Infant Deaths Data Summary

Linked Birth / Infant Death Records (Expanded)

2017 - 2020

Summary:    This data collection provides counts and rates for deaths of infants under 1 year of age, occurring within the United States to U.S. residents. Information from death certificates has been linked to corresponding birth certificates. Data are available by county of mother's residence, child's age, underlying cause of death, gender, birth weight, birth plurality, birth order, gestational age at birth, period of prenatal care, maternal race and ethnicity, maternal age, maternal education and marital status. The "expanded" data includes additional data for race categories, paternal characteristics, mother's pregnancy history, risk factors, and labor and delivery. For the documentation on data for preceding years, see Linked Birth / Infant Death Records 1995-2020. Please also see Linked Birth / Infant Death Records Information for links to the online databases.

Privacy policy: All data representing zero to nine (0-9) deaths or births are suppressed. See Assurance of Confidentiality for more information.

Population:    Live births and infant (age under 365 days) deaths to maternal residents of the United States, 2017 - 2020.
Source:   

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. National Vital Statistics System, Linked Birth / Infant Deaths on CDC WONDER Online Database. Data are from the Linked Birth / Infant Deaths Records 2017-2020, as compiled from data provided by the 57 vital statistics jurisdictions through the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program.

In WONDER:    You can produce tables, maps, charts, and data extracts. Request national, state and county summary counts of infant deaths, live births and infant death rates. You can limit and index your data by any and all of these variables:

Infant Death Variables

  1. Mother's residence - National, Regional, Division, State and County (total population of 250,000 or more; no territories) of mother's legal residence at the time of birth. Data also available by urbanization categories for counties, based on the 2006 and 2013 urbanization classification schema.
  2. Mother's Characteristics:
    • Maternal Race in Single-Race categories:
      • 6 race categories - American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN); Asian; Black or African American; More than one race; Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI); White; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • 15 race categories - White; Black; American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN); Asian Indian; Chinese; Filipino; Japanese; Korean; Vietnamese; Other Asian; Hawaiian; Guamanian; Samoan; Other Pacific Islander; More than one race; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • 31 race categories - White; Black; American Indian or Alaskan Native (AIAN); Asian; Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI); Black and White; Black and AIAN; Black and Asian; Black and NHOPI; AIAN and White; AIAN and Asian; AIAN and NHOPI; Asian and White; Asian and NHOPI; NHOPI and White; Black, AIAN, and White; Black, AIAN, and Asian; Black, AIAN, and NHOPI; Black, Asian, and White; Black, Asian, and NHOPI; Black, NHOPI, and White; AIAN, Asian, and White; AIAN, NHOPI, and White; AIAN, Asian, and NHOPI; Asian, NHOPI, and White; Black, AIAN, Asian, and White; Black, AIAN, Asian, and NHOPI; Black, AIAN, NHOPI, and White; Black, Asian, NHOPI, and White; AIAN, Asian, NHOPI, and White; Black, AIAN, Asian, NHOPI, and White; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Maternal Hispanic Origin
      • Hispanic origin categories - Hispanic or Latino; Not Hispanic or Latino; Origin unknown or not stated.
      • Expanded Hispanic origin categories - Mexican; Puerto Rican; Cuban; Dominican; Central or South American; Other and Unknown Hispanic; Non-Hispanic; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Marital Status - Married; Unmarried; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Available.
    • Paternity Acknowledgment (if mother unmarried) - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Applicable; Not Reported.
    • Age of Mother - under 15 years through over 50 years.
      Mother's age is available in the following sets of age groups:
      • 9 groups of 5-year increments: under 15 years; 15-19 years; 20-24 years; 25-29 years; 30-34 years; 35-39 years; 40-44 years; 45-49 years; 50 years and over.
      • 10 groups with categories for under age 15; 15-17 years; 18-19 years; 5-year age increments for older mothers; 50 years and over.
      • 13 groups with a category for under age 15; single-year age categories for 15, 16, 17, 18, and 19 year old mothers; 5-year age increments for older mothers; and a category for age 50 years and over.
    • Mother's Education - 8th grade or less; 9th through 12th grade with no diploma; High school graduate or GED completed; Some college credit, but not a degree; Associate degree (AA, AS); Bachelor's degree (BA, AB, BS); Master's degree (MA, MS); Doctorate (PHD, EdD) or Professional Degree (MD, DDS, DVM, LLB, JD); Unknown or Not Stated; Excluded.
    • Mother's birth place:
      • Mother's Nativity - Born in the U.S. (50 US States); Born outside the U.S. (includes possessions); Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Mother's Birth Country - lists 294 options, from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Mother's Birth State - lists 72 options, for areas affiliated with the United States and Canada; Rest of the World; Not Classifiable.
  3. Paternal Characteristics:
    • Paternal Race in Single-Race categories:
      • 6 race categories - American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN); Asian; Black or African American; More than one race; Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI); White; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • 15 race categories - White; Black; American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN); Asian Indian; Chinese; Filipino; Japanese; Korean; Vietnamese; Other Asian; Hawaiian; Guamanian; Samoan; Other Pacific Islander; More than one race; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • 31 race categories - White; Black; American Indian or Alaskan Native (AIAN); Asian; Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI); Black and White; Black and AIAN; Black and Asian; Black and NHOPI; AIAN and White; AIAN and Asian; AIAN and NHOPI; Asian and White; Asian and NHOPI; NHOPI and White; Black, AIAN, and White; Black, AIAN, and Asian; Black, AIAN, and NHOPI; Black, Asian, and White; Black, Asian, and NHOPI; Black, NHOPI, and White; AIAN, Asian, and White; AIAN, NHOPI, and White; AIAN, Asian, and NHOPI; Asian, NHOPI, and White; Black, AIAN, Asian, and White; Black, AIAN, Asian, and NHOPI; Black, AIAN, NHOPI, and White; Black, Asian, NHOPI, and White; AIAN, Asian, NHOPI, and White; Black, AIAN, Asian, NHOPI, and White; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Father's Hispanic Origin
      • Hispanic origin categories - Hispanic or Latino; Not Hispanic or Latino; Origin unknown or not stated.
      • Expanded Hispanic origin categories - Mexican; Puerto Rican; Cuban; Dominican; Central or South American; Other and Unknown Hispanic; Non-Hispanic; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Father's Education - 8th grade or less; 9th through 12th grade with no diploma; High school graduate or GED completed; Some college credit, but not a degree; Associate degree (AA, AS); Bachelor's degree (BA, AB, BS); Master's degree (MA, MS); Doctorate (PHD, EdD) or Professional Degree (MD, DDS, DVM, LLB, JD); Unknown or Not Stated; Excluded.
    • Age of Father - 11 groups of 5-year increments: under 15 years; 15-19 years; 20-24 years; 25-29 years; 30-34 years; 35-39 years; 40-44 years; 45-49 years; 50-54 years, 55-98 years; Unknown or Not Stated.
  4. Pregnancy history and prenatal care characteristics:
    • Prior pregnancies - timing:
      • Interval Since Last Live Birth - 11 categories: Zero to 3 months (plural delivery); 4 to 11 months; 12 to 17 months; 18 to 23 months; 24 to 35 months; 36 to 47 months; 48 to 59 months; 60 to 71 months; 72 months and over; Not Applicable (1st live birth); Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Interval Since Last Other Pregnancy Outcome - 11 categories: Zero to 3 months (plural delivery); 4 to 11 months; 12 to 17 months; 18 to 23 months; 24 to 35 months; 36 to 47 months; 48 to 59 months; 60 to 71 months; 72 months and over; Not Applicable (1st natality event); Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Interval of Last Pregnancy - 11 categories: Zero to 3 months (plural delivery); 4 to 11 months; 12 to 17 months; 18 to 23 months; 24 to 35 months; 36 to 47 months; 48 to 59 months; 60 to 71 months; 72 months and over; Not Applicable (no previous pregnancy); Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Prior pregnancy outcomes:
      • Prior Births Now Living - 13 categories: Zero through 10 births in 1 birth increments (0,1,2... 10); 11 or more (11); Unknown or Not Stated (99); Not Reported (100).
      • Prior Births Now Dead - 5 categories: Zero through 2 births in 1 birth increments (0,1,2); 3 or more (3); Unknown or Not Stated (99).
      • Prior Other Pregnancy Outcomes - 8 categories: Zero through 5 pregnancies in single increments (0,1,2... 5); 6 or more (6); Unknown or Not Stated (99).
    • Birth order:
      • Live Birth Order - 9 categories: One child born alive to mother through seven live births; 8 or more; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Total Birth Order - 9 categories: One child born alive to mother through seven live births; 8 or more; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Prenatal care:
      • Number of Prenatal Visits - 100 categories: Zero through 98 prenatal visits; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Number of Prenatal Visits Recode - 12 categories: No visits; 1 to 2 visits; 3 to 4 visits; 5 to 6 visits; 7 to 8 visits; 9 to 10 visits; 11 to 12 visits; 13 to 14 visits; 15 to 16 visits; 17 to 18 visits; 19 or more visits; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Month Maternal Prenatal Care Began - 12 categories: No prenatal care; 1st month through 10th month; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Trimester Prenatal Care Began - 6 categories: 1st to 3rd month; 4th to 6th month; 7th to final month; No prenatal care; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
    • WIC - 3 categories for enrollment in Women, Infants, and Children supplemental nutrition program: Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Obstetric procedures:
      • Successful External Cephalic Version - 3 categories for outcome of procedure to turn non-vertex fetal position to vertex by external manipulation: Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Failed External Cephalic Version - 3 categories for outcome of procedure to turn non-vertex fetal position to vertex by external manipulation: Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
  5. Maternal Risk Factors:
    • Mother's height and weight:
      • Mother's Height in Inches - 19 categories: Under 57 inches (56); single inch increments from 57 - 72 inches (57, 58, 59... 72); 73 or more inches (73); Unknown or Not Stated (99).
      • Mother's Pre-pregnancy Weight - 7 categories in 50 pound increments: 75 - 124 lbs; 125 - 174 lbs; 175 - 224 lbs; 225 - 274 lbs; 275 - 324 lbs; 325 - 375 lbs; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Mother's Pre-pregnancy BMI - 7 categories for Body Mass Index: Underweight <18.5; Normal 18.5-24.9; Overweight 25.0-29.9; Obesity I 30.0-34.9; Obesity II 35.0-39.9; Extreme Obesity III >39.9; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Mother's Delivery Weight - 7 categories in 50 pound increments: 100 - 149 lbs; 150 - 199 lbs; 200 - 249 lbs; 250 - 299 lbs; 300 - 349 lbs; 350 - 400 lbs; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Mother's Weight Gain Recode - 6 categories: Less than 11 pounds; 11 to 20 pounds; 21 to 30 pounds; 31 to 40 pounds; 41 to 98 pounds; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Tobacco use during pregnancy - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Cigarette consumption:
  6. Pregnancy Risk Factors:
  7. Maternal infections present and/or treated during pregnancy:
    • Gonorrhea - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Syphilis - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Chlamydia - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Hepatitis B - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Hepatitis C - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Infections Checked - At least one checked; None checked; Unknown or Not Stated.
      This field indicates whether any infections were reported. Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any reported infections.
  8. Labor Characteristics:
    • Induction of Labor - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Augmentation of Labor - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Steroids (glucocorticoids) for fetal lung maturation received by the mother before delivery - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Antibiotics for Mother during labor - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Chorioamnionitis clinical chorioamnionitis or maternal temperature >= 38 degrees Celsius (100.4 degrees Fahrenheit) - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Anesthesia epidural or spinal anesthesia during labor - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Characteristics of Labor Checked - At least one checked; None checked; Unknown or Not Stated.
      This field indicates whether any labor characteristics noted above was reported. Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any of the above labor characteristics.
  9. Delivery Characteristics:
    • When:
      • Year - 2017 - 2020 for "expanded" linked birth / death records
        (less detailed data are available for years 1995 and later at Linked Birth / Death Records).
      • Month - January-December.
      • Weekday - Weekday; Weekend.
      • Time of Day - 10 categories: 00:00 - 02:29; 03:00 - 05:59; 06:00 - 08:59; 09:00 - 11:59; 12:00 - 14:59; 15:00 - 17:59; 18:00 - 20:59; 21:00 - 23:59; Unknown or Not Stated, Not Reported.
    • Where:
      • Birthplace - 9 categories: Hospital; Freestanding Birth Center; Home (intended); Home (not intended); Home (unknown if intended); Clinic / Doctor's Office; Other; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
      • Birthplace Recode 6 - 6 categories: Hospital; Freestanding Birth Center; Clinic / Doctor's Office; Residence; Other; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Birthplace Recode 3 - 3 categories: Hospital; Not in Hospital; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Mother Transferred - - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Medical Attendant - Doctor of Medicine (MD); Doctor of Osteopathy (DO); Certified Nurse Midwife (CNM / CM); Other Midwife; Other; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • How:
    • Payment:
  10. Maternal Morbidity:
  11. Infant Characteristics:
    • Gender (Sex) of Child - Female; Male.
    • Birth Weight
      Infant's weight at birth is available in 3 sets of categories, through 8165 grams, or Not stated:
    • Multiple Births
    • Gestational Age at Birth
      Gestational age groups are available in 3 sets of categories, representing the duration of the pregnancy at the time of birth, based on Last Menstrual Period (LMP) or Obstetric Estimate (OE):
      • 10 age groups: Under 20 weeks; 20-27 weeks; 28-31 weeks; 32-35 weeks; 36 weeks; 37-39 weeks; 40 weeks; 41 weeks; 42 weeks or more; Unknown.
      • 11 age groups: Under 20 weeks; 20-27 weeks; 28-31 weeks; 32-33 weeks; 34-36 weeks; 37-38 weeks; 39 weeks, 40 weeks; 41 weeks; 42 or more weeks; Unknown.
      • Weekly age groups: 17 weeks through 47 weeks; Unknown.
    • APGAR scores
      APGAR scores are available for 5 minutes and 10 minutes after birth, in single increments or recoded into 5 categories:
      • Single increments of 0 - 10; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Applicable.
      • Recoded categories - A score of 0-3; A score of 4-6; A score of 7-8; A score of 9-10; Unknown or Not Stated.
      Note that 10 minute APGARS scores are categorized as "Not Applicable" when the 5 minute score was 6 or higher, and reported as "Unknown or Not Stated" in the recoded categories.
    • Infant Breastfed at Discharge? - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
    • Infant Transferred? - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Infant Living at Time of Report? - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated (vital status from birth certificate)
    • Age of Infant at Death - available in 3 lists: 5 age categories; 22 age categories, and number of days.
  12. Abnormal conditions of newborn:
    • Assisted Ventilation - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
      Assisted Ventilation data are available in 2 fields,
      1) Assisted ventilation required immediately following delivery; and
      2) Assisted ventilation required for more than six hours.
    • NICU Admission - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Surfactant Replacement Therapy - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Antibiotics for Suspected Neonatal Sepsis - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Seizures - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Abnormal Conditions Checked - At least one checked; None checked; Unknown or Not Stated.
      This field indicates whether any abnormal conditions noted above was reported. Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any of the above abnormal conditions.
  13. Congenital anomalies of newborn:
  14. Cause of Infant's Death:

