of residence. Fetal deaths occurring to U.S. citizens outside of the United States are not included.
Source:   

United States Department of Health and Human Services (US DHHS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Division of Vital Statistics (DVS). Fetal Death Records 2014-2018, as compiled from data provided by the 57 vital statistics jurisdictions through the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program, on CDC WONDER Online Database.

In WONDER:    You can produce tables, maps, charts, and data extracts. Request national and state summary counts and percentages of fetal deaths for the years 2016-2018.

Limit and index your data by any and all of these variables:

  • Mother's residence:
    Location - Census Region, Census Division, HHS Region, and State (no territories) of mother's legal residence at the time of delivery. The "Expanded" lists break New York state into 2 areas: Upstate New York and New York City.
  • Maternal Characteristics:
    • Mother's Race is available in 2 sets of Single Race categories:
      • 6 race categories - American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN); Asian; Black or African American; More than one race; Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI); White; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • 15 race categories - White; Black; American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN); Asian Indian; Chinese; Filipino; Japanese; Korean; Vietnamese; Other Asian; Hawaiian; Guamanian; Samoan; Other Pacific Islander; More than one race; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Mother's Race in 5 Bridged Race categories - American Indian or Alaska Native; Asian or Pacific Islander; Black or African American; White; Not Reported.
    • Mother's Hispanic Origin is available in 3 sets of categories:
      • Single Race/Hispanic Origin in 9 categories - Non-Hispanic White (alone); Non-Hispanic Black (alone); Non-Hispanic AIAN (alone); Non-Hispanic Asian (alone); Non-Hispanic NHOPI (alone); Non-Hispanic more than one race; Hispanic; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
      • Bridged Race/Hispanic Origin in 10 categories - Mexican; Puerto Rican; Cuban; Central or South American; Other and Unknown Hispanic; Non-Hispanic White; Non-Hispanic Black; Non-Hispanic other races; Origin unknown or not stated; Not Reported.
      • Mother's Hispanic Origin in 8 categories - Non-Hispanic; Mexican; Puerto Rican; Cuban; Central or South American; Other and Unknown Hispanic; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
    • Age of Mother is available in 4 sets of age groups:
      • 9 groups of 5-year increments: under 15 years; 15-19 years; 20-24 years; 25-29 years; 30-34 years; 35-39 years; 40-44 years; 45-49 years; 50 years and over.
      • 10 groups with categories for 15-17 and 18-19 year old mothers, and 5-year age increments for older mothers from 20-24 years through 45-49 years, and 50 years and over.
      • 13 groups with single-year age categories for 15, 16, 17, 18, and 19 year old mothers, and 5-year age increments for older mothers from 20-24 years through 45-49 years, and 50 years and over.
      • Yearly categories of 39 groups with an age category for 12 years and under, and single-year age increments for 13 years - 49 years, and 50 years and over.
    • Mother's Education - 11 categories: 8th grade or less; 9th through 12th grade with no diploma; High school graduate or GED completed; Some college credit, but not a degree; Associate degree (AA, AS); Bachelor's degree (BA, AB, BS); Master's degree (MA, MS, MEng, MEd, MSW, MBA); Doctorate (PHD, EdD) or Professional Degree (MD, DDS, DVM, LLB, JD); Unknown or Not Stated; Excluded; Not Reported.
    • Mother's birth place:
      • Mother's Nativity - 4 categories: Born in the U.S. (50 US States); Born outside the U.S. (includes possessions); Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
      • Mother's Birth Country - lists 304 options, from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
      • Mother's Birth State - lists 73 options, for areas affiliated with the United States and Canada; Rest of the World; Not Classifiable; Not Reported.
  • Paternal Characteristics:
    • Age of Father is available in 2 sets of categories:
      • 11 groups of 5-year increments: under 15 years; 15-19 years; 20-24 years; 25-29 years; 30-34 years; 35-39 years; 40-44 years; 45-49 years; 50-54 years, 55 years and older; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
      • Yearly categories of 92 groups with in single-year age increments for 9 years - 98 years, Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
  • Pregnancy history and prenatal care characteristics:
    • Prior pregnancy outcomes:
      • Prior Births Now Living - 33 categories: Zero through thirty births in 1 birth increments (0,1,2... 30); Unknown or Not Stated (99); Not Reported (100).
      • Prior Births Now Dead - 33 categories: Zero through thirty live births in 1 birth increments (0,1,2... 30); Unknown or Not Stated (99); Not Reported (100).
      • Interval Since Last Live Birth - 12 categories: Zero to 3 months (plural delivery); 4 to 11 months; 12 to 17 months; 18 to 23 months; 24 to 35 months; 36 to 47 months; 48 to 59 months; 60 to 71 months; 72 months and over; Not Applicable (1st delivery); Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
      • Live Birth Order - 11 categories: single increments from zero through seven births; 8 or more; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
    • Prenatal care:
    • WIC - 4 categories for enrollment in Women, Infants, and Children supplemental nutrition program: Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
  • Maternal Risk Factors:
    • Mother's height and weight:
      • Mother's Height in Inches - 51 categories: single increments of 30 inches - 78 inches; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
      • Mother's Pre-pregnancy Weight - 8 categories in 50 pound increments: 75 - 124 lbs; 125 - 174 lbs; 175 - 224 lbs; 225 - 274 lbs; 275 - 324 lbs; 325 - 375 lbs; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
      • Mother's Pre-pregnancy BMI - 8 categories for Body Mass Index: Underweight <18.5; Normal 18.5-24.9; Overweight 25.0-29.9; Obesity I 30.0-34.9; Obesity II 35.0-39.9; Extreme Obesity III >39.9; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
    • Tobacco use during pregnancy - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
    • Cigarette consumption:
      • Number of Cigarettes Before Pregnancy in the 3 months prior to conception - 101 categories, single cigarette increments from 0 cigarettes daily through 97 cigarettes daily; 98 or more; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
      • Number of Cigarettes 1st Trimester - 101 categories, single cigarette increments from 0 cigarettes daily through 97 cigarettes daily; 98 or more; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
      • Number of Cigarettes 2nd Trimester - 100 categories in single cigarette increments: - 101 categories, single cigarette increments from 0 cigarettes daily through 97 cigarettes daily; 98 or more; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
      • Number of Cigarettes 3rd Trimester - 100 categories in single cigarette increments: - 101 categories, single cigarette increments from 0 cigarettes daily through 97 cigarettes daily; 98 or more; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
  • Pregnancy Risk Factors:
    • Pregnancy related conditions:
      • Gestational Diabetes - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported (specific to 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Report of Fetal Death).
      • Pregnancy-associated Hypertension - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported (comparable across the 1989 and 2003 revisions of the U.S. Standard Report of Fetal Death).
      • Eclampsia - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported (comparable across the 1989 and 2003 revisions of the U.S. Standard Report of Fetal Death).
    • Prior conditions:
      • Pre-pregnancy Diabetes - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported (specific to 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Report of Fetal Death).
      • Diabetes - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported (comparable across the 1989 and 2003 revisions of the U.S. Standard Report of Fetal Death).
      • Chronic Hypertension - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported (comparable across the 1989 and 2003 revisions of the U.S. Standard Report of Fetal Death).
    • Prior deliveries:
      • Previous Cesarean Delivery - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported (specific to 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Report of Fetal Death).
      • Number of Previous Cesareans - 14 categories in single increments from zero previous cesareans through 11 previous cesareans; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported (specific to 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Report of Fetal Death).
    • Fertility assistance:
      • Infertility Treatment Used - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported (specific to 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Report of Fetal Death).
      • Fertility Enhancing Drugs - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Applicable; Not Reported (specific to 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Report of Fetal Death).
      • Assistive Reproductive Technology - Yes; No; Not Applicable; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported (specific to 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Report of Fetal Death).
  • Delivery Characteristics:
    • When:
      • Year - 2014-2018 for "expanded" data from fetal death records
        (less detailed data are available for years 2005-2018 at Fetal Deaths).
      • Month - January-December.
      • Weekday - Sunday-Saturday.
      • Time of Day - 10 categories: 00:00 - 02:29; 03:00 - 05:59; 06:00 - 08:59; 09:00 - 11:59; 12:00 - 14:59; 15:00 - 17:59; 18:00 - 20:59; 21:00 - 23:59; Unknown or Not Stated, Not Reported.
    • Where:
      • Delivery Place - 9 categories: Hospital; Freestanding Birth Center; Home (intended); Home (not intended); Home (unknown if intended); Clinic / Doctor's Office; Other; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
      • Delivery Place Recode 6 - 6 categories: In Hospital; Freestanding Birth Center; Clinic / Doctor's Office; Residence; Other; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
      • Delivery Place Recode 3 - 3 categories: In Hospital; Not in Hospital; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
    • Medical Attendant - Doctor of Medicine (MD); Doctor of Osteopathy (DO); Certified Nurse Midwife (CNM); Other Midwife; Other; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
    • How:
      • Fetal Presentation - Cephalic; Breech; Other; Unknown or Not Stated, Not Reported.
      • Final Route and Delivery Method - Spontaneous; Forceps; Vacuum; Cesarean; Unknown or Not Stated, Not Reported.
      • Trial of Labor Attempted (if cesarean) Yes; No; Not Applicable; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
      • Forceps Yes; No; Not Applicable; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported; Not Available.
      • Vacuum Yes; No; Not Applicable; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported; Not Available.
      • Breech Yes; No; Not Applicable; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported; Not Available.
  • Maternal Morbidity:
  • Fetal Characteristics:
  • Cause of death:

Contents:    Fetal Deaths Data Request
Data Source Information
Additional Information

Fetal Deaths (Expanded) Data Request

Output:    You can produce tables, maps, charts, and data extracts. The following measures are available:
  1. Number of deaths (summary frequency counts)
  2. Percent of total deaths (total for your query results)
Variables:   

You can limit and index your data by any and all of the data variables.

How?   

The Request screen has sections to guide you through making a data request as a step-by-step process. However, first time users might want to simply press any Send button to get the default table. The data results for your query appear on the Table screen. Click the Request tab above the table to return to the Request screen and form another query. After you get your data results, click the Chart or Map tabs to go to those screens and makes charts or maps. Click the export button above the data table to download your data table as a tab-delimited line listed file.

For more information, see the following:

Quick Start Guide;
Step 1, Organize your request;
Step 2, Limit deaths to selected locations (for maternal residence);
Step 3, Select maternal characteristics;
Step 4, Select paternal characteristics;
Step 5, Select pregnancy history and prenatal care characteristics;
Step 6, Select maternal risk factors;
Step 7, Select pregnancy risk factors;
Step 8, Select delivery characteristics;
Step 9, Select maternal morbidity;
Step 10, Select infant characteristics;
Step 11, Select cause of death;
Step 12, Other options.

'Group Results By'   

Select variables that serve as keys (indexes) for organizing your data. See How do I organize my data? for more information.
Note:    To map your data, the first selection in the "Group Results By" list must be a geographical location, such as region, state or county. You can also limit locations in section 2, and limit other data categories in subsequent sections.

Help:   

Click on any button labeled "Help", located to the right hand side of the screen at the top of each section. Each Control's label, such as the "Location" label next to the Location entry box, is linked to the online help for that item.

Send:   

Sends your data request to be processed on the CDC WONDER databases. The Send buttons are located on the bottom of the Request page, and also in the upper right corner of each section, for easy access.



Step 1. Organize table layout:

Group Results By:   

Select up to five variables to group (summarize, stratify, index) your data. For example, you could select to group your data by Region and by State. See How do I organize my data? for more information.

Select Measures:   

The number of deaths (summary frequency counts) and percent of total deaths (total for your query results) are available. Select the check box to calculate these measures for your query criteria. The number of Fetal Deaths is always calculated by default.

Title:    Enter any desired description to display as a title with your results.


Group Results By

Select up to five variables that serve as keys for grouping your data. For example, you could select to group (summarize, stratify, index) your data by Year, State, and Race.

How?    See How do I organize my data? for more information.

Hints:   

  1. To make a map, select a location variable, such as region or state, in the Group Results By list in section 1 on the Request Form tab. After the results for the query display, then click the Map tab.
  2. To make a chart, select one or two options in the Group Results By lists in section 1 on the Request Form tab. After the results for the query display, then click the Chart tab. When a query groups results by more than two By-Variables, charts are not available.



Percent of Total Deaths

Calculates percentages for your query results. The percentages appear in a column, showing each row's percentage of the total deaths in the results table. The results table shows data for the fetal deaths that met your query criteria.

Notes:
  • Please note that the Percent of Total calculated by CDC WONDER may not be consistent with percentages published by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). NCHS excludes unknowns (also "not stated," "not on certificate," "excluded," and "not reported") from the denominator when calculating percentages.
  • If you wish to drop the unknown categories from your query criteria, then you should specifically select the categories you wish to include in your query. Please note that "All" options include the unknown values.


Step 2. Select maternal residence:

Limit the population to specific locations here. Alternately, you can leave the settings at the default values (the United States) and choose to organize or group the data results by Region, Division, or State to show these stratifications.


Location: Regions, Divisions, and States

This dataset includes locations organized by Census Regions, Census Divisions, HHS Regions, and States. There are two sets of locations, "Standard" and "Expanded". The "Standard" locations have the traditional 50 states plus D.C. The "Expanded" has the same except New York state is divided into two locations, Upstate New York and New York City. Use this field to specify the location or locations for the query. Select any number of locations.

How?  
  1. Click the round button to choose between Regions (two types of regions, both include states) or States.
  2. See How do I use a Finder? for hints on how to search for and select your desired locations.
    • The default value is all locations (the United States).
    • See Finder Tool help for more hints.
Hints:
  • The Advanced mode let you easily pick several items from different parts of the list. Items are not selected until you click the "Move" button in Advanced mode. You may also enter values by hand, one code per line, in the Advanced mode. Use the Finder to see the correct code format. For example, 02 is the Alaska state code.
  • The "plus" symbol, "+" indicates that you can open the item, to see more items below it.
  • The results to a search are shown in blue, and indicated by ">".
  • Notes:   

    • Location is based on mother's legal residence recorded on the birth certificate.
    • State codes are Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) codes. See the Locations section below for more information.
    • Data for Standard Residence States are derived from the "mrstatepstl" variable in the public use data. Data for Expanded Residence States are derived from the "xmrstate" variable in the public use data.
    • When the data results are exported, there are separate columns for location label and code values. To see the full set of available location code values, group results by Census Region, Census Division, and State, or group results by HHS Region, and State. Then export the results. Regions and divisions are multi-state groups. Choose between two types of regions:
      • four Census Regions, with nine sub-ordinate Census divisions
      • ten Health and Human Services (HHS) Regions.
    • About Regions and Divisions:
      • Regions and divisions are multi-state groups. Regions include states and counties, yet do not include territories. Choose between two types of regions:
        • four Census Regions, with nine sub-ordinate divisions, or
        • ten Health and Human Services (HHS) Regions.
      • Census Regions and Divisions from the United States Census Bureau:

        Census Region 1 - Northeast:

        • Division 1 - New England:    Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont.
        • Division 2 - Middle Atlantic:    New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania.

        Census Region 2 - Midwest:

        • Division 3 - East North Central:    Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin.
        • Division 4 - West North Central:    Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota.

        Census Region 3 - South:

        • Division 5 - South Atlantic:    Delaware, District of Columbia reporting area, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia.
        • Division 6 - East South Central:    Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, Tennessee.
        • Division 7 - West South Central:    Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas.

        Census Region 4 - West:

        • Division 8 - Mountain:    Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, Wyoming.
        • Division 9 - Pacific:    Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, Washington.

      • Health and Human Services (HHS) Regions:

        HHS Region 1 - Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont.

        HHS Region 2 - New Jersey, New York (data for Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands are not included here).

        HHS Region 3 - Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia.

        HHS Region 4 - Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee.

        HHS Region 5 - Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Wisconsin.

        HHS Region 6 - Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas.

        HHS Region 7 - Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska.

        HHS Region 8 - Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, Wyoming.

        HHS Region 9 - Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada (data for American Samoa and Guam are not included here).

        HHS Region 10 - Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington

      • When you export the results of your data request, the location name and the codes are in separate columns.
      • To see the full set of available location values for Regions, group the data by HHS Region and State, or by Census Region, Division, and State, and then export the results.



    Step 3. Select maternal characteristics:
    Limit your data for any of the following data elements:
    • Mother's Race is available in 2 sets of Single Race categories:
      • 6 race categories - American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN); Asian; Black or African American; More than one race; Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI); White; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • 15 race categories - White; Black; American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN); Asian Indian; Chinese; Filipino; Japanese; Korean; Vietnamese; Other Asian; Hawaiian; Guamanian; Samoan; Other Pacific Islander; More than one race; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Mother's Race in Bridged Race categories - American Indian or Alaska Native; Asian or Pacific Islander; Black or African American; White; Not Reported.
    • Mother's Hispanic Origin is available in 3 sets of categories:
      • Single Race/Hispanic Origin in 9 categories - Non-Hispanic White (alone); Non-Hispanic Black (alone); Non-Hispanic AIAN (alone); Non-Hispanic Asian (alone); Non-Hispanic NHOPI (alone); Non-Hispanic more than one race; Hispanic; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
      • Bridged Race/Hispanic Origin in 10 categories - Mexican; Puerto Rican; Cuban; Central or South American; Other and Unknown Hispanic; Non-Hispanic White; Non-Hispanic Black; Non-Hispanic other races; Origin unknown or not stated; Not Reported.
      • Mother's Hispanic Origin in 8 categories - Non-Hispanic; Mexican; Puerto Rican; Cuban; Central or South American; Other and Unknown Hispanic; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
    • Age of Mother is available in 4 sets of age groups:
      • 9 groups of 5-year increments: under 15 years; 15-19 years; 20-24 years; 25-29 years; 30-34 years; 35-39 years; 40-44 years; 45-49 years; 50 years and over.
      • 10 groups with categories for 15-17 and 18-19 year old mothers, and 5-year age increments for older mothers from 20-24 years through 45-49 years, and 50 years and over.
      • 13 groups with single-year age categories for 15, 16, 17, 18, and 19 year old mothers, and 5-year age increments for older mothers from 20-24 years through 45-49 years, and 50 years and over.
      • Yearly categories of 39 groups with an age category for 12 years and under, and single-year age increments for 13 years - 49 years, and 50 years and over.
    • Mother's Education - 11 categories: 8th grade or less; 9th through 12th grade with no diploma; High school graduate or GED completed; Some college credit, but not a degree; Associate degree (AA, AS); Bachelor's degree (BA, AB, BS); Master's degree (MA, MS, MEng, MEd, MSW, MBA); Doctorate (PHD, EdD) or Professional Degree (MD, DDS, DVM, LLB, JD); Unknown or Not Stated; Excluded; Not Reported.
    • Mother's birth place:
      • Mother's Nativity - 4 categories: Born in the U.S. (50 US States); Born outside the U.S. (includes possessions); Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
      • Mother's Birth Country - lists 304 options, from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
      • Mother's Birth State - lists 73 options, for areas affiliated with the United States and Canada; Rest of the World; Not Classifiable; Not Reported.