Contents:    Please refer to the following topics:
Linked Birth / Infant Death Records Data Request
Data Source Information
Additional Information
Data Items


Linked Birth / Infant Death Records Data (Expanded) Request

Output:    You can produce tables, maps, charts, and data extracts.

The following measures are available:
  1. Number of infant deaths (summary frequency counts)
  2. Number of live births (summary frequency counts)
  3. infant death rates
Variables:   

You can limit and index your data by any and all of the data variables.

How?    The Request screen has sections to guide you through the making a data request as step-by-step process. However, to get your first taste of how the system works, you might want to simply press any Send button, and execute the default data request. The data results for your query appear on the Table screen. After you get your data results, try the Chart and Map screens. Or export your data to a file (tab-delimited line listing) for download to your computer.

For more information, see the following:

Quick Start Guide;
Step 1, Organize your request;
Step 2, Limit births to selected locations (for maternal residence);
Step 2.a, Limit births to selected urbanization classifications (for maternal residence);
Step 3, Select maternal characteristics;
Step 4, Select paternal characteristics;
Step 5, Select pregnancy history and prenatal care characteristics;
Step 6, Select maternal risk factors;
Step 7, Select pregnancy risk factors;
Step 8, Select maternal infections present and/or treated during pregnancy;
Step 9, Select labor characteristics;
Step 10, Select delivery characteristics;
Step 11, Select maternal morbidity;
Step 12, Select infant characteristics;
Step 13, Select abnormal conditions of newborn;
Step 14, Select congenital anomalies of newborn;
Step 15 Select cause of infant death;
Step 16, Other options.

Help:    Click on any button labeled "Help", located to the right hand side of the screen at the top of each section. Each Control's label, such as the "Location" label next to the Location entry box, is linked to the online help for that item.
Send:    Sends your data request to be processed on the CDC WONDER databases. The Send buttons are located on the bottom of the Request page, and also in the upper right corner of each section, for easy access.


Step 1. Organize table layout:

Select up to five variables that serve as keys for grouping your data. For example, you could select to group (summarize, stratify, index) your data by Year, State, Race and Gestational Age.
How?    See How do I organize my data? for more information. Also, see How do I select items from the list box?

Hints:   
  1. Group results by "15 Leading Causes of Death (Infants)" to get death counts and rates for the top 15 rankable causes of death, for your selected query criteria.
    • Note that cross-tabulations, zero value death counts, and suppressed values are not permitted when you group results by "15 Leading Causes."
    • When more than one rankable cause of death occurs in the last position, all these causes are shown.
    • The "leading causes of death" published by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) are also called "rankable causes of death." The rankable causes are a subset of the 113 selected causes of death for all ages, and the 130 selected causes of death for infants. A "#" symbol preceding the label indicates a "rankable" cause of death, from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) list of rankable causes of death.
  2. To make a map, you must request data with a geographic location variable, such as State, as a "By-Variable." Then click the Map tab.
  3. You cannot make charts when your data has more than two By-Variables.
Title  Enter any desired description to display as a title with your results.


Step 2. Select maternal residence:

Limit the population to specific locations here. Alternately, you can leave the settings at the default values (the United States) and choose to organize or group the data results by Region, State or County to show these stratifications.


Location: Regions, States and Counties

This dataset includes states (no territories) and counties with a total population over 250,000 persons. Use this field to specify the location or locations for the query. Select any number of locations.

How?
  • Click a round button to switch between the State and County list, the HHS Regions list, or the Census Regions and Census Divisions list.
  • See How do I use a Finder? for more information.
Hints:
  • The Advanced mode let you easily pick several items from different parts of the list. Items are not selected until you click the "Move" button in Advanced mode. You may also enter values by hand, one code per line, in the Advanced mode. Use the Finder to see the correct code format. For example, 02 is the Alaska state code.
  • The "plus" symbol, "+" indicates that you can open the item, to see more items below it.
  • The results to a search are shown in blue, and indicated by ">".
  • Notes:   

    • About geographic classification:
      Location is based on mother's legal residence recorded on the birth certificate. For events to be included in the linked file, both the birth and death must occur inside the fifty states and the District of Columbia. Tabulations of linked data and denominator data events occurring in each of the respective areas to nonresidents are excluded from tabulations by place of residence. These exclusions are based on the place of residence of the mother.
    • About counties:
      County-level data are shown for counties with populations of 250,000 persons or more. All counties with fewer than 250,000 persons are shown combined together for the state, under the label "Unidentified Counties," due to privacy and confidentiality concerns.
      • The data for year 2017 and later years identify counties with a population of 250,000 persons or more in the year 2010 Census.
      • For more information, refer to the section below discussing Unidentified Counties.
    • About Regions and Divisions:
      • Regions and divisions are multi-state groups. Regions include states and counties, yet do not include territories. Choose between two types of regions:
        • four Census Regions, with nine sub-ordinate divisions, or
        • ten Health and Human Services (HHS) Regions.
      • Census Regions and Divisions from the United States Census Bureau:

        Census Region 1 - Northeast:

        • Division 1 - New England:    Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont.
        • Division 2 - Middle Atlantic:    New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania.

        Census Region 2 - Midwest:

        • Division 3 - East North Central:    Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin.
        • Division 4 - West North Central:    Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota.

        Census Region 3 - South:

        • Division 5 - South Atlantic:    Delaware, District of Columbia reporting area, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia.
        • Division 6 - East South Central:    Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, Tennessee.
        • Division 7 - West South Central:    Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas.

        Census Region 4 - West:

        • Division 8 - Mountain:    Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, Wyoming.
        • Division 9 - Pacific:    Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, Washington.

      • Health and Human Services (HHS) Regions:

        HHS Region 1 - Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont.

        HHS Region 2 - New Jersey, New York (data for Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands are not included here).

        HHS Region 3 - Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia.

        HHS Region 4 - Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee.

        HHS Region 5 - Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Wisconsin.

        HHS Region 6 - Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas.

        HHS Region 7 - Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska.

        HHS Region 8 - Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, Wyoming.

        HHS Region 9 - Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada (data for American Samoa and Guam are not included here).

        HHS Region 10 - Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington

      • When you export the results of your data request, the location name and the codes are in separate columns.
      • To see the full set of available location values for Regions, group the data by HHS Region, State and County, or by Census Region, Division, State and County, and then export the results.
    • About state and county codes:
      • State and County codes are Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) codes. See the Locations section for more information about how county FIPS codes have been modified for use in NCHS public-use data.
      • The state, region and division data are derived from the "STRESFIPB" variable in the public use files for years 1999-2002, and from "MRSTATEFIPS" in the public use files for years 2003-2004, and from "MRTERR" for years 2005-2020. The county data are derived from the combined values in variables "STRESFIPB" + "CNTYRFPB" in the public use files for years 1999-2002, and from "MRSTATEFIPS" + "MRCNTYFIPS" in the public use files for years 2003-2004, and from "MRTERR"+ "MRCNTY" for years 2005-2020.
      • When you export the results of your data request, the location names and the FIPS codes are in separate columns.
      • To see the full list of State locations and codes, send a request and group results by State, then export the results of your data request.
      • See About Counties for more information about county-level data.



    Step 2.a Select urbanization classifications:

    Limit the population to specific locations here, as categorized for Metro/Nonmetro and urban-rural areas. Alternately, you can leave the settings at the default values (the United States) and choose to organize or group the data results by these fields to show these stratifications. Select Urbanization and Metro/Nonmetro categories for mother's county of residence, in the classifications for 2006 and 2013.

    How?  
    1. Click the Radio Button above the box, to pick your preferred list.
    2. See "How do I select items from the list box?," to limit your data to selected categories in the list.

    Notes:  

    • These categories are from the 2006 or 2013 NCHS Urban-Rural Classification Scheme for Counties.
    • See the NCHS Urban-Rural Classification Scheme for Counties web page for more information about the Urbanization categories.
    • The large central metro category contains counties in metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) of one million or more population that have been identified by NCHS classification rules as central because they contain all or part of a principal city of the area. The large fringe metro category contains the remaining counties (similar to suburbs) in MSAs of one million or more. Counties in MSAs of 250,000 to 999,999 population are assigned to the medium metro category and counties in MSAs with populations under 250,000 are assigned to the small metro category. Nonmetropolitan counties that are designated by the Office of Management and Budget as belonging to a micropolitan statistical area are assigned to the micropolitan category and the remaining nonmetropolitan counties are assigned to the noncore category. The large central metro category is the most "urban" category and the noncore category is the most "rural" category.
    • To understand how the classification schemes were developed, see:
    • Most counties are in the same urbanization category for both the 2013 and 2006 schemes. However, for those counties whose category differs in the two schemes, some moved from a less urban to a more urban category, while others moved from a more urban category to a less urban category. For more information, see "Changes in county urbanization category:  2013 scheme versus 2006 scheme" in the report, 2013 NCHS Urban-Rural Classification Scheme for Counties.
    • It is recommended that the micropolitan category not be aggregated with metropolitan categories.
    • The Urbanization categories are identified by two columns, labels and codes, in data extracts.

    Urbanization

    Use the radio buttons to select either the 2006 or the 2013 NCHS Urban-Rural Scheme for Counties. Select All Categories or any combination of Urbanization values:  Large Central Metro, Large Fringe Metro, Medium Metro, Small Metro, Micropolitan (non-metro), NonCore (non-metro). Each county is assigned to one of these six categories. Each birth is associated with a category based on the county of the person's legal residence.

    See Step 2.a for more information on how to select categories and notes on how these categories are defined.


    Metro/Nonmetro

    The Metro/Nonmetro list allows you to easily compare metropolitan and rural areas. The Metro group includes counties in these Urbanization categories: Large Central Metro, Large Fringe Metro, Medium Metro, and Small Metro. The Nonmetro group includes counties in these Urbanization categories: Micropolitan (non-metro) and NonCore (non-metro).

    See Step 2.a for more information on how to select categories and notes on how categories are defined.