    How?    

    Hispanic Origin

    This field indicates the mother's Hispanic origin. Data are available in three sets of categories.

    How?    
    1. Click a round button to switch between the lists for Mother's Hispanic origin.
    2. See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • The following acronyms in the category labels are disambiguated as follows:
      American Indian or Alaskan Native (AIAN);
      Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI).
    • Public Health Information Network (PHIN) compatible codes are used when applicable.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns.

      Mother's Hispanic Origin groups:
       Code     Label
       "0"  Non-Hispanic 
       "2148-5"  Mexican 
       "2180-8"  Puerto Rican 
       "2182-4"  Cuban 
       "4"  Central or South American 
       "5"  Cuban 
       "9"  Central or South American 
       "100"  Not Reported 



      Mother's Single Race/Hispanic Origin:
       Code     Label
       "1"  Non-Hispanic White (alone) 
       "2"  Non-Hispanic Black (alone) 
       "3"  Non-Hispanic AIAN (alone) 
       "4"  Non-Hispanic Asian (alone) 
       "5"  Non-Hispanic NHOPI (alone) 
       "6"  Non-Hispanic more than one race 
       "7"  Hispanic 
       "8"  Unknown or not stated 
       "100"  Not Reported 



      Mother's Bridged Race/Hispanic Origin:
       Code     Label
       "2148-5"  Mexican 
       "2180-8"  Puerto Rican 
       "2182-4"  Cuban 
       "4"  Central or South American 
       "5"  Other and Unknown Hispanic 
       "6"  Non-Hispanic White 
       "7"  Non-Hispanic Black 
       "8"  Non-Hispanic other races 
       "9"  Origin unknown or not stated 
       "100"  Not Reported 


    Mother's Race

    Limit your data to the selected categories for mother's race. The default selection is all race groups. Three lists of maternal race categories are available: Bridged Race groups (4 categories), and also two sets of Single Race groups (6 race categories or 15 race categories). The three lists include an additional category for Not Reported, and Single Race lists include a category for Unknown or Not Stated.

    How?    
    1. Click a round button to switch between the lists for Mother's Race.
    2. See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Not Reported: For some reporting areas and years, mother's race data are categorized as "Not Reported." For more information, see About Not Reported Data.
    • When results are exported to a file, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. Public Health Information Network (PHIN) compatible codes are used when applicable. See codes and labels for the Mother's Race categories below.


    Mother's Bridged Race (4 race groups, 5 categories):
     Code     Label
     "1002-5"  American Indian or Alaska Native 
     "A-PI"  Asian Pacific Islander 
     "2054-5"  Black or African American 
     "2106-3"  White 
     "100"  Not Reported 


    Mother's Single Race 6 (6 race groups, 8 categories):
     Code     Label
     "1002-5"  American Indian or Alaska Native 
     "A"  Asian 
     "2054-5"  Black or African American 
     "NHOPI"  Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 
     "2106-3"  White 
     "M"  More than one race 
     "UNK"  Unknown or Not Stated 
     "NR"  Not Reported 


    Mother's Single Race 15 (15 race groups, 17 categories):
     Code     Label
     "1"  White 
     "2"  Black 
     "3"  American Indian or Alaska Native 
     "4"  Asian Indian 
     "5"  Chinese 
     "6"  Filipino 
     "7"  Japanese 
     "8"  Korean 
     "9"  Vietnamese 
     "10"  Other Asian 
     "11"  Hawaiian 
     "12"  Guamanian 
     "13"  Samoan 
     "14"  Other Pacific Islander
     "15"  More than one race 
     "99"  Unknown or Not Stated 
     "100"  Not Reported 


    Age of Mother

    This field indicates the age group of the mother at the time of delivery. Maternal age is available in four sets of age groups:

    1. 9 groups: under 15 years; 5-year age increments from 15-19 years through 45-49 years; 50 years and over;
    2. 10 groups with categories for 15-17 and 18-19 year old mothers, 5-year age increments from 20-24 years through 45-49 years; 50 years and over;
    3. 13 groups with single-year age categories for 15, 16, 17, 18, and 19 year old mothers, and 5-year age increments from 20-24 years through 45-49 years; 50 years and over;
    4. Yearly age groups with an age category for 10-12 year old mothers, single-year age increments from 13 years through 49 years; 50 years and over.
    How?    

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided, a column for the Age group code value and a column for the label. See codes and labels for the basic 9 age groups below.


     Code     Label
     "15"  Under 15 years 
     "15-19"  15 - 19 years 
     "20-24"  20 - 24 years 
     "25-29"  25 - 29 years 
     "30-34"  30 - 34 years 
     "35-39"  35 - 39 years 
     "40-44"  40 - 44 years 
     "45-49"  45 - 49 years 
     "50+"  50 years and over 


    Mother's Education

    This field indicates a range for the mother's education level at the time of delivery.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided for Maternal Education, the code value and the label.


    Maternal Education:
     Code     Label
     "1"  8th grade or less 
     "2"  9th through 12th grade with no diploma 
     "3"  High school graduate or GED completed 
     "4"  Some college credit, but not a degree 
     "5"  Associate degree (AA, AS) 
     "6"  Bachelor's degree (BA, AB, BS) 
     "7"  Master's degree (MA, MS) 
     "8"  Doctorate (PHD, EdD) or Professional Degree (MD, DDS, DVM, LLB, JD) 
     "Unk"  Unknown/Not on certificate 
     "NR"  Not Reported 


    Mother's Nativity

    This field categorizes the place of mother's birth, into the following 4 groups: (1) Born in the U.S. (50 US States); (2) Born outside the U.S. (includes possessions); (3) Unknown or Not Stated; (10) Not Reported.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided for this field, the code value and the label, as noted above.


    Mother's Birth Country

    This field reports the place of mother's birth. The list includes 304 options, from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided for this field, the code value and the label. The codes are also shown inside parenthesis at the end of each label.


    Mother's Birth State

    This field reports the state of mother's birth, for mothers born in the United States, US territories or possessions, or Canada. The list includes 73 options, including "Rest of the World;" "Not Classifiable;" and "Not Reported."

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided for this field, the code value and the label. The codes are also shown inside parenthesis at the end of each label.



    Step 4. Select paternal characteristics:

    Limit your data for any of the following data elements:

    1. Age of Father 11 - 11 groups of 5-year increments: under 15 years; 15-19 years; 20-24 years; 25-29 years; 30-34 years; 35-39 years; 40-44 years; 45-49 years; 50-54 years, 55 years and older; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported;
    2. Age of Father Year - single year increments ranging from 9 years through 98 years; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported;

    How?    
    1. Click a round button to switch between the list of categories for paternal age.
    2. See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Age of Father

    This field indicates the age group of the father at the time of delivery. Pick between two lists of paternal age categories:

    1. 11 age groups of 5-year increments from under 15 years; 15-19 years; through 55 years and older; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
    2. Single year increments from 9 years - 98 years, Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.

    How?    

    1. Click a round button to switch between the list of categories for paternal age.
    2. See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided, a column for the Age group code value and a column for the label. See codes and labels for the 11 paternal age groups below.


     Code     Label
     "1"  Under 15 years 
     "2"  15 - 19 years 
     "3"  20 - 24 years 
     "4"  25 - 29 years 
     "5"  30 - 34 years 
     "6"  35 - 39 years 
     "7"  40 - 44 years 
     "8"  45 - 49 years 
     "9"  50 - 54 years 
     "55+"  55 years and older 
     "NS"  Unknown or Not Stated 
     "NR"  Not Reported 



    Step 5. Select pregnancy history and prenatal care characteristics:

    Limit your data for any of the following data elements:

    1. Prior pregnancy outcomes:
      • Prior Births Now Living - 33 categories: Zero through thirty births in 1 birth increments (0,1,2... 30); Unknown or Not Stated (99); Not Reported (100).
      • Prior Births Now Dead - 33 categories: Zero through thirty live births in 1 birth increments (0,1,2... 30); Unknown or Not Stated (99); Not Reported (100).
    2. Prior pregnancies - timing:
      • Interval Since Last Live Birth - 12 categories: Zero to 3 months (plural delivery); 4 to 11 months; 12 to 17 months; 18 to 23 months; 24 to 35 months; 36 to 47 months; 48 to 59 months; 60 to 71 months; 72 months and over; Not Applicable (1st live birth); Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
    3. Birth order:
      • Live Birth Order - 10 categories: One child born alive to mother through seven live births; 8 or more; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
    4. Prenatal care:
    5. WIC - 4 categories for enrollment in Women, Infants, and Children supplemental nutrition program: Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated, Not Reported.

    How?    

    Interval Since Last Live Birth

    This field reports the time elapsed since the mother's last live birth, in twelve categories of months, ranging from zero (plural delivery) through 72 months and over, and including Not Applicable (1st live birth); Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided, a column for the code value and a column for the label. See codes and labels below for the categories.


     Code     Label
     "0"  Zero to 3 months (plural delivery) 
     "1"  4 to 11 months 
     "2"  12 to 17 months 
     "3"  18 to 23 months 
     "4"  24 to 35 months 
     "5"  36 to 47 months 
     "6"  48 to 59 months 
     "7"  60 to 71 months 
     "8"  72 months and over 
     "88"  Not Applicable (1st live birth) 
     "99"  Unknown or Not Stated 
     "100"  Not Reported 


    Prior Pregnancy Outcomes

    Two fields report information on the number of prior pregnancy outcomes in 33 categories, ranging from zero through thirty in single increments, and including Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.

    1. Prior Births Now Living - 33 categories: Zero through thirty births in 1 birth increments (0,1,2... 30); Unknown or Not Stated (99); Not Reported (100).
    2. Prior Births Now Dead - 33 categories: Zero through thirty live births in 1 birth increments (0,1,2... 30); Unknown or Not Stated (99); Not Reported (100).

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided, a column for the code value and a column for the label. Codes values are numeric for the number of prior births, and also shown in parenthesis after the category labels: Unknown or Not Stated (99); Not Reported (100).


    Live Birth Order

    This field indicates the mother's total number of live births for this mother. The categories range from zero through seven live births; 8 or more; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • For the specified year the following reporting areas have "Live Birth Order" coded to "Not Reported:" 2015 - Rhode Island. For more information, see About Not Reported Data. When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


       Code     Label
       "00"  No live births 
       "01"  1st child born alive to mother 
       "02"  2nd child born alive to mother 
       "03"  3rd child born alive to mother 
       "04"  4th child born alive to mother 
       "05"  5th child born alive to mother 
       "06"  6th child born alive to mother 
       "07"  7th child born alive to mother 
       "08"  8th child or more born alive to mother 
       "09"  Unknown or not stated 
       "100"  Not Reported 


    Prenatal Care

    Data are available for prenatal care in 2 fields (codes shown in parenthesis before labels below):
    1. Month Maternal Prenatal Care Began - 12 categories: No prenatal care; 1st month through 10th month; (99) Unknown or Not Stated; (100) Not Reported.
    2. Trimester Prenatal Care Began - 6 categories: (1) 1st to 3rd month; (2) 4th to 6th month; (3) 7th to final month; (4) No prenatal care; (5) Unknown or Not Stated; (100) Not Reported.
    How?    
    Notes:   
    • When you group results by the categories for prenatal care data in section 1 on the Request Form tab, you must also select the round button to show the list of desired data categories in section 5.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns.

    Month Prenatal Care Began

    This field indicates the month in the pregnancy when prenatal care began.

    How?    

    Notes:   

    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns.


     Code     Label
     "0"  No prenatal care  
     "1"  1st month  
     "2"  2nd month  
     "3"  3rd month  
     "4"  4th month  
     "5"  5th month  
     "6"  6th month  
     "7"  7th month  
     "8"  8th month  
     "9"  9th month  
     "10"  10th month  
     "99"  Unknown or Not stated
     "100"  Not Reported


    WIC

    This field indicates whether the mother received food for herself from the Women, Infants & Children (WIC) because she was pregnant with this child supplemental nutrition program because she was pregnant with this child. Data are reported in four categories: Yes (1); No (2); Unknown or Not Stated (9); Not Reported (10).

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided for this field, label and the code value, as noted above inside parenthesis.



    Step 6. Select maternal risk factors:

    Limit your data for any of the following data elements:

    1. Mother's height and weight:
      • Mother's Height in Inches - 50 categories: 30 inches; 31 - 78 inches; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
      • Mother's Pre-pregnancy Weight - 7 categories in 50 pound increments: 75 - 124 lbs; 125 - 174 lbs; 175 - 224 lbs; 225 - 274 lbs; 275 - 324 lbs; 325 - 375 lbs; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
      • Mother's Pre-pregnancy BMI - 7 categories for Body Mass Index: Underweight <18.5; Normal 18.5-24.9; Overweight 25.0-29.9; Obesity I 30.0-34.9; Obesity II 35.0-39.9; Extreme Obesity III >39.9; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
    2. Tobacco use during pregnancy - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
    3. Cigarette consumption:
      • Number of Cigarettes Before Pregnancy in the 3 months prior to conception - 100 categories in single cigarette increments: 0 cigarettes daily through 97 cigarettes daily; 98 or more; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
      • Number of Cigarettes 1st Trimester - 100 categories in single cigarette increments: 0 cigarettes daily through 97 cigarettes daily; 98 or more; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
      • Number of Cigarettes 2nd Trimester - 100 categories in single cigarette increments: 0 cigarettes daily through 97 cigarettes daily; 98 or more; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
      • Number of Cigarettes 3rd Trimester - 100 categories in single cigarette increments: 0 cigarettes daily through 97 cigarettes daily; 98 or more; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.

    How?    

    Notes:   

    • Cigarette and tobacco data are categorized as "Not Reported" for some reporting areas and years. See About Not Reported Data.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns.


    Tobacco use during pregnancy

    This field indicates whether tobacco use was reported during the pregnancy, in four categories: Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • For more detailed data on tobacco use and pregnancy, see Cigarettes.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. Codes are shown in parenthesis after the category labels below: Yes (1); No (2); Unknown or Not Stated (9); Not Reported (10).



    Step 7. Select pregnancy risk factors:

    Limit your data for any of the following data elements:

    1. Pregnancy related conditions:
    2. Prior conditions:
    3. Prior deliveries:
      • Previous Cesarean Delivery - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
      • Number of Previous Cesareans - 12 categories in increments of 1: zero previous cesareans through 10 previous cesareans; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
      • These data are specific to the 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Report of Fetal Death (revised items).
    4. Fertility assistance:

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns.


    Diabetes

    This field indicates whether diabetes is reported as a maternal risk factor. Gestational Diabetes, Pre-pregnancy Diabetes and Diabetes are reported in separate fields.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Pre-pregnancy Diabetes and Gestational Diabetes include data that are specific to the 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Report of Fetal Death (revised items).
    • Diabetes includes data that are comparable across the 1989 and 2003 revisions of the U.S. Standard Report of Fetal Death.
    • Pre-pregnancy Diabetes and Gestational Diabetes data are coded to "Not Reported" for the following ten reporting areas and years:
      Alaska 2014;
      Colorado 2014;
      Connecticut 2014-2017;
      Massachusetts 2014;
      New Jersey 2014-2016;
      New York, Upstate 2014-2017;
      Rhode Island 2014, 2016-2017;
      Virginia 2014;
      Washington 2016-2018
      West Virginia 2014-2016.
      See About Not Reported Data.
    • Diabetes data are coded to "Not Reported" for fetal deaths that occurred in these two reporting areas in these years:
      Rhode Island 2016 -2017;
      Washington 2016-2018.
      See About Not Reported Data.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes for Diabetes data are Yes (1); No (2); Unknown or Not Stated (9); Not Reported (10).


    Hypertension Disease

    This field indicates whether Hypertension Disease is reported as a maternal risk factor. Pregnancy-associated Hypertension (gestational) and Chronic Hypertension (pre-pregnancy) are reported in separate fields.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Pregnancy-associated Hypertension and Chronic Hypertension include data that are comparable across the 1989 and 2003 revisions of the U.S. Standard Report of Fetal Death.
    • The following two reporting areas have Pregnancy-associated Hypertension and Chronic Hypertension data coded to "Not Reported" for fetal deaths that occurred in these years:
      Rhode Island 2016 -2017;
      Washington 2016-2018.
      See About Not Reported Data.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes for Hypertension data are Yes (1); No (2); Unknown or Not Stated (9); Not Reported (10).


    Eclampsia

    This field indicates whether Eclampsia is reported as a maternal risk factor.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • The following two reporting areas have Eclampsia data coded to "Not Reported" for fetal deaths that occurred in these years:
      Rhode Island 2016 -2017;
      Washington 2016-2018.
      See About Not Reported Data.
    • Eclampsia data are comparable across the 1989 and 2003 revisions of the U.S. Standard Report of Fetal Death.
    • Data for Eclampsia are derived from the "urf_eclam" variable in the public use data.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes for Eclampsia data are Yes (1); No (2); Not Applicable (3); Unknown or Not Stated (9); Not Reported (10).