    Step 3. Select maternal characteristics:
    Limit your data for any of the following data elements:
    • Maternal Race in Single-Race categories:
      • 6 race categories - American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN); Asian; Black or African American; More than one race; Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI); White; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • 15 race categories - White; Black; American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN); Asian Indian; Chinese; Filipino; Japanese; Korean; Vietnamese; Other Asian; Hawaiian; Guamanian; Samoan; Other Pacific Islander; More than one race; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • 31 race categories - White; Black; American Indian or Alaskan Native (AIAN); Asian; Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI); Black and White; Black and AIAN; Black and Asian; Black and NHOPI; AIAN and White; AIAN and Asian; AIAN and NHOPI; Asian and White; Asian and NHOPI; NHOPI and White; Black, AIAN, and White; Black, AIAN, and Asian; Black, AIAN, and NHOPI; Black, Asian, and White; Black, Asian, and NHOPI; Black, NHOPI, and White; AIAN, Asian, and White; AIAN, NHOPI, and White; AIAN, Asian, and NHOPI; Asian, NHOPI, and White; Black, AIAN, Asian, and White; Black, AIAN, Asian, and NHOPI; Black, AIAN, NHOPI, and White; Black, Asian, NHOPI, and White; AIAN, Asian, NHOPI, and White; Black, AIAN, Asian, NHOPI, and White; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Maternal Hispanic Origin
      • Hispanic origin categories - Hispanic or Latino; Not Hispanic or Latino; Origin unknown or not stated.
      • Expanded Hispanic origin categories - Mexican; Puerto Rican; Cuban; Dominican; Central or South American; Other and Unknown Hispanic; Non-Hispanic; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Marital Status - Married; Unmarried; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Available.
    • Paternity Acknowledgment (if mother unmarried) - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Applicable; Not Reported.
    • Age of Mother - under 15 years through over 50 years.
      Mother's age is available in the following sets of age groups:
      • 9 groups of 5-year increments: under 15 years; 15-19 years; 20-24 years; 25-29 years; 30-34 years; 35-39 years; 40-44 years; 45-49 years; 50 years and over.
      • 10 groups with categories for under age 15; 15-17 years; 18-19 years; 5-year age increments for older mothers; 50 years and over.
      • 13 groups with a category for under age 15; single-year age categories for 15, 16, 17, 18, and 19 year old mothers; 5-year age increments for older mothers; and a category for age 50 years and over.
    • Mother's Education - 8th grade or less; 9th through 12th grade with no diploma; High school graduate or GED completed; Some college credit, but not a degree; Associate degree (AA, AS); Bachelor's degree (BA, AB, BS); Master's degree (MA, MS); Doctorate (PHD, EdD) or Professional Degree (MD, DDS, DVM, LLB, JD); Unknown or Not Stated; Excluded.
    • Mother's birth place:
      • Mother's Nativity - Born in the U.S. (50 US States); Born outside the U.S. (includes possessions); Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Mother's Birth Country - lists 294 options, from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Mother's Birth State - lists 72 options, for areas affiliated with the United States and Canada; Rest of the World; Not Classifiable.

    How?    

    Hispanic Origin

    This field indicates the selected parent's Hispanic origin. Data are available for the mother and the father.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • WONDER reports "Missing Ethnicity" for the "Dominican" category in Mother's Expanded Hispanic Origin for infant deaths in years before 2019. Beginning in 2018, the category "Dominican" was added to "Mother's Expanded Hispanic Origin" data for births. Before 2019, for deaths of infants born to Dominican mothers, Mother's Expanded Hispanic Origin data are coded to the "Other and Unknown Hispanic" category, thus there is a discontinuity between years 2018 and 2019 for the "Other and Unknown Hispanic" category for mothers.
    • WONDER reports "Missing Ethnicity" for the "Dominican" category in Father's Expanded Hispanic Origin for infant deaths in years before 2020. Before 2020, for deaths of infants born to Dominican fathers, Father's Expanded Hispanic Origin data are coded to the "Other and Unknown Hispanic" category, thus there is a discontinuity between years 2019 and 2020 for the "Other and Unknown Hispanic" category for fathers.
    • Please see data corrections below for information on 2017-2018 infant death rates by Mother's Hispanic Origin reported from September 9, 2020 until April 19, 2021, and from July 22, 2021 until October 13, 2021. Mother's Expanded Hispanic Origin data was not affected by this problem.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. Public Health Information Network (PHIN) compatible codes are used when applicable.

      Hispanic Origin groups:
       Code     Label
       "2135-2"  Hispanic or Latino 
       "2186-5"  Not Hispanic or Latino 
       "9"  Origin unknown or not stated 


      Expanded Hispanic Origin groups:
       Code     Label
       "2148-5"  Mexican 
       "2180-8"  Puerto Rican 
       "2182-4"  Cuban 
       "4"  Central or South American 
       "7"  Dominican *
       "5"  Other and Unknown Hispanic 
       "0"  Non-Hispanic 
       "9"  Origin unknown or not stated 
        *   Dominican data are not available for mothers before 2019, and not available for fathers before 2020.


    Parent's Race

    Limit your data to the selected categories for the race of the selected parent. Data are available for the mother and the father. The default selection is all race groups. Three sets of race groups are available in the "expanded" data:

    1. 6 race categories - American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN); Asian; Black or African American; More than one race; Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI); White; Unknown or Not Stated.
    2. 15 race categories - White; Black; American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN); Asian Indian; Chinese; Filipino; Japanese; Korean; Vietnamese; Other Asian; Hawaiian; Guamanian; Samoan; Other Pacific Islander; More than one race; Unknown or Not Stated.
    3. 31 race categories - White; Black; American Indian or Alaskan Native (AIAN); Asian; Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI); Black and White; Black and AIAN; Black and Asian; Black and NHOPI; AIAN and White; AIAN and Asian; AIAN and NHOPI; Asian and White; Asian and NHOPI; NHOPI and White; Black, AIAN, and White; Black, AIAN, and Asian; Black, AIAN, and NHOPI; Black, Asian, and White; Black, Asian, and NHOPI; Black, NHOPI, and White; AIAN, Asian, and White; AIAN, NHOPI, and White; AIAN, Asian, and NHOPI; Asian, NHOPI, and White; Black, AIAN, Asian, and White; Black, AIAN, Asian, and NHOPI; Black, AIAN, NHOPI, and White; Black, Asian, NHOPI, and White; AIAN, Asian, NHOPI, and White; Black, AIAN, Asian, NHOPI, and White; Unknown or Not Stated.
    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • About "Single Race" categories: Beginning in 2016, all jurisdictions and the National Center for Health Statistics are reporting race consistent with the 1997 Office of Management and Budget standards ("single race"). Single race is defined as one race reported on the birth certificate.
    • When results are exported to a file, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. Public Health Information Network (PHIN) compatible codes are used when applicable. See codes and labels for the Single Race categories below.


    Six "Single Race" groups:
     Code     Label
     "1002-5"  American Indian or Alaska Native 
     "A"  Asian 
     "2054-5"  Black or African American 
     "NHOPI"  Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 
     "2106-3"  White 
     "M"  More than one race 


    Fifteen "Single Race" groups:
     Code     Label
     "1"  White 
     "2"  Black 
     "3"  American Indian or Alaska Native 
     "4"  Asian Indian 
     "5"  Chinese 
     "6"  Filipino 
     "7"  Japanese 
     "8"  Korean 
     "9"  Vietnamese 
     "10"  Other Asian 
     "11"  Hawaiian 
     "12"  Guamanian 
     "13"  Samoan 
     "14"  Other Pacific Islander
     "15"  More than one race 


    Thirty One "Single/Multi Race" groups:
     Code     Label
     "1"  White (only) 
     "2"  Black (only) 
     "3"  AIAN American Indian or Alaska Native  (only)
     "4"  Asian (only) 
     "5"  NHOPI (Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander) (only)
     "6"  Black and White 
     "7"  Black and AIAN 
     "8"  Black and Asian 
     "9"  Black and NHOPI 
     "10"  AIAN and White 
     "11"  AIAN and Asian 
     "12"  AIAN and NHOPI 
     "13"  Asian and White 
     "14"  Asian and NHOPI
     "15"  NHOPI and White 
     "16"  Black, AIAN, and White  
     "17"  Black, AIAN, and Asian  
     "18"  Black, AIAN, and NHOPI  
     "19"  Black, Asian, and White  
     "20"  Black, Asian, and NHOPI  
     "21"  Black, NHOPI, and White  
     "22"  AIAN, Asian, and White  
     "23"  AIAN, NHOPI, and White  
     "24"  AIAN, Asian, and NHOPI  
     "25"  Asian, NHOPI, and White  
     "26"  Black, AIAN, Asian, and White 
     "27"  Black, AIAN, Asian, and NHOPI 
     "28"  Black, AIAN, NHOPI, and White  
     "29"  Black, Asian, NHOPI, and White 
     "30"  AIAN, Asian, NHOPI, and White  
     "31"  Black, AIAN, Asian, NHOPI, and White  


    Marital Status

    This field indicates the marital status of the mother as recorded on the birth certificate.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Beginning in 2017, due to state statutory restrictions, California no longer provides record-level data on the marital status of the mother for births occurring to California residents and non-residents (including residents of other states). For these births, Marital Status is reported as "Not Available."
    • Data for the mother's marital status are derived from the "MAR" variable in the public use data for years 2003 and later. (Data are available for years 1995 and later at Linked Birth / Infant Death Records).
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the Marital Status code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


       Code     Label
       "01"  Married 
       "02"  Unmarried 
       "9"  Unknown or Not Stated 
       "NA"  Not Available 


    Paternity Acknowledgment (if mother unmarried)

    This field indicates whether Paternity Acknowledgment is recorded on the birth certificate, for mothers who are recorded as unmarried at the time of birth.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Beginning in 2017, due to state statutory restrictions, California no longer provides record-level data on paternity acknowledgment for births occurring to California residents and non-residents (including residents of other states). For these births, Paternity Acknowledgment is reported as "Not Reported."
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


       Code     Label
       "1"  Yes 
       "2"  No 
       "9"  Unknown or Not Stated 
       "3"  Not Applicable 
       "10"  Not Reported 


    Age of Mother

    This field indicates the age group of the mother at the time of birth.
    Mother's age is available in the following sets of age groups:

    1. 9 groups of 5-year increments: under 15 years; 15-19 years; 20-24 years; 25-29 years; 30-34 years; 35-39 years; 40-44 years; 45-49 years; 50 years and over.
    2. 10 groups with categories for under age 15; 15-17 years; 18-19 years; 5-year age increments for older mothers; 50 years and over.
    3. 13 groups with a category for under age 15; single-year age categories for 15, 16, 17, 18, and 19 year old mothers; 5-year age increments for older mothers; and a category for age 50 years and over.
    How?    

    Notes:   

    • Before May 2022, maternal age was also available in Yearly age groups with an age category for 10-12 year old mothers, and single-year age increments for older mothers ages 13-49 years, an age group for mothers age 50 or more.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided, a column for the Age group code value and a column for the label. See codes and labels for the basic 9 age groups below.

       Code     Label
       "15"  Under 15 years 
       "15-19"  15 - 19 years 
       "20-24"  20 - 24 years 
       "25-29"  25 - 29 years 
       "30-34"  30 - 34 years 
       "35-39"  35 - 39 years 
       "40-44"  40 - 44 years 
       "45-49"  45 - 49 years 
       "50+"  50 years and over


    Parent's Education

    This field indicates a range for the number of years of education received by the parent at the time of birth. Data are available for both the mother and the father.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided for Maternal Education, the code value and the label.


    Maternal Education:
     Code     Label
     "1"  8th grade or less 
     "2"  9th through 12th grade with no diploma 
     "3"  High school graduate or GED completed 
     "4"  Some college credit, but not a degree 
     "5"  Associate degree (AA, AS) 
     "6"  Bachelor's degree (BA, AB, BS) 
     "7"  Master's degree (MA, MS) 
     "8"  Doctorate (PHD, EdD) or Professional Degree (MD, DDS, DVM, LLB, JD) 
     "Unk"  Unknown/Not on certificate 


    Mother's Nativity

    This field categorizes the place of mother's birth, into the following 3 groups: (1) Born in the U.S. (50 US States); (2) Born outside the U.S. (includes possessions); (3) Unknown or Not Stated.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided for this field, the code value and the label, as noted above.


    Mother's Birth Country

    This field reports the place of mother's birth. The list includes 294 options, from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe; Unknown or Not Stated.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided for this field, the code value and the label. The codes are also shown inside parenthesis at the end of each label.


    Mother's Birth State

    This field reports the state of mother's birth, for mothers born in the United States, US territories or possessions, or Canada. The list includes 72 options, including "Rest of the World" and "Not Classifiable."

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • From June 18, 2019 until August 12, 2020, the labels for Massachusetts and Maine were switched for Mother's Birth State data. Birth statistics for Massachusetts were shown in the results when data was limited to Maine as the Mother's Birth State, or when data was grouped by Mother's Birth State and the row's label reported Maine in the Mother's Birth State column. Likewise, birth statistics for Maine were shown in the results when data was limited to Massachusetts as the Mother's Birth State, or when data was grouped by Mother's Birth State and the row's label reported Massachusetts in the Mother's Birth State column. If data was not limited or grouped by Mother's Births State, then the problem did not impact the results. We deeply regret this error and apologize for the inconvenience.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided for this field, the code value and the label. The codes are also shown inside parenthesis at the end of each label.



    Step 4. Select paternal characteristics:

    Limit your data for any of the following data elements:

    1. Paternal Race in Single-Race categories:
      • 6 race categories - American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN); Asian; Black or African American; More than one race; Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI); White; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • 15 race categories - White; Black; American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN); Asian Indian; Chinese; Filipino; Japanese; Korean; Vietnamese; Other Asian; Hawaiian; Guamanian; Samoan; Other Pacific Islander; More than one race; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • 31 race categories - White; Black; American Indian or Alaskan Native (AIAN); Asian; Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI); Black and White; Black and AIAN; Black and Asian; Black and NHOPI; AIAN and White; AIAN and Asian; AIAN and NHOPI; Asian and White; Asian and NHOPI; NHOPI and White; Black, AIAN, and White; Black, AIAN, and Asian; Black, AIAN, and NHOPI; Black, Asian, and White; Black, Asian, and NHOPI; Black, NHOPI, and White; AIAN, Asian, and White; AIAN, NHOPI, and White; AIAN, Asian, and NHOPI; Asian, NHOPI, and White; Black, AIAN, Asian, and White; Black, AIAN, Asian, and NHOPI; Black, AIAN, NHOPI, and White; Black, Asian, NHOPI, and White; AIAN, Asian, NHOPI, and White; Black, AIAN, Asian, NHOPI, and White; Unknown or Not Stated.
    2. Father's Hispanic Origin
      • Hispanic origin categories - Hispanic or Latino; Not Hispanic or Latino; Origin unknown or not stated.
      • Expanded Hispanic origin categories - Mexican; Puerto Rican; Cuban; Central or South American; Dominican; Other and Unknown Hispanic; Non-Hispanic; Unknown or Not Stated.
    3. Father's Education - 8th grade or less; 9th through 12th grade with no diploma; High school graduate or GED completed; Some college credit, but not a degree; Associate degree (AA, AS); Bachelor's degree (BA, AB, BS); Master's degree (MA, MS); Doctorate (PHD, EdD) or Professional Degree (MD, DDS, DVM, LLB, JD); Unknown or Not Stated.
    4. Age of Father - 11 groups of 5-year increments: under 15 years; 15-19 years; 20-24 years; 25-29 years; 30-34 years; 35-39 years; 40-44 years; 45-49 years; 50-54 years, 55-98 years; Unknown or Not Stated.