    Previous Cesarean Delivery

    This field indicates whether previous cesarean delivery is reported as a maternal risk factor.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Previous Cesarean Delivery data are coded to "Not Reported" for the following ten reporting areas and years:
      Alaska 2014;
      Colorado 2014;
      Connecticut 2014-2017;
      Massachusetts 2014;
      New Jersey 2014-2016;
      New York, Upstate 2014-2017;
      Rhode Island 2014, 2016-2017;
      Virginia 2014;
      Washington 2016-2018;
      West Virginia 2014-2016.
      See About Not Reported Data.
    • Previous Cesarean Delivery data are specific to the 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Report of Fetal Death (revised items).
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes are Yes (1); No (2); Unknown or Not Stated (9); Not Reported (10).


    Number of Previous Cesareans

    This field indicates the number of previous cesarean deliveries reported as a maternal risk factor.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • The Number of Previous Cesareans data are specific to the 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Report of Fetal Death (revised items).
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The number or previous cesarean deliveries to this mother are reported in categories in increments of 1: zero previous cesareans (0) through 11 previous cesareans (11); Unknown or Not Stated (99); Not Reported (100) .


    Infertility Treatment Used

    This field indicates whether the use of infertility treatment is reported as a maternal risk factor.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Infertility Treatment Used data are specific to the 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Report of Fetal Death (revised items).
    • Infertility Treatment Used data are coded to "Not Reported" for the following ten reporting areas and years:
      Alaska 2014;
      Colorado 2014;
      Connecticut 2014-2017;
      Massachusetts 2014;
      New Jersey 2014-2016;
      New York, Upstate 2014-2017;
      Rhode Island 2014, 2016-2017;
      Virginia 2014;
      Washington 2016-2018;
      West Virginia 2014-2016.
      See About Not Reported Data.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes are Yes (1); No (2); Unknown or Not Stated (9); Not Reported (10).


    Assistive Reproductive Technology

    This field indicates whether Assistive Reproductive Technology is reported as a maternal risk factor.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Assistive Reproductive Technology data are specific to the 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Report of Fetal Death (revised items).
    • The following ten reporting areas have Assistive Reproductive Technology data coded to "Not Reported:"
      Alaska 2014;
      Colorado 2014;
      Connecticut 2014-2017;
      Massachusetts 2014;
      New Jersey 2014-2016;
      New York, Upstate 2014-2017;
      Rhode Island 2014, 2016-2017;
      Virginia 2014;
      Washington 2016-2018;
      West Virginia 2014-2016.
      See About Not Reported Data.
    • "Assistive Reproductive Technology" is coded to "Not Applicable" for records where "Infertility Treatment Used" is "No".
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes for Assistive Reproductive Technology data are Yes (1); No (2); Not Applicable (3); Unknown or Not Stated (9); Not Reported (10).


    Fertility Enhancing Drugs

    This field indicates whether the use of fertility enhancing drugs is reported as a maternal risk factor.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Fertility Enhancing Drugs data are specific to the 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Report of Fetal Death (revised items).
    • The following ten reporting areas have Assistive Reproductive Technology data coded to "Not Reported:"
      Alaska 2014;
      Colorado 2014;
      Connecticut 2014-2017;
      Massachusetts 2014;
      New Jersey 2014-2016;
      New York, Upstate 2014-2017;
      Rhode Island 2014, 2016-2017;
      Virginia 2014;
      Washington 2016-2018;
      West Virginia 2014-2016.
      See About Not Reported Data.
    • "Fertility Enhancing Drugs" is coded to "Not Applicable" for records where "Infertility Treatment Used" is "No".
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes for Fertility Enhancing Drugs data are Yes (1); No (2); Not Applicable (3); Unknown or Not Stated (9); Not Reported (10).



    Step 8. Select delivery characteristics:

    Limit your data for any of the following data elements:

    1. When:
      • Year - 2014-2018 for "expanded" data from fetal death records
        (less detailed data are available for years 2005-2018 at Fetal Deaths).
      • Month - January-December.
      • Weekday - Sunday-Saturday.
      • Time of Day - 10 categories: 00:00 - 02:59; 03:00 - 05:59; 06:00 - 08:59; 09:00 - 11:59; 12:00 - 14:59; 15:00 - 17:59; 18:00 - 20:59; 21:00 - 23:59; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
    2. Where:
      • Delivery Place - 9 categories: Hospital; Freestanding Birth Center; Home (intended); Home (not intended); Home (unknown if intended); Clinic / Doctor's Office; Other; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
      • Delivery Place Recode 6 - 6 categories: Hospital; Freestanding Birth Center; Residence; Clinic / Doctor's Office; Other; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Delivery Place Recode 3 - 3 categories: Hospital; Not in Hospital; Unknown or Not Stated.
    3. Medical Attendant - Doctor of Medicine (MD); Doctor of Osteopathy (DO); Certified Nurse Midwife (CNM); Other Midwife; Other; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
    4. How:
      • Fetal Presentation - Cephalic; Breech; Other; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
      • Final Route and Delivery Method - Spontaneous; Forceps; Vacuum; Cesarean; Unknown or Not Stated, Not Reported.
      • Delivery Method Expanded - 8 categories: Vaginal (excludes vaginal after previous C-section); Vaginal after previous c-section; Primary C-section; Repeat C-section; Vaginal (unknown if previous c-section); C-section (unknown if previous c-section); Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
      • Delivery Method - 3 categories: Vaginal; Cesarean; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
      • Trial of Labor Attempted (if cesarean) Yes; No; Not Applicable; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
      • Forceps: Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported; Not Available.
      • Vacuum: Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported; Not Available.
      • Breech: Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported; Not Available.

    How?

    Hint:   You can only pick one list for Delivery Place and Delivery Method for any data request. The round radio button indicates the selected list, any selections in the other gestational age or birth weight lists are ignored. The "by-variables" in section 1 and the round radio button selections must match. For example, if you select to group results by the categories in "Delivery Method Expanded" in section 1, then you should set the radio button to select the same list in section 8.

    Note:   When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category.


    Year

    Pick any combination of years desired.
    How?    See How do I select items from the list box?.
    Hint:    More years of data are available at Fetal Deaths.

    Month

    This field indicates month of birth.

    How?    See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Month data are derived from the "dob_mm" field found in the public use data.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


       Code     Label
       "1"   January  
       "2"   February  
       "3"   March  
       "4"   April  
       "5"   May  
       "6"   June  
       "7"   July  
       "8"   August  
       "9"   September  
       "10"   October  
       "11"   November  
       "12"   December  


    Weekday

    This field indicates weekday of birth.

    How?    See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Note that there are a different number of days of the week in each year.
    • Weekday data are derived from the "dob_wk" field found in the public use data.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


       Code     Label
       "1"   Sunday  
       "2"   Monday  
       "3"   Tuesday  
       "4"   Wednesday  
       "5"   Thursday  
       "6"   Friday  
       "7"   Saturday  
       "9"   Unknown  


    Time Of Day

    This field indicates the time of delivery in 3 hour time period increments in a 24 hour day, and categories for Unknown or Not Stated, and Not Reported.

    How?    See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:   

    When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


     Code     Label
     "0"   00:00 - 02:59  
     "1"   03:00 - 05:59  
     "2"   06:00 - 08:59  
     "3"   09:00 - 11:59  
     "4"   12:00 - 14:59  
     "5"   15:00 - 17:59  
     "6"   18:00 - 20:59  
     "7"   21:00 - 23:59  
     "33"  Unknown or Not Stated 
     "NR"   Not Reported  


    Delivery Place

    This field indicates the place of delivery. Delivery Place data are available in 3 lists of categories. The code values are listed in parenthesis after the category labels below.

    1. Delivery Place - 9 categories:
      Hospital (1); Freestanding Birth Center (2); Home (intended) (3); Home (not intended) (4); Home (unknown if intended) (5); Clinic / Doctor's Office (6); Other (7); Unknown or Not Stated (9); Not Reported (10).
    2. Delivery Place Recode 6 - 6 categories:
      Hospital (1); Freestanding Birth Center (2); Clinic / Doctor's Office (3); Residence (4); Other (5); Unknown or Not Stated (9); Not Reported (10).
    3. Delivery Place Recode 3 - 3 categories:
      Hospital (1); Not in Hospital (2); Unknown or Not Stated (3); Not Reported (10).
    How?

    Hint:   You can only pick one list for Delivery Place for any data request. The round radio button indicates the selected list, any selections in the other Delivery Place lists are ignored. The "by-variables" in section 1 and the round radio button selections must match. For example, if you select to group results by the categories in "Delivery Place Recode 6" in section 1, then you should set the radio button to select the same list in section 8.