    Age of Father

    This field indicates the age group of the mother at the time of birth. Paternal age is available in 11 age groups of 5-year increments, and Unknown or Not Stated.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided, a column for the Age group code value and a column for the label. See codes and labels for the 11 paternal age groups below.


     Code     Label
     "1"  Under 15 years 
     "2"  15 - 19 years 
     "3"  20 - 24 years 
     "4"  25 - 29 years 
     "5"  30 - 34 years 
     "6"  35 - 39 years 
     "7"  40 - 44 years 
     "8"  45 - 49 years 
     "9"  50 - 54 years 
     "10"  55 - 98 years 
     "11"  Unknown or Not Stated 



    Step 5. Select pregnancy history and prenatal care characteristics:

    Limit your data for any of the following data elements:

    1. Prior pregnancies - timing:
      • Interval Since Last Live Birth - 11 categories: Zero to 3 months (plural delivery); 4 to 11 months; 12 to 17 months; 18 to 23 months; 24 to 35 months; 36 to 47 months; 48 to 59 months; 60 to 71 months; 72 months and over; Not Applicable (1st live birth); Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Interval Since Last Other Pregnancy Outcome - 11 categories: Zero to 3 months (plural delivery); 4 to 11 months; 12 to 17 months; 18 to 23 months; 24 to 35 months; 36 to 47 months; 48 to 59 months; 60 to 71 months; 72 months and over; Not Applicable (1st natality event); Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Interval of Last Pregnancy - 11 categories: Zero to 3 months (plural delivery); 4 to 11 months; 12 to 17 months; 18 to 23 months; 24 to 35 months; 36 to 47 months; 48 to 59 months; 60 to 71 months; 72 months and over; Not Applicable (no previous pregnancy); Unknown or Not Stated.
    2. Prior pregnancy outcomes:
      • Prior Births Now Living - 13 categories: Zero through 10 births in 1 birth increments (0,1,2... 10); 11 or more (11); Unknown or Not Stated (99); Not Reported (100).
      • Prior Births Now Dead - 5 categories: Zero through 2 births in 1 birth increments (0,1,2); 3 or more (3); Unknown or Not Stated (99).
      • Prior Other Pregnancy Outcomes - 8 categories: Zero through 5 pregnancies in single increments (0,1,2... 5); 6 or more (6); Unknown or Not Stated (99).
    3. Birth order:
      • Live Birth Order - 9 categories: One child born alive to mother through seven live births; 8 or more; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Total Birth Order - 9 categories: One child born alive to mother through seven live births; 8 or more; Unknown or Not Stated.
    4. Prenatal care:
      • Number of Prenatal Visits - 100 categories: Zero through 98 prenatal visits; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Number of Prenatal Visits Recode - 12 categories: No visits; 1 to 2 visits; 3 to 4 visits; 5 to 6 visits; 7 to 8 visits; 9 to 10 visits; 11 to 12 visits; 13 to 14 visits; 15 to 16 visits; 17 to 18 visits; 19 or more visits; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Month Maternal Prenatal Care Began - 12 categories: No prenatal care; 1st month through 10th month; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Trimester Prenatal Care Began - 6 categories: 1st to 3rd month; 4th to 6th month; 7th to final month; No prenatal care; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
    5. WIC - 3 categories for enrollment in Women, Infants, and Children supplemental nutrition program: Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    6. Obstetric procedures:
      • Successful External Cephalic Version - 3 categories for outcome of procedure to turn non-vertex fetal position to vertex by external manipulation: Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Failed External Cephalic Version - 3 categories for outcome of procedure to turn non-vertex fetal position to vertex by external manipulation: Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.

    How?    

    Interval Since Last Live Birth

    This field reports the time elapsed since the mother's last live birth, in eleven categories of months, ranging from zero (plural delivery) through 72 months and over, and including Not Applicable (1st live birth); Unknown or Not Stated.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided, a column for the code value and a column for the label. See codes and labels below for the categories.


     Code     Label
     "0"  Zero to 3 months (plural delivery) 
     "1"  4 to 11 months 
     "2"  12 to 17 months 
     "3"  18 to 23 months 
     "4"  24 to 35 months 
     "5"  36 to 47 months 
     "6"  48 to 59 months 
     "7"  60 to 71 months 
     "8"  72 months and over 
     "88"  Not Applicable (1st live birth) 
     "99"  Unknown or Not Stated 


    Interval Since Last Other Pregnancy Outcome

    This field reports the time elapsed since the mother's last pregnancy outcome (for outcomes other than live birth), in eleven categories of months, ranging from zero (plural delivery) through 72 months and over, and including Not Applicable (1st natality event); Unknown or Not Stated.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided, a column for the code value and a column for the label. See codes and labels below for the categories.


     Code     Label
     "0"  Zero to 3 months (plural delivery) 
     "1"  4 to 11 months 
     "2"  12 to 17 months 
     "3"  18 to 23 months 
     "4"  24 to 35 months 
     "5"  36 to 47 months 
     "6"  48 to 59 months 
     "7"  60 to 71 months 
     "8"  72 months and over 
     "88"  Not Applicable (1st natality event) 
     "99"  Unknown or Not Stated 


    Interval of Last Pregnancy

    This field reports the time elapsed since the mother's last pregnancy, in eleven categories of months, ranging from zero (plural delivery) through 72 months and over, and including Not Applicable (no previous pregnancy); Unknown or Not Stated.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided, a column for the code value and a column for the label. See codes and labels below for the categories.


     Code     Label
     "0"  Zero to 3 months (plural delivery) 
     "1"  4 to 11 months 
     "2"  12 to 17 months 
     "3"  18 to 23 months 
     "4"  24 to 35 months 
     "5"  36 to 47 months 
     "6"  48 to 59 months 
     "7"  60 to 71 months 
     "8"  72 months and over 
     "88"  Not Applicable (no previous pregnancy) 
     "99"  Unknown or Not Stated 


    Prior Pregnancy Outcomes

    Three fields report information on the number of prior pregnancy outcomes.

    1. Prior Births Now Living - 13 categories: Zero through 10 births in 1 birth increments (0,1,2... 10); 11 or more (11); Unknown or Not Stated (99); Not Reported (100).
    2. Prior Births Now Dead - 5 categories: Zero through 2 births in 1 birth increments (0,1,2); 3 or more (3); Unknown or Not Stated (99).
    3. Prior Other Pregnancy Outcomes - 8 categories: Zero through 5 pregnancies in single increments (0,1,2... 5); 6 or more (6); Unknown or Not Stated (99).

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Before June 2022, data on prior pregnancy outcomes were available in more detail, reported in 33 categories: Zero through thirty births or pregnancies in single increments (0,1,2... 30); Unknown or Not Stated (99); Not Reported (100).
    • When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided, a column for the code value and a column for the label. Codes values are numeric for the number of prior births, and also shown in parenthesis after the category labels noted above.


    Live Birth Order

    This field indicates the mother's total number of live births, including this birth. The categories range from one through seven live births; 8 or more; Unknown or Not Stated.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • For years 2003 and later the live birth order data is derived from the "LBO_REC" field found in the public use data. (Data are available for years 1995 and later at Linked Birth / Infant Death Records).
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


       Code     Label
       "1"  1st child born alive to mother 
       "2"  2nd child born alive to mother 
       "3"  3rd child born alive to mother 
       "4"  4th child born alive to mother 
       "5"  5th child born alive to mother 
       "6"  6th child born alive to mother 
       "7"  7th child born alive to mother 
       "8"  8th child or more born alive to mother 
       "9"  Unknown or not stated 


    Total Birth Order

    This field indicates the mother's total number of births, including this birth and stillbirths. The categories range from one through seven births; 8 or more; Unknown or Not Stated.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • For years 2003 and later the live birth order data is derived from the "LBO_REC" field found in the public use data. (Data are available for years 1995 and later at Linked Birth / Infant Death Records).
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


       Code     Label
       "1"  1st child born to mother 
       "2"  2nd child born to mother 
       "3"  3rd child born to mother 
       "4"  4th child born to mother 
       "5"  5th child born to mother 
       "6"  6th child born to mother 
       "7"  7th child born to mother 
       "8"  8th child or more born alive to mother 
       "9"  Unknown or not stated 


    WIC

    This field indicates whether the mother received food for herself from the Women, Infants & Children (WIC) because she was pregnant with this child supplemental nutrition program because she was pregnant with this child. Data are reported in three categories: Yes (1); No (2); Unknown or Not Stated (9).

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided for this field, label and the code value, as noted above inside parenthesis.


    Successful External Cephalic Version

    This field indicates the successful outcome of a procedure to turn non-vertex fetal position to vertex by external manipulation, in three categories: Yes (1); No (2); Unknown or Not Stated (9).

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided for this field, the code value and the label, as noted above.


    Failed External Cephalic Version

    This field indicates the failed outcome of a procedure to turn non-vertex fetal position to vertex by external manipulation, in three categories: Yes (1); No (2); Unknown or Not Stated (9).

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided for this field, the code value and the label, as noted above.


    Prenatal Care

    Data are available for prenatal care in 4 fields (codes shown in parenthesis before labels below):
    1. Number of Prenatal Visits - 100 categories: (0-98) single increments from zero through 98 prenatal visits; (99) Unknown or Not Stated.
    2. Number of Prenatal Visits Recode - 12 categories: (1) No visits; (2) 1 to 2 visits; (3) 3 to 4 visits; (4) 5 to 6 visits; (5) 7 to 8 visits; (6) 9 to 10 visits; (7) 11 to 12 visits; (8) 13 to 14 visits; (9) 15 to 16 visits; (10) 17 to 18 visits; (11) 19 or more visits; (12) Unknown or Not Stated.
    3. Month Maternal Prenatal Care Began - 12 categories: No prenatal care; 1st month through 10th month; (99) Unknown or Not Stated.
    4. Trimester Prenatal Care Began - 6 categories: (1) 1st to 3rd month; (2) 4th to 6th month; (3) 7th to final month; (4) No prenatal care; (5) Unknown or Not Stated; (100) Not Reported.
    How?    
    Notes:   
    • When you group results by the categories for prenatal care data in section 1 on the Request Form tab, you must also select the round button to show the list of desired data categories in section 5.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns.

    Month Prenatal Care Began

    This field indicates the month in the pregnancy when prenatal care began.

    How?    

    Notes:   

    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns.


     Code     Label
     "0"  No prenatal care  
     "1"  1st month  
     "2"  2nd month  
     "3"  3rd month  
     "4"  4th month  
     "5"  5th month  
     "6"  6th month  
     "7"  7th month  
     "8"  8th month  
     "9"  9th month  
     "10"  10th month  
     "99"  Unknown or Not stated



    Step 6. Select maternal risk factors:

    Limit your data for any of the following data elements:

    1. Mother's height and weight:
      • Mother's Height in Inches - 19 categories: Under 57 inches (56); single inch increments from 57 - 72 inches (57, 58, 59... 72); 73 or more inches (73); Unknown or Not Stated (99).
      • Mother's Pre-pregnancy Weight - 7 categories in 50 pound increments: 75 - 124 lbs; 125 - 174 lbs; 175 - 224 lbs; 225 - 274 lbs; 275 - 324 lbs; 325 - 375 lbs; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Mother's Pre-pregnancy BMI - 7 categories for Body Mass Index: Underweight <18.5; Normal 18.5-24.9; Overweight 25.0-29.9; Obesity I 30.0-34.9; Obesity II 35.0-39.9; Extreme Obesity III >39.9; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Mother's Delivery Weight - 7 categories in 50 pound increments: 100 - 149 lbs; 150 - 199 lbs; 200 - 249 lbs; 250 - 299 lbs; 300 - 349 lbs; 350 - 400 lbs; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Mother's Weight Gain Recode - 6 categories: Less than 11 pounds; 11 to 20 pounds; 21 to 30 pounds; 31 to 40 pounds; 41 to 98 pounds; Unknown or Not Stated.
    2. Tobacco use during pregnancy - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    3. Cigarette consumption:
      • Number of Cigarettes Before Pregnancy in the 3 months prior to conception - 100 categories in single cigarette increments: 0 cigarettes daily through 97 cigarettes daily; 98 or more; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Number of Cigarettes Before Pregnancy Recode in the 3 months prior to conception - 7 categories for number of cigarettes consumed daily: Nonsmoker; 1-5; 6-10; 11-20; 21-40; 41 or more; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Number of Cigarettes 1st Trimester - 100 categories in single cigarette increments: 0 cigarettes daily through 97 cigarettes daily; 98 or more; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Number of Cigarettes 1st Trimester Recode - 7 categories for number of cigarettes consumed daily: Nonsmoker; 1-5; 6-10; 11-20; 21-40; 41 or more; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Number of Cigarettes 2nd Trimester - 100 categories in single cigarette increments: 0 cigarettes daily through 97 cigarettes daily; 98 or more; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Number of Cigarettes 2nd Trimester Recode - 7 categories for number of cigarettes consumed daily: Nonsmoker; 1-5; 6-10; 11-20; 21-40; 41 or more; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Number of Cigarettes 3rd Trimester - 100 categories in single cigarette increments: 0 cigarettes daily through 97 cigarettes daily; 98 or more; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Number of Cigarettes 3rd Trimester Recode - 7 categories for number of cigarettes consumed daily: Nonsmoker; 1-5; 6-10; 11-20; 21-40; 41 or more; Unknown or Not Stated.

    How?    

    Notes:   

    • Before June 2022, data for Mother's Height and Mother's Weight Gain were available in more detail. Mother's Height in Inches was available in 50 categories: 30 inches or less (30); single inch increments from 31 - 78 inches (31, 32, 33... 78); Unknown or Not Stated (99). Mother's Weight Gain was available in 100 categories in single pound increments: 0 pounds through 97 pounds (0,1,2... 97); 98 or more (98); Unknown or Not Stated (99).
    • Beginning in 2018, the fields "Number of Cigarettes 3rd Trimester Recode" and "Number of Cigarettes 3rd Trimester" were recoded to the "Unknown or Not Stated" category if the pregnancy didn't last into the 3rd trimester (obstetric estimate is less than 27 weeks gestational age). Thus there is a discontinuity between births in 2017 and 2018 for all categories of "Number of Cigarettes 3rd Trimester Recode" and "Number of Cigarettes 3rd Trimester."
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns.


    Tobacco use during pregnancy

    This field indicates whether tobacco use was reported during the pregnancy, in three categories: Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • For more detailed data on tobacco use and pregnancy, see Cigarettes.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. Codes are shown in parenthesis after the category labels below: Yes (1); No (2); Unknown or Not Stated (9).



    Step 7. Select pregnancy risk factors:

    Limit your data for any of the following data elements:

    1. Pregnancy related conditions:
    2. Prior conditions:
    3. Prior deliveries:
    4. Fertility assistance:
    5. Risk Factors Checked - At least one checked; None checked; Unknown or Not Stated.
      This field indicates whether any pregnancy risk factors were reported. Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any pregnancy risk factors.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Before June 2022, the Number of Previous Cesareans was available in more detail. The Number of Previous Cesareans was reported in 12 categories: zero through 10 previous cesareans in single increments (0, 1, 2... 10); Unknown or Not Stated (99). -
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns.


    Diabetes

    This field indicates whether Diabetes is reported as a maternal risk factor. Gestational Diabetes and Pre-pregnancy Diabetes are reported in separate fields.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes for Diabetes data are Yes (1); No (2); Unknown or Not Stated (9).


    Hypertension Disease

    This field indicates whether Hypertension Disease is reported as a maternal risk factor. Gestational Hypertension and Pre-pregnancy Hypertension are reported in separate fields.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes for Hypertension data are Yes (1); No (2); Unknown or Not Stated (9).


    Eclampsia

    This field indicates whether Eclampsia is reported as a maternal risk factor.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • The following reporting areas have Eclampsia data coded to "Not Reported" for births that occurred in years 2016 -2020: South Carolina, and Tennessee (2 reporting areas).
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes for Eclampsia data are Yes (1); No (2); Not Applicable (3); Unknown or Not Stated (9); Not Reported (10).


    Previous Preterm Birth

    This field indicates whether previous preterm birth is reported as a maternal risk factor.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes are Yes (1); No (2); Unknown or Not Stated (9).


    Previous Cesarean Delivery

    This field indicates whether previous cesarean delivery is reported as a maternal risk factor.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes are Yes (1); No (2); Unknown or Not Stated (9).


    Number of Previous Cesareans

    This field indicates the number of previous cesarean deliveries reported as a maternal risk factor.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns.
    • The number or previous cesarean deliveries to this mother are reported 7 categories: single increments of previous cesareans from zero through three (0,1,2,3); 4 or more previous cesareans (4); Unknown or Not Stated (99).
    • Before June 2022, the number or previous cesarean deliveries to this mother were reported in 12 categories in increments of 1: zero through 10 previous cesareans (0,1,2... 10); Unknown or Not Stated (99).


    Infertility Treatment Used

    This field indicates whether the use of infertility treatment is reported as a maternal risk factor.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes are Yes (1); No (2); Unknown or Not Stated (9).


    Assistive Reproductive Technology

    This field indicates whether Assistive Reproductive Technology is reported as a maternal risk factor.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • The following reporting areas have Assistive Reproductive Technology data coded to "Not Reported" in the indicated years: South Carolina 2016-2020; Tennessee 2016-2020 (2 reporting areas).
    • "Assistive Reproductive Technology" is coded to "Not Applicable" for records where "Infertility Treatment Used" is "No".
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes for Assistive Reproductive Technology data are Yes (1); No (2); Not Applicable (3); Unknown or Not Stated (9); Not Reported (10).


    Fertility Enhancing Drugs

    This field indicates whether the use of fertility enhancing drugs is reported as a maternal risk factor.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • The following reporting areas have "Fertility Enhancing Drugs" data coded to "Not Reported" for births in these years: South Carolina 2016-2020; Tennessee 2016-2020 (2 reporting areas).
    • "Fertility Enhancing Drugs" is coded to "Not Applicable" for records where "Infertility Treatment Used" is "No".
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes for Fertility Enhancing Drugs data are Yes (1); No (2); Not Applicable (3); Unknown or Not Stated (9); Not Reported (10).


    Risk Factors Checked

    This field indicates whether any pregnancy risk factors were reported for 1) diabetes (pre-pregnancy or gestational); 2) hypertension (pre-pregnancy or gestational); 3) eclampsia; 4) previous preterm births; 5) pregnancy resulted from infertility treatment; and 6) mother had a previous cesarean delivery. For more information, refer to page 66 in the NCHS guide to 2017 birth records data.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any pregnancy risk factors.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes for Risk Factors Checked data are At least one checked (0); None checked (1); Unknown or Not Stated (9).



    Step 8. Select maternal infections present and/or treated during pregnancy:

    Limit your data for any of the following data elements:

    1. Gonorrhea - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    2. Syphilis - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    3. Chlamydia - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    4. Hepatitis B - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    5. Hepatitis C - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    6. Infections Checked - At least one checked; None checked; Unknown or Not Stated.
      This field indicates whether any of the above maternal infections were reported. Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any of the above reported infections.
    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes for maternal infections Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Chlamydia, Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C are Yes (1); No (2); Unknown or Not Stated (9).


    Infections Checked

    This field indicates whether any maternal infections for Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Chlamydia, Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C were reported. Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any of the above infections. For more information, refer to page 67 in the NCHS guide to 2017 birth records data.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any maternal infections checked for Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Chlamydia, Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes for Maternal Infections Checked data are At least one checked (0); None checked (1); Unknown or Not Stated (9).



    Step 9. Select labor characteristics:

    Limit your data for any of the following data elements:

    1. Induction of Labor - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    2. Augmentation of Labor - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    3. Steroids (glucocorticoids) for fetal lung maturation received by the mother before delivery - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    4. Antibiotics for Mother during labor - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    5. Chorioamnionitis clinical chorioamnionitis or maternal temperature >= 38 degrees Celsius (100.4 degrees Fahrenheit) - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    6. Anesthesia epidural or spinal anesthesia during labor - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    7. Characteristics of Labor Checked - At least one checked; None checked; Unknown or Not Stated.
      This field indicates whether any labor characteristics noted above was reported. Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any of the above labor characteristics.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes for labor characteristics data are Yes (1); No (2); Unknown or Not Stated (9).


    Characteristics of Labor Checked

    This field indicates whether any labor characteristics were reported for induction or augmentation of labor, maternal steroids (glucocorticoids) for fetal lung maturation received by the mother before delivery, or antibiotics, chorioamnionitis or anesthesia. Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any of the above labor characteristics. For more information, refer to page 60 in the NCHS guide to 2017 birth records data.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any labor characteristics checked.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes for Characteristics of Labor Checked data are At least one checked (0); None checked (1); Unknown or Not Stated (9).



    Step 10. Select delivery characteristics:

    Limit your data for any of the following data elements:

    1. When:
      • Year - 2017 - 2020 for "expanded" linked birth / infant death records data
        (less detailed data are available for years 1995 and later at Linked Birth / Infant Death Records).
      • Month - January-December.
      • Weekday - Weekday; Weekend.
      • Time of Day - 10 categories: 00:00 - 02:29; 03:00 - 05:59; 06:00 - 08:59; 09:00 - 11:59; 12:00 - 14:59; 15:00 - 17:59; 18:00 - 20:59; 21:00 - 23:59; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
    2. Where:
      • Birthplace - 9 categories: Hospital; Freestanding Birth Center; Home (intended); Home (not intended); Home (unknown if intended); Clinic / Doctor's Office; Other; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
      • Birthplace Recode 6 - 6 categories: Hospital; Freestanding Birth Center; Residence; Clinic / Doctor's Office; Other; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Birthplace Recode 3 - 3 categories: Hospital; Not in Hospital; Unknown or Not Stated.
      • Mother Transferred - - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    3. Medical Attendant - Doctor of Medicine (MD); Doctor of Osteopathy (DO); Certified Nurse Midwife (CNM / CM); Other Midwife; Other; Unknown or Not Stated.
    4. How:
    5. Payment:

    How?

    Hint:   You can only pick one list for Birthplace, Delivery Method, and Source of Payment for any data request. The round radio button indicates the selected list, any selections in the other gestational age or birth weight lists are ignored. The "by-variables" in section 1 and the round radio button selections must match. For example, if you select to group results by the categories in "Source of Payment for Delivery Expanded" in section 1, then you should set the radio button to select the same list in section 10.

    Note:   When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category.


    Year of Death

    Pick any combination of years desired.

    How?    See How do I select items from the list box?.
    Hint:    Year is limited to the most recent year of data available by default, you may prefer to change the selection to "All Years."


    Month

    This field indicates month of birth.

    How?    See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • For years 2003 and later the month data are derived from the "dob_mm" field found in the public use data. Data are available for year 1995 and later at Linked Birth / Infant Death Records).
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


       Code     Label
       "1"   January  
       "2"   February  
       "3"   March  
       "4"   April  
       "5"   May  
       "6"   June  
       "7"   July  
       "8"   August  
       "9"   September  
       "10"   October  
       "11"   November  
       "12"   December  


    Weekday

    This field indicates whether the birth occurred on a weekday (Monday - Friday) or weekend (Saturday - Sunday).

    How?    See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Note that there are a different number of days of the week in each year.
    • For years 2003 and later the weekday data are derived from the "dob_wk" field found in the public use data. (Data are available for year 1995 and later at Linked Birth / Infant Death Records).
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label:

      Weekend (1);

      Weekday (2).

      Before June 2022, data were available in 7 categories as noted below.


       Code     Label
       "1"   Sunday  
       "2"   Monday  
       "3"   Tuesday  
       "4"   Wednesday  
       "5"   Thursday  
       "6"   Friday  
       "7"   Saturday  
       "9"   Unknown  


    Time Of Day

    This field indicates the time of birth in 3 hour time period increments in a 24 hour day, and categories for Unknown or Not Stated, and Not Reported.

    How?    See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:   

    When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


     Code     Label
     "0"   00:00 - 02:59  
     "1"   03:00 - 05:59  
     "2"   06:00 - 08:59  
     "3"   09:00 - 11:59  
     "4"   12:00 - 14:59  
     "5"   15:00 - 17:59  
     "6"   18:00 - 20:59  
     "7"   21:00 - 23:59  
     "33"  Unknown or Not Stated 
     "NR"   Not Reported  


    Birthplace

    This field indicates the place of birth. Birthplace data are available in 3 lists of categories. The code values are listed in parenthesis after the category labels below.

    1. Birthplace - 9 categories:
      Hospital (1); Freestanding Birth Center (2); Home (intended) (3); Home (not intended) (4); Home (unknown if intended) (5); Clinic / Doctor's Office (6); Other (7); Unknown or Not Stated (9); Not Reported (10).
    2. Birthplace Recode 6 - 6 categories:
      Hospital (1); Freestanding Birth Center (2); Clinic / Doctor's Office (3); Residence (4); Other (5) Unknown or Not Stated (9).
    3. Birthplace Recode 3 - 3 categories:
      Hospital (1); Not in Hospital (2); Unknown or Not Stated (3).
    How?