    Notes:   

    • California does not report whether home deliveries were intended or not. Therefore, births in California homes are categorized as "Home (unknown if intended)" for place of delivery.
    • The following nine reporting areas have Delivery Place data coded to "Not Reported:"
      Alaska 2014;
      Colorado 2014;
      Connecticut 2014-2017;
      Massachusetts 2014;
      New Jersey 2014-2016;
      New York, Upstate 2014-2017;
      Rhode Island 2014;
      Virginia 2014;
      Washington 2016-2017;
      West Virginia 2014-2016.
      See About Not Reported Data.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


    Medical Attendant

    This field indicates the attendant at the time of delivery.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Delivery Attendant data are derived from the "ATTEND" field found in the public use data.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


       Code     Label
       "1"   Doctor of Medicine (MD)  
       "2"   Doctor of Osteopathy (DO)  
       "3"   Certified Nurse Midwife (CNM)  
       "4"   Other Midwife  
       "5"   Other  
       "9"   Unknown or Not Stated  
       "10"   Not Reported  


    Fetal Presentation

    This field reports the baby's presentation at delivery, in five categories: Cephalic; Breech; Other; Unknown or Not Stated, or Not Reported.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • The following nine reporting areas have Fetal Presentation data coded to "Not Reported:" in the indicated years:
      Alaska 2014;
      Colorado 2014;
      Connecticut 2014-2017;
      Massachusetts 2014;
      New Jersey 2014-2016;
      New York, Upstate 2014-2017;
      Rhode Island 2014, 2017;
      Virginia 2014;
      West Virginia 2014-2016.
      See About Not Reported Data.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


       Code     Label
       "1"   Cephalic  
       "2"   Breech  
       "3"   Other  
       "9"   Unknown or Not Stated  
       "100"   Not Reported  


    Final Route and Delivery Method

    This field reports the final route and method of delivery in six categories: Spontaneous, Forceps, Vacuum, Cesarean, Unknown or Not Stated, Not Reported.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • The following nine reporting areas have Final Route and Delivery Method data coded to "Not Reported" in the indicated years:
      Alaska 2014;
      Colorado 2014;
      Connecticut 2014-2017;
      Massachusetts 2014;
      New Jersey 2014-2016;
      New York, Upstate 2014-2017;
      Rhode Island 2014;
      Virginia 2014;
      West Virginia 2014-2016.
      See About Not Reported Data.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


       Code     Label
       "1"   Spontaneous  
       "2"   Forceps  
       "3"   Vacuum  
       "4"   Cesarean  
       "9"   Unknown or Not Stated  
       "100"   Not Reported  


    Delivery Method

    This field indicates whether delivery was by Cesarean section or vaginal birth.

    How?    

    Hint:   You can only pick one list for Delivery Method for any data request. The round radio button indicates the selected list, any selections in the other Delivery Method lists are ignored. The "by-variables" in section 1 and the round radio button selections must match. For example, if you select to group results by the categories in "Delivery Method Expanded" in section 1, then you should set the radio button to select the same list in section 8.

    See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


     Code     Label
     "1"   Vaginal  
     "2"   Cesarean  
     "9"   Not Stated  
     "10"   Not Reported  


    Delivery Method Expanded

    This field reports the method of delivery in eight categories.

    How?    

    Hint:   You can only pick one list for Delivery Method for any data request. The round radio button indicates the selected list, any selections in the other Delivery Method lists are ignored. The "by-variables" in section 1 and the round radio button selections must match. For example, if you select to group results by the categories in "Delivery Method Expanded" in section 1, then you should set the radio button to select the same list in section 8.

    Notes:   

    • The following nine reporting areas have Delivery Method Expanded data coded to "Not Reported:"
      Alaska 2014;
      Colorado 2014;
      Connecticut 2014-2017;
      Massachusetts 2014;
      New Jersey 2014-2016;
      New York, Upstate 2014-2017;
      Rhode Island 2014;
      Virginia 2014;
      Washinton 2018;
      West Virginia 2014-2016.
      See About Not Reported Data.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


       Code     Label
       "1"   Vaginal (excludes vaginal after previous C-section)  
       "2"   Vaginal after previous c-section  
       "3"   Primary C-section  
       "4"   Repeat C-section  
       "5"   Vaginal (unknown if previous c-section)  
       "6"   C-section (unknown if previous c-section)  
       "9"   Unknown or Not Stated  
       "100"   Not Reported  


    Trial of Labor Attempted (if cesarean)

    This field reports if babies delivered by cesarean delivery attempted labor, in five categories: Yes; No; Not Applicable; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • The following nine reporting areas have Trial of Labor Attempted data coded to "Not Reported:"
      Alaska 2014;
      Colorado 2014;
      Connecticut 2014-2017;
      Massachusetts 2014;
      New Jersey 2014-2016;
      New York, Upstate 2014-2017;
      Rhode Island 2014;
      Virginia 2014;
      West Virginia 2014-2016.
      See About Not Reported Data.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


       Code     Label
       "1"   Yes  
       "2"   No  
       "3"   Not Applicable  
       "9"   Unknown or Not Stated  
       "10"   Not Reported  


    Forceps

    This field indicates whether forceps were used during delivery.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Some fetal deaths that were not vaginal deliveries were incorrectly coded as forceps deliveries. For these records, Forceps field was recoded to "No" when Delivery Method was "Cesarean," and Forceps was recoded to "Unknown" when Delivery Method was "Unknown." Approximately .05% of the records were recoded per request of the Division of Vital Statistics in CDC's National Center for Health Statistics. This recode resulted in counts in WONDER differing from those found in the public use data files.
    • Forceps delivery data from the 1989 revision are coded to "Not Available" beginning with fetal deaths in 2018. Please see "Final Route and Delivery Method" data from the 2003 revision, which includes this information in a new format.
    • Data for Forceps are derived from the "ume_forcp" field in the public use data in years 2006 - 2018. Data are available for additional years at Fetal Deaths.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the Forceps code is shown in a separate column from the category label. Codes for each category label are listed below.


       Code Label
       "1"  Yes 
       "2"  No 
       "3"  Not Available
       "9"  Unknown or Not Stated 
       "100"  Not Reported 


    Vacuum

    This field indicates whether vacuum was used during delivery.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Some fetal deaths that were not vaginal deliveries were incorrectly coded as vacuum deliveries. For these records Vacuum field was recoded to "No" when Delivery Method was "Cesarean," and Vacuum was recoded to "Unknown" when Delivery Method was "Unknown". Approximately .05% of the records were recoded per request of the Division of Vital Statistics in CDC's National Center for Health Statistics. This recode resulted in counts in WONDER differing from those found in the public use data files.
    • Vacuum delivery data from the 1989 revision are coded to "Not Available" beginning with fetal deaths in 2018. Please see "Final Route and Delivery Method" data from the 2003 revision, which includes this information in a new format.
    • Data for Vacuum are derived from the "vacuum" variable in the public use data in year 2005. Data for Vacuum are derived from the "ume_vac" variable in the public use data in years 2006 - 2018. Data are available for additional years at Fetal Deaths.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the Vacuum code is shown in a separate column from the category label. Codes for each category label are listed below.


       Code Label
       "1"  Yes 
       "2"  No 
       "3"  Not Available
       "9"  Unknown or Not Stated 
       "100"  Not Reported 


    Breech

    This field indicates whether the infant was in a breech position during delivery.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Breech delivery data from the 1989 revision are coded to "Not Available" beginning with fetal deaths in 2018. Please see "Fetal Presentation" data from the 2003 revision, which includes this information in a new format.
    • Data for Breech are derived from the "uld_breech" variable in the public use data.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the Breech code is shown in a separate column from the category label. Codes for each category label are listed below.


       Code Label
       "1"  Yes 
       "2"  No 
       "3"  Not Available
       "9"  Unknown or Not Stated 
       "100"  Not Reported 



    Step 9. Select maternal morbidity:

    Limit your data for any of the following data elements:

    1. Ruptured Uterus - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
    2. Admission to Intensive Care Unit - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.

    How?

    See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:  

    • The following nine reporting areas have Ruptured Uterus and Admission to Intensive Care Unit data coded to "Not Reported:"
      Alaska 2014;
      Colorado 2014;
      Connecticut 2014-2017;
      Massachusetts 2014;
      New Jersey 2014-2016;
      New York, Upstate 2014-2017;
      Rhode Island 2014, 2017;
      Virginia 2014;
      West Virginia 2014-2016.
      See About Not Reported Data.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label. The categories and codes for maternal morbidity data are Yes (1); No (2); Unknown or Not Stated (9), Not Reported (10).



    Step 10. Select infant characteristics:

    Limit your data for any of the following data elements:

    1. Gender (Sex) of Child - Female; Male.
    2. Delivery Weight
      Infant's weight at delivery is available in 3 sets of categories, through 8165 grams, or Not stated:
      • 4 groups: 1499 grams or less; 1500-2499 grams; 2500-8165 grams; Unknown or Not Stated;
      • 14 groups in 250 gram increments from 249 grams or less through 8165 grams; Unknown or Not Stated;
      • 100 gram increments from 0-99 grams through 8165 grams; Unknown or Not Stated.
    3. Plurality or Multiple Deliveries - Single; Twin; Triplet; Quadruplet; Quintuplet or more.
    4. Gestational Age at Delivery
      Gestational age groups are available in 3 sets of categories, representing the duration of the pregnancy at the time of delivery, based on Obstetric Estimate (OE):
      • 4 age groups: 20-23 weeks; 24-27 weeks; 28 weeks or more; Unknown; Not Available.
      • 10 age groups: 20-23 weeks; 24-27 weeks; 28-31 weeks; 32-33 weeks; 34-36 weeks; 37-38 weeks; 39-40 weeks; 41 weeks; 42 weeks and over; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Weekly age groups: single week increments from 20 weeks through 47 weeks; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Available.
    5. Estimated Time of Fetal Death in 4 categories: At assessment, no labor; At assessment, labor; Labor, no assessment; Unknown or Not Stated.
    6. Was Autopsy Performed? in 5 categories: Yes; No; Planned; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
    7. Was Histological Placental Exam Performed? in 5 categories: Yes; No; Planned; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
    8. Was Autop/Hist results used in cause? in 5 categories: Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Applicable; Not Reported.
    9. Estimated Time of Fetal Death At assessment, no labor; At assessment, labor; Labor, no assessment; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.