    Hint:   You can only pick one list for Birthplace for any data request. The round radio button indicates the selected list, any selections in the other birthplace lists are ignored. The "by-variables" in section 1 and the round radio button selections must match. For example, if you select to group results by the categories in "Birthplace Recode 6" in section 1, then you should set the radio button to select the same list in section 10.

    Notes:   

    • California does not report whether home births were intended or not. Therefore, births in California homes are categorized as "Home(unknown if intended)" for the "Birthplace" variable.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


    Mother Transferred

    This field indicates whether the mother was transferred.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:   When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label. The three categories and code values are Yes (1), No (2), or Unknown or Not Stated (9).


    Medical Attendant

    This field indicates the attendant at the time of birth.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • For years 2003 and later the birth Attendant data are derived from the "ATTEND" field found in the public use data. Data are available for year 1995 and later at Linked Birth / Infant Death Records).
    • The category for Certified Nurse Midwife (CNM / CM) represents certified nurse midwife (CNM), certified midwife (CM), and advanced practice registered nurse (APRN). The category for Other Midwife represents a midwife other than CNM/CM, and includes Certified Professional Midwife (CPM).
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


       Code     Label
       "1"   Doctor of Medicine (MD)  
       "2"   Doctor of Osteopathy (DO)  
       "3"   Certified Nurse Midwife (CNM / CM)  
       "4"   Other Midwife  
       "5"   Other  
       "9"   Unknown or Not Stated  


    Fetal Presentation

    This field reports the baby's presentation at birth, in five categories: Cephalic; Breech; Other; Unknown or Not Stated, or Not Reported.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


     Code     Label
     "1"   Cephalic  
     "2"   Breech  
     "3"   Other  
     "9"   Unknown or Not Stated  
     "100"   Not Reported  


    Final Route and Method of Delivery

    This field reports the final route and method of delivery in six categories: Spontaneous, Forceps, Vacuum, Cesarean, Unknown or Not Stated, Not Reported.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


     Code     Label
     "1"   Spontaneous  
     "2"   Forceps  
     "3"   Vacuum  
     "4"   Cesarean  
     "9"   Unknown or Not Stated  
     "100"   Not Reported  


    Delivery Method

    This field indicates whether the baby was born by Cesarean section or vaginal birth.

    How?    

    Hint:   You can only pick one list for Delivery Method for any data request. The round radio button indicates the selected list, any selections in the other Delivery Method lists are ignored. The "by-variables" in section 1 and the round radio button selections must match. For example, if you select to group results by the categories in "Delivery Method Expanded" in section 1, then you should set the radio button to select the same list in section 10.

    See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


     Code     Label
     "1"   Vaginal  
     "2"   Cesarean  
     "9"   Not Stated  


    Delivery Method Expanded

    This field reports the method of delivery in eight categories.

    How?    

    Hint:   You can only pick one list for Delivery Method for any data request. The round radio button indicates the selected list, any selections in the other Delivery Method lists are ignored. The "by-variables" in section 1 and the round radio button selections must match. For example, if you select to group results by the categories in "Delivery Method Expanded" in section 1, then you should set the radio button to select the same list in section 10.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


     Code     Label  
     "1"   Vaginal (excludes vaginal after previous C-section)  
     "2"   Vaginal after previous C-section  
     "3"   Primary C-section  
     "4"   Repeat C-section  
     "5"   Vaginal (unknown if previous C-section)  
     "6"   C-section (unknown if previous C-section)  
     "9"   Unknown or Not Stated  
     "100"   Not Reported  


    Trial of Labor Attempted (if cesarean)

    This field reports if babies born by cesarean delivery attempted labor, in four categories: Yes; No; Not Applicable; Unknown or Not Stated.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.


     Code     Label
     "1"   Yes  
     "2"   No  
     "3"   Not Applicable  
     "9"   Unknown or Not Stated  


    Source of Payment for Delivery

    This field reports the source of payment for delivery, in two fields (code values shown inside parenthesis after each category label):

    • Source of Payment for Delivery - 5 categories: Medicaid (1); Private Insurance (2); Self Pay (3); Other (4); Unknown or Not Stated (9).
    • Source of Payment for Delivery Expanded - 9 categories: Medicaid (1); Private Insurance (2); Self-Pay (3); Indian Health Service (4); CHAMPUS/TRICARE (5); Other Government (Federal, State, Local) (6); Other (8); Unknown or Not Stated (9); Not Reported (10)

    How?    

    Hint:   You can only pick one list for Source of Payment for Delivery. The round radio button indicates the selected list, any selections in the other list are ignored. The "by-variables" in section 1 and the round radio button selections must match. For example, if you select to group results by the categories in "Source of Payment for Delivery Expanded" in section 1, then you should set the radio button to select the same list in section 10.

    Notes:   

    • The following reporting areas do not report all of the categories "Indian Health Service", "CHAMPUS/TRICARE", and "Other Government" for the "Source of Payment for Delivery Expanded" data field. "Source of Payment for Delivery Expanded" data have been recoded to "Not Reported" for births to residents of the following reporting areas and years: Arizona 2016-2017; Arkansas 2016-2020; District of Columbia 2016-2017; Florida 2016-2020; Illinois 2016-2020; Michigan 2016-2020; Minnesota 2016-2020; Mississippi 2016-2020; Missouri 2016-2020; New Hampshire 2016-2020; New Jersey 2016-2020; North Carolina 2016-2020; Pennsylvania 2016-2020; Rhode Island 2018-2019; Texas 2016-2020; Vermont 2016-2020; Virginia 2016-2020 (17 reporting areas).
    • When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label.



    Step 11. Select maternal morbidity:

    Limit your data for any of the following data elements:

    1. Maternal Transfusion - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    2. Third or Fourth Degree Perineal Laceration - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    3. Ruptured Uterus - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    4. Unplanned Hysterectomy - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    5. Admission to Intensive Care Unit - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    6. Maternal Morbidity Checked - At least one checked; None checked; Unknown or Not Stated.
      This field indicates whether any maternal morbidity above was reported. Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any of the above maternal morbidity.

    How?

    See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:   When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label. The categories and codes for maternal morbidity data are Yes (1); No (2); Unknown or Not Stated (9).


    Maternal Morbidity Checked

    This field indicates whether any maternal morbidity attributes were reported for Maternal Transfusion, Third or Fourth Degree Perineal Laceration, Ruptured Uterus, Unplanned Hysterectomy, or Admission to Intensive Care Unit. Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any maternal morbidity attributes checked. For more information, refer to page 67 in the NCHS guide to 2017 birth records data.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:  

    • Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any maternal morbidity attributes checked.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes for Maternal Morbidity Checked data are At least one checked (0); None checked (1); Unknown or Not Stated (9).



    Step 12. Select infant characteristics:

    Limit your data for any of the following data elements:

    1. Gender (Sex) of Child - Female; Male.
    2. Birth Weight
      Infant's weight at birth is available in 3 sets of categories, through 8165 grams, or Not stated:
    3. Multiple Births
    4. Gestational Age at Birth
      Gestational age groups are available in 3 sets of categories, representing the duration of the pregnancy at the time of birth, based on Last Menstrual Period (LMP) or Obstetric Estimate (OE):
      • 10 age groups: Under 20 weeks; 20-27 weeks; 28-31 weeks; 32-35 weeks; 36 weeks; 37-39 weeks; 40 weeks; 41 weeks; 42 weeks or more; Unknown.
      • 11 age groups: Under 20 weeks; 20-27 weeks; 28-31 weeks; 32-33 weeks; 34-36 weeks; 37-38 weeks; 39 weeks, 40 weeks; 41 weeks; 42 or more weeks; Unknown.
      • Weekly age groups: 17 weeks through 47 weeks; Unknown.
    5. APGAR scores
      APGAR scores are available for 5 minutes and 10 minutes after birth, in single increments or recoded into 5 categories:
      • Single increments of 0 - 10; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Applicable.
      • Recoded categories - A score of 0-3; A score of 4-6; A score of 7-8; A score of 9-10; Unknown or Not Stated.
      Note that 10 minute APGARS scores are categorized as "Not Applicable" when the 5 minute score was 6 or higher, and reported as "Unknown or Not Stated" in the recoded categories.
    6. Infant Breastfed at Discharge? - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.
    7. Infant Transferred? - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    8. Infant Living at Time of Report? - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated. This field refers to infant's vital status on the birth certificate.
    9. Age of Infant at Death - available in 3 lists: 5 age categories; 22 age categories, and number of days.

    How?

    Hint:   You can only pick one list for Birthplace, Delivery Method, and Apgar Score. The round radio button indicates the selected list, any selections in the other gestational age or birth weight lists are ignored. The "by-variables" in section 1 and the round radio button selections must match. For example, if you select to group results by the categories in "Infant Birth Weight 100 gram increments" in section 1, then you should set the radio button to select the same list in section 12.

    Note:   When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns.


    Infant Birth Weight

    The Infant Birth Weight field indicates weight ranges for the infant at birth. The infant's weight at birth is available in 3 sets of categories, through 8165 grams, or Not stated:

    • 12 groups in 500 gram increments;
    • 14 groups in 250 gram increments;
    • 100 gram increments.
    How?

    Hint:   You can only pick 1 birth weight list for any data request. The round radio button indicates the selected list, any selections in the other birth weight lists are ignored. The "by-variables" in section 1 and the round radio button selections must match. For example, if you select to group results by "Infant Birth Weight 100 gram increments" then the radio button must also be set to the same selection list in section 12.

    Notes:   

    • The categories in gram intervals and their equivalents in pounds and ounces are as follows:
      Less than 500 grams = 1 lb 1 oz or less
      500 - 999 grams = 1 lb 2 oz - 2 lb 3 oz
      1,000 - 1,499 grams = 2 lb 4 oz - 3 lb 4 oz
      1,500 - 1,999 grams = 3 lb 5 oz - 4 lb 6 oz
      2,000 - 2,499 grams = 4 lb 7 oz - 5 lb 8 oz
      2,500 - 2,999 grams = 5 lb 9 oz - 6 lb 9 oz
      3,000 - 3,499 grams = 6 lb 10 oz - 7 lb 11 oz
      3,500 - 3,999 grams = 7 lb 12 oz - 8 lb 13 oz
      4,000 - 4,499 grams = 8 lb l4 oz - 9 lb l4 oz
      4,500 - 4,999 grams = 9 lb 15 oz - 11 lb 0 oz
      5,000 grams or more = 11 lb 1 oz or more
    • About low birth weight:
      ICD - 9 and ICD - 10 define low birth weight as less than 2,500 grams. This is a shift of 1 gram from the previous criterion of 2,500 grams or less, which was recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 1935 and adopted in 1948 by the World Health Organization in the International Lists of Diseases and Causes of Death, Sixth Revision.
    • When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are provided, a column for the code and a column for the label. The table below shows the codes and labels for "Birth Weight 12" with 12 categories.

        Code     Label
        "01"  499 grams or less 
        "02"  500 - 999 grams 
        "03"  1000 - 1499  
        "04"  1500 - 1999 grams 
        "05"  2000 - 2499 grams 
        "06"  2500 - 2999 grams 
        "07"  3000 - 3499 grams 
        "08"  3500 - 3999 grams 
        "09"  4000 - 4499 grams 
        "10"  4500 - 4999 grams 
        "11"  5000 - 8165 grams 
        "12"  Not stated 


    Gestational Age at Birth

    Select a range of weeks that represents the duration of the pregnancy at the time of birth.

    NOTE: Beginning in 2014 NCHS changed the standard for gestational period from the Last Menstrual Period (LMP) based gestational age to the Obstetric/clinical Estimate (OE) based gestational age. Obstetric/clinical Estimate (OE) based gestational age groups are available for years 2007 and later in WONDER since February 2016. Refer to Measuring Gestational Age in Vital Statistics Data: Transitioning to the Obstetric Estimate for more information.

    Births data are organized in three groupings:

    1. Gestational Age with 10 age groups Under 20 weeks; 20-27 weeks; 28-31 weeks; 32-35 weeks; 36 weeks; 37-39 weeks; 40 weeks; 41 weeks; 42 weeks or more; Unknown.
    2. Gestational Age with 11 age groups Under 20 weeks; 20-27 weeks; 28-31 weeks; 32-33 weeks; 34-36 weeks; 37-38 weeks; 39 weeks; 40 weeks; 41 weeks; 42 or more weeks; Unknown.
    3. Gestational Age - Weekly:  17 weeks; 18 weeks; 19 weeks; 20 weeks; 21 weeks; 22 weeks; 23 weeks; 24 weeks; 25 weeks; 26 weeks; 27 weeks; 28 weeks; 29 weeks; 30 weeks; 31 weeks; 32 weeks; 33 weeks; 34 weeks; 35 weeks; 36 weeks; 37 weeks; 38 weeks; 39 weeks; 40 weeks; 41 weeks; 42 weeks; 43 weeks; 44 weeks; 45 weeks; 46 weeks; 47 weeks; Unknown.

    How?  
    • Click a round button to switch between the gestational age lists.
    • Select your desired age groups. See How do I select items from the list box?.
    • Hint:
      You can only pick 1 gestational age group list for any data request. The round radio button indicates the selected list, any selections in the other gestational age at birth lists are ignored. The gestational age at birth "by-variables" in section 1 and the radio button selections must match. For example, if you select to group results by "Gestational Age - Weekly" in section 1, then you must also select the radio button for the same list in section 12.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, the Gestational Age codes are shown in a separate column from the category label.