    How?

    Hint:   You can only pick one list for Gestational Age and Delivery Weight. The round radio button indicates the selected list, any selections in the other gestational age or birth weight lists are ignored. The "by-variables" in section 1 and the round radio button selections must match. For example, if you select to group results by the categories in "Infant Delivery Weight 100 gram increments" in section 1, then you should set the radio button to select the same list in section 10.

    Note:   When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns.


    Infant Delivery Weight

    Infant Delivery Weight indicates weight ranges for the infant at the time of delivery. The weight at delivery is available in 3 sets of categories through 8165 grams, or Unknown or not stated:

    • 4 groups in 1500 gram increments;
    • 14 groups in 250 gram increments;
    • 100 gram increments.
    How?

    Hint:   You can only pick 1 delivery weight list for any data request. The round radio button indicates the selected list, any selections in the other delivery weight lists are ignored. The "by-variables" in section 1 and the round radio button selections must match. For example, if you select to group results by "Infant Delivery Weight 100 gram increments" then the radio button must also be set to the same selection list in section 10.

    Notes:   

    • The categories in gram intervals and their equivalents in pounds and ounces are as follows:
      Less than 500 grams = 1 lb 1 oz or less
      500 - 999 grams = 1 lb 2 oz - 2 lb 3 oz
      1,000 - 1,499 grams = 2 lb 4 oz - 3 lb 4 oz
      1,500 - 1,999 grams = 3 lb 5 oz - 4 lb 6 oz
      2,000 - 2,499 grams = 4 lb 7 oz - 5 lb 8 oz
      2,500 - 2,999 grams = 5 lb 9 oz - 6 lb 9 oz
      3,000 - 3,499 grams = 6 lb 10 oz - 7 lb 11 oz
      3,500 - 3,999 grams = 7 lb 12 oz - 8 lb 13 oz
      4,000 - 4,499 grams = 8 lb l4 oz - 9 lb l4 oz
      4,500 - 4,999 grams = 9 lb 15 oz - 11 lb 0 oz
      5,000 grams or more = 11 lb l oz or more
    • About low delivery weight:
      ICD - 9 and ICD - 10 define low birth weight as less than 2,500 grams. This is a shift of 1 gram from the previous criterion of 2,500 grams or less, which was recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 1935 and adopted in 1948 by the World Health Organization in the International Lists of Diseases and Causes of Death, Sixth Revision.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided, a column for the code and a column for the label.


    Gestational Age at Delivery

    Select a range of weeks that represents the duration of the pregnancy at the time of delivery, based on Obstetric Estimate (OE).

    NOTE: Beginning in 2014 NCHS changed the standard for gestational period from the Last Menstrual Period (LMP) based gestational age to the Obstetric/clinical Estimate (OE) based gestational age. Obstetric/clinical Estimate (OE) based gestational age groups are available for years 2007 and later in WONDER since February 2016. Refer to Measuring Gestational Age in Vital Statistics Data: Transitioning to the Obstetric Estimate for more information.

    Gestational age at delivery data are organized in three groupings:

    1. Gestational Age with 4 age groups:  20-23 weeks; 24-27 weeks; 28 weeks or more; Unknown; Not Available.
    2. Gestational Age with 10 age groups:  20-23 weeks; 24-27 weeks; 28-31 weeks; 32-33 weeks; 34-36 weeks; 37-38 weeks; 38-40 weeks; 41 weeks; 42 weeks and over; Unknown or Not Stated.
    3. Gestational Age - Weekly:  - single week increments from 20 weeks through 47 weeks; Unknown or not stated; Not Available.

    How?  
    • Click a round button to switch between the gestational age lists.
    • Select your desired age groups. See How do I select items from the list box?.
    • Hint:
      You can only pick 1 gestational age group list for any data request. The round radio button indicates the selected list, any selections in the other gestational age lists are ignored. The gestational age "by-variables" in section 1 and the radio button selections must match. For example, if you select to group results by "Gestational Age - Weekly" in section 1, then you must also select the radio button for the same list in section 10.

    Notes:   

    • About change in OE Gestational Age Recode 10:
      When comparing the "expanded" Fetal Deaths data for years 2014 and later to the less detailed Fetal Deaths online database for years 2005 and later, note that 4 categories are different for the "OE Gestational Age Recode 10" data. The new categories in the expanded data are "32-33 weeks; 34-36 weeks; 37-38 weeks; 39-40 weeks." The new categories are available beginning with deaths in year 2014. In data for prior years, these 4 categories are different: "32-35 weeks; 36 weeks; 37-39 weeks; 40 weeks."
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the Gestational Age codes are shown in a separate column from the category label. Codes and labels for weekly gestational age groups are shown below.

    Gestational Age - Weekly:
     Code     Label
     "20"  20 weeks  
     "21"  21 weeks  
     "22"  22 weeks  
     "23"  23 weeks  
     "24"  24 weeks  
     "25"  25 weeks  
     "26"  26 weeks  
     "27"  27 weeks  
     "28"  28 weeks  
     "29"  29 weeks  
     "30"  30 weeks  
     "31"  31 weeks  
     "32"  32 weeks  
     "33"  33 weeks  
     "34"  34 weeks  
     "35"  35 weeks  
     "36"  36 weeks  
     "37"  37 weeks  
     "38"  38 weeks  
     "39"  39 weeks  
     "40"  40 weeks  
     "41"  41 weeks  
     "42"  42 weeks  
     "43"  43 weeks  
     "44"  44 weeks  
     "45"  45 weeks  
     "46"  46 weeks  
     "47"  47 weeks  
     "99"  Unknown or Not Stated  
     "110"  Not Available  


    Sex of Infant

    This field indicates the sex of the child as recorded on the report of fetal death.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are shown, a column for the code value and a column for the label.


     Code     Label
     "F"  Female 
     "M"  Male 


    Plurality or Multiple Delivery

    The Plurality field indicates if more than one infant shared the gestation.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns.


     Code     Label
     "1"  Single 
     "2"  Twin 
     "3"  Triplet 
     "4"  Quadruplet 
     "5"  Quintuplet or higher 


    Estimated Time of Fetal Death

    This field reports the estimated time of fetal death in five categories: At assessment, no labor; At assessment, labor; Labor, no assessment; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported. <

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • The following sixteen reporting areas have estimated time of fetal death data coded to "Not Reported:"
      Alaska 2014;
      Colorado 2014;
      Connecticut 2014-2017;
      District of Columbia 2016-2018;
      Hawaii 2017-2018;
      Kansas 2018;
      Massachusetts 2014;
      Missouri 2017-2018;
      Montana 2018;
      Nevada 2017-2018;
      New Jersey 2014-2016;
      New York, Upstate 2014-2018;
      New York City 2017;
      Oklahoma 2017;
      Rhode Island 2014, 2017;
      Tennessee 2017;
      Virginia 2014-2018;
      West Virginia 2014-2016.
      See About Not Reported Data.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns.

       Code     Label
       "1"  At assessment, no labor
       "2"  At assessment, labor
       "3"  Labor, no assessment
       "9"  Unknown or Not Stated
       "100"  Not Reported


    Was Autopsy Performed?

    This field indicates whether an autopsy was performed, in five categories: Yes; No; Planned; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • The following nine reporting areas have Autopsy data coded to "Not Reported:"
      Alaska 2014;
      Colorado 2014;
      Connecticut 2014-2017;
      Massachusetts 2014;
      New Jersey 2014-2016;
      New York, Upstate 2014-2017;
      Rhode Island 2014;
      Virginia 2014;
      West Virginia 2014-2016.
      See About Not Reported Data.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns.

       Code     Label
       "1"  Yes 
       "2"  No 
       "3"  Planned 
       "9"  Unknown or Not Stated 
       "100"  Not Reported 


    Was Histological Placental Exam Performed?

    This field indicates whether a histological placental exam was performed, in five categories: Yes; No; Planned; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • The following nine reporting areas have histology data coded to "Not Reported:"
      Alaska 2014;
      Colorado 2014;
      Connecticut 2014-2017;
      Massachusetts 2014;
      New Jersey 2014-2016;
      New York, Upstate 2014-2017;
      Rhode Island 2014;
      Virginia 2014;
      West Virginia 2014-2016.
      See About Not Reported Data.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns.

       Code     Label
       "1"  Yes 
       "2"  No 
       "3"  Planned 
       "9"  Unknown or Not Stated 
       "100"  Not Reported 


    Was autopsy or histological placental exam used in classifying cause of death?

    This field indicates whether an autopsy or histological placental exam was used in classifying cause of death. Data are available in five categories: Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Applicable; Not Reported.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • The following ten reporting areas have histology data coded to "Not Reported:"
      Alaska 2014;
      Colorado 2014;
      Connecticut 2014-2017;
      Massachusetts 2014;
      New Jersey 2014-2016;
      New York, Upstate 2014-2017;
      Rhode Island 2014;
      Virginia 2014;
      West Virginia 2014-2016;
      Wisconsin 2014-2018.
      See About Not Reported Data.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns.