    Gestational Age at Birth - 10 Groups
     Code     Label
     "01"  Under 20 weeks  
     "02"  20 - 27 weeks  
     "03"  28 - 31 weeks  
     "04"  32 - 35 weeks  
     "05"  36 weeks  
     "06"  37 - 39 weeks  
     "07"  40 weeks  
     "08"  41 weeks  
     "09"  42 weeks or more  
     "10"  Unknown or Not Stated  


    Gestational Age - 11 Groups
     Code     Label
     "01"  Under 20 weeks  
     "02"  20-27 weeks  
     "03"  28-31 weeks  
     "04"  32-33 weeks  
     "05"  34-36 weeks  
     "06"  37-38 weeks  
     "07"  39 weeks  
     "08"  40 weeks  
     "09"  41 weeks  
     "10"  42 weeks and over  
     "11"  Unknown or Not Stated  


    Gestational Age - Weekly:
     Code     Label
     "17"  17 weeks  
     "18"  18 weeks  
     "19"  19 weeks  
     "20"  20 weeks  
     "21"  21 weeks  
     "22"  22 weeks  
     "23"  23 weeks  
     "24"  24 weeks  
     "25"  25 weeks  
     "26"  26 weeks  
     "27"  27 weeks  
     "28"  28 weeks  
     "29"  29 weeks  
     "30"  30 weeks  
     "31"  31 weeks  
     "32"  32 weeks  
     "33"  33 weeks  
     "34"  34 weeks  
     "35"  35 weeks  
     "36"  36 weeks  
     "37"  37 weeks  
     "38"  38 weeks  
     "39"  39 weeks  
     "40"  40 weeks  
     "41"  41 weeks  
     "42"  42 weeks  
     "43"  43 weeks  
     "44"  44 weeks  
     "45"  45 weeks  
     "46"  46 weeks  
     "47"  47 weeks  
     "99"  Unknown or Not Stated  


    Sex of Infant

    This field indicates the sex of the child as recorded on the birth certificate.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When the data results are exported to a file, two columns are shown, a column for the code value and a column for the label.


     Code     Label
     "F"  Female 
     "M"  Male 


    Plurality or Multiple Birth

    The Plurality field indicates if more than one infant shared the gestation and birth.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Plurality data are available in three categories: Single; Twin; Triplet or higher.
    • Before May 2022, Plurality data were shared in these additional categories: Triplet; Quadruplet; Quintuplet or higher.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns.

       Code     Label
       "1"  Single 
       "2"  Twin 
       "3"  Triplet or higher
        Available Before May 2022:
       "3"  Triplet 
       "4"  Quadruplet 
       "5"  Quintuplet or higher 


    Set Order

    The Set Order field indicates the order of birth for each infant, when more than one infant shared the gestation and birth. Single births are categorized as Unknown or Not Stated.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:   

    • Set Order data are available in four categories: 1st; 2nd; 3rd or higher; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • Before May 2022, Set Order data were available in six categories: 1st; 2nd; 3rd; 4th; 5th to 16th; Unknown or Not Stated.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns.

       Code     Label
       "1"  1st 
       "2"  2nd 
       "3"  3rd or higher
        Available Before May 2022:
       "3"  3rd 
       "4"  4th 
       "5"  5th to 16th 
       "9"  Unknown or Not Stated 


    APGAR scores

    Data for infant APGAR scores are available in four data fields. APGAR scores are available for 5 minutes and 10 minutes after birth, in single increments or recoded into 5 categories:

    • Single increments of 0 - 10; Unknown or Not Stated; Not Applicable.
    • Recoded categories - A score of 0-3; A score of 4-6; A score of 7-8; A score of 9-10; Unknown or Not Stated.
    Note that 10 minute APGARS scores are categorized as "Not Applicable" when the 5 minute score was 6 or higher, and reported as "Unknown or Not Stated" in the recoded categories.

    How?

    Hint:   You can only pick 1 APGAR Score list for any data request. The round radio button indicates the selected list, any selections in the other APGAR Score lists are ignored. The "by-variables" in section 1 and the round radio button selections must match. For example, if you select to group results by "Five Minute APGAR Score" then the radio button must also be set to the same selection list in section 12.

    Notes:   
    • In 1963, the acronym APGAR was coined for the scoring system as a mnemonic learning aid: Appearance (skin color), Pulse (heart rate), Grimace (reflex irritability), Activity (muscle tone), and Respiration. Virginia Apgar, MD, (1909-1974) was an obstetrical anesthesiologist known for developing the system.
    • Ten Minute APGAR Score data are recorded for births with a score less than six in the Five Minute APGAR Score. The Ten Minute APGAR Score data field includes an additional category, "Not Applicable" for births with a Five Minute Apgar Score of 6 or more. Births reporting "Not Applicable" for the Ten Minute APGAR Score are included in the "Unknown or Not Stated" category in the "Ten Minute APGAR Score Recode" data.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns.


      Single increments:
       Code     Label
       "0"  0 
       "1"  1 
       "2"  2 
       "3"  3 
       "4"  4 
       "5"  5 
       "6"  6 
       "7"  7 
       "8"  8 
       "9"  9 
       "10"  10 
       "88"  Not Applicable *
       "99"  Unknown or Not Stated 
         * Not Applicable category is only reported in Ten Minute APGAR Score data.

      Recoded categories:
       Code     Label
       "1"  A score of 0-3 
       "2"  A score of 4-6 
       "3"  A score of 7-8 
       "4"  A score of 9-10 
       "5"  Unknown or Not Stated *
         * Includes Not Applicable category in the Ten Minute APGAR Score data.


    Infant Transferred

    The Infant Transferred field indicates whether the infant was transferred, in three categories: Yes, No, Unknown or Not Stated.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns.


     Code     Label
     "1"  Yes 
     "2"  No 
     "9"  Unknown or Not Stated 


    Infant Living at Time of Report

    This field indicates whether the infant was alive when the birth certificate data was reported, in three categories: Yes, No, Unknown or Not Stated.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:    When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns.


     Code     Label
     "1"  Yes 
     "2"  No 
     "9"  Unknown or Not Stated 


    Infant Breastfed at Discharge

    This field indicates whether the infant was receiving breastmilk or colostrum during the period between birth and discharge from the hospital, in four categories: Yes, No, Unknown or Not Stated; Not Reported.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • The following reporting areas have Infant Breastfed at Discharge data coded to "Not Reported" for years 2016-2020: California and Michigan (2 reporting areas).
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns.

       Code     Label
       "1"  Yes 
       "2"  No 
       "9"  Unknown or Not Stated 
       "10"  Not Reported 


    Age of Infant at Death

    Infant's age at death is available in 3 lists:

    • 5 age categories: Under 1 hour; 1 - 23 hours; 1 - 6 days; 7 - 27 days; 28 - 364 days.
    • 22 age categories: Under 1 hour (includes not stated hours and minutes); 1 - 23 hours; 1 day (includes not stated days); 2 days; 3 days; 4 days; 5 days; 6 days; 7 days (includes not stated weeks); 14 - 20 days; 21 - 27 days; 1 month (includes not stated months); 2 months; 3 months; 4 months; 5 months; 6 months; 7 months; 8 months; 9 months; 10 months; 11 months; Unknown or Not Stated;
    • Number of days: single categories range from 0 days through 365 days, Unknown or Not Stated.
      • How?

        • Click a round button to switch between the ICD chapter and code list, or by the Selected Causes group and ICD code list.
        • See How do I use a Finder? for more information.

        Notes:    When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns.



    Step 13. Select abnormal conditions of newborn:

    Limit your data for any of the following data elements:

    1. Assisted Ventilation - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
      Assisted Ventilation data are available in 2 fields,
      1) Assisted ventilation required immediately following delivery; and
      2) Assisted ventilation required for more than six hours.
    2. NICU Admission - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    3. Surfactant Replacement Therapy - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    4. Antibiotics for Suspected Neonatal Sepsis - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    5. Seizures - Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    6. Abnormal Conditions Checked - At least one checked; None checked; Unknown or Not Stated.
      This field indicates whether any of the abnormal conditions noted above was reported for the newborn. Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any of the above abnormal conditions.

    How?

    See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note: When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label. The categories and codes for abnormal conditions of newborn data are Yes (1); No (2); Unknown or Not Stated (9).


    Abnormal Conditions Checked

    This field indicates whether any abnormal conditions was reported for the newborn for Assisted Ventilation, NICU Admission, Surfactant Replacement Therapy, Antibiotics for Suspected Neonatal Sepsis, Seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction. Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any attributes checked for newborn abnormal conditions. For more information, see page 70 in the NCHS guide for 2017 births data.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:   

    • Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any pregnancy risk factors.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes for Abnormal Conditions Checked data are At least one checked (0); None checked (1); Unknown or Not Stated (9).



    Step 14. Select congenital anomalies of newborn:

    Limit your data for any of the following data elements:

    1. Anencephaly Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    2. Cleft Palate Alone Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    3. Cleft Lip with or without Cleft Palate Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    4. Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    5. Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    6. Omphalocele Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    7. Gastroschisis Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    8. Hypospadias Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    9. Meningomyelocele / Spina Bifida Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    10. Limb Reduction Defect Yes; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    11. Down Syndrome Confirmed; Pending; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    12. Suspected Chromosomal Disorder Confirmed; Pending; No; Unknown or Not Stated.
    13. Congenital Anomalies Checked - At least one checked; None checked; Unknown or Not Stated.
      This field indicates whether any congenital anomalies noted above was reported. Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any of the above congenital anomalies.

    How?

    See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Note:   When the data results are exported to a file, the code is shown in a separate column from the category label. The categories and codes for congenital anomalies data are Yes (1); No (2); Unknown or Not Stated (9).


    Congenital Anomalies Checked

    This field indicates whether any congenital anomalies was reported in 2003 revision of the standard certificate of birth for 1) anencephaly; 2) meningomyelocele/spina bifida; 3) cyanotic congenital heart disease; 4) congenital diaphragmatic hernia; 5) omphalocele; 6) gastroschisis; 7) limb reduction defect; 8) cleft lip with or without cleft palate; 9) cleft palate alone; 10) Down syndrome; 11) suspected chromosomal disorder; and 12) hypospadias. If the item is not completed (i.e. none of the boxes are checked in the birth certificate), then it is classified as "Not stated." Data for the congenital anomaly "Hypospadias" are edited to exclude this condition where the infant is a female. For more information, see page 70 in the NCHS guide for 2017 births data.

    How?     See How do I select items from the list box?.

    Notes:  

    • Selecting "None checked" excludes all records with any reported congenital anomalies.
    • When you export the results of your data request, the labels and the codes are in separate columns. The categories and codes for Congenital Anomalies Checked data are At least one checked (0); None checked (1); Unknown or Not Stated (9).



    Step 15. Select cause of infant death:
    Select the International Classification of Disease (ICD) categories that represent the underlying cause of death from the death certificate. Any number of causes can be specified here. However, you can only request data from one of the lists: the ICD codes (organized by chapters, sub-chapters and codes), or the groups of selected causes of death (organized by group and codes). Be sure the radio button for ICD Codes or ICD Groups is set to your choice. Or, you can leave the field empty to select all causes of death, and choose to organize or group the data results by these variables to show these stratifications.
    How?
    • Click a round button to switch between the ICD chapter and code list, or by the Selected Causes group and ICD code list.
    • See How do I use a Finder? for more information.
    Hints:
    • The default is all values (all causes of death).
    • The Advanced mode let you easily pick several items from different parts of the list. Items are not selected until you click the "Move" button in Advanced mode. You may also enter values by hand, one code per line, in the Advanced mode. Use the Finder to see the correct code format. For example, "GR130-120" the Selected Causes group code for Congenital hydrocephalus.
    • The "plus" symbol, "+" indicates that you can open the item, to see more items below it.
    • The results to a search are shown in blue, and indicated by ">".
    Notes:
    • About the International Classification of Diseases:
      The mortality data are compiled in accordance with the World Health Organization (WHO) regulations, which specify that member nations classify and code causes of death in accordance with the current revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD). The International Classification of Diseases is developed collaboratively between the World Health Organization (WHO) and 10 international centers, for purposes of ensuring that medical terms reported on death certificates are internationally comparable and lend themselves to statistical analysis. The ICD has been revised approximately every 10 years since 1900 in order to reflect changes in understanding of disease mechanisms and in disease terminology.
    • About the 9th and 10th ICD revisions:
      During the years 1979-1998, the United States used the Ninth Revision of the ICD (ICD-9) to code causes of death. Effective with deaths occurring in 1999, the United States began using the Tenth Revision of this classification, (ICD-10). The two revisions differ substantially, and to prevent confusion about the significance of any specific disease code, data queries are separate. For more information, see Comparability of Cause-of-Death Between ICD Revisions.
    • About selecting causes of death for infants:
      Years 1999 and later classify deaths by International Classification of Diseases, revision 10 chapters, sub-chapters and specific causes of death.
      1. International Classification of Diseases, revision 10 chapters, sub-chapters and specific causes of death.
      2. 130 Selected Causes of Infant Death grouped causes of death in International Classification of Diseases, revision 10.