       Code     Label
       "1"  Yes 
       "2"  No 
       "3"  Not Applicable 
       "9"  Unknown or Not Stated 
       "10"  Not Reported 


    Step 11. Select cause of death:

    Limit your data to deaths due to the selected causes. Pick the round button to show one of the following lists of causes of death:

    1. ICD-10 Codes
    2. 124 Selected Causes of Fetal Death

    Select the International Classification of Disease (ICD) categories that represent the underlying cause of death from the death certificate. Any number of causes can be specified here. However, you can only request data from one of the lists: the ICD codes (organized by chapters, sub-chapters and codes), or the groups of selected causes of death (organized by group and codes). Be sure the radio button for ICD-10 Codes or 124 Selected Causes is set to your choice. You can leave the field at the default selection for all causes of death, and choose to organize or group the data results by these variables to show these stratifications.

    How?
    • Click a round button to switch between the ICD chapter and code list, or by the Selected Causes group and ICD code list.
    • See How do I use a Finder? for more information.
    Hints:
    • The default is all values (all causes of death).
    • The Advanced mode let you easily pick several items from different parts of the ICD-10 list. Items are not selected until you click the "Move" button in Advanced mode. You may also enter values by hand, one code per line, in the Advanced mode. Use the Finder to see the correct code format. For example, "G91" is the ICD-10 code for hydrocephalus and subordinate ICD codes.
    • The "plus" symbol, "+" indicates that you can open the item, to see more items below it.
    • The results to a search are shown in blue, and indicated by ">".
    Notes:
    • About the International Classification of Diseases:
      The mortality data are compiled in accordance with the World Health Organization (WHO) regulations, which specify that member nations classify and code causes of death in accordance with the current revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD). The International Classification of Diseases is developed collaboratively between the World Health Organization (WHO) and 10 international centers, for purposes of ensuring that medical terms reported on death certificates are internationally comparable and lend themselves to statistical analysis. The ICD has been revised approximately every 10 years since 1900 in order to reflect changes in understanding of disease mechanisms and in disease terminology.
    • About selecting causes of death:
      Years 1999 and later classify deaths by International Classification of Diseases, revision 10 chapters, sub-chapters and specific causes of death (codes).
      1. ICD-10 Codes are searchable by word or phrase, in 3 levels: chapters, sub-chapters and specific causes of death.
      2. 124 Selected Causes of Fetal Death from the International Classification of Diseases, revision 10.

    ICD-10 Codes

    Limit the data to any number of causes of death, for selected chapters, sub-chapters or codes.

    How?   See Step 11. Select cause of death above. Check the Hints section.

    Notes:  

    • The International Classification of Disease (ICD) 10th revision is used to represent the underlying cause of death for the years 1999 and later. The ICD system is organized by chapters, sub-chapters and codes.
    • ICD-10 uses a 4-length alphanumeric coding scheme. Each of the 21 chapters in ICD-10 is classified to a letter or letters of the alphabet. Infectious disease codes in Chapter 1, for example, begin with an "A" or "B". Thus, Acute poliomyelitis is associated with the codes A80.0-A80.9 and Viral hepatitis is classified as B15.0-B19.9. The ICD 10 system begins codes with a letter from the alphabet, followed by two numerals, then a decimal point to indicate subordinate position, and then more numerals. Some causes of death in Compressed Mortality are represented by 3 length codes, although most causes of death are represented by 4 length codes (format A12.3). Greater detail than 4 length codes are not included in the data.
    • A "Not Reported" category has been added to the list of ICD-10 Codes for causes of fetal death. The "Not Reported" category appears in chapter, sub-chapter and cause.
      See About Not Reported Data.


    124 Selected Causes of Fetal Death

    Limit the data to any number of selected causes of death, or individual causes.

    How?  
    • Be sure to first select the round button to show the desired list.
    • Hint: when working inside the list box, use Ctrl + Click for multiple selections, or Shift + Click for a range.
    • See Step 11. Select cause of death above for more guidance.

    Notes:  

    • Deaths in the years 1999 and later are coded to the tenth revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). There are 124 Selected Causes of Fetal Death groups for the ICD-10 codes.
    • A "Not Reported" category has been added to the list of 124 Selected Causes of Fetal Death.
      See About Not Reported Data.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


    Step 12. Other options:
    Export Results:    If checked, then query results are exported to a local file. More information on how to import this file into other applications can be found here.
    How?   See check box.
    Show Totals:    If checked, then totals and sub-totals display in the results table.
    How?   See check box.
    Show Zero Values:    If checked, then rows containing zero counts display in the results table. If unchecked, then zero count rows do not appear.
    How?   See check box.
    Precision:    Select the number of positions after the decimal place for calculated measures such as rates, averages and percentages.
    How?   See check box.
    Data Access Timeout:    This value specifies the maximum time to wait for the data access for a query to complete. If the data access takes too long to complete, a message will be displayed and you can increase the timeout or simplify your request. If you can't complete a request using the maximum timeout, contact user support and we will try to run a custom data request for you.

    Data Source Information

    See Source in the Summary section above, or see the suggested citation below. To learn more about the methods and source of these data please refer to:

    Other Issues



    Locations - About FIPS State Codes

    The FIPS state codes were established by the National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Department of Commerce in 1968. This standard set of codes provides names and codes for the 50 states of the United States and the District of Columbia. The system is standard throughout the Federal Government. The state codes are ascending, two-digit numbers. Some changes in the FIPS codes have occurred since 1968.

    A modified version of the FIPS state is used to identify states on NCHS public-use data files. The modifications as implemented in this public-use data set are described below.

    Modifications of FIPS State Codes

    The "Expanded Residence" list breaks New York into two entities:

    1. New York, Upstate (FIPS code 36)
    2. New York City (code 70)


    Additional Information

    Suggested Citation:    United States Department of Health and Human Services (US DHHS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Division of Vital Statistics (DVS). Fetal Deaths 2005-2018, as compiled from data provided by the 57 vital statistics jurisdictions through the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program, on CDC WONDER Online Database.
    Contact:    The National Center for Health Statistics welcomes comments and questions at nchsed@cdc.gov.
    Notes:   
    • About Fetal Deaths:
      • Fetal death refers to the spontaneous intrauterine death of a fetus at any time during pregnancy. Fetal deaths later in pregnancy (at 20 weeks of gestation or more, or 28 weeks or more, for example) are also sometimes referred to as stillbirths. In the United States, State laws require the reporting of fetal deaths, and Federal law mandates national collection and publication of fetal death data. Most states report fetal deaths of 20 weeks of gestation or more and/or 350 grams birthweight. However, a few states report fetal deaths for all periods of gestation.
      • Fetal death data are published annually by the National Center for Health Statistics, in reports and as individual-record data files.
      • This data collection provides the number of fetal deaths at 20 weeks of gestation or more, occurring within the United States to U.S. residents. Information are derived from Report of Fetal Death forms, both the 1989 revision of the U.S. Standard Report of Fetal Death (unrevised) and the 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Report of Fetal Death (revised).
    • About Fetal Deaths to Maternal Foreign Residents:
      • Fetal Deaths occurring within the United States to a mother who is a resident of a foreign country are excluded from this data set.
      • Foreign residents are defined as follows: state of occurrence is one of the 50 States or the District of Columbia, but place of residence of mother is outside of the 50 States and D.C.
    • About reporting anomalies for Cause of Death in 2014:
      Due to a coding error for ICD-10 codes W32-W34, classifying underlying cause of death as accidental discharge of firearms, some states show large increases in 2014 for this cause. This cause of death should be interpreted with caution.
    • Assurance of Confidentiality Constraints:   
      Data reports for years 1989 and later must meet the NCHS data use restrictions. Vital statistics data are suppressed due to confidentiality constraints, in order to protect personal privacy.
      The term "Suppressed" replaces sub-national mortality statistics, when the figure represents zero to nine (0-9) deaths.
      Totals and sub-totals are suppressed when the value falls within scope of the suppression criteria, or when the summary value includes a single suppressed figure, in order to prevent the inadvertent disclosure of suppressed values.
      The confidentiality constraints are established by the original data providers. For more information, please contact the data providers.
    • About Not Reported Data:

      Some data fields are recoded to "Not Reported" for specific states and years. The records are recoded because fetal deaths to mothers residing in a reporting area continued to use the 1989 U.S. Standard Report of Fetal Death, or fetal deaths to mothers residing in a reporting area that used the 2003 U.S. Standard Report of Fetal Death had more than 50% of fetal deaths assigned to unspecified cause (P95) in the specified year, or the reporting area simply did not report the data item for some years.

      For more details see the user guide for the respective data year, which can be found at https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data_access/vitalstatsonline.htm.

      To run a query which shows exactly which reporting areas are not reporting specific data for specific years, group results by Expanded Residence States, and by Year, and by the desired data item. To see the percentage of data that are Not Reported, be sure to also check the box to report the Percent of Total Deaths measure (see Step 1 on the Request Form tab). If you wish to see only the reporting areas and years when the data are not reported, then limit the data category to "Not Reported" in the list for the specific field.




    This page last reviewed: Tuesday, November 03, 2020
    This information is provided as technical reference material. Please contact us at cwus@cdc.gov.