    ICD-10 Codes

    Limit the data to any number of causes of death, for selected chapters, sub-chapters or codes.

    How?   See Step 15. Select cause of infant death above. Check the Hints section.

    Notes:  

    • The International Classification of Disease (ICD) 10th revision is used to represent the underlying cause of death for the years 1999 and later. The ICD system is organized by chapters, sub-chapters and codes.
    • ICD-10 uses a 4-length alphanumeric coding scheme. Each of the 21 chapters in ICD-10 is classified to a letter or letters of the alphabet. Infectious disease codes in Chapter 1, for example, begin with an "A" or "B". Thus, Acute poliomyelitis is associated with the codes A80.0-A80.9 and Viral hepatitis is classified as B15.0-B19.9. The ICD 10 system begins codes with a letter from the alphabet, followed by two numerals, then a decimal point to indicate subordinate position, and then more numerals. Some causes of death in Compressed Mortality are represented by 3 length codes, although most causes of death are represented by 4 length codes (format A12.3). Greater detail than 4 length codes are not included in the data.
    • Changes to cause of death classification affect reporting trends. See ICD-10 Changes for more information.

    ICD-10 Changes

    About changes in the ICD-10 codes:  
    The valid ICD-10 codes used to classify underlying cause of death change over time. Effective with the 2019 data year, 1 code was introduced as a valid cause of death. Effective with the 2020 data year, 1 code was introduced as a valid cause of death.


    ICD-10 Changes in Years 2019-2020

    New causes of death in 2020
    ICD -10 Code  Title
    U07.1 COVID-19
    New causes of death in 2019
    ICD-10 Code Title
    U07.0 Vaping related disorder




    ICD-10 130 Cause List (Infants)

    Limit the data to any number of groups of selected causes of death, or individual codes.

    How?   See Step 15. Select cause of infant death above.

    Notes:  

    • Deaths in the years 1999 and later are coded to the tenth revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). There are 130 Selected Causes of Infant Death groups for the ICD-10 codes.
    • NCHS has defined selected causes of death groups for analysis of all ages mortality data: the "72 Selected Causes of Death" for ICD-9 codes and years 1979-1998, and the "113 Selected Causes of Infant Death" for ICD-10 codes and years 1999 and later. The group code values are not actual ICD codes published in the International Classification of Diseases, but are "recodes" defined to support analysis by the Selected Causes of Death groups.
    • Data for underlying cause of death, sub-chapter, chapter and the selected causes of death groups are derived from the "UCOD" field in the public use data for years 1999-2020.
    • Group the data by "ICD-10 130 Groups" and also by "Cause of Death" to see the individual ICD codes included in each category.
    • A "#" symbol preceding the label indicates a "rankable" cause of death, from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) list of rankable causes of death. The rankable causes in the Linked Birth / Infant Death Records are a subset of the 130 selected causes of death for infants.
    • Group results by "15 Leading Causes" to get death counts and rates for the top 15 rankable causes of death, for your selected query criteria. Note that cross-tabulations, zero value death counts, and suppressed values are not permitted when you group results by "15 Leading Causes." When more than one rankable cause of death occurs in the last position, all these causes are shown.


    Step 16. Other options:
    Export Results:    If checked, then query results are exported to a local file. More information on how to import this file into other applications can be found here.
    How?   See Checkbox.
    Show Totals:    If checked, then totals and sub-totals display in the results table.
    How?   See CheckBox.
    Show Zero Values:    If checked, then rows containing zero counts are included in the results table. If unchecked, then zero count rows are not included.
    How?   See Checkbox.
    Precision:    Select the precision for rate calculations. You may increase the precision to show more numbers to the right of the decimal point.
    How? See How do I select items from the list box?
    Data Access Timeout:    This value specifies the maximum time to wait for the data access for a query to complete. If the data access takes too long to complete, a message will be displayed and you can increase the timeout or simplify your request. If you can't complete a request using the maximum timeout, contact user support and we will try to run a custom data request for you.
    Calculate Rates Per:    Select the factor (multiplier) for your rates. By default, infant death rates are calculated per 1,000 live births.
    How? See How do I select items from the list box?

    Data Source Information

    See Source in the Summary section above, or see the suggested citation below. To learn more about the methods and source of these data please refer to:

    Publications

    Other Issues



    Weight Factors: Changes Beginning with the 1995 Data Year

    Beginning in 1995 data, linked file records are weighted to compensate for the 2 to 3 percent of infant death records which could not be linked to their corresponding birth certificates. Although every effort has been made to design weights which will accurately reflect the distribution of deaths by characteristics, weighting may contribute to small differences in numbers and rates by specific variables between the linked file and the vital statistics mortality files.

    A weight has been added to the linked numerator file to correct in part for biases in percent of records linked by major characteristics. The number of infant deaths in the linked file are weighted to equal the sum of the linked plus unlinked infant deaths by age at death and state. The formula for computing the weights is as follows:

    (number of linked infant deaths + number of unlinked infant deaths)


    number of linked infant deaths

    A separate weight is computed for each reporting area of residence of birth and each age at death category. Thus, weights are 1.0 for reporting areas which link all of their infant deaths. The denominator file is not weighted. Note that for years 2002 and later, the following age at death cohorts are used for constructing weights: <7 days, 7-27 days, 28 days to 1 year.

    An imputation for not-stated birthweight has been added to the data set, to reduce potential bias in the computation of birthweight-specific infant mortality rates. Basically, if birthweight is not-stated and the period of gestation is known, birthweight is assigned the value from the previous record with the same period of gestation, race, sex, and plurality. Imputed values are flagged.

    For more detail, and to see the percentage of records linked for each year of data, please see the methodology sections in the publications listed at Data Source Information.



    Locations - About FIPS State and County Codes

    The FIPS state and county codes were established by the National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Department of Commerce in 1968. This standard set of codes provides names and codes for counties and county equivalents of the 50 states of the United States and the District of Columbia. Counties are considered to be the "first order subdivisions " of each State, regardless of their local designation (county, parish, borough). Washington, D.C.; the consolidated government of Columbus, Georgia; the independent cities of the states of Maryland, Missouri, Nevada, and Virginia; the census areas and boroughs of Alaska; and that part of Yellowstone Park in Montana are identified as county equivalents. The system is standard throughout the Federal Government. The state codes are ascending, two-digit numbers; the county codes are ascending three-digit numbers. For both the state and county codes, space has been left for new states or counties. Some changes in the FIPS codes have occurred since 1968.

    A modified version of the FIPS state and county codes is used to identify states and counties on NCHS public-use data files. The modifications as implemented in the Linked Birth / Infant Death public-use data are described below.

    Modifications of FIPS State and County Codes

    1. Counties with populations under 250,000 persons are grouped into "Unidentified Counties" (FIPS code 999) to protect privacy.
    2. Dade county, Florida (FIPS code 12025) was renamed Miami-Dade County (FIPS code 12086) effective November 13, 1997. However, the area is coded to Dade (12025) for all years.
    3. Baltimore county, Maryland (FIPS code 24005) is reported separately from the independent city of Baltimore, Maryland (FIPS code 24510).
    4. The independent city of Baltimore, Maryland (FIPS code 24510) is reported separately from Baltimore county (FIPS code 24005).
    5. St. Louis county (FIPS code 29189) is reported separately from the independent city of St. Louis, Missouri (FIPS code 29510).
    6. The independent city of St. Louis, Missouri (FIPS code 29510) is reported separately from St. Louis county (FIPS code 29189).
    7. Bronx, New York (FIPS code 36005) represents Bronx Borough, New York City.
    8. Kings county, New York (FIPS code 36047) represents Brooklyn Borough, New York City.
    9. New York county, New York (FIPS code 36061) represents Manhattan Borough, New York City.
    10. Queens, New York (FIPS code 36081) represents Queens Borough, New York City.
    11. Richmond county, New York (FIPS code 36085) represents Staten Island Borough, New York City.

    For more information on county level data, refer to the sections discussing About Counties and Unidentified Counties.


    Additional Information

    Suggested Citation:    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. National Vital Statistics System, Linked Birth / Infant Deaths on CDC WONDER Online Database. Data are from the Linked Birth / Infant Deaths Records 2017-2020, as compiled from data provided by the 57 vital statistics jurisdictions through the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program.
    Contact:    The National Center for Health Statistics welcomes comments and questions at NCHSed@cdc.gov.
    Notes:   
    • About "Unidentified Counties:"
      The label "Unidentified Counties" indicates counties with less than 250,000 population, combined for the state. When viewing data sorted "by County," please note that not all counties in a given state show births that were registered in that county. The state total displays all linked births and deaths for a given state (by mother's residence). Some counties are not associated with tabulated births due to confidentiality concerns. Counties with a total population less than 250,000 report births under "Unidentified Counties" to protect personal privacy. See also About Counties.
    • About Births to Foreign Residents:
      Births occurring within the United States to a mother who is a resident of a foreign country at the time of birth are excluded from this data set. The Linked Birth / Infant Death data set defines "Foreign Residents: State of occurrence is one of the 50 States or the District of Columbia, but place of residence of mother is outside of the 50 States and D.C."
    • About Weight Factors and Totals:
      Infant deaths are weighted so numbers may not exactly add to totals due to rounding. A record weight is added to the linked file to compensate for the infant death records that could not be linked to their corresponding birth certificates. This procedure was initiated in 1995. For more information, see Weight Factors
    • About "Unreliable" rates representing fewer than 20 deaths:
      Rates are flagged as "(Unreliable)" when there are fewer than 20 deaths in the numerator, because the figure does not meet the NCHS standard of reliability or precision.
    • Assurance of Confidentiality Constraints:   
      Vital statistics data are suppressed due to confidentiality constraints, in order to protect personal privacy. Data reports for years 1989 and later must meet the NCHS data use restrictions.
      • The term "Suppressed" replaces vital statistics, when the figure represents zero through nine (0-9) births or deaths.
      • Totals and sub-totals are suppressed when the value falls within scope of the suppression criteria, or when the summary value includes a single suppressed figure, in order to prevent the inadvertent disclosure of suppressed values.
      • For Linked Birth / Infant Death Records shared on CDC WONDER, county level data are available by identified counties with a total population of 250,000 or more. Deaths of residents of less populated counties are reported separately for each state under the aggregate label "Unidentified Counties."
      • The confidentiality constraints are established by the original data providers. For more information, please contact the data providers.
      • Revised privacy policies:
        • Effective May 2022, the following changes occurred for the Linked Birth / Infant Death Records shared on CDC WONDER:
          1. All statistics representing less than ten (10) births or deaths are suppressed in query results. Prior to this change on May 23, 2022 national death counts and birth counts were not suppressed for the Linked Birth / Infant Death Records database on CDC WONDER.
          2. Plurality or Multiple Birth data details for categories higher than triplets are included in a single category for Triplet or higher.
          3. Mother's age groups by single year increments are no longer available.
        • Effective June 2022, the following changes occurred for Linked Birth / Infant Death Records shared on CDC WONDER:
          1. Prior births now living: from single counts 0-30 to single counts 1-10, 11 or more.
          2. Prior births now dead: from single counts 0-30 to single counts 0-2, 3 or more.
          3. Prior other pregnancy outcomes: from single counts 0-30 to single counts 0-5, 6 or more.
          4. Number of previous cesareans: from single increments 0-12 to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or more.
          5. Mother’s height: from single inches increments 30-78 to Under 57 inches, single inches increments 57-72, and 73 inches or more.
          6. Mother’s weight gain: single pound increments from 0- 97 pounds are no longer available.
          7. Weekday: from 7 categories for Saturday-Sunday to 2 categories: Weekday, Weekend.
      • Data Revisions and Corrections:
        • See revised privacy policies above for specific information on changes affecting data details available for Linked Birth / Infant Death Records shared on CDC WONDER.
        • In October 2022, with the release of data for infants deaths in year 2020, data reporting the residence of the infant at death are no longer available for years 2017 and later on WONDER. This data field had reported the state or territory of the infant's residence at the time of death. These data are available in the linked death records.
        • From September 9, 2020 until April 19, 2021, and from July 22, 2021 until October 13, 2021, the 2017-2018 infant death rates and births in the "total" row were incorrect for queries where Mother's Hispanic Origin was limited in the "expanded" online database for Linked Births / Infant Deaths in years 2017-2018. Before this correction, the "total" row reported the denominator for rate calculations as the number of live births for all Mother's Hispanic Origin categories, instead of limiting the denominator population to only the selected Hispanic Origin categories. We regret this error and apologize for the inconvenience.
        • From June 18, 2019 until August 12, 2020, the labels for Massachusetts and Maine were switched for Mother's Birth State data. Birth statistics for Massachusetts were shown in the results when data was limited to Maine as the Mother's Birth State, or when data was grouped by Mother's Birth State and the row's label reported Maine in the Mother's Birth State column. Likewise, birth statistics for Maine were shown in the results when data was limited to Massachusetts as the Mother's Birth State, or when data was grouped by Mother's Birth State and the row's label reported Massachusetts in the Mother's Birth State column. If data was not limited or grouped by Mother's Births State, then the problem did not impact the results. We deeply regret this error and apologize for the inconvenience.



    This page last reviewed: Tuesday, November 01, 2022
    This information is provided as technical reference material. Please contact us at cwus@cdc.gov